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Sample records for succinate promotes selective

  1. alpha-Tocopheryl succinate promotes selective cell death induced by vitamin K3 in combination with ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, M; Strafella, E; Staffolani, S; Santarelli, L; Neuzil, J; Guerrieri, R

    2010-04-13

    A strategy to reduce the secondary effects of anti-cancer agents is to potentiate the therapeutic effect by their combination. A combination of vitamin K3 (VK3) and ascorbic acid (AA) exhibited an anti-cancer synergistic effect, associated with extracellular production of H(2)O(2) that promoted cell death. The redox-silent vitamin E analogue alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) was used in combination with VK3 and AA to evaluate their effect on prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer cells were sensitive to alpha-TOS and VK3 treatment, but resistant to AA upto 3.2 mM. When combined, a synergistic effect was found for VK3-AA, whereas alpha-TOS-VK3 and alpha-TOS-AA combination showed an antagonist and additive effect, respectively. However, sub-lethal doses of AA-VK3 combination combined with a sub-toxic dose of alpha-TOS showed to induce efficient cell death that resembles autoschizis. Associated with this cell demise, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, cytoskeleton alteration, lysosomal-mitochondrial perturbation, and release of cytochrome c without caspase activation were observed. Inhibition of lysosomal proteases did not attenuate cell death induced by the combined agents. Furthermore, cell deaths by apoptosis and autoschizis were detected. These finding support the emerging idea that synergistic combinations of some agents can overcome toxicity and other side-effects associated with high doses of single drugs creating the opportunity for therapeutically relevant selectivity.

  2. Promysalin Elicits Species-Selective Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Targeting Succinate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Colleen E; Steele, Andrew D; Fetzer, Christian; Khowsathit, Jittasak; Van Tyne, Daria; Moynié, Lucile; Gilmore, Michael S; Karanicolas, John; Sieber, Stephan A; Wuest, William M

    2018-02-07

    Natural products have served as an inspiration to scientists both for their complex three-dimensional architecture and exquisite biological activity. Promysalin is one such Pseudomonad secondary metabolite that exhibits narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity, originally isolated from the rhizosphere. We herein utilize affinity-based protein profiling (AfBPP) to identify succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) as the biological target of the natural product. The target was further validated in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and through the selection, and sequencing, of a resistant mutant. Succinate dehydrogenase plays an essential role in primary metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the only enzyme that is involved both in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and in respiration via the electron transport chain. These findings add credence to other studies that suggest that the TCA cycle is an understudied target in the development of novel therapeutics to combat P. aeruginosa, a significant pathogen in clinical settings.

  3. No evidence for promoter region methylation of the succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate hydratase tumour suppressor genes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovic Alexander

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and fumarate hydratase (FH are tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle enzymes that are also known to act as tumour suppressor genes. Increased succinate or fumarate levels as a consequence of SDH and FH deficiency inhibit hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylases leading to sustained HIF-1α expression in tumours. Since HIF-1α is frequently expressed in breast carcinomas, DNA methylation at the promoter regions of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD and FH genes was evaluated as a possible mechanism in silencing of SDH and FH expression in breast carcinomas. Findings No DNA methylation was identified in the promoter regions of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and FH genes in 72 breast carcinomas and 10 breast cancer cell lines using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting which detects both homogeneous and heterogeneous methylation. Conclusion These results show that inactivation via DNA methylation of the promoter CpG islands of SDH and FH is unlikely to play a major role in sporadic breast carcinomas.

  4. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  5. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  6. Supramolecular micellar nanoaggregates based on a novel chitosan/vitamin E succinate copolymer for paclitaxel selective delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available He Lian1, Jin Sun1, Yan Ping Yu1, Yan Hua Liu2, Wen Cao1, Yong Jun Wang1, Ying Hua Sun1, Si Ling Wang1, Zhong Gui He11School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Nowadays, many cytotoxic anticancer drugs exhibit low solubility and poor tumor selectivity, which means that the drug formulation is very important. For example, in the case of paclitaxel (PTX, Cremophor EL® (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany needs to be used as a solubilizer in its clinical formulation (Taxol®, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, NY, although it can cause serious side effects. Nanomicellar systems are promising carriers to resolve the above problems, and the polymer chosen is the key element.Methods: In this study, a novel amphiphilic chitosan/vitamin E succinate (CS-VES copolymer was successfully synthesized for self-assembling polymeric micelles. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared were used to characterize the molecular structure of the copolymer. The PTX-loaded CS-VES polymeric micelles (PTX-micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry.Results: The critical micelle concentration of CS-VES was about 12.6 µg/mL, with the degree of amino group substitution being 20.4%. PTX-micelles were prepared by a nanoprecipitation/dispersion technique without any surfactant being involved. PTX-micelles exhibited a drug loading as high as 21.37% and an encapsulation efficiency of 81.12%, with a particle size ranging from 326.3 to 380.8 nm and a zeta potential of +20 mV. In vitro release study showed a near zero-order sustained release, with 51.06%, 50.88%, and 44.35% of the PTX in the micelles being released up to 168 hours at three drug loadings of 7.52%, 14.09%, and 21.37%, respectively. The cellular uptake

  7. THE SUCCINATED PROTEOME

    OpenAIRE

    Merkley, Eric D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John W.; Frizzell, Norma

    2013-01-01

    The post-translational modifications (PTMs) of cysteine residues include oxidation, S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and succination, all of which modify protein function or turnover in response to a changing intracellular redox environment. Succination is a chemical modification of cysteine in proteins by the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, yielding S-(2-succino) cysteine (2SC). Intracellular fumarate concentration and succination of proteins are increased by hyperpolarization of th...

  8. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  9. The Succinated Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkley, Eric D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John; Frizell, Norma

    2014-03-30

    Succination is a chemical modification of cysteine in protein by the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, yielding S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Intracellular fumarate concentration and succination of proteins are increased by hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in concert with mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress in adipocytes grown in high glucose medium and in adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes. Increased succination of proteins is also detected in the kidney of a fumarase conditional knock-out mouse which develops renal tumors. Keap1, the gatekeeper of the antioxidant response, was identified as a major succinated protein in renal cancer cells, suggesting that succination may play a role in activation of the antioxidant response. A wide range of proteins is subject to succination, including enzymes, adipokines, cytoskeletal proteins and ER chaperones with functional cysteine residues. There is also significant overlap between succinated and glutathionylated proteins, and with proteins containing cysteine residues that are readily oxidized to the sulfenic (cysteic) acid. Succination of adipocyte proteins is inhibited by uncouplers, which discharge the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and by ER stress inhibitors. 2SC serves as a biomarker of mitochondrial stress or dysfunction in chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cancer, and recent studies suggest that succination is a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and ER stress, and cellular progression toward apoptosis. In this article, we review the history of the succinated proteome and the challenges associated with measuring this non-enzymatic post-translational modification of proteins by proteomics approaches.

  10. alpha-Tocopheryl succinate promotes selective cell death induced by vitamin K3 in combination with ascorbate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Strafella, E.; Staffolani, S.; Santarelli, L.; Neužil, Jiří; Guerrieri, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 8 (2010), s. 1224-1234 ISSN 0007-0920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Vitamins * prostate cancer * cell-death Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.831, year: 2010

  11. Succinic acid production by escherichia coli under anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shafey, H.M.; Meleigy, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of alteration of growth conditions, addition of different sodium salts, and irradiation by gamma rays on succinic acid production by E. coli was studied. Twenty one isolates were obtained from buffalo's rumen, and anaerobic screening of the isolated bacterial strains showed the abilities of seventeen strains to produce succinic acid. The two bacterial strains having highest succinic acid production were identified as escherichia coli SP9 and SP16, and were selected for further studies. Results showed that growth conditions yielded highest succinic acid production for the two isolates were: 72 hours incubation, 37 degree c incubation temperature, initial ph of the fermentation medium 6.0,and 3% (v/v)inoculum size. Addition of 5 mm of nine different sodium salts to the fermentation medium showed stimulating effect on succinic acid production of the nine tried sodium salts, sodium carbonate was found to have the highest enhancing effect, especially if used at 15 mm concentration. Gamma irradiation doses tried were in the range of (0.25-1.50 kGy). An enhancing effect on succinic acid production was shown in the range of 0.25-0.75 kGy with a maximal production at 0.75 kGy (giving 8.36% increase) for e.coli SP9, and in the range of 0.25-1.00 kGy with a maximal production at 1.0 kGy (7.60% increase) for e.coli SP16. higher gamma doses led to a decrease in the enhancing effect. An overall increase in the succinic acid yield of 79.45% and 94.26% for e. coli SP9 and SP16, respectively, was achieved in implicating all optimized factors for succinic acid production in one time

  12. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  13. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-12-01

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous effects of tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) on local hair growth promotion and systemic absorption of topically applied minoxidil in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Ho; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Wu, An-Bang; Lin, Keng-Ping; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2005-12-08

    In this study, topical minoxidil solutions supplemented with TPGS in cosolvent systems of various compositions consisting of water, alcohol, and polyethylene glycol 400 were designed to evaluate the efficacy of promoting hair growth after topical application and the safety in terms of the amount of minoxidil absorbed through the skin into the circulation using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The commercial product of 2% Regaine) was used as the positive control. The role, which sulfotransferase activity plays in hair growth with treatment using minoxidil, was determined as well. The results revealed that the addition of 0.5% TPGS was able to enhance the proliferation of hair, but an increase in the amount of TPGS to 2% led to deterioration in the enhancement of hair growth. At the higher added amount (2.0%) of TPGS, the promotion of hair growth was slightly reduced for both cosolvent formulations F1 (100% water) and F3 (100% PEG 400), whereas it was reduced to a greater extent for the cosolvent formulations F8-F10. In comparison, the influences of cosolvent compositions with TPGS amounts of 0.0 and 2.0% on the promotion of hair growth were similar. On the contrary, variability in the promotion of hair growth by different solvent formulations was minimal when the added amount of TPGS was 0.5%. In general, a relationship between hair growth and sulfotransferase activities after topical application of 2% Regaine and minoxidil formulations containing various amounts of TPGS was not demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of minoxidil with 2% Regaine were found to be greater than those of 2% minoxidil in those cosolvent formulations containing various amounts of TPGS, while showing insignificant differences among those 10 cosolvent formulations with a fixed amount of TPGS. A tendency for the plasma concentration of minoxidil to increase after the topical administration of minoxidil formulations containing the higher amount of TPGS (2%) was noted.

  15. Vitamin E Succinate as an Adjuvant for Dendritic Cell Based Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramanathapuram, Lalitha V

    2006-01-01

    .... Vitamin E succinate or alpha tocopheryl succinate ( -TOS) is a non-toxic, esterified analogue of Vitamin E that has been shown to be selectively toxic to tumor cell lines in vitro as well as inhibit the growth of tumors in animal models in vivo...

  16. Vitamin E Succinate as an Adjuvant for Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramanathapuram, Lalitha V; Akporiaye, Emmanuel T

    2005-01-01

    .... Vitamin E succinate or alpha tocopheryl succinate (a-TOS) is a non-toxic, esterified analogue of Vitamin E that has been shown to be selectively toxic to tumor cell lines in vitro as well as inhibit the growth of tumors in animal models in vivo...

  17. Succinic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    In this work, A. succinogenes 130Z was used to produce succinic acid from Jerusalem artichoke tuber hydrolysate. Results showed that both fructose and glucose in the tuber hydrolysate were utilized for succinic acid production. The sugar utilization was found to be dependent on process control...... that Jerusalem artichoke tubers could be utilized for production of bio-succinic acid....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. Escherichia coli promoter sequences predict in vitro RNA polymerase selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, M E; Hawley, D K; Entriken, R; McClure, W R

    1984-01-11

    We describe a simple algorithm for computing a homology score for Escherichia coli promoters based on DNA sequence alone. The homology score was related to 31 values, measured in vitro, of RNA polymerase selectivity, which we define as the product KBk2, the apparent second order rate constant for open complex formation. We found that promoter strength could be predicted to within a factor of +/-4.1 in KBk2 over a range of 10(4) in the same parameter. The quantitative evaluation was linked to an automated (Apple II) procedure for searching and evaluating possible promoters in DNA sequence files.

  20. Escherichia coli yjjPB genes encode a succinate transporter important for succinate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keita; Nanatani, Kei; Hara, Yoshihiko; Yamakami, Suguru; Yahagi, Daiki; Chinen, Akito; Tokura, Mitsunori; Abe, Keietsu

    2017-09-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli produces succinate from glucose via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, however, no genes encoding succinate exporters have been established in E. coli. Therefore, we attempted to identify genes encoding succinate exporters by screening an E. coli MG1655 genome library. We identified the yjjPB genes as candidates encoding a succinate transporter, which enhanced succinate production in Pantoea ananatis under aerobic conditions. A complementation assay conducted in Corynebacterium glutamicum strain AJ110655ΔsucE1 demonstrated that both YjjP and YjjB are required for the restoration of succinate production. Furthermore, deletion of yjjPB decreased succinate production in E. coli by 70% under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that YjjPB constitutes a succinate transporter in E. coli and that the products of both genes are required for succinate export.

  1. Natural selection of mitochondria during somatic lifetime promotes healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene J; Bergersen, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis during life-time challenges both eliminates disadvantageous properties and drives adaptive selection of advantageous phenotypic variations. Intermittent fission and fusion of mitochondria provide specific targets for health promotion by brief temporal...... stressors, interspersed with periods of recovery and biogenesis. For mitochondria, the mechanisms of selection, variability, and heritability, are complicated by interaction of two independent genomes, including the multiple copies of DNA in each mitochondrion, as well as the shared nuclear genome of each...

  2. Preparation of deuterated succinic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Masashi; Tsuzuki, Hirohisa; Goto, Hideyuki; Ogasahara, Shoji; Mataka, Shuntaro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Yonemitsu, Tadashi (Kyushu Sangyo Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1991-04-01

    Succinic (2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})- and (2,2,3,3-{sup 2}H{sub 4})-acids were prepared from maleic anhydride and dimethyl fumarate, and acetylene dicarboxylic acid and its dimethyl ester by treatment with Cu-Al and Ni-Al alloys in 10% NaOD-D{sub 2}0 in 95% to 100% isotopic purity. The succinic {sup 2}H{sub 4} acid having high isotopic purity was also obtained on the hydrolysis of 1,2-ethanedinitrile with alkaline deuterium oxide. Based on the {sup 1}H({sup 2}H) spectra analysis of N-(o-biphenyl)(2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})succinimide, it was elucidated that the Raney alloy reduction with alkaline deuterium oxide proceeds stepwise. (author).

  3. Effective Feature Selection for Classification of Promoter Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouser K

    Full Text Available Exploring novel computational methods in making sense of biological data has not only been a necessity, but also productive. A part of this trend is the search for more efficient in silico methods/tools for analysis of promoters, which are parts of DNA sequences that are involved in regulation of expression of genes into other functional molecules. Promoter regions vary greatly in their function based on the sequence of nucleotides and the arrangement of protein-binding short-regions called motifs. In fact, the regulatory nature of the promoters seems to be largely driven by the selective presence and/or the arrangement of these motifs. Here, we explore computational classification of promoter sequences based on the pattern of motif distributions, as such classification can pave a new way of functional analysis of promoters and to discover the functionally crucial motifs. We make use of Position Specific Motif Matrix (PSMM features for exploring the possibility of accurately classifying promoter sequences using some of the popular classification techniques. The classification results on the complete feature set are low, perhaps due to the huge number of features. We propose two ways of reducing features. Our test results show improvement in the classification output after the reduction of features. The results also show that decision trees outperform SVM (Support Vector Machine, KNN (K Nearest Neighbor and ensemble classifier LibD3C, particularly with reduced features. The proposed feature selection methods outperform some of the popular feature transformation methods such as PCA and SVD. Also, the methods proposed are as accurate as MRMR (feature selection method but much faster than MRMR. Such methods could be useful to categorize new promoters and explore regulatory mechanisms of gene expressions in complex eukaryotic species.

  4. Variable selection for mixture and promotion time cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Abdullah; Tu, Wanzhu; Yu, Zhangsheng

    2016-11-16

    Failure-time data with cured patients are common in clinical studies. Data from these studies are typically analyzed with cure rate models. Variable selection methods have not been well developed for cure rate models. In this research, we propose two least absolute shrinkage and selection operators based methods, for variable selection in mixture and promotion time cure models with parametric or nonparametric baseline hazards. We conduct an extensive simulation study to assess the operating characteristics of the proposed methods. We illustrate the use of the methods using data from a study of childhood wheezing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  6. Escherichia coli promoter sequences predict in vitro RNA polymerase selectivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, M E; Hawley, D K; Entriken, R; McClure, W R

    1984-01-01

    We describe a simple algorithm for computing a homology score for Escherichia coli promoters based on DNA sequence alone. The homology score was related to 31 values, measured in vitro, of RNA polymerase selectivity, which we define as the product KBk2, the apparent second order rate constant for open complex formation. We found that promoter strength could be predicted to within a factor of +/-4.1 in KBk2 over a range of 10(4) in the same parameter. The quantitative evaluation was linked to ...

  7. Promotions, dismissals, and employee selection: Theory and evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elód

    2011-01-01

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and dismissals or threats of dismissal. In this article, we show that firms having a production process that is sensitive to employee quality...... may find it optimal to combine cost-efficient incentives such as bonuses and promotions with dismissals. Based on this result, we derive a hierarchy of incentives. Furthermore, we demonstrate the close link between the optimal contract and the employee sorting and selection and use this to analyse...

  8. Metoprolol succinate extended release/hydrochlorothiazide combination tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Hainer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available James W Hainer, Jennifer SuggAstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, DE, USAAbstract: Lowering elevated blood pressure (BP with drug therapy reduces the risk for catastrophic fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Given the heterogeneity of hypertension as a disease, the marked variability in an individual patient’s BP response, and low response rates with monotherapy, expert groups such as the Joint National Committee (JNC emphasize the value of combination antihypertensive regimens, noting that combinations, usually of different classes, have additive antihypertensive effects. Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablet is a beta-1 (cardio-selective adrenoceptor-blocking agent formulated to provide controlled and predictable release of metoprolol. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT is a well-established diuretic and antihypertensive agent, which promotes natruresis by acting on the distal renal tubule. The pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety/tolerability of the antihypertensive combination tablet, metoprolol extended release hydrochlorothiazide, essentially reflect the well-described independent characteristics of each of the component agents. Not only is the combination product more effective than monotherapy with the individual components but the combination product allows a low-dose multidrug regimen as an alternative to high-dose monotherapy, thereby, minimizing the likelihood of dose-related side-effects.Keywords: antihypertensive, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, combination product

  9. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  10. Succinic Acid: Technology Development and Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Succinic acid is a precursor of many important, large-volume industrial chemicals and consumer products. It was once common knowledge that many ruminant microorganisms accumulated succinic acid under anaerobic conditions. However, it was not until the discovery of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens at the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI, which was capable of producing succinic acid up to about 50 g/L under optimum conditions, that the commercial feasibility of producing the compound by biological processes was realized. Other microbial strains capable of producing succinic acid to high final concentrations subsequently were isolated and engineered, followed by development of fermentation processes for their uses. Processes for recovery and purification of succinic acid from fermentation broths were simultaneously established along with new applications of succinic acid, e.g., production of biodegradable deicing compounds and solvents. Several technologies for the fermentation-based production of succinic acid and the subsequent conversion to useful products are currently commercialized. This review gives a summary of the development of microbial strains, their fermentation, and the importance of the down-stream recovery and purification efforts to suit various applications in the context of their current commercialization status for biologically derived succinic acid.

  11. Method for Selection of Solvents for Promotion of Organic Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J.C.

    2005-01-01

    is to produce, for a given reaction, a short list of chemicals that could be considered as potential solvents, to evaluate their performance in the reacting system, and, based on this, to rank them according to a scoring system. Several examples of application are given to illustrate the main features and steps......A method to select appropriate green solvents for the promotion of a class of organic reactions has been developed. The method combines knowledge from industrial practice and physical insights with computer-aided property estimation tools for selection/design of solvents. In particular, it employs...... estimates of thermodynamic properties to generate a knowledge base of reaction, solvent and environment related properties that directly or indirectly influence the rate and/or conversion of a given reaction. Solvents are selected using a rules-based procedure where the estimated reaction-solvent properties...

  12. Separation and Concentration of Succinic Adic from Multicomponent Aqueous Solutions by Nanofiltration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the determined suitability of nanofiltration (NF membrane separation for selective isolation and concentration of succinic acid from aqueous solutions which are post-fermentation multicomponent fluids. The study analyzed the influence of concentration and the pH of the separated solutions on the efficiency and selectivity of NF process that runs in a module equipped with a ceramic membrane. Moreover, the effect of applied trans-membrane pressure on the retention of succinic acid and sodium succinate has been studied. The investigations have shown that in the used NF module the retention of succinic acid salt is equal almost 50% in the case of a three-component model solution, although the degree of retention depends on both the transmembrane pressure and the initial concentration of separated salt.

  13. Selection against spurious promoter motifs correlates withtranslational efficiency across bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, Jeffrey L.; Francino, M. Pilar

    2007-05-01

    Because binding of RNAP to misplaced sites could compromise the efficiency of transcription, natural selection for the optimization of gene expression should regulate the distribution of DNA motifs capable of RNAP-binding across the genome. Here we analyze the distribution of the -10 promoter motifs that bind the {sigma}{sup 70} subunit of RNAP in 42 bacterial genomes. We show that selection on these motifs operates across the genome, maintaining an over-representation of -10 motifs in regulatory sequences while eliminating them from the nonfunctional and, in most cases, from the protein coding regions. In some genomes, however, -10 sites are over-represented in the coding sequences; these sites could induce pauses effecting regulatory roles throughout the length of a transcriptional unit. For nonfunctional sequences, the extent of motif under-representation varies across genomes in a manner that broadly correlates with the number of tRNA genes, a good indicator of translational speed and growth rate. This suggests that minimizing the time invested in gene transcription is an important selective pressure against spurious binding. However, selection against spurious binding is detectable in the reduced genomes of host-restricted bacteria that grow at slow rates, indicating that components of efficiency other than speed may also be important. Minimizing the number of RNAP molecules per cell required for transcription, and the corresponding energetic expense, may be most relevant in slow growers. These results indicate that genome-level properties affecting the efficiency of transcription and translation can respond in an integrated manner to optimize gene expression. The detection of selection against promoter motifs in nonfunctional regions also implies that no sequence may evolve free of selective constraints, at least in the relatively small and unstructured genomes of bacteria.

  14. Artificial promoter libraries for selected organisms and promoters derived from such libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    or organisms may be selected from prokaryotes and from eukaryotes; and in prokaryotes the consensus sequences to be retained most often will comprise the -35 signal (-35 to -30): TTGACA and the -10 signal (-12 to -7): TATAAT or parts of both comprising at least 3 conserved nucleotides of each, while...... in eukaryotes said consensus sequences should comprise a TATA box and at least one upstream activation sequence (UAS). Such artificial promoter libraries can be used i.a. for optimizing the expression of specific genes in various selected organisms....

  15. Industrial systems biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables novel succinic acid cell factory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Otero

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol, and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought after added-value chemical for which there is no native pre-disposition for production and accmulation in S. cerevisiae. The genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of S. cerevisiae enabled in silico gene deletion predictions using an evolutionary programming method to couple biomass and succinate production. Glycine and serine, both essential amino acids required for biomass formation, are formed from both glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates. Succinate formation results from the isocitrate lyase catalyzed conversion of isocitrate, and from the α-keto-glutarate dehydrogenase catalyzed conversion of α-keto-glutarate. Succinate is subsequently depleted by the succinate dehydrogenase complex. The metabolic engineering strategy identified included deletion of the primary succinate consuming reaction, Sdh3p, and interruption of glycolysis derived serine by deletion of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, Ser3p/Ser33p. Pursuing these targets, a multi-gene deletion strain was constructed, and directed evolution with selection used to identify a succinate producing mutant. Physiological characterization coupled with integrated data analysis of transcriptome data in the metabolically engineered strain were used to identify 2(nd-round metabolic engineering targets. The resulting strain represents a 30-fold improvement in succinate titer, and a 43-fold improvement in succinate yield on biomass, with only a 2.8-fold decrease in the specific growth rate compared to the reference strain. Intuitive genetic targets for either over-expression or interruption of succinate producing or consuming pathways, respectively, do not lead to increased succinate. Rather, we

  16. Molecular and Supramolecular Changes in Polybutylene Succinate (PBS and Polybutylene Succinate Adipate (PBSA Copolymer during Degradation in Various Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Puchalski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the various degradation conditions, on the molecular and supramolecular structure of polybutylene succinate (PBS and polybutylene succinate adipate (PBSA copolymer during degradation is described. The experiment was carried out by the use of injection molded samples and normalized conditions of biodegradation in soil, composting and artificial weathering. Materials were studied by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC coupled with multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS detection and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. Additionally, the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were determined. The performed experiments clearly show difference impacts of the selected degradation conditions on the macroscopic, supramolecular and molecular parameters of the studied aliphatic polyesters. The structural changes in PBS and PBSA explain the observed changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained injection molded samples.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Epilepsy Information Page Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Seizures and Epilepsy Disease InfoSearch: Succinic semialdehyde ...

  18. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Function Promoting Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The last decade has witnessed unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Recent Findings While steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5α-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with AR contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. Summary SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis. PMID:19357508

  19. Selective androgen receptor modulators as function promoting therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2009-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Although steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5alpha-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with androgen receptor (AR) contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand-binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis.

  20. Book Promotion Efforts in Select Nigerian Newspapers Okere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    them make informed purchase decision. Hitherto, the ... for product promotion compared to the efforts of manufacturers of consumer goods and other .... The extent of promotion done by a publisher affects greatly the rate of order placed.

  1. Health-promoting ingredients from four selected Azorean macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Lisete; Lima, Elisabete; Neto, Ana Isabel; Marcone, Massimo; Baptista, José

    2016-11-01

    This study presents, for the first time, the nutritional and health promoting aspects of four selected Azorean macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon and Pterocladiella capillacea) in terms of total lipids, fatty acids (FA) profile, n6/n3 and hypocholesterolemic (h)/hypercholesterolemic (H) FA ratios, minerals, total essential amino acids (AA), anti-ageing and anti-phenylketonuria AA content, coenzyme Q 10 , α-tocopherol, total phenolics, antioxidant properties and energy value, on a dry weight basis. The results revealed low lipid content (1.02-4.32%) but significant PUFA content (29.57-69.22% of total FA), suitable FA ratios (0.48-9.49 for n6/n3 and 1.26-4.22 for h/H), balanced macromineral ratios (0.27-1.91 for Na/K and 0.15-1.07 for Ca/Mg), appreciable amount of essential AA (45.27-58.13% of total AA), high amount of anti-ageing AA, low Phe content, coenzyme Q 10 (1.25-8.27μg/g), α-tocopherol (2.61-9.14mg/100g), high total phenolic content (27.70-55.07mg of gallic acid equivalents/g extract), significant free radical scavenging activity (29.32-47.73%) and valuable energy content (6.80-9.80kJ/g). A regular consumption of these algae either directly or through food supplements may improve human health or may have a protective effect on some diseases and ageing process. They can also be used for producing pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals with potential economic value. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 2-Amino-5-bromopyridinium hydrogen succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C5H6BrN2+·C4H5O4−, the pyridine N atom of the 2-amino-5-bromopyridine molecule is protonated. The protonated N atom and the amino group are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds to the carboxylate O atoms of the singly deprotonated succinate anion. The hydrogen succinate anions are linked via O—H...O hydrogen bonds. A weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is also observed.

  3. Selection, de-selection and progression in German football talent promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    This study explored to which extent the development of German professional football players is based on early talent identification (TID) and long-term nurture in talent promotion (TP) programmes or on their emergence in the course of repeated procedures of player selection and de-selection in these programmes through childhood and youth. The annual turnover of squad members in national junior teams (2001-2013) and youth elite academies was calculated; national U-team members were followed up with regard to nominations through subsequent seasons and to their success level eventually achieved at senior age; and all current Bundesliga players were analysed retrospectively regarding their earlier involvement in TID/TP programmes. Analyses revealed that the mean annual turnover of squad members was 24.5% (youth academies) and 41.0% (national U-teams), respectively. At any age, the probability of persisting in the programme three years later was <50%. Among current Bundesliga players, the age of recruitment into the TID/TP programme was widely evenly distributed across childhood and youth, respectively. Accordingly, the number of (future) Bundesliga players who were involved in TID/TP was built up continuously through all age categories. The observations suggest that the collective of professional players emerged from repeated procedures of selection and de-selection through childhood and youth rather than from early selection and long-term continuous nurture in TID/TP programmes. The findings are discussed with regard to the uncertainty of TID and of interventions applied to the selected players, and they are related to the individualistic and collectivistic approach in TP.

  4. Prospects for a bio-based succinate industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, James B; Vieille, C; Zeikus, J Gregory

    2007-09-01

    Bio-based succinate is receiving increasing attention as a potential intermediary feedstock for replacing a large petrochemical-based bulk chemical market. The prospective economical and environmental benefits of a bio-based succinate industry have motivated research and development of succinate-producing organisms. Bio-based succinate is still faced with the challenge of becoming cost competitive against petrochemical-based alternatives. High succinate concentrations must be produced at high rates, with little or no by-products to most efficiently use substrates and to simplify purification procedures. Herein are described the current prospects for a bio-based succinate industry, with emphasis on specific bacteria that show the greatest promise for industrial succinate production. The succinate-producing characteristics and the metabolic pathway used by each bacterial species are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each bacterial system are discussed.

  5. Effect of succinic acid concentration in poly(glycerol citrate/succinate) properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brioude, Michel M.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Fiuza, Raigenis P.; Jose, Nadia M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work were prepared and characterized polymer based on glycerol, citric and succinic acid, in three different ratios to evaluate the effect of succinic acid concentration in materials properties. The polymers were obtained by polycondensation reaction between polyol and poly acids, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning differential calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The materials are amorphous polyesters and its thermal and morphological properties change depending on the succinic acid concentration. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.275 Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives identified in this section may be safely...

  7. The effect of alpha-tocopheryl succinate on succinate respiration in rat liver mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, O.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kučera, O.; Endlicher, R.; Rauchová, Hana; Červinková, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl.5 (2015), S609-S615 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : tocopheryl succinate * Complex II * liver * mitochondria * homogenate * hepatocytes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  8. Receptor structure-based discovery of non-metabolite agonists for the succinate receptor GPR91

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Mette; Rexen Ulven, Elisabeth; Hjorth, Siv A

    2017-01-01

    therefore binds in a very different mode than generally believed. Importantly, an empty side-pocket is identified next to the succinate binding site. All this information formed the basis for a substructure-based search query, which, combined with molecular docking, was used in virtual screening of the ZINC...... database to pick two serial mini-libraries of a total of only 245 compounds from which sub-micromolar, selective GPR91 agonists of unique structures were identified. The best compounds were backbone-modified succinate analogs in which an amide-linked hydrophobic moiety docked into the side-pocket next...

  9. 5 CFR 335.106 - Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterans under merit promotion. 335.106 Section 335.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.106 Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion. Preference eligibles or veterans who have...

  10. Employee perspectives of workplace health promotion in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored (a) available workplace interventions to support or improve workers health and well-being (b) the kind of health messages employees prefer, and (c) preferred methods of delivery for work place health promotion programmes. This study employed a cross-sectional design by a structured questionnaire ...

  11. Succinate-induced neuronal mitochondrial fission and hexokinase II malfunction in ischemic stroke: Therapeutical effects of kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Luo, Hong; Zhou, Xu; Cheng, Cai-Yi; Lin, Lin; Liu, Bao-Lin; Liu, Kang; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is known as one of causative factors in ischemic stroke, leading to neuronal cell death. The present work was undertaken to investigate whether succinate induces neuron apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial morphology and function. In neurons, oxygen-glucose deprivation induced succinate accumulation due to the reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activation, leading to mitochondrial fission. Kaempferol inhibited mitochondrial fission and maintained mitochondrial HK-II through activation of Akt, and thereby protected neurons from succinate-mediated ischemi injury. Knockdown of Akt2 with siRNA diminished the effect of kaempferol, indicating that kaempferol suppressed dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) activation and promoted HK-II mitochondrial binding dependently on Akt. Moreover, we demonstrated that kaempferol potentiated autophagy during oxygen and glucose deprivation, contributing to protecting neuron survival against succinate insult. In vivo, oral administration of kaempferol in mice attenuated the infract volume after ischemic and reperfusion (I/R) injury and reproduced the similar mitochondrial protective effect in the brain infract area. This study indicates that succinate accumulation plays a pivotal role in I/R injury-induced neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, and suggests that modulation of Drp1 phosphorylation might be potential therapeutic strategy to protect neuron mitochondrial integrity and treat ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Health promotion site selection blues: barriers to participation and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, Martin; Morse, Tim; Henning, Robert; Seidner, Adam; Punnett, Laura

    2010-06-01

    To shed light on research-to-practice challenges in workplace health promotion research. More than 1200 companies serviced by a national insurer were assessed by measures, including management surveys, and insurance premium costs and risk profile. A 21-item Workplace Readiness Checklist was the core assessment tool. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used to identify 12 to 14 companies deemed most "ready for change." The four priority candidate companies decided against participation. A post hoc survey to evaluate reasons for non-participation identified factors such as time allocations, the deteriorating economic environment, and the participatory nature of the interventions proposed for half of the study sites. Differing priorities within management also seemed to interfere with participation. A highly structured process for determining corporate readiness for participatory health promotion produced contradictory results.

  13. Selective AR Modulators that Distinguish Proliferative from Differentiative Gene Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    levels, and in some cases be useful in early stage disease or watchful waiting, and in other cases castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC...dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene through an androgen response element in the proximal promoter. Molecular endocrinology 13, 376 (Mar, 1999). 9...analyses and in mouse xenograft experiments, as planned. We will also continue to probe the molecular mechanism by which dox elicits these differential

  14. The Preparation and Selection of Budget Methods for Promotion in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Halit Karaxha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the adequate method for promotion has a huge importance in increasing business’s performance. Selecting the method of the budget depends from a number of factors. The formulation of budget is known as the most critical period which requires special analysis from marketing’s managers. The expenses for promotion are usually high, and every investment made in the field of promotion directly influences in the business situation. Thus, the selection and adequate formulation of budget methods for promotion influences the growth of profit. The allocated amount for promotion depends from a number of factors, such as: the size of the firm, the sector in which it operates, competition etc. After planning the budget, we have to do the budget allocation to select the promotional form which is considered to be successful by the firms in promoting the products and services and that will help the company to connect with its clients. In this paper, I have elaborated the role and importance of the preparation and selection of budget methods for promotion in the theoretical aspect and the practical one as well.

  15. BER-Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmorhun, Mark [Myriant Lake Providence, Inc., Lake Providence, LA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Myriant Corporation (Myriant) has successfully produced the bioproduct succinic acid by the fermentation of glucose at a commercial scale operation in Lake Providence, Louisiana. The MySAB facility (Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery) came on stream in May 2013 and has been producing product since then. The MySAB facility is a demonstration-scale plant, capable of utilizing sorghum grits and commercially available dextrose, to ferment glucose into succinic acid. A downstream processing train has demonstrated the ability to produce an industrial, a standard and a polymer grade product. It consists of cell separation, membrane filtration, continuous chromatography, polishing to remove ionic and color bodies impurities, and final evaporation and crystallization. A by-product of the process is ammonium sulfate which is sold as a liquid fertilizer product. Since 2007 when development work began in the Woburn, Massachusetts R&D laboratories, the succinic acid bio-process has evolved through: Process development (microbiology, fermentation, and downstream) – R&D development laboratories; Piloting efforts at Fermic S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico – upstream and downstream processes; Design, construction, commissioning, and commercial production operations at the MySAB facility Additionally, Myriant became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the PTT Global Chemical Plc., Thailand, in late 2015, their investment into and support of Myriant goes back to 2011. The support of PTT Global Chemical Plc. helped to improve the upstream and downstream processes, and produce significant metric ton quantities of high quality bio-based succinic acid. The product has gone into a number of commercial markets worldwide for customer applications, development and production. The experience base gained via operations at the MySAB facility since May 2013, along with continued R&D development efforts involving Microbiology, Fermentation, and Downstream processes, at both the Woburn, Massachusetts

  16. Sleep Promotes Lasting Changes in Selective Memory for Emotional Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica ePayne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although we know that emotional events enjoy a privileged status in our memories, we still have much to learn about how emotional memories are processed, stored, and how they change over time. Here we show a positive association between REM sleep and the selective consolidation of central, negative aspects of complex scenes. Moreover, we show that the placement of sleep is critical for this selective emotional memory benefit. When testing occurred 24hr post-encoding, subjects who slept soon after learning (24hr Sleep First group had superior memory for emotional objects compared to subjects whose sleep was delayed for 16hr post-encoding following a full day of wakefulness (24hr Wake First group. However, this increase in memory for emotional objects corresponded with a decrease in memory for the neutral backgrounds on which these objects were placed. Furthermore, memory for emotional objects in the 24hr Sleep First group was comparable to performance after just a 12hr delay containing a night of sleep, suggesting that sleep soon after learning selectively stabilizes emotional memory. These results suggest that the sleeping brain preserves in long-term memory only what is emotionally salient and perhaps most adaptive to remember.

  17. Sleep promotes lasting changes in selective memory for emotional scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D; Chambers, Alexis M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Although we know that emotional events enjoy a privileged status in our memories, we still have much to learn about how emotional memories are processed, stored, and how they change over time. Here we show a positive association between REM sleep and the selective consolidation of central, negative aspects of complex scenes. Moreover, we show that the placement of sleep is critical for this selective emotional memory benefit. When testing occurred 24 h post-encoding, subjects who slept soon after learning (24 h Sleep First group) had superior memory for emotional objects compared to subjects whose sleep was delayed for 16 h post-encoding following a full day of wakefulness (24 h Wake First group). However, this increase in memory for emotional objects corresponded with a decrease in memory for the neutral backgrounds on which these objects were placed. Furthermore, memory for emotional objects in the 24 h Sleep First group was comparable to performance after just a 12 h delay containing a night of sleep, suggesting that sleep soon after learning selectively stabilizes emotional memory. These results suggest that the sleeping brain preserves in long-term memory only what is emotionally salient and perhaps most adaptive to remember.

  18. Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zitoun, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glucose and energy homeostasis have long been described, focusing mostly on the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut commensal bacteria. However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date......, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. Here, we fed mice a fiber-rich diet and found that succinate was the most abundant carboxylic acid in the cecum. Dietary succinate was identified as a substrate for intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), a process that improves glucose...

  19. Citrate and succinate uptake by potato mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, D.W.; Laties, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    Potato mitochondria, in the absence of respiration, have a very low capacity for uptake by exchange with endogenous anions, taking up only 2.4 nanomoles citrate and 2.0 nanomoles succinate per milligram protein. Maximum citrate uptake of over 17 nanomoles per milligram protein occurs in the presence of inorganic phosphate, a dicarboxylic acid, and an external energy source (NADH), conditions where net anion accumulation proceeds, mediated by the interlinking of the inorganic phosphate, dicarboxylate, and tricarboxylate carriers. Maximum succinate uptake in the absence of respiratory inhibitors requires only added inorganic phosphate. Compounds which inhibit respiration (antimycin), the exchange carriers (mersalyl and benzylmalonate), or the establishment of the membrane proton motive force (uncouplers) reduce substrate accumulation. A potent inhibitor of the citrate carrier in animal mitochondria, 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid, does not inhibit citrate uptake in potato mitochondria. Citrate uptake is reduced by concurrent ADP phosphorylation and this reduction is sensitive to oligomycin. The initiation of state 3 after a 3-minute substrate state results in a reduction of the steady-state of citrate uptake by approximately 50%. Accumulation of succinate initially is inhibited by increasing sucrose concentration in the reaction medium from 50 to 400 millimolar. Limited substrate uptake is one of the factors responsible for the often observed depressed initial state 3 respiration rates in many mitochondrial preparations. Since nonlimiting levels of substrate in the matrix cannot be attained by energy-independent exchange, a dependence on respiration for adequate uptake results. Substrate limitation therefore occurs in the matrix for the period of time needed for energy-dependent accumulation of nonlimiting levels

  20. Spurious cooperativity in alkylated succinic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, A.

    1998-03-01

    The proton-proton correlation, as measured by the ratio between the second and the first dissociation constants of dibasic acid, is sometimes very large and far beyond what could be explained by electrostatic theories. We propose a novel interpretation of this phenomenon based on the idea of spurious cooperativity. The general theoretical framework underlying the onset of spurious cooperativity is developed first. The basic result is that whenever a binding (or dissociating) two-site (or more) system splits into a mixture of noninterconverting isomers the binding isotherm (or the titration curve) behaves as if it is more negatively cooperative compared with the genuine cooperativities of the individual isomer. The theory is applied to a specific system of α-α' dialkyl succinic acid. It is known that the Meso form of these alkylated derivatives show a normal correlation of the same order of magnitude as in succinic acid. On the other hand, the Racemic form of these alkylated derivatives shows anomalous strong negative correlations when the alkyl groups become large (e.g., isopropyl and tert butyl). It is shown that the theory of spurious cooperativity can explain the different behavior of the Racemic and the Meso forms, as well as the onset of anomalous strong negative correlations when the alkyl groups become large.

  1. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: FOCUS ON METOPROLOL SUCCINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of metoprolol succinate in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF are covered. Results of MERIT-HF study are taken as the main evidences. Patterns of the metoprolol succinate use in the treatment of different categories of patients with CHF (women, the elderly , severe CHF forms, CHF with concomitant hypertension or diabetes are considered.

  2. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: FOCUS ON METOPROLOL SUCCINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of metoprolol succinate in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF are covered. Results of MERIT-HF study are taken as the main evidences. Patterns of the metoprolol succinate use in the treatment of different categories of patients with CHF (women, the elderly , severe CHF forms, CHF with concomitant hypertension or diabetes are considered.

  3. Selective hydrogenation of 4-isobutylacetophenone over a sodium-promoted Pd/C catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hong-Baek; Lee, Bae Uk; Nakayama, Tadachika; Park, Yeung-Ho; Ryu, Chung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sodium promotion on the selective hydrogenation of 4-isobutylacetophenone, 4-IBAP, was investigated over a Pd/C catalyst. A precipitation and deposition method was used to prepare the catalyst, and sodium was promoted on the Pd/C catalyst via post-impregnation while varying the sodium content. The sodium-promoted Pd/C catalyst resulted in a significantly improved yield greater than 96% of the desired product, 1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethanol (4-IBPE), compared with the non-patented literature results under a mild hydrogenation condition. A detailed hydrogenation network over the Pd/C catalyst was suggested. The reaction mechanism for the yield and selectivity enhancement of 4-IBPE induced-by the promoted Pd/C was elucidated in relation to the geometric and electronic effects of reactant molecules in the microporous support depending on the reaction steps

  4. Older partner selection promotes the prevalence of cooperation in evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoli; Huang, Jincai; Zhang, Weiming

    2014-10-21

    Evolutionary games typically come with the interplays between evolution of individual strategy and adaptation to network structure. How these dynamics in the co-evolution promote (or obstruct) the cooperation is regarded as an important topic in social, economic, and biological fields. Combining spatial selection with partner choice, the focus of this paper is to identify which neighbour should be selected as a role to imitate during the process of co-evolution. Age, an internal attribute and kind of local piece of information regarding the survivability of the agent, is a significant consideration for the selection strategy. The analysis and simulations presented, demonstrate that older partner selection for strategy imitation could foster the evolution of cooperation. The younger partner selection, however, may decrease the level of cooperation. Our model highlights the importance of agent׳s age on the promotion of cooperation in evolutionary games, both efficiently and effectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nb-Based Zeolites: Efficient bi-Functional Catalysts for the One-Pot Synthesis of Succinic Acid from Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El Fergani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot production of succinic acid from glucose was investigated in pure hot water as solvent using Nb (0.02 and 0.05 moles%-Beta zeolites obtained by a post-synthesis methodology. Structurally, they are comprised of residual framework Al-acid sites, extra-framework isolated Nb (V and Nb2O5 pore-encapsulated clusters. The Nb-modified Beta-zeolites acted as bi-functional catalysts in which glucose is dehydrated to levulinic acid (LA which, further, suffers an oxidation process to succinic acid (SA. After the optimization of the reaction conditions, that is, at 180 °C, 18 bar O2, and 12 h reaction time, the oxidation of glucose occurred with a selectivity to succinic acid as high as 84% for a total conversion.

  6. Succinate production positively correlates with the affinity of the global transcription factor Cra for its effector FBP in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li-Na; Zhu, Li-Wen; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Effector binding is important for transcription factors, affecting both the pattern and function of transcriptional regulation to alter cell phenotype. Our previous work suggested that the affinity of the global transcription factor catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) for its effector fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) may contribute to succinate biosynthesis. To support this hypothesis, single-point and three-point mutations were proposed through the semi-rational design of Cra to improve its affinity for FBP. For the first time, a positive correlation between succinate production and the affinity of Cra for FBP was revealed in Escherichia coli . Using the best-fit regression function, a cubic equation was used to examine and describe the relationship between succinate production and the affinity of Cra for FBP, demonstrating a significant positive correlation between the two factors (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.894, P  = 0.000 Cra and DNA showed that Cra bound to the promoter regions of pck and aceB to activate the corresponding genes. Normally, Cra-regulated operons under positive control are deactivated in the presence of FBP. Therefore, theoretically, the enhanced affinity of Cra for FBP will inhibit the activation of pck and aceB . However, the activation of genes involved in CO 2 fixation and the glyoxylate pathway was further improved by the Cra mutant, ultimately contributing to succinate biosynthesis. Enhanced binding of Cra to FBP or active site mutations may eliminate the repressive effect caused by FBP, thus leading to increased activation of genes associated with succinate biosynthesis in the Cra mutant. This work demonstrates an important transcriptional regulation strategy in the metabolic engineering of succinate production and provides useful information for better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors.

  7. Mechanism of selective recruitment of RNA polymerases II and III to snRNA gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergai, Oleksandr; Cousin, Pascal; Gouge, Jerome; Satia, Karishma; Praz, Viviane; Kuhlman, Tracy; Lhôte, Philippe; Vannini, Alessandro; Hernandez, Nouria

    2018-05-01

    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters and type 3 Pol III promoters have highly similar structures; both contain an interchangeable enhancer and "proximal sequence element" (PSE), which recruits the SNAP complex (SNAPc). The main distinguishing feature is the presence, in the type 3 promoters only, of a TATA box, which determines Pol III specificity. To understand the mechanism by which the absence or presence of a TATA box results in specific Pol recruitment, we examined how SNAPc and general transcription factors required for Pol II or Pol III transcription of SNAPc-dependent genes (i.e., TATA-box-binding protein [TBP], TFIIB, and TFIIA for Pol II transcription and TBP and BRF2 for Pol III transcription) assemble to ensure specific Pol recruitment. TFIIB and BRF2 could each, in a mutually exclusive fashion, be recruited to SNAPc. In contrast, TBP-TFIIB and TBP-BRF2 complexes were not recruited unless a TATA box was present, which allowed selective and efficient recruitment of the TBP-BRF2 complex. Thus, TBP both prevented BRF2 recruitment to Pol II promoters and enhanced BRF2 recruitment to Pol III promoters. On Pol II promoters, TBP recruitment was separate from TFIIB recruitment and enhanced by TFIIA. Our results provide a model for specific Pol recruitment at SNAPc-dependent promoters. © 2018 Dergai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Structural and magnetic studies on copper succinate dihydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P BINITHA

    2017-08-21

    Aug 21, 2017 ... rials chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, gas storage, polymer magnets, etc. ... super exchange interactions among copper atoms through bridging .... Thus, these two water molecules in the structure of copper succinate are.

  9. The Succinated Proteome of FH-Mutant Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inherited mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC. Loss of FH activity in HLRCC tumours causes accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate to high levels, which may act as an oncometabolite through various, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms. One such mechanism, succination, is an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues by fumarate, to form S-(2-succinocysteine (2SC. Previous studies have demonstrated that succination of proteins including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1 and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2 can have profound effects on cellular metabolism. Furthermore, immunostaining for 2SC is a sensitive and specific biomarker for HLRCC tumours. Here, we performed a proteomic screen on an FH-mutant tumour and two HLRCC-derived cancer cell lines and identified 60 proteins where one or more cysteine residues were succinated; 10 of which were succinated at cysteine residues either predicted, or experimentally proven, to be functionally significant. Bioinformatic enrichment analyses identified most succinated targets to be involved in redox signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic-based succination screen performed in human tumours and cancer-derived cells and has identified novel 2SC targets that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLRCC.

  10. Selection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters available for xylose cultivation and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu-Nishida, Yumiko; Sakihama, Yuri; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2018-01-01

    To efficiently utilize xylose, a major sugar component of hemicelluloses, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the proper expression of varied exogenous and endogenous genes. To expand the repertoire of promoters in engineered xylose-utilizing yeast strains, we selected promoters in S. cerevisiae during cultivation and fermentation using xylose as a carbon source. To select candidate promoters that function in the presence of xylose, we performed comprehensive gene expression analyses using xylose-utilizing yeast strains both during xylose and glucose fermentation. Based on microarray data, we chose 29 genes that showed strong, moderate, and weak expression in xylose rather than glucose fermentation. The activities of these promoters in a xylose-utilizing yeast strain were measured by lacZ reporter gene assays over time during aerobic cultivation and microaerobic fermentation, both in xylose and glucose media. In xylose media, P TDH3 , P FBA1 , and P TDH1 were favorable for high expression, and P SED1 , P HXT7 , P PDC1 , P TEF1 , P TPI1 , and P PGK1 were acceptable for medium-high expression in aerobic cultivation, and moderate expression in microaerobic fermentation. P TEF2 allowed moderate expression in aerobic culture and weak expression in microaerobic fermentation, although it showed medium-high expression in glucose media. P ZWF1 and P SOL4 allowed moderate expression in aerobic cultivation, while showing weak but clear expression in microaerobic fermentation. P ALD3 and P TKL2 showed moderate promoter activity in aerobic cultivation, but showed almost no activity in microaerobic fermentation. The knowledge of promoter activities in xylose cultivation obtained in this study will permit the control of gene expression in engineered xylose-utilizing yeast strains that are used for hemicellulose fermentation. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting the selection of healthy food through menu item description in a family-style restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, J J; Elder, J P; Peterson, G; Knisley, P M; Carleton, R A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an attempt to influence the selection of menu items in a family-style restaurant. Three different messages, varying in content and emphasis, were used to promote one food special each intervention day. One message emphasized that the specials were particularly healthful, being relatively low in fat, sodium, and cholesterol. A second message stressed flavor and added that the choice was healthful. A third, nonspecific message made no mention of taste or health factors, but simply noted that there was a daily special. Results indicated that restaurant patrons selected healthful specials when the message noted that the choice was healthful but emphasized flavor. Patrons were apparently more open to information about the palatability of the food than its healthfulness per se. These results have implications for point-of-purchase health promotion efforts in general, especially those involving food-labeling programs in restaurants and grocery stores.

  12. Effect of Hydroxyl Monomers on the Enzymatic Degradation of Poly(ethylene succinate, Poly(butylene succinate, and Poly(hexylene succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhui Bai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene succinate (PES, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and poly(hexylene succinate (PHS, were synthesized using succinic acid and different dihydric alcohols as materials. Enzymatic degradability by cutinase of the three kinds of polyesters was studied, as well as their solid-state properties. The biodegradation behavior relied heavily on the distance between ester groups, crystallinity, and the hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity balance of polyester surfaces. The weight loss through degradation of the three kinds of polyesters with different hydroxyl monomers took place in the order PHS > PBS > PES. The degradation behavior of the polyesters before and after degradation was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. The decrease in relative intensity at 1800–1650 estedpolyesters were degraded simultaneously. The frequencies of the crystalline and amorphous bands were almost identical before and after degradation. Thus, enzymatic degradation did not change the crystalline structure but destroyed it, and the degree of crystallinity markedly decreased. The molecular weight and polydispersity index only changed slightly. The thermal stability of the three kinds of polyesters decreased during enzymatic degradation.

  13. Preferential selection based on strategy persistence and memory promotes cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Huang, Changwei; Dai, Qionglin

    2018-06-01

    Strategy imitation plays a crucial role in evolutionary dynamics when we investigate the spontaneous emergence of cooperation under the framework of evolutionary game theory. Generally, when an individual updates his strategy, he needs to choose a role model whom he will learn from. In previous studies, individuals choose role models randomly from their neighbors. In recent works, researchers have considered that individuals choose role models according to neighbors' attractiveness characterized by the present network topology or historical payoffs. Here, we associate an individual's attractiveness with the strategy persistence, which characterizes how frequently he changes his strategy. We introduce a preferential parameter α to describe the nonlinear correlation between the selection probability and the strategy persistence and the memory length of individuals M into the evolutionary games. We investigate the effects of α and M on cooperation. Our results show that cooperation could be promoted when α > 0 and at the same time M > 1, which corresponds to the situation that individuals are inclined to select their neighbors with relatively higher persistence levels during the evolution. Moreover, we find that the cooperation level could reach the maximum at an optimal memory length when α > 0. Our work sheds light on how to promote cooperation through preferential selection based on strategy persistence and a limited memory length.

  14. MODIFIKASI ASAM SUKSINAT - GELOMBANG PENDEK UNTUK\tPRODUKSI TAPIOKA SUKSINAT Succinic Acid-Microwave Modification to Produce Succinic Tapioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Herawati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as tropical country has great cassava potency. The great chance of cassava product development could be increased its added value through modified tapioca processing. One of modified starch that could be implemented as a food additive is succinic starch. The tapioca succinilation processed through combination process of reacting tapioca with succinic acid and microwave treatment. The research method was conducted by factorial design with 3 factors: substrate concentration (30 %, 40 %, succinic acid concentration (1 %, 3 %, 5 %, and drying method (oven and microwave. Succinic tapioca was analyzed both physical and chemical characteristics, while optimal product was fur- ther analyzed for nutrition contents and surface microstructure using SEM. Succinic acid and microwave modification influenced to the physical and chemical succinic tapioca, except ash content. The highest substitution degree value was 0.929 which was obtained by combination of substrate concentration 40 %, succinic acid added 5 % and microwave processed. The change of granule size was not significant, just the distribution among granule correlated with the tapi- oca modification. The succinic tapioca granule size ranged 5.35 µm until 17.20 µm with average 11.15 µm. Succinic tapioca characteristic hopefully could be advanced food implementation. ABSTRAK Indonesia merupakan negara tropis yang memiliki potensi produksi ubi kayu yang cukup besar. Peluang pengem- bangan produk berbasis ubi kayu di Indonesia masih cukup besar diantaranya yaitu peningkatan nilai tambah ubi kayu melalui proses modifikasi tapioka. Salah satu potensi pati termodifikasi yang dapat dipergunakan untuk bahan tambahan makanan yaitu pati suksinat. Pada penelitian ini proses suksinilasi tapioka dilakukan dengan cara mereak- sikan asam suksinat yang dikombinasikan dengan mempergunakan microwave. Metodologi penelitian yang dilakukan menggunakan rancangan faktorial dengan 3 faktor, yaitu konsentrasi

  15. Crystallization behavior of partially miscible biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/poly(ethylene succinate) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yi-Song; Zeng, Jian-Bing; Li, Shao-Long; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Crystallization rate of PBS in the blends decreased first and then increased with increase in PES content, and that of PES increased steadily with increase in PBS content. The rich component formed a continuous phase and the other formed a dispersed phase of the blend. Crystal structures of PBS and PES were almost unchanged after blending with each other. Highlights: ► PBS/PES blend systems are partially miscible. ► Blending did not change the crystallization mechanisms of PBS and PES not affects the crystallization rates. ► The rich component formed the continuous phase while the poor component formed the dispersed phase of the blends. ► Crystal structures of PBS and PES were almost unchanged after blending with each other. - Abstract: Biodegradable blend of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(ethylene succinate) (PES) was prepared by solution blending and casting method with chloroform as a mutual solvent. Miscibility of the blends was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that PBS and PES were partially miscible. Crystallization kinetics, crystalline morphology and crystal structure of the blends were studied by DSC, polarized optical microscope (POM), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. Nonisothermal and isothermal crystallization kinetics suggested that the crystallizability of PBS in the blends decreased first and then increased with increase in PES content, and that of PES increased steadily with increase in PBS content. POM observation illustrated that the rich component formed a continuous phase and the other formed a dispersed phase. The results of WAXD indicated that the crystal structures of PBS and PES were almost unchanged before and after blending, since the positions of characteristic diffraction peaks of both components remain almost unchanged.

  16. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  17. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  18. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  19. An efficient method for synthesis of succinate-based MMP inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Hasegawa, Hikaru

    2002-10-03

    A differentially protected fumarate undergoes radical addition followed by allylstannane trapping to provide disubstituted succinates in good yields and high anti diastereoselectivity. The conversion of the succinate to a known MMP inhibitor has been accomplished. [reaction: see text

  20. SMALL SCALE PREPARATION OF C14 LABELED SUCCINIC, MALIC, FUMARICAND TARTARIC ACIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, E.C.; Bassham, J.A.; Calvin, M.; Tolbert, B.M.

    1951-06-12

    The directions for preparing the following acids from labeled acetic acid on a 1 to 20 millimole scale is presented: Succinic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid and tartaric acid. Two methods for preparing the succinic acid are detailed.

  1. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs.; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of tall oil, polymer with polyethylene..., polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene derivs. on food or feed...

  2. Determination of vitamin E acid succinate in biodegradable microspheres by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sancho, C; Herrero Vanrell, R; Negro, S

    2004-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is applied to the routine assay of vitamin E acid succinate in biodegradable microspheres. Vitamin E acid-succinate-containing poly-(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres are prepared by the solvent evaporation method. The starting drug-polymer ratio is 1:10 (w/w) and the total amount of drug and polymer processed is always 440 mg. The content of vitamin E acid succinate in the microspheres is evaluated by HPLC. Chromatography is carried out isocratically at 25 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C on an Extrasil ODS-2 column with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (97:3, v/v) (pH 5.6) at a flow rate of 2 mL/min and UV detection at 284 nm. Parameters such as linearity, limits of quantitation (LOQ) and detection (LOD), precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity, and ruggedness are studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The stability of vitamin E acid succinate is also studied with satisfactory results after 48 h at 25 degrees C. The method is selective and linear for drug concentrations in the range 15-210 micro g/mL. The LOQ and LOD are 15 and 3 micro g/mL, respectively. The results for accuracy studies are good. Values for coefficient of variation for intra- and interassay are 2.08% and 2.32%, respectively. The mean percentage of vitamin E acid succinate in the recovery studies is 99.52% +/- 0.81%. The mean loading efficiency for microspheres is 96.53% +/- 1.31%.

  3. Structural and magnetic studies on copper succinate dihydrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The four bis-bidendate succinate anions form syn–syn bridges among two copper atomsto form a polymeric two-dimensional chain. From room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies themagnetic moment of the material is calculated as 1.35 Bohr magneton (BM), indicating antiferromagnetic interaction ...

  4. Natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency through adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapalme-Remis, S.; Lewis, E.C.; De Meulemeester, C.; Chakraborty, P.; Gibson, K.M.; Torres, C.; Guberman, A.; Salomons, G.; Jakobs, C.; Ali-Ridha, A.; Parviz, M.; Pearl, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in adulthood is unknown; we elucidate the clinical manifestations of the disease later in life. Methods: A 63-year-old man with long-standing intellectual disability was diagnosed with SSADH deficiency following

  5. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  6. Gold-nanoparticle-based catalysts for the oxidative esterification of 1,4-butanediol into dimethyl succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gemma L; Miedziak, Peter J; He, Qian; Knight, David W; Edwards, Jennifer K; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation of 1,4-butanediol and butyrolactone have been investigated by using supported gold, palladium and gold-palladium nanoparticles. The products of such reactions are valuable chemical intermediates and, for example, can present a viable pathway for the sustainable production of polymers. If both gold and palladium were present, a significant synergistic effect on the selective formation of dimethyl succinate was observed. The support played a significant role in the reaction, with magnesium hydroxide leading to the highest yield of dimethyl succinate. Based on structural characterisation of the fresh and used catalysts, it was determined that small gold-palladium nanoalloys supported on a basic Mg(OH)2 support provided the best catalysts for this reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Citrate- and Succinate-Modified Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity against Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mehbuba Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable inorganic apatite-based particle complex is popular for its pH-sensitivity at the endosomal acidic environment to facilitate drug release following cellular uptake. Despite being a powerful anticancer drug, doxorubicin shows severe off-target effects and therefore would need a carrier for the highest effectiveness. We aimed to chemically modify carbonate apatite (CA with Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and succinate in order to control the growth of the resultant particles to more efficiently carry and transport the anticancer drug into the cancer cells. Citrate- or succinate-modified CA particles were synthesized with different concentrations of sodium citrate or sodium succinate, respectively, in the absence or presence of doxorubicin. The drug loading efficiency of the particles and their cellular uptake were observed by quantifying fluorescence intensity. The average diameter and surface charge of the particles were determined using Zetasizer. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Citrate-modified carbonate apatite (CMCA exhibited the highest (31.38% binding affinity for doxorubicin and promoted rapid cellular uptake of the drug, leading to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration 1000 times less than that of the free drug in MCF-7 cells. Hence, CMCA nanoparticles with greater surface area enhance cytotoxicity in different breast cancer cells by enabling higher loading and more efficient cellular uptake of the drug.

  8. Selecting Native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Promote Cassava Growth and Increase Yield under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séry, D. Jean-Marc; Kouadjo, Z. G. Claude; Voko, B. R. Rodrigue; Zézé, Adolphe

    2016-01-01

    The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation in sustainable agriculture is now widespread worldwide. Although the use of inoculants consisting of native AMF is highly recommended as an alternative to commercial ones, there is no strategy to allow the selection of efficient fungal species from natural communities. The objective of this study was (i) to select efficient native AMF species (ii) evaluate their impact on nematode and water stresses, and (iii) evaluate their impact on cassava yield, an important food security crop in tropical and subtropical regions. Firstly, native AMF communities associated with cassava rhizospheres in fields were collected from different areas and 7 AMF species were selected, based upon their ubiquity and abundance. Using these criteria, two morphotypes (LBVM01 and LBVM02) out of the seven AMF species selected were persistently dominant when cassava was used as a trap plant. LBVM01 and LBVM02 were identified as Acaulospora colombiana (most abundant) and Ambispora appendicula, respectively, after phylogenetic analyses of LSU-ITS-SSU PCR amplified products. Secondly, the potential of these two native AMF species to promote growth and enhance tolerance to root-knot nematode and water stresses of cassava (Yavo variety) was evaluated using single and dual inoculation in greenhouse conditions. Of the two AMF species, it was shown that A. colombiana significantly improved the growth of the cassava and enhanced tolerance to water stress. However, both A. colombiana and A. appendicula conferred bioprotective effects to cassava plants against the nematode Meloidogyne spp., ranging from resistance (suppression or reduction of the nematode reproduction) or tolerance (low or no suppression in cassava growth). Thirdly, the potential of these selected native AMF to improve cassava growth and yield was evaluated under field conditions, compared to a commercial inoculant. In these conditions, the A. colombiana single inoculation and the

  9. Study on fluorescence properties of carbogenic nanoparticles and their application for the determination of ferrous succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wen [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Du Yingxiang, E-mail: du_yingxiang@126.co [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China) and Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China) and Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicines, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang Yunqing [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A new type of fluorescent nanomaterial named carbogenic nanoparticles (NPs) has drawn considerable attention recently. In this study, we adopted a direct and simple synthetic method to produce the carbogenic NPs and investigated the fluorescence properties of the as-prepared carbogenic NPs in detail. It was found that the fluorescence of carbogenic NPs was stable with the variance of environmental conditions such as pH, temperature and UV irradiation. More interestingly, we found carbogenic NPs exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity towards ferric ions. Under optimum conditions, a good linear relationship could be obtained between the fluorescence intensity and concentration of ferric ions in the range of 5.0x10{sup -5}-5.0x10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, and the limit of detection is 11.2 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. Based on the fluorescence quenching of carbogenic NPs, a rapid and specific quantitative method was proposed for the determination of ferrous succinate. The content of ferrous succinate in commercial tablets determined by the present method was agreed with the spectrophotometric method results and the reproducibility and the recovery of the proposed method were satisfactory.

  10. Identification of learning and memory genes in canine; promoter investigation and determining the selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi Moroudi, Reihane; Masoudi, Ali Akbar; Vaez Torshizi, Rasoul; Zandi, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    One of the important behaviors of dogs is trainability which is affected by learning and memory genes. These kinds of the genes have not yet been identified in dogs. In the current research, these genes were found in animal models by mining the biological data and scientific literatures. The proteins of these genes were obtained from the UniProt database in dogs and humans. Not all homologous proteins perform similar functions, thus comparison of these proteins was studied in terms of protein families, domains, biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular location of metabolic pathways in Interpro, KEGG, Quick Go and Psort databases. The results showed that some of these proteins have the same performance in the rat or mouse, dog, and human. It is anticipated that the protein of these genes may be effective in learning and memory in dogs. Then, the expression pattern of the recognized genes was investigated in the dog hippocampus using the existing information in the GEO profile. The results showed that BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes are expressed in the dog hippocampus, therefore, these genes could be strong candidates associated with learning and memory in dogs. Subsequently, due to the importance of the promoter regions in gene function, this region was investigated in the above genes. Analysis of the promoter indicated that the HNF-4 site of BDNF gene and the transcription start site of CCK gene is exposed to methylation. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences of these genes showed high similarity in each of these three genes among the studied species. The dN/dS ratio for BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes indicates a purifying selection during the evolution of the genes.

  11. A novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: Creatininium succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K., E-mail: singlecerystalxrd@gmail.ciom [School of Physics, Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A novel organic material complex of creatininium succinate (CS) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by the reaction of creatinine and succinic acid from aqueous solution by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the structure was refined by least-squares method to R = 0.027 for 1840 reflections. FT-IR spectral investigation has been carried out to identify the various functional groups in the title compound. UV–Vis transmission was carried out which shows the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the visible region with lower cutoff wavelength around 220 nm. Nonlinear optical property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  12. A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of "reverse desertification". Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L. cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively. Most of the isolates (95% presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuum rhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40% under drought stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the

  13. Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Marcelo; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2012-01-20

    Araucaria angustifolia, a unique species of this genus that occurs naturally in Brazil, has a high socio-economic and environmental value and is critically endangered of extinction, since it has been submitted to intense predatory exploitation during the last century. Root-associated bacteria from A. angustifolia were isolated, selected and characterized for their biotechnological potential of growth promotion and biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. Ninety-seven strains were isolated and subjected to chemical tests. All isolates presented at least one positive feature, characterizing them as potential PGPR. Eighteen isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 27 were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate, 21 isolates were presumable diazotrophs, with pellicle formation in nitrogen-free culture medium, 83 were phosphatases producers, 37 were positive for siderophores and 45 endospore-forming isolates were antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogen of conifers. We also observed the presence of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial mechanisms of action. Analyzing the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of these isolates, it was possible to characterize the most effective isolates as belonging to Bacillaceae (9 isolates), Enterobacteriaceae (11) and Pseudomonadaceae (1). As far as we know, this is the first study to include the species Ewingella americana as a PGPR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. ProMot - A tool for making decisions when selecting drives; ProMot: ein Werkzeug zur Entscheidfindung fuer Motorenbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.

    2005-12-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the development of the software basis for a tool for making decisions when selecting electrical drives. Work in a three-phase project is described. The phases involve the integration of existing components in a software-system, the Europe-wide distribution of the tool and, finally, various marketing activities. The concept behind an Internet-based system is described and its Content Management System is discussed. Examples of web-pages are presented.

  15. Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2007-12-01

    There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production.

  16. Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed.

  17. Improvement of succinate production by release of end-product inhibition in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon-Chun; Park, Joon-Song; Yun, Jiae; Park, Jin Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Succinate is a renewable-based platform chemical that may be used to produce a wide range of chemicals including 1,4-butanediol, tetrahydrofurane, and γ-butyrolactone. However, industrial fermentation of organic acids is often subject to end-product inhibition, which significantly retards cell growth and limits metabolic activities and final productivity. In this study, we report the development of metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum for high production of succinate by release of end-product inhibition coupled with an increase of key metabolic flux. It was found that the rates of glucose consumption and succinate production were significantly reduced by extracellular succinate in an engineered strain, S003. To understand the mechanism underlying the inhibition by succinate, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed. Among the downregulated genes, overexpression of the NCgl0275 gene was found to suppress the inhibition of glucose consumption and succinate production, resulting in a 37.7% increase in succinate production up to 55.4g/L in fed-batch fermentation. Further improvement was achieved by increasing the metabolic flux from PEP to OAA. The final engineered strain was able to produce 152.2g/L succinate, the highest production reported to date, with a yield of 1.1g/g glucose under anaerobic condition. These results suggest that the release of end-product inhibition coupled with an increase in key metabolic flux is a promising strategy for enhancing production of succinate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Heteropoly acid promoted Cu and Fe catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Mossin, Susanne L.; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Cu/TiO2, Fe/TiO2 and heteropoly acid promoted Cu/TiO2, Fe/TiO2 catalysts were prepared and characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and EPR. The catalysts exhibited only crystalline TiO2 phases with the active metals and promoters in highly dispersed state. The acidic properties...... activity and acidity was lower for promoted catalysts than for unpromoted catalysts. In the heteropoly acid promoted catalysts the SCR active Cu and Fe metals were protected from potassium poisons by bonding of the potassium to the Brønsted acid centres. Thus heteropoly acid promoted catalysts might...... be suitable for biomass fired power plant SCR applications....

  19. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and characterization of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) copolyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Both biodegradable aliphatic neat poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) (P(BS-co-NPGS)) copolyesters with different 1,4-butanediol/neopentyl glycol ratios were synthesized through a two-step process of transesterification and polycondensation using stannous chloride and 4-Methylbenzenesulfonic acid as the co-catalysts. The structure, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, crystalline morphology and crystal structure of neat PBS and P(BS-co-NPGS) copolyesters were characterized by (1)H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscope (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. The Avrami equation modified by Jeziorny and Mo's method was employed to describe the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. The modified Avrami equation could adequately describe the primary stage of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. Mo's method provided a fairly satisfactory description of the non-isothermal crystallization of neat PBS and its copolyesters. Interestingly, the values of 1/t1/2, Zc and F(T) obtained by the modified Avrami equation and Mo's method analysis indicated that the crystallization rate increased first and then decreased with an increase of NPGS content compared that of neat PBS, whereas the crystallization mechanism almost kept unchanged. The results of tensile testing showed that the ductility of PBS was largely improved by incorporating NPGS units. The elongation at break increased remarkably with increasing NPGS content. In particular, the sample with 20% NPGS content showed around 548% elongation at break. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and characterization of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) copolyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Both biodegradable aliphatic neat poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) (P(BS-co-NPGS)) copolyesters with different 1,4-butanediol/neopentyl glycol ratios were synthesized through a two-step process of transesterification and polycondensation using stannous chloride and 4-Methylbenzenesulfonic acid as the co-catalysts. The structure, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, crystalline morphology and crystal structure of neat PBS and P(BS-co-NPGS) copolyesters were characterized by 1 H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscope (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. The Avrami equation modified by Jeziorny and Mo's method was employed to describe the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. The modified Avrami equation could adequately describe the primary stage of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. Mo's method provided a fairly satisfactory description of the non-isothermal crystallization of neat PBS and its copolyesters. Interestingly, the values of 1/t 1/2 , Z c and F(T) obtained by the modified Avrami equation and Mo's method analysis indicated that the crystallization rate increased first and then decreased with an increase of NPGS content compared that of neat PBS, whereas the crystallization mechanism almost kept unchanged. The results of tensile testing showed that the ductility of PBS was largely improved by incorporating NPGS units. The elongation at break increased remarkably with increasing NPGS content. In particular, the sample with 20% NPGS content showed around 548% elongation at break. - Highlights: • The incorporation of NPGS units reduced the spherulite size of BS unit. • The existence of NPGS units did not change the crystal structure of BS unit. • The NPGS units incorporated in PBS could significantly improve the ductility of PBS. • The

  1. Synthesis, stability and bioavailability of astaxanthin succinate diester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xing; Yang, Lu; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Qingxin; Wang, Yuming; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2018-06-01

    We synthesized astaxanthin succinate diester (ASD), a novel astaxanthin (AST) derivate, with succinic anhydride and free AST. ASD was purified and characterized using silica gel column chromatography and spectrometry, respectively. The ASD final synthesis rate was 82.63%. A stability test revealed a high AST and ASD retention rate at pH 5.0-7.0. ASD showed better stability than did AST under acidic conditions. Both sample ions showed lower retention rates under Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ states. The ASD metabolic curve showed serum and liver area under the curve from 0 h to time t (AUC 0-t ) values of 45.05 ± 4.58 and 120.38 ± 23.66 µg h -1  mL -1 , respectively. The long-term accumulation was significantly higher in the ASD group than in the AST group, which showed higher accumulation in the heart, muscle and spleen than in other tissues in vivo. The thermal stability and bioavailability of ASD were higher than that of the non-esterified free AST and common free AST, respectively. Additionally, AST accumulation in different tissues of the ASD group was multifold higher than that of free AST. These results prove that ASD may serve as a better source of AST for human nutrition than does free AST. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Selection for Unequal Densities of Sigma70 Promoter-like Signalsin Different Regions of Large Bacterial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Araceli M.; Francino, M. Pilar; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-03-01

    The evolutionary processes operating in the DNA regions that participate in the regulation of gene expression are poorly understood. In Escherichia coli, we have established a sequence pattern that distinguishes regulatory from nonregulatory regions. The density of promoter-like sequences, that are recognizable by RNA polymerase and may function as potential promoters, is high within regulatory regions, in contrast to coding regions and regions located between convergently-transcribed genes. Moreover, functional promoter sites identified experimentally are often found in the subregions of highest density of promoter-like signals, even when individual sites with higher binding affinity for RNA polymerase exist elsewhere within the regulatory region. In order to investigate the generality of this pattern, we have used position weight matrices describing the -35 and -10 promoter boxes of E. coli to search for these motifs in 43 additional genomes belonging to most established bacterial phyla, after specific calibration of the matrices according to the base composition of the noncoding regions of each genome. We have found that all bacterial species analyzed contain similar promoter-like motifs, and that, in most cases, these motifs follow the same genomic distribution observed in E. coli. Differential densities between regulatory and nonregulatory regions are detectable in most bacterial genomes, with the exception of those that have experienced evolutionary extreme genome reduction. Thus, the phylogenetic distribution of this pattern mirrors that of genes and other genomic features that require weak selection to be effective in order to persist. On this basis, we suggest that the loss of differential densities in the reduced genomes of host-restricted pathogens and symbionts is the outcome of a process of genome degradation resulting from the decreased efficiency of purifying selection in highly structured small populations. This implies that the differential

  3. Vitamin E Succinate as an Adjuvant for Dendritic Cell Based Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramanathapuram, Lalitha

    2004-01-01

    .... In this study we have employed Vitamin E succinate also known as alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS), a non-toxic esterified analogue of Vitamin E, as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of DC vaccines in treating established murine mammary...

  4. Receptor structure-based discovery of non-metabolite agonists for the succinate receptor GPR91

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Mette; Rexen Ulven, Elisabeth; Hjorth, Siv A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Besides functioning as an intracellular metabolite, succinate acts as a stress-induced extracellular signal through activation of GPR91 (SUCNR1) for which we lack suitable pharmacological tools. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we first determined that the cis conformation of the succinate...

  5. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, S; Peitzsch, M.; Rapizzi, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Qin, N.; Cubas, A.A. de; Schiavi, F.; Rao, J.U.; Beuschlein, F.; Quinkler, M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Opocher, G.; Mannelli, M.; Pacak, K.; Robledo, M.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase

  6. Evaporation of methyl- and dimethyl-substituted malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acid particles at ambient temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob Garbrecht; Rosenørn, Thomas; Svenningsson, Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid......Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid...

  7. Isolation and selection of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Alves Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a vital role in maintaining soil fertility and plant health. They can act as biofertilizers and increase the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with sugarcane, as well as assessing their ability to promote plant growth. Endophytic bacteria from leaf, stem, root and rhizosphere were isolated from the RB 867515 commercial sugarcane variety and screened for indole acetic acid (IAA production, ability to solubilize phosphate, fix nitrogen and produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN, ammonia and the enzymes pectinase, cellulase and chitinase. A total of 136 bacteria were isolated, with 83 of them presenting some plant growth mechanism: 47 % phosphate solubilizers, 26 % nitrogen fixers and 57 % producing IAA, 0.7 % HCN and chitinase, 45 % ammonia, 30 % cellulose and 8 % pectinase. The seven best isolates were tested for their ability to promote plant growth in maize. The isolates tested for plant growth promotion belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family and the Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Pantoea genera. Five isolates promoted plant growth in greenhouse experiments, showing potential as biofertilizers.

  8. Succinate overproduction: A case study of computational strain design using a comprehensive Escherichia coli kinetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eKhodayari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational strain design prediction accuracy has been the focus for many recent efforts through the selective integration of kinetic information into metabolic models. In general, kinetic model prediction quality is determined by the range and scope of genetic and/or environmental perturbations used during parameterization. In this effort, we apply the k-OptForce procedure on a kinetic model of E. coli core metabolism constructed using the Ensemble Modeling (EM method and parameterized using multiple mutant strains data under aerobic respiration with glucose as the carbon source. Minimal interventions are identified that improve succinate yield under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to test the fidelity of model predictions under both genetic and environmental perturbations. Under aerobic condition, k-OptForce identifies interventions that match existing experimental strategies pointing at a number of unexplored flux redirections such as routing glyoxylate flux through the glycerate metabolism to improve succinate yield. Many of the identified interventions rely on the kinetic descriptions and would not be discoverable by a purely stoichiometric description. In contrast, under fermentative (anaerobic conditions, k-OptForce fails to identify key interventions including up-regulation of anaplerotic reactions and elimination of competitive fermentative products. This is due to the fact that the pathways activated under anaerobic conditions were not properly parameterized as only aerobic flux data were used in the model construction. This study shed light on the importance of condition-specific model parameterization and provides insight onto how to augment kinetic models so as to correctly respond to multiple environmental perturbations.

  9. Differences between the succinate dehydrogenase sequences of isopyrazam sensitive Zymoseptoria tritici and insensitive Fusarium graminearum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Tiphaine; Pasquali, Matias; Pogoda, Friederike; Casanova, Angèle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one Zymoseptoria tritici strains isolated in Luxembourg between 2009 and 2010 were highly sensitive towards the new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) isopyrazam, with concentrations inhibiting fungal growth by 50% (EC50) ranging from 0.0281 to 4.53μM, whereas 41 Fusarium graminearum strains isolated in Europe and Northern America between 1969 and 2009 were insensitive with the average rate of inhibition converging towards 28% with increasing isopyrazam concentration. Seven isolates of both species covering the range of isopyrazam sensitivities observed in the present study were selected for the sequencing of the subunits B, C and D of the succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) gene. Predicted sdh amino acid sequences of subunits B, C and D were identical among F. graminearum strains. By comparing with fungal strains where resistance towards SDHIs was previously reported, three variations were unique to F. graminearum; B-D130N located in the iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S], B-A275T located in the [3Fe-4S] cluster and an additional S at amino acid position 83-84 of sdhC, probably modifying structurally the ubiquinone binding site and therefore the biological activity of the fungicide. No variation was found among the Z. tritici strains in subunits B and D. Two variations were observed within the subunit C sequences of Z. tritici strains: C-N33T and C-N34T. The difference in EC50 values between Z. tritici strains with the NN and TT configuration was non-significant at P=0.289. Two outliers in the Z. tritici group with significantly higher EC50 values that were not related to mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, or sdhD were detected. The role of isopyrazam for the control of F. graminearum and Z. tritici in Luxembourg is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-succinic acid production: Escherichia coli strains design from genome-scale perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Sajo Mienda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli has been established to be a native producer of succinic acid (a platform chemical with different applications via mixed acid fermentation reactions. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs of E. coli have been published with capabilities of predicting strain design strategies for the production of bio-based succinic acid. Proof-of-principle strains are fundamentally constructed as a starting point for systems strategies for industrial strains development. Here, we review for the first time, the use of E. coli GEMs for construction of proof-of-principles strains for increasing succinic acid production. Specific case studies, where E. coli proof-of-principle strains were constructed for increasing bio-based succinic acid production from glucose and glycerol carbon sources have been highlighted. In addition, a propose systems strategies for industrial strain development that could be applicable for future microbial succinic acid production guided by GEMs have been presented.

  11. Genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator increasing succinate excretion from unicellular cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eOsanai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Succinate is a building block compound that the U.S. Department of Energy has declared as important in biorefineries, and it is widely used as a commodity chemical. Here, we identified the two genes increasing succinate production of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Succinate was excreted under dark, anaerobic conditions, and its production level increased by knocking out ackA, which encodes an acetate kinase, and by overexpressing sigE, which encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor. Glycogen catabolism and organic acid biosynthesis were enhanced in the mutant lacking ackA and overexpressing sigE, leading to an increase in succinate production reaching 5 times of the wild-type levels. Our genetic and metabolomic analyses thus demonstrated the effect of genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator on succinate excretion from this cyanobacterium with the data based on metabolomic technique.

  12. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior...... to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted...... in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL-1), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid....

  14. The Impact of Promotion Activities on Touristic Area Selection: A Case Study of Japanese Tourists Visiting Cappadocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pars Şahbaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of promotion activities on destination selection and to determine the level of the impact of promotion activities on Japanese tourists visiting Cappadocia region. The target population of the study is all Japanese tourists visiting Nevsehir province of Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of tourists visiting the city center and some districts of Nevsehir. After getting the required permissions, the questionnaires were distributed to Japanese tourists while they were staying at the hotels in Cappadocia. The software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study indicate that the Japanese tourists visiting Cappadocia were influenced at a certain level from the promotion activities. As a result, it was determined that the promotion activities have a significant impact on destinations. It was also determined that as the importance given to the promotion activities increase, both the familiarity of the destinations and the tourist arrivals could increase.

  15. Rapid liquid–liquid extraction of thallium(III from succinate media with 2-octylaminopyridine in chloroform as the extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDIP V. MAHAMUNI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple solvent extraction study of thallium(III was conducted. Selective and quantitative extraction of thallium(III by 2-octylaminopyridine (2-OAP in chloroform occurred from aqueous sodium succinate medium (0.0075 M at pH 3.0. Thallium(III was back extracted with acetate buffer (pH 4.63. The effect of the concentration of succinate and 2-OAP, the role of various diluents, stripping agents, loading capacity of 2-OAP, equilibrium time and aqueous:organic volume ratio on the extraction of thallium(III was studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species was determined based on the slope analysis method and found to be 1: 2: 1 (metal:acid:extractant. The temperature dependence of the extraction equilibrium constant was also examined to estimate the apparent thermodynamic functions ∆H, ∆G and ∆S for the extraction reaction. The method is free from interference of a large number of cations and anions. The method was used for the selective extraction of thallium(III from its binary mixture with Zn(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Bi(III, Pb(II, Se(IV, Te(IV, Sb(III, Ga(III, In(III, Al(III, Tl(I and Fe(III. The proposed method was applied to the synthetic mixtures and alloys. It is simple, selective, rapid and eco-friendly.

  16. Use of wind energy in selected European countries -- Legislation and promotion incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langraf, B.; Kellner, T.

    2000-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the strategies for the promotion of the use of wind energy used in various countries in Europe. The three main types of promotion - fixed-tariff purchase of renewable energy, call-for-tender systems and the trading of green energy certificates - are described. An appendix illustrates these three types of promotion with their advantages and disadvantages. The ambitious European Union guidelines on the proposed raising of the proportion of renewable energy are reviewed and the commercial implications in terms of increased turnover are looked at. The effects of electricity market liberalisation are examined, particularly in the fixed-tariff purchasing area. The situation in Switzerland, where much less effort is being made to promote renewable energy sources, is reviewed and the dangers of being left behind in the worldwide market for economic and ecological energy technology are stressed. The report is concluded with recommendations for Switzerland on how existing regulations can be improved and how the market for electricity from renewable sources can be opened

  17. Three-dimensional piezoelectric fibrous scaffolds selectively promote mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaraju, Sita M; Shen, Yueyang; Elele, Ezinwa; Khusid, Boris; Eshghinejad, Ahmad; Li, Jiangyu; Jaffe, Michael; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of electric fields in biological tissues has led to efforts in developing technologies utilizing electrical stimulation for therapeutic applications. Native tissues, such as cartilage and bone, exhibit piezoelectric behavior, wherein electrical activity can be generated due to mechanical deformation. Yet, the use of piezoelectric materials have largely been unexplored as a potential strategy in tissue engineering, wherein a piezoelectric biomaterial acts as a scaffold to promote cell behavior and the formation of large tissues. Here we show, for the first time, that piezoelectric materials can be fabricated into flexible, three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds and can be used to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and corresponding extracellular matrix/tissue formation in physiological loading conditions. Piezoelectric scaffolds that exhibit low voltage output, or streaming potential, promoted chondrogenic differentiation and piezoelectric scaffolds with a high voltage output promoted osteogenic differentiation. Electromechanical stimulus promoted greater differentiation than mechanical loading alone. Results demonstrate the additive effect of electromechanical stimulus on stem cell differentiation, which is an important design consideration for tissue engineering scaffolds. Piezoelectric, smart materials are attractive as scaffolds for regenerative medicine strategies due to their inherent electrical properties without the need for external power sources for electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Species selection in secondary wood products: implications for product design and promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Scott A. Bowe; Scott A. Bowe

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions that people have of several commercially important wood species and determined if word-based and specimen-based evaluations differed. Such knowledge can help secondary wood manufacturers better understand their products and develop more effective design concepts and promotional messages. A sample of more than 250 undergraduate...

  19. Effects of Lewis acidity of metal oxide promoters on the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Bell, Alexis T. (LBNL); (UCB)

    2016-06-17

    Metal oxides of Ce, Gd, La, Mn, and Zr were investigated as promoters for improving the activity and selectivity of Co-based FTS catalysts. The extent to which these promoters decrease the selectivity toward CH4 and increase the selectivity toward C5+ hydrocarbons was found to depend on both the loading and the composition of the oxide promoter. Elemental mapping by STEM–EDS revealed that the propensity for a given metal oxide to associate with Co affects the sensitivity of the product distribution to changes in promoter loading. For all promoters, a sufficiently high loading resulted in the product distributions becoming insensitive to further increases in promoter loading, very likely due to the formation of a half monolayer of promoter oxide over the Co surface. Simulations suggest that the fraction of Co active sites that are adjacent to the promoter moieties approaches unity at this degree of coverage. The oxidation state of the promoter metal cation under reaction conditions, determined by in situ XANES measurements, was used to calculate relative Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cation. A strong positive correlation was found between the C5+ product selectivity and the Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cations, suggesting that the promotional effects are a consequence of Lewis acid–base interactions between the reaction intermediates and the promoter metal cations. Rate data obtained at different pressures were used to estimate the apparent rate coefficient and the CO adsorption constant appearing in the Langmuir–Hinshelwood expression that describes the CO consumption kinetics for both unpromoted and the metal oxide-promoted catalysts. Both parameters exhibited positive correlations with the promoter Lewis acidity. In conclusion, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the metal cations of the promoter act as Lewis acids that interact with the O atom of adsorbed CO to facilitate CO adsorption and

  20. Incorporation of 14C-succinate in Synechococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus (= Anacystis nidulans) was grown under normal air conditions (0.03 vol.% CO 2 ) and in low white light (0.5 x 10 3 μW/cm 2 ) at 37 0 C. Kinetics of 14 C incorporation into several soluble products and pigments were studied after adding 14 C-succinate during photosynthesis and in the dark using the autoradiographic method. Radioactivity was found mainly in glutamate and aspartate during the photosynthetic period independent on 3-(3',4'-dichlorphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea preincubation. In the dark period 14 C label could also be detected in malate. Short-term kinetics experiments showed a decrease in 14 C label of glutamate and a parallel increase of aspartate. Results were discussed in respect to the interrupted tricarboxylic acid cycle. (author)

  1. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  2. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought

    KAUST Repository

    Cherif, Hanene; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Ferjani, Raoudha; Fusi, Marco; Soussi, Asma; Mapelli, Francesca; Blilou, Ikram; Borin, Sara; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-01-01

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought

    KAUST Repository

    Cherif, Hanene

    2015-07-21

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The succinate receptor as a novel therapeutic target for oxidative and metabolic stress-related conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina eAriza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The succinate receptor (also known as GPR91 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is closely related to the family of P2Y purinoreceptors. It is expressed in a variety of tissues, including blood cells, adipose tissue, the liver, retina and kidney. In these tissues, this receptor and its ligand succinate have recently emerged as novel mediators in local stress situations, including ischemia, hypoxia, toxicity and hyperglycemia. Amongst others, the succinate receptor is involved in recruitment of immune cells to transplanted tissues. Moreover, it was shown to play a key role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. However, most prominently, the role of locally increased succinate levels and succinate receptor activation in the kidney, stimulating the systemic and local renin-angiotensin system, starts to unfold: The succinate receptor is a key mediator in the development of hypertension and possibly fibrosis in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. This makes the succinate receptor a promising drug target to counteract or prevent cardiovascular and fibrotic defects in these expanding disorders. Recent development of SUCNR1-specific antagonists opens novel possibilities for research in models for these disorders and may eventually provide novel opportunities for the treatment of patients.

  5. Succinate modulates Ca(2+) transient and cardiomyocyte viability through PKA-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carla J; Andrade, Vanessa L; Gomes, Enéas R M; Alves, Márcia N M; Ladeira, Marina S; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina N; Gomes, Dawidson A; Almeida, Alvair P; Goes, Alfredo M; Resende, Rodrigo R; Guatimosim, Silvia; Leite, M Fatima

    2010-01-01

    GPR91 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been characterized as a receptor for succinate, a citric acid cycle intermediate, in several tissues. In the heart, the role of succinate is unknown. We now report that rat ventricular cardiomyocytes express GPR91. We found that succinate, through GPR91, increases the amplitude and the rate of decline of global Ca(2+) transient, by increasing the phosphorylation levels of ryanodine receptor and phospholamban, two well known Ca(2+) handling proteins. The effects of succinate on Ca(2+) transient were abolished by pre-treatment with adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors. Direct PKA activation by succinate was further confirmed using a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter. Additionally, succinate decreases cardiomyocyte viability through a caspase-3 activation pathway, effect also prevented by PKA inhibition. Taken together, these observations show that succinate acts as a signaling molecule in cardiomyocytes, modulating global Ca(2+) transient and cell viability through a PKA-dependent pathway. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the radiolysis of succinic acid - applications in the dosimetry of high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade e Silva, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the effect of the gama radiation dose and of particle size of succinic acid (fine powder of large crystals) in relation with the formation of CO 2 and CO + H 2 , which are the main gaseous products of radiolysis. A different yield of CO + H 2 is found when the succinic acid is used as powder compared to the material in the form of large crystals. The reason for this difference is searched, studying the influence of heating and sublimation of the succinic acid prior to irradiation. The influence, in the mentioned yield, of the surface area of succinic acid particles, of the presence of oxygen (air) and of the rapid recrystallization of the acid are also studied. The formation of intermediate species in the radiolysis of succinic acid is examined. The system used in ethanol-succinic acid at 77K. Analysis are made using an electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. The possibility of using succinic acid as a dosimeter for high level gama radiation doses is discussed [pt

  7. Natural selection in a population of Drosophila melanogaster explained by changes in gene expression caused by sequence variation in core promoter regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-02-09

    Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence variation in gene regulatory regions in natural populations is an important challenge for evolutionary biology because natural selection for such variations could promote adaptive phenotypic evolution. Recently, whole-genome sequence analyses have identified regulatory regions subject to natural selection. However, these studies could not identify the relationship between sequence variation in the detected regions and change in gene expression levels. We analyzed sequence variations in core promoter regions, which are critical regions for gene regulation in higher eukaryotes, in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, and identified core promoter sequence variations associated with differences in gene expression levels subjected to natural selection. Among the core promoter regions whose sequence variation could change transcription factor binding sites and explain differences in expression levels, three core promoter regions were detected as candidates associated with purifying selection or selective sweep and seven as candidates associated with balancing selection, excluding the possibility of linkage between these regions and core promoter regions. CHKov1, which confers resistance to the sigma virus and related insecticides, was identified as core promoter regions that has been subject to selective sweep, although it could not be denied that selection for variation in core promoter regions was due to linked single nucleotide polymorphisms in the regulatory region outside core promoter regions. Nucleotide changes in core promoter regions of CHKov1 caused the loss of two basal transcription factor binding sites and acquisition of one transcription factor binding site, resulting in decreased gene expression levels. Of nine core promoter regions regions associated with balancing selection, brat, and CG9044 are associated with neuromuscular junction development, and Nmda1 are associated with learning

  8. Measuring selection for genes that promote long life in a historical human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Walling, Craig A

    2017-11-01

    The unusually long lifespans of humans and the persistence of post-reproductive lifespans in women represent evolutionary puzzles because natural selection cannot directly favour continued living in post-menopausal women or elderly men. Suggested sources of indirect selection require genetic correlations between fitness and survival or reproduction at younger ages, reproduction in the opposite sex, or late-life contributions to offspring or grandoffspring fitness. Here we apply quantitative genetic analyses to data from a historical human population to explicitly test these evolutionary genetic hypotheses. Total genetic selection increased the male post-50 lifespans by 0.138 years per generation; 94% of this arose from indirect selection acting to favour early-life fitness in both sexes. These results argue strongly against life-history models of ageing that depend on trade-offs between reproduction and late-life survival. No source of indirect selection for female post-50 lifespan was detected, deepening the mystery of why female post-reproductive survival persists. This result is probably due to recent changes in the genetic architecture of female lifespan, and it highlights the need for similar quantitative genetic analyses of human populations at other points along demographic transitions.

  9. Interaction of Palmitic Acid with Metoprolol Succinate at the Binding Sites of Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the binding profile as well as to notify the interaction of palmitic acid with metoprolol succinate at its binding site on albumin. Methods: The binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin (BSA was studied by equilibrium dialysis method (ED at 27°C and pH 7.4, in order to have an insight in the binding chemistry of the drug to BSA in presence and absence of palmitic acid. The study was carried out using ranitidine as site-1 and diazepam as site-2 specific probe. Results: Different analysis of binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin suggested two sets of association constants: high affinity association constant (k1 = 11.0 x 105 M-1 with low capacity (n1 = 2 and low affinity association (k2 = 4.0×105 M-1 constant with high capacity (n2 = 8 at pH 7.4 and 27°C. During concurrent administration of palmitic acid and metoprolol succinate in presence or absence of ranitidine or diazepam, it was found that palmitic acid displaced metoprolol succinate from its binding site on BSA resulting reduced binding of metoprolol succinate to BSA. The increment in free fraction of metoprolol succinate was from 26.27% to 55.08% upon the addition of increased concentration of palmitic acid at a concentration of 0×10-5 M to 16×10-5 M. In presence of ranitidine and diazepam, palmitic acid further increases the free fraction of metoprolol succinate from 33.05% to 66.95% and 40.68% to 72.88%, respectively. Conclusion: This data provided the evidence of interaction at higher concentration of palmitic acid at the binding sites on BSA, which might change the pharmacokinetic properties of metoprolol succinate.

  10. Greater fruit selection following an appearance-based compared with a health-based health promotion poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the impact of an appearance-based compared with a traditional health-based public health message for healthy eating. Methods A total of 166 British University students (41 males; aged 20.6 ± 1.9 years) were randomized to view either an appearance-based (n = 82) or a health-based (n = 84) fruit promotion poster. Intentions to consume fruit and immediate fruit selection (laboratory observation) were assessed immediately after poster viewing, and subsequent self-report fruit consumption was assessed 3 days later. Results Intentions to consume fruit were not predicted by poster type (largest β = 0.03, P = 0.68) but were associated with fruit-based liking, past consumption, attitudes and social norms (smallest β = 0.16, P = 0.04). Immediate fruit selection was greater following the appearance-based compared with the health-based poster (β = −0.24, P poster (β = −0.22, P = 0.03), but this effect became non-significant on consideration of participant characteristics (β = −0.15, P = 0.13), and was instead associated with fruit-based liking and past consumption (smallest β = 0.24, P = 0.03). Conclusions These findings demonstrate the clear value of an appearance-based compared with a health-based health promotion poster for increasing fruit selection. A distinction between outcome measures and the value of a behavioural measure is also demonstrated. PMID:28158693

  11. Selected aspects of worksite health promotion (WHP in the Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Šlachta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation (WHO and other internationally active Worksite Health Promotion (WHP organizations co-ordinately aim to implement a healthy lifestyle by health programmes. They also specify general principles to prevent the mass occurrence of non-infectious diseases in the world. Recommended programs are in developed countries usually implemented by administrative institutions and authorities and their results are evaluated. This paper aims to evaluate the implementation of recommended programmes in the Czech Republic by specific aspects - cultural, legislative, medical, economic etc. The paper is an introductory study in a complex and comprehensive interdisciplinary field of human health in the context of workplace and sustainable social development.

  12. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a novel multiblock copolyester containing poly(ethylene succinate) and poly(butylene succinate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qunying; He Yisong; Zeng Jianbing; Huang Qing; Wang Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → High-molecular-weight biodegradable multiblock copolyester containing PBS and PES segments was achieved. → PBS and PES are miscible with a single glass transition regardless of composition. → The multiblock copolyester showed excellent tensile strength and elongation at break. → The multiblock copolyester can serve as a potential substitute for conventional non-biodegradable commodity plastics. - Abstract: Multiblock copolyester (PBS-b-PES) containing poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(ethylene succinate) (PES) was successfully synthesized by chain-extension of dihydroxyl terminated PBS (HO-PBS-OH) and PES (HO-PES-OH) using 1,6-hexmethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as a chain extender. The chemical structures, molecular weights, crystallization behaviors, thermal and mechanical properties of the copolyesters were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), tensile testing and hydrolytic degradation. High-molecular-weight copolyesters with M w more than 2.0 x 10 5 g mol -1 were easily obtained through chain-extension. The copolyesters showed a single glass transition temperature (T g ) which increased with PES content. The melting point temperature (T m ) and relative degree of crystallinity (X c ) of the copolyesters decreased first and then increased with PES content. The copolyesters manifested excellent mechanical properties, for example, PBS 5 -b-PES 5 had fracture stress of 61.8 MPa and fracture strain of 1173%. The chain-extension reaction provided a very effective way to produce high molecular weight multiblock copolyesters.

  14. A Course to Promote Informed Selection of an Engineering Major Using a Partially Flipped Classroom Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kerry Lynn

    2016-01-01

    A 1 credit hour First-Year Engineering Course which provides background to students on the engineering disciplinary options available to them was redesigned to help inform the selection of their engineering major for future study. Initially, course administration was a large lecture class but was transformed into smaller classes that were…

  15. Hydrogen-bond-driven electrophilic activation for selectivity control: scope and limitations of fluorous alcohol-promoted selective formation of 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles and mechanistic insight for rationale of selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebolu, Rajesh; Kommi, Damodara N; Kumar, Dinesh; Bollineni, Narendra; Chakraborti, Asit K

    2012-11-16

    Hydrogen-bond-driven electrophilic activation for selectivity control during competitive formation of 1,2-disubstituted and 2-substituted benzimidazoles from o-phenylenediamine and aldehydes is reported. The fluorous alcohols trifluoroethanol and hexafluoro-2-propanol efficiently promote the cyclocondensation of o-phenylenediamine with aldehydes to afford selectively the 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles at rt in short times. A mechanistic insight is invoked by NMR, mass spectrometry, and chemical studies to rationalize the selectivity. The ability of the fluorous alcohols in promoting the reaction and controlling the selectivity can be envisaged from their better hydrogen bond donor (HBD) abilities compared to that of the other organic solvents as well as of water. Due to the better HBD values, the fluorous alcohols efficiently promote the initial bisimine formation by electrophilic activation of the aldehyde carbonyl. Subsequently the hydrogen-bond-mediated activation of the in situ-formed bisimine triggers the rearrangement via 1,3-hydride shift to form the 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles.

  16. SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO RAISE AWARENESS AND PROMOTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport

  17. Using Behavior Change Techniques to Guide Selections of Mobile Applications to Promote Fluid Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Dubansky, Alexandra; Remillard, Joshua; Murray, Robert; Pellegrini, Christine A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Streeper, Necole M

    2017-01-01

    To determine the extent to which validated techniques for behavior change have been infused in commercially available fluid consumption applications (apps). Coders evaluated behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions for 50 fluid consumption apps and the latest version of each app. Apps incorporated a limited range of behavior change techniques (operating system but not as a function of whether apps were free or paid. Limitations include the lack of experimental evidence establishing the efficacy of these apps. Patients with urolithiasis can choose from many apps to support the recommended increase in fluid intake. Apps for iOS devices incorporate more behavior change techniques compared to apps for the Android operating system. Free apps are likely to expose patients to a similar number of techniques as paid apps. Physicians and patients should screen app descriptions for features to promote self-monitoring and provide feedback on discrepancies between behavior and a fluid consumption goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Promotion of selective pathways in isomerizing functionalization of plant oils by rigid framework substituents

    KAUST Repository

    Christl, Josefine T.

    2014-10-14

    The 1,2-(CH2P(1-adamantyl)2)2C6H4 (dadpx) coordinated palladium complex [(dadpx)Pd(OTf)2] (1) is a catalyst precursor for the isomerizing methoxycarbonylation of the internal double bond of methyl oleate, with an unprecedented selectivity (96%) for the linear diester 1,19-dimethyl nonadecanedioate. Rapid formation of the catalytically active solvent-coordinated hydride species [(dadpx)PdH(MeOH)]+ (3-MeOH) is evidenced by NMR spectroscopy, and further isolation and X-ray crystal structure analysis of [(dadpx)PdH(PPh3)]+ (3-PPh3). DFT calculations of key steps of the catalytic cycle unravel methanolysis as the decisive step for enhanced selectivity and the influence of the rigid adamantyl framework on this step by destabilization of transition states of unselective pathways.

  19. Motivated encoding selectively promotes memory for future inconsequential semantically-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Javiera P; Packard, Pau A; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluis

    2016-09-01

    Neurobiological models of long-term memory explain how memory for inconsequential events fades, unless these happen before or after other relevant (i.e., rewarding or aversive) or novel events. Recently, it has been shown in humans that retrospective and prospective memories are selectively enhanced if semantically related events are paired with aversive stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether motivating stimuli, as opposed to aversive, have the same effect in humans. Here, participants performed a three phase incidental encoding task where one semantic category was rewarded during the second phase. A memory test 24h after, but not immediately after encoding, revealed that memory for inconsequential items was selectively enhanced only if items from the same category had been previously, but not subsequently, paired with rewards. This result suggests that prospective memory enhancement of reward-related information requires, like previously reported for aversive memories, of a period of memory consolidation. The current findings provide the first empirical evidence in humans that the effects of motivated encoding are selectively and prospectively prolonged over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive selection and propeptide repeats promote rapid interspecific divergence of a gastropod sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, M E; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D

    2000-03-01

    Male-specific proteins have increasingly been reported as targets of positive selection and are of special interest because of the role they may play in the evolution of reproductive isolation. We report the rapid interspecific divergence of cDNA encoding a major acrosomal protein of unknown function (TMAP) of sperm from five species of teguline gastropods. A mitochondrial DNA clock (calibrated by congeneric species divided by the Isthmus of Panama) estimates that these five species diverged 2-10 MYA. Inferred amino acid sequences reveal a propeptide that has diverged rapidly between species. The mature protein has diverged faster still due to high nonsynonymous substitution rates (> 25 nonsynonymous substitutions per site per 10(9) years). cDNA encoding the mature protein (89-100 residues) shows evidence of positive selection (Dn/Ds > 1) for 4 of 10 pairwise species comparisons. cDNA and predicted secondary-structure comparisons suggest that TMAP is neither orthologous nor paralogous to abalone lysin, and thus marks a second, phylogenetically independent, protein subject to strong positive selection in free-spawning marine gastropods. In addition, an internal repeat in one species (Tegula aureotincta) produces a duplicated cleavage site which results in two alternatively processed mature proteins differing by nine amino acid residues. Such alternative processing may provide a mechanism for introducing novel amino acid sequence variation at the amino-termini of proteins. Highly divergent TMAP N-termini from two other tegulines (Tegula regina and Norrisia norrisii) may have originated by such a mechanism.

  1. Self-assembled nanoformulation of methylprednisolone succinate with carboxylated block copolymer for local glucocorticoid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, Marat I; Đặng, Trinh; Petrova, Natalia V; Laikov, Alexander V; Luong, Duong; Akhmadishina, Rezeda A; Lukashkin, Andrei N; Abdullin, Timur I

    2018-04-01

    A new self-assembled formulation of methylprednisolone succinate (MPS) based on a carboxylated trifunctional block copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (TBC-COOH) was developed. TBC-COOH and MPS associated spontaneously at increased concentrations in aqueous solutions to form almost monodisperse mixed micelles (TBC-COOH/MPS) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 19.6 nm, zeta potential of -27.8 mV and optimal weight ratio ∼1:6.3. Conditions for the effective formation of TBC-COOH/MPS were elucidated by comparing copolymers and glucocorticoids with different structure. The micellar structure of TBC-COOH/MPS persisted upon dilution, temperature fluctuations and interaction with blood serum components. TBC-COOH increased antiradical activity of MPS and promoted its intrinsic cytotoxicity in vitro attributed to enhanced cellular availability of the mixed micelles. Intracellular transportation and hydrolysis of MPS were analyzed using optimized liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring which showed increased level of both MPS and methylprednisolone in neuronal cells treated with the formulated glucocorticoid. Our results identify TBC-COOH/MPS as an advanced in situ prepared nanoformulation and encourage its further investigation for a potential local glucocorticoid therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Processing Conditions, Thermal and Mechanical Responses of Stretchable Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Butylene Succinate) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, Elena; Puglia, Debora; Iannoni, Antonio; Terenzi, Andrea; Kenny, José Maria; Torre, Luigi

    2017-07-16

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) based films containing two different plasticizers [Acetyl Tributyl Citrate (ATBC) and isosorbide diester (ISE)] at three different contents (15 wt %, 20 wt % and 30 wt %) were produced by extrusion method. Thermal, morphological, mechanical and wettability behavior of produced materials was investigated as a function of plasticizer content. Filmature parameters were also adjusted and optimized for different formulations, in order to obtain similar thickness for different systems. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results and evaluation of solubility parameter confirmed that similar miscibility was obtained for ATBC and ISE in PLA, while the two selected plasticizers resulted as not efficient for plasticization of PBS, to the limit that the PBS-30ATBC resulted as not processable. On the basis of these results, isosorbide-based plasticizer was considered a suitable agent for modification of a selected blend (PLA/PBS 80:20) and two mixing approaches were used to identify the role of ISE in the plasticization process: results from mechanical analysis confirmed that both produced PLA-PBS blends (PLA85-ISE15)-PBS20 and (PLA80-PBS20)-ISE15 could guarantee advantages in terms of deformability, with respect to the PLA80-PBS20 reference film, suggesting that the promising use of these stretchable PLA-PBS based films plasticized with isosorbide can provide novel solutions for food packaging applications.

  3. Selective nuclear export of specific classes of mRNA from mammalian nuclei is promoted by GANP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vihandha O.; Andrews, Robert; Ellis, Peter; Langford, Cordelia; Gurdon, John B.; Stewart, Murray; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.; Laskey, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear phase of the gene expression pathway culminates in the export of mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes. GANP (germinal- centre associated nuclear protein) promotes the transfer of mRNAs bound to the transport factor NXF1 to nuclear pore complexes. Here, we demonstrate that GANP, subunit of the TRanscription-EXport-2 (TREX-2) mRNA export complex, promotes selective nuclear export of a specific subset of mRNAs whose transport depends on NXF1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that half of the transcripts whose nuclear export was impaired following NXF1 depletion also showed reduced export when GANP was depleted. GANP-dependent transcripts were highly expressed, yet short-lived, and were highly enriched in those encoding central components of the gene expression machinery such as RNA synthesis and processing factors. After injection into Xenopus oocyte nuclei, representative GANP-dependent transcripts showed faster nuclear export kinetics than representative transcripts that were not influenced by GANP depletion. We propose that GANP promotes the nuclear export of specific classes of mRNAs that may facilitate rapid changes in gene expression. PMID:24510098

  4. Metabolic Effects of a Succinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Shakh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses promises for clinical use of substrate antihypoxants.Objective: to investigate the efficacy of succinate containing  substrate  antihypoxants  on  systemic  oxygen  consumption,  blood  buffer  capacity,  and  changes  in  the  mixed venous blood level of lactate when they are used in gravely sick patients and victims with marked metabolic posthypoxic disorders.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 30 patients and victims who had sustained an episode of severe hypoxia of mixed genesis, the severity of which was evaluated by the APACHE II scale and amounted to 23 to 30 scores with a 46 to 70.3% risk of death. The standard infusion program in this group involved the succinate-containing drug 1.5% reamberin solution  in  a  total  dose  of  800  ml.  A  comparison  group  included  15  patients  who  had  undergone  emergency  extensive surgery for abdominal diseases. 400 ml of 10% glucose solution was used as an infusion medium. Oxygen consumption (VO2ml/min and carbon dioxide production (VCO2ml/min were measured before infusion and monitored for 2 hours. Arterial blood gases and acid-base balance (ABB parameters and mixed venous blood lactate levels were examined. Measurements were made before and 30 minutes after the infusion of reamberin or glucose solution.Results. Infusion of 1.5% reamberin solution was followed by a significant increase in minute oxygen consumption from 281.5±21.2 to 310.4±24.4 ml/min. CO2 production declined (on average, from 223.3±6.5 to 206.5±7.59 ml/min. During infusion of 10% glucose solution, all the patients of the comparison group showed a rise in oxygen consumption from 303.6±33.86 to 443.13±32.1 ml/min, i.e. about 1.5-fold. VCO2 changed similarly. The intravenous infusion of 800 ml of 1.5% reamberin solution raised arterial blood buffer capacity, which was reflected by changes in pH, BE, and HCO3. There was a clear trend for lactate values to drop in the

  5. Salicornia strobilacea (Synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) Grown under Different Tidal Regimes Selects Rhizosphere Bacteria Capable of Promoting Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Ramona; Mapelli, Francesca; Rolli, Eleonora; Mosqueira, Maria J; Fusi, Marco; Bariselli, Paola; Reddy, Muppala; Cherif, Ameur; Tsiamis, George; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Halophytes classified under the common name of salicornia colonize salty and coastal environments across tidal inundation gradients. To unravel the role of tide-related regimes on the structure and functionality of root associated bacteria, the rhizospheric soil of Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) plants was studied in a tidal zone of the coastline of Southern Tunisia. Although total counts of cultivable bacteria did not change in the rhizosphere of plants grown along a tidal gradient, significant differences were observed in the diversity of both the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial communities. This observation indicates that the tidal regime is contributing to the bacterial species selection in the rhizosphere. Despite the observed diversity in the bacterial community structure, the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of cultivable rhizospheric bacteria, assessed through in vitro and in vivo tests, was equally distributed along the tidal gradient. Root colonization tests with selected strains proved that halophyte rhizospheric bacteria (i) stably colonize S. strobilacea rhizoplane and the plant shoot suggesting that they move from the root to the shoot and (ii) are capable of improving plant growth. The versatility in the root colonization, the overall PGP traits and the in vivo plant growth promotion under saline condition suggest that such beneficial activities likely take place naturally under a range of tidal regimes.

  6. Salicornia strobilacea (Synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) Grown under Different Tidal Regimes Selects Rhizosphere Bacteria Capable of Promoting Plant Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Marasco, Ramona

    2016-08-22

    Halophytes classified under the common name of salicornia colonize salty and coastal environments across tidal inundation gradients. To unravel the role of tide-related regimes on the structure and functionality of root associated bacteria, the rhizospheric soil of Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) plants was studied in a tidal zone of the coastline of Southern Tunisia. Although total counts of cultivable bacteria did not change in the rhizosphere of plants grown along a tidal gradient, significant differences were observed in the diversity of both the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial communities. This observation indicates that the tidal regime is contributing to the bacterial species selection in the rhizosphere. Despite the observed diversity in the bacterial community structure, the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of cultivable rhizospheric bacteria, assessed through in vitro and in vivo tests, was equally distributed along the tidal gradient. Root colonization tests with selected strains proved that halophyte rhizospheric bacteria (i) stably colonize S. strobilacea rhizoplane and the plant shoot suggesting that they move from the root to the shoot and (ii) are capable of improving plant growth. The versatility in the root colonization, the overall PGP traits and the in vivo plant growth promotion under saline condition suggest that such beneficial activities likely take place naturally under a range of tidal regimes.

  7. Salicornia strobilacea (Synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) Grown under Different Tidal Regimes Selects Rhizosphere Bacteria Capable of Promoting Plant Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Marasco, Ramona; Mapelli, Francesca; Rolli, Eleonora; Mosqueira, Maria J.; Fusi, Marco; Bariselli, Paola; Reddy, Muppala P.; Cherif, Ameur; Tsiamis, George; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Halophytes classified under the common name of salicornia colonize salty and coastal environments across tidal inundation gradients. To unravel the role of tide-related regimes on the structure and functionality of root associated bacteria, the rhizospheric soil of Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) plants was studied in a tidal zone of the coastline of Southern Tunisia. Although total counts of cultivable bacteria did not change in the rhizosphere of plants grown along a tidal gradient, significant differences were observed in the diversity of both the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial communities. This observation indicates that the tidal regime is contributing to the bacterial species selection in the rhizosphere. Despite the observed diversity in the bacterial community structure, the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of cultivable rhizospheric bacteria, assessed through in vitro and in vivo tests, was equally distributed along the tidal gradient. Root colonization tests with selected strains proved that halophyte rhizospheric bacteria (i) stably colonize S. strobilacea rhizoplane and the plant shoot suggesting that they move from the root to the shoot and (ii) are capable of improving plant growth. The versatility in the root colonization, the overall PGP traits and the in vivo plant growth promotion under saline condition suggest that such beneficial activities likely take place naturally under a range of tidal regimes.

  8. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  9. Selective CD28 Antagonist Blunts Memory Immune Responses and Promotes Long-Term Control of Skin Inflammation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Nicolas; Chevalier, Melanie; Mary, Caroline; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Baker, Paul; Ville, Simon; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Dilek, Nahzli; Belarif, Lyssia; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Scobie, Linda; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies that specifically target activation and expansion of pathogenic immune cell subsets responsible for autoimmune attacks are needed to confer long-term remission. Pathogenic cells in autoimmunity include memory T lymphocytes that are long-lived and present rapid recall effector functions with reduced activation requirements. Whereas the CD28 costimulation pathway predominantly controls priming of naive T cells and hence generation of adaptive memory cells, the roles of CD28 costimulation on established memory T lymphocytes and the recall of memory responses remain controversial. In contrast to CD80/86 antagonists (CTLA4-Ig), selective CD28 antagonists blunt T cell costimulation while sparing CTLA-4 and PD-L1-dependent coinhibitory signals. Using a new selective CD28 antagonist, we showed that Ag-specific reactivation of human memory T lymphocytes was prevented. Selective CD28 blockade controlled both cellular and humoral memory recall in nonhuman primates and induced long-term Ag-specific unresponsiveness in a memory T cell-mediated inflammatory skin model. No modification of memory T lymphocytes subsets or numbers was observed in the periphery, and importantly no significant reactivation of quiescent viruses was noticed. These findings indicate that pathogenic memory T cell responses are controlled by both CD28 and CTLA-4/PD-L1 cosignals in vivo and that selectively targeting CD28 would help to promote remission of autoimmune diseases and control chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Multifunctional nanobiocomposite of Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] and clay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Al-Thabaiti, SA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The processing and characterization of multifunctional nanobiocomposite of biodegradable poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) and organically modified synthetic fluorine mica (OSFM) are reported. The nanobiocomposite of PBSA with OSFM...

  11. 76 FR 59141 - Determination That LOXITANE (Loxapine Succinate) Capsules and Three Other Drug Products Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Applicant NDA 017525 LOXITANE (loxapine Watson Laboratories succinate) Inc., 417 Wakara Capsules, Way, Suite.../milliliter. NDA 020828 FORTOVASE Hoffmann La Roche (saquinavir) Inc., 340 Kingsland Capsule, 200 mg. St...

  12. Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: Identification and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.A. Grinsven; S. Rosnowsky (Silke); S.W.H. van Weelden (Susanne); S. Pütz (Simone); M. van der Giezen (Mark); W. Martin (William); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); K. Henze (Katrin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcetate:succinate CoA-transferases (ASCT) are acetate-producing enzymes in hydrogenosomes, anaerobically functioning mitochondria and in the aerobically functioning mitochondria of trypanosomatids. Although acetate is produced in the hydrogenosomes of a number of anaerobic microbial

  13. Aspartic acid-promoted highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of cysteine in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Dalei; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-11-06

    Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. Initially, Au-NPs synthesized with citrate as the stabilizer are red in color and exhibit absorption at 520 nm. The addition of an aqueous solution (20 μL) of cysteine or aspartic acid alone to a 200 μL Au-NP dispersion causes no aggregation, while the addition of an aqueous solution of cysteine into a Au-NP dispersion containing aspartic acid (1.8 mM) causes the aggregation of Au-NPs and thus results in the color change of the colloid from wine red to blue. These changes are ascribed to the ion pair interaction between aspartic acid and cysteine on the interface between Au-NPs and solution. The concentration of cysteine can be visualized with the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output shows a linear relationship for cysteine within the concentration range from 0.166 to 1.67 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM. The assay demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of other natural amino acids and other thiol-containing species as well as the species commonly existing in the brain such as lactate, ascorbic acid, and glucose. The basal dialysate level of cysteine in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats is determined to be around 9.6 ± 2.1 μM. The method demonstrated here is facile but reliable and durable and is envisaged to be applicable to understanding the chemical essence involved in physiological and pathological events associated with cysteine.

  14. Mixed ligand complexes of essential metal ions with L-glutamine and succinic acid in SLS-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Hima Gandham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation of mixed ligand complexes of Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II with L-glutamine and succinic acid was studied in varying amounts (0.0-2.5% w/v of sodium lauryl sulphate in aqueous solutions maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 mol L-1 (NaCl at 303.0 K. Titrations were carried out in the presence of different relative concentrations (M : L : X = 1 : 2 : 2, 1 : 4 : 2, 1 : 2 : 4 of metal (M to L-glutamine (L to succinic acid (X with sodium hydroxide. Stability constants of ternary complexes were refined with MINIQUAD75. The best-fit chemical models were selected based on statistical parameters and residual analysis. The species detected were ML2X, MLX, MLXH and MLXH2 for Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II. Extra stability of ternary complexes compared to their binary complexes was believed to be due to electrostatic interactions of the side chains of ligands, charge neutralization, chelate effect, stacking interactions and hydrogen bonding. The species distribution with pH at different compositions of SLS and plausible equilibria for the formation of species were also presented.

  15. Physical Stability of Octenyl Succinate-Modified Polysaccharides and Whey Proteins for Potential Use as Bioactive Carriers in Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Gomez, Alex F; Castell-Perez, M Elena

    2015-06-01

    The high cost and potential toxicity of biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) has increased the interest in natural and modified biopolymers as bioactive carriers. This study characterized the physical stability (water sorption and state transition behavior) of selected starch and proteins: octenyl succinate-modified depolymerized waxy corn starch (DWxCn), waxy rice starch (DWxRc), phytoglycogen, whey protein concentrate (80%, WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and α-lactalbumin (α-L) to determine their potential as carriers of bioactive compounds under different environmental conditions. After enzyme modification and particle size characterization, glass transition temperature and moisture isotherms were used to characterize the systems. DWxCn and DWxRc had increased water sorption compared to native starch. The level of octenyl succinate anhydrate (OSA) modification (3% and 7%) did not reduce the water sorption of the DWxCn and phytoglycogen samples. The Guggenheim-Andersen-de Boer model indicated that native waxy corn had significantly (P whey proteins had higher glass transition temperature (Tg) values. On the other hand, depolymerized waxy starches at 7%-OSA modification had a "melted" appearance when exposed to environments with high relative humidity (above 70%) after 10 days at 23 °C. The use of depolymerized and OSA-modified polysaccharides blended with proteins created more stable blends of biopolymers. Hence, this biopolymer would be suitable for materials exposed to high humidity environments in food applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay in situ with Blue Tetrazolium Salt in Crabtree-Positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method for determining succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity assay in azide-sensitive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed. The permeabilization of yeast cells by 0.05 % digitonin permitted to study yeast enzymatic activity in situ. The reduction of blue tetrazolium salt (BT to blue tetrazolium formazan (BTf was conducted in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS as an exogenous electron carrier, and sodium azide (SA as an inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase (Cyt pathway. Various factors such as type of substrate, BT concentration, cell number, temperature and time of incubation, and different Cyt pathway blockers were optimized. In earlier studies, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO had been selected as the best solvent for extraction of BTf from yeast cells. The linear correlation between permeabilized yeast cell density and amount of formed formazan was evidenced in the range from 9·10^7 to 5·10^8 cells per sample solution. Below the yeast cell concentration of 10^7 the absorbance values were too low to detect formazans with good precision. This standarized procedure allows the estimation of SDH activity in whole cells, depending on vitality level of yeast populations. Significant increases of succinate dehydrogenase activities were observed in sequential passages as the result of the increase of activity of the strain and adaptation to cultivation conditions.

  17. Performance Against WELCOA's Worksite Health Promotion Benchmarks Across Years Among Selected US Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, GracieLee M; Mendenhall, Brandon N; Hunnicutt, David; Picarella, Ryan; Leffelman, Brittanie; Perko, Michael; Bibeau, Daniel L

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the performance of organizations' worksite health promotion (WHP) activities against the benchmarking criteria included in the Well Workplace Checklist (WWC). The Wellness Council of America (WELCOA) developed a tool to assess WHP with its 100-item WWC, which represents WELCOA's 7 performance benchmarks. Workplaces. This study includes a convenience sample of organizations who completed the checklist from 2008 to 2015. The sample size was 4643 entries from US organizations. The WWC includes demographic questions, general questions about WHP programs, and scales to measure the performance against the WELCOA 7 benchmarks. Descriptive analyses of WWC items were completed separately for each year of the study period. The majority of the organizations represented each year were multisite, multishift, medium- to large-sized companies mostly in the services industry. Despite yearly changes in participating organizations, results across the WELCOA 7 benchmark scores were consistent year to year. Across all years, benchmarks that organizations performed the lowest were senior-level support, data collection, and programming; wellness teams and supportive environments were the highest scoring benchmarks. In an era marked with economic swings and health-care reform, it appears that organizations are staying consistent in their performance across these benchmarks. The WWC could be useful for organizations, practitioners, and researchers in assessing the quality of WHP programs.

  18. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Curtis J; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N; Clambey, Eric T; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A; DeGregori, James

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRAS(V12), or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRAS(V12)-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation--a common feature of aging--has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis.

  19. Improved sugar-free succinate production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 following identification of the limiting steps in glycogen catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Hasunuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Succinate produced by microorganisms can replace currently used petroleum-based succinate but typically requires mono- or poly-saccharides as a feedstock. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 can produce organic acids such as succinate from CO2 not supplemented with sugars under dark anoxic conditions using an unknown metabolic pathway. The TCA cycle in cyanobacteria branches into oxidative and reductive routes. Time-course analyses of the metabolome, transcriptome and metabolic turnover described here revealed dynamic changes in the metabolism of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cultivated under dark anoxic conditions, allowing identification of the carbon flow and rate-limiting steps in glycogen catabolism. Glycogen biosynthesized from CO2 assimilated during periods of light exposure is catabolized to succinate via glycolysis, the anaplerotic pathway, and the reductive TCA cycle under dark anoxic conditions. Expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxylase gene (ppc was identified as a rate-limiting step in succinate biosynthesis and this rate limitation was alleviated by ppc overexpression, resulting in improved succinate excretion. The sugar-free succinate production was further enhanced by the addition of bicarbonate. In vivo labeling with NaH13CO3 clearly showed carbon incorporation into succinate via the anaplerotic pathway. Bicarbonate is in equilibrium with CO2. Succinate production by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 therefore holds significant promise for CO2 capture and utilization. Keywords: Autofermentation, Cyanobacteria, Dynamic metabolic profiling, Metabolomics, Succinate, Synechocystis

  20. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  1. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-11-02

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L -1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L -1 MgCO 3 and 17.84 g L -1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L -1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g -1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L -1 ). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains.

  2. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md

    2017-04-01

    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  4. Electrostatics promotes molecular crowding and selects the aggregation pathway in fibril-forming protein solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raccosta, S.; Martorana, V.; Manno, M.; Blanco, M.; Roberts, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of intermolecular interaction in fibril-forming protein solutions and its relation with molecular conformation are crucial aspects for the control and inhibition of amyloid structures. Here, we study the fibril formation and the protein-protein interactions for two proteins at acidic ph, lysozyme and α-chymotrypsinogen. By using light scattering experiments and the Kirkwood-Buff integral approach, we show how concentration fluctuations are damped even at moderate protein concentrations by the dominant long-ranged electrostatic repulsion, which determines an effective crowded environment. In denaturing conditions, electrostatic repulsion keeps the monomeric solution in a thermodynamically metastable state, which is escaped through kinetically populated conformational sub-states. This explains how electrostatics acts as a gatekeeper in selecting a specific aggregation pathway.

  5. Bioactive treatment promotes osteoblast differentiation on titanium materials fabricated by selective laser melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology is useful for the fabrication of porous titanium implants with complex shapes and structures. The materials fabricated by SLM characteristically have a very rough surface (average surface roughness, Ra=24.58 µm). In this study, we evaluated morphologically and biochemically the specific effects of this very rough surface and the additional effects of a bioactive treatment on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Flat-rolled titanium materials (Ra=1.02 µm) were used as the controls. On the treated materials fabricated by SLM, we observed enhanced osteoblast differentiation compared with the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM. No significant differences were observed between the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM in their effects on osteoblast differentiation. We concluded that the very rough surface fabricated by SLM had to undergo a bioactive treatment to obtain a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation.

  6. Radioprotective properties of tocopherol succinate against ionizing radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.; Singh, P.K.; Wise, S.Y.; Posarac, A.; Fatanmi, O.O.

    2013-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. In prior publications we have demonstrated the efficacy of tocopherol succinate (TS) as a promising radiation countermeasure with the potential to protect against lethal doses of ionizing radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to gain further insight regarding how TS protects mice against a lethal dose of radiation. CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg of TS, and 24 h later exposed to 60 Co γ-radiation. Intestinal tissues or spleen/thymus were harvested after irradiation and analyzed for CD68-positive inflammatory cells and apoptotic cells by immunostaining of jejunal cross-sections. Comet assay was used to analyze DNA damage in various tissues. Phospho-histone H3 (pH3) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were used as mitotic markers for immunostaining jejunal cross-sections. We observed that injecting TS significantly decreased the number of CD68-positive cells, DNA damage and apoptotic cells (bcl-associated X protein (BAX), caspase 3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-positive cells) as judged by various apoptotic pathway markers. TS treatment also increased proliferating cells in irradiated mice. Results of this study further support our contention that TS protects mice against lethal doses of ionizing radiation by inhibiting radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage while enhancing cell proliferation. (author)

  7. MICB gene diversity and balancing selection on its promoter region in Yao population in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xuexiang; Wei, Xiaomou; Meng, Yuming; Liu, Limin; Qin, Shini; Liu, Yanyu; Dai, Shengming

    2016-12-01

    To comprehensively examine the MICB gene polymorphism and identify its differences in Chinese Yao population from other ethnic groups, we investigated the polymorphism in the 5'-upstream regulation region (5'-URR), coding region (exons 2-4), and the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of MICB gene by using PCR-SBT method in 125 healthy unrelated Yao individuals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Higher polymorphism was observed in the 5'-URR, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a two base pairs deletion at position -139/-138 were found in our study. Only five different variation sites, however, were detected in exons 2-4 and three were observed in the 3'-UTR. The minor allele frequencies of all variants were greater than 5%, except for rs3828916, rs3131639, rs45627734, rs113620316, rs779737471, and the variation at position +11803 in the 3'-UTR. The first nine SNPs of 5'-URR and rs1065075, rs1051788 of the coding region showed significant linkage disequilibrium with each other. Ten different MICB extended haplotypes (EH) encompassing the 5'-URR, exons 2-4, and 3'-UTR were found in this population, and the most frequent was EH1 (23.2%). We provided several evidences for balancing selection effect on the 5'-URR of MICB gene in Yao population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibits autophagic survival of prostate cancer cells induced by vitamin K3 and ascorbate to trigger cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, Marco; Nocchi, Linda; Neuzil, Jiri; Goodwin, Jacob; Nguyen, Maria; Dong, Lanfeng; Manzella, Nicola; Staffolani, Sara; Milanese, Claudio; Garrone, Beatrice; Alleva, Renata; Borghi, Battista; Santarelli, Lory; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The redox-silent vitamin E analog α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) was found to synergistically cooperate with vitamin K3 (VK3) plus ascorbic acid (AA) in the induction of cancer cell-selective apoptosis via a caspase-independent pathway. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism(s) underlying cell death induced in prostate cancer cells by α-TOS, VK3 and AA, and the potential use of targeted drug combination in the treatment of prostate cancer. The generation of ROS, cellular response to oxidative stress, and autophagy were investigated in PC3 prostate cancer cells by using drugs at sub-toxic doses. We evaluated whether PARP1-mediated apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release plays a role in apoptosis induced by the combination of the agents. Next, the effect of the combination of α-TOS, VK3 and AA on tumor growth was examined in nude mice. VK3 plus AA induced early ROS formation associated with induction of autophagy in response to oxidative stress, which was reduced by α-TOS, preventing the formation of autophagosomes. α-TOS induced mitochondrial destabilization leading to the release of AIF. Translocation of AIF from mitochondria to the nucleus, a result of the combinatorial treatment, was mediated by PARP1 activation. The inhibition of AIF as well as of PARP1 efficiently attenuated apoptosis triggered by the drug combination. Using a mouse model of prostate cancer, the combination of α-TOS, VK3 and AA was more efficient in tumor suppression than when the drugs were given separately, without deleterious side effects. α-TOS, a mitochondria-targeting apoptotic agent, switches at sub-apoptotic doses from autophagy-dependent survival of cancer cells to their demise by promoting the induction of apoptosis. Given the grim prognosis for cancer patients, this finding is of potential clinical relevance.

  9. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibits autophagic survival of prostate cancer cells induced by vitamin K3 and ascorbate to trigger cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomasetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The redox-silent vitamin E analog α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS was found to synergistically cooperate with vitamin K3 (VK3 plus ascorbic acid (AA in the induction of cancer cell-selective apoptosis via a caspase-independent pathway. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism(s underlying cell death induced in prostate cancer cells by α-TOS, VK3 and AA, and the potential use of targeted drug combination in the treatment of prostate cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The generation of ROS, cellular response to oxidative stress, and autophagy were investigated in PC3 prostate cancer cells by using drugs at sub-toxic doses. We evaluated whether PARP1-mediated apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF release plays a role in apoptosis induced by the combination of the agents. Next, the effect of the combination of α-TOS, VK3 and AA on tumor growth was examined in nude mice. VK3 plus AA induced early ROS formation associated with induction of autophagy in response to oxidative stress, which was reduced by α-TOS, preventing the formation of autophagosomes. α-TOS induced mitochondrial destabilization leading to the release of AIF. Translocation of AIF from mitochondria to the nucleus, a result of the combinatorial treatment, was mediated by PARP1 activation. The inhibition of AIF as well as of PARP1 efficiently attenuated apoptosis triggered by the drug combination. Using a mouse model of prostate cancer, the combination of α-TOS, VK3 and AA was more efficient in tumor suppression than when the drugs were given separately, without deleterious side effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: α-TOS, a mitochondria-targeting apoptotic agent, switches at sub-apoptotic doses from autophagy-dependent survival of cancer cells to their demise by promoting the induction of apoptosis. Given the grim prognosis for cancer patients, this finding is of potential clinical relevance.

  10. Phase Transformation of Adefovir Dipivoxil/Succinic Acid Cocrystals Regulated by Polymeric Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyup Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic phase transformation in the cocrystallization of adefovir dipivoxil (AD and succinic acid (SUC was investigated. Inspired by biological and biomimetic crystallization, polymeric additives were utilized to control the phase transformation. With addition of poly(acrylic acid, the metastable phase newly identified through the analysis of X-ray diffraction was clearly isolated from the previously reported stable form. Without additives, mixed phases were obtained even at the early stage of cocrystallization. Also, infrared spectroscopy analysis verified the alteration of the hydrogen bonding that was mainly responsible for the cocrystal formation between AD and SUC. The hydrogen bonding in the metastable phase was relatively stronger than that in the stable form, which indicated the locally strong AD/SUC coupling in the initial stage of cocrystallization followed by the overall stabilization during the phase transformation. The stronger hydrogen bonding could be responsible for the faster nucleation of the initially observed metastable phase. The present study demonstrated that the polymeric additives could function as effective regulators for the polymorph-selective cocrystallization.

  11. Structural control of co-continuous poly(L-lactide)/poly(butylene succinate)/clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Li, Yongjin; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) (55/45 w/w) blends with different amounts of nanoclay loadings were prepared using a specially designed high-shear extruder, HSE3000mini, which can reach a maximum shear rate of 4400 sec(-1). The resulted co-continuous structural morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM observation revealed that through the combination of various amounts of nanoclay loadings and processing under various shear conditions, the phase size of co-continuous structures of PLLA/PBS blends can be controlled over a wide range from several tens of micrometers to submicrometers. TEM observation shows that all the nanoclays are selectively dispersed in the PBS phase. We also found that clays in low-shear processed sample were mainly located at the interface of PBS phase, while in high-shear sample, the clays were mainly located inside of the PBS phase. It was considered that the dependence of nanoclay location in the PBS phase on the shear conditions, as well as the changing of the viscosity ratio of PBS and PLLA phase with different amounts of clay loading, play important roles in controlling the phase size of the co-continuous structures of PLLA/PBS blends.

  12. Compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate in multilayer polyolefin containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougouin, Christelle; Thelcide, Chloë; Crespin-Maillard, Fabienne; Maillard, Christian; Kinowski, Jean Marie; Favier, Mireille

    2005-10-01

    The compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was studied. Test solutions of ondansetron hydrochloride 0.16 mg/mL and methylprednisolone sodium succinate 2.4 mg/mL were prepared in triplicate and tested in duplicate. Total volumes of 4 and 2 mL of ondansetron hydrochloride solution and methylprednisolone sodium succinate solution, respectively, were added to 50-mL multilayer polyolefin bags containing 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Bags were stored for 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and for 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Chemical compatibility was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, and physical compatibility was determined visually. Ondansetron hydrochloride was stable for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate was stable for up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. When stored at 20-25 degrees C, methylprednisolone sodium succinate was stable for up to 7 hours in 5% dextrose injection and up to 24 hours in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Compatibility data for solutions containing ondansetron hydrochloride plus methylprednisolone sodium succinate revealed that each drug was stable for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C. Ondansetron 0.16 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride) and methylprednisolone 2.4 mg/mL (as the sodium succinate) mixed in 50-mL multilayer polyolefin bags were stable in both 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection for up to 24 hours at 20-25 degrees C and up to 48 hours at 4-8 degrees C.

  13. Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Succinic acid is one of the key platform chemicals which can be produced via biotechnology process instead of petrochemical process. Biomass derived bio-oil have been investigated intensively as an alternative of diesel and gasoline fuels. Bio-oil could be fractionized into organic phase and aqueous phase parts. The organic phase bio-oil can be easily upgraded to transport fuel. The aqueous phase bio-oil (AP-bio-oil) is of low value. There is no report for its usage or upgrading via biological methods. In this paper, the use of AP-bio-oil for the production of succinic acid was investigated. Results The transgenic E. coli strain could grow in modified M9 medium containing 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil with an increase in OD from 0.25 to 1.09. And 0.38 g/L succinic acid was produced. With the presence of 4 g/L glucose in the medium, succinic acid concentration increased from 1.4 to 2.4 g/L by addition of 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil. When enzymatic hydrolysate of corn stover was used as carbon source, 10.3 g/L succinic acid was produced. The obtained succinic acid concentration increased to 11.5 g/L when 12.5 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. However, it decreased to 8 g/L when 50 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. GC-MS analysis revealed that some low molecular carbon compounds in the AP-bio-oil were utilized by E. coli. Conclusions The results indicate that AP-bio-oil can be used by E. coli for cell growth and succinic acid production. PMID:23657107

  14. A primary study of high performance transgenic rice through maize UBI-1 promoter fusing selective maker gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J.; Cai, P.; Qing, F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the expression vector pBI121, we successfully constructed a plant over-expression vector of Hspa4 gene fusing with selective maker gene (hygromycin-resistance gene) driven by the Ubi-1 promoter (pBI121-Ubi-Hpt-Hspa4, p121UHH). The plant expression vectors p121UHH and pCAMBIA1301-Ubi-Hspa4 (p1301UH) were transformed into the rice callus, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We screened 17 p121UHH-positive transgenic plants and 15 p1301UH-positive transgenic plants by the hygromycin-resistance gene. The pick-up rate of the resistance callus was 51.7% and 42.5%, respectively, and the rate of regeneration for the resistance callus was 51.2% and 49.1%, respectively. The result of polymerase chain reaction (P CR) identification indicated that the pick-up rate of positive transgenic plants was 51.7% and 42.5% and the total transformation efficiency was 16.5% and 6.2%, and the former was 2.66 time s of the later. The results of the experiment indicate that the possibility of the appearance of false positive results in the fusing of a plant over-expression vector with a selective maker gene is much less. (author)

  15. Proposals for adaptation to new economic change through the promotion and selection of holiday villages in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina MIU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Any settlement that is chosen to promote rural tourism is based on the following fundamental components: the centre of the village where most households are concentrated and which expresses the economic functions of the village; its outskirts (work area is the land beyond the center of the village that supports all agricultural occupations, craft, trade, tourism; the population is represented by demographic indicators: birth rate, mortality, natural growth, morbidity, density. Identification and selection criteria for tourist villages are the potential of rhe natural environment composed of natural elements with great appeal, variety of landscapes (mountain, Alpine hills, lakes, delta, ambient aesthetic beauty (slopes, canyons, gorges, caves, wildlife hunting, forests; accessibility is dependent on geographical location in the territory and the main communication routes that connect with the nearest urban centers. Also, the presence of cultural and ethnographic elements are the most attractive ones for tourists; demographic and economic potential have an important role in the development of rural tourism in a village through: supporting agricultural and non-agricultural occupations, transmission of traditions and customs from generation to generation; preserving environmental quality has become an important milestone for the selection and preservation of rural tourist elements.

  16. Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum Grown Under Different Tidal Regimes Selects Rhizosphere Bacteria Capable of Promoting Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes classified under the common name of salicornia colonize salty and coastal environments across tidal inundation gradients. To unravel the role of tide-related regimes on the structure and functionality of root associated bacteria, the rhizospheric soil of Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum plants was studied in a tidal zone of the coastline of Southern Tunisia. Although total counts of cultivable bacteria did not change in the rhizosphere of plants grown along a tidal gradient, significant differences were observed in the diversity of both the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial communities. This observation indicates that the tidal regime is contributing to the bacterial species selection in the rhizosphere. Despite the observed diversity in the bacterial community structure, the PGP potential of cultivable rhizospheric bacteria, assessed through in vitro and in vivo tests, was equally distributed along the tidal gradient. Root colonization tests with selected strains proved that halophyte rhizospheric bacteria (i stably colonize S. strobilacea rhizoplane and the plant shoot suggesting that they move from the root to the shoot and (ii are capable of improving plant growth. The versatility in the root colonization, the overall PGP traits and the in vivo plant growth promotion under saline condition suggest that such beneficial activities likely take place naturally under a range of tidal regimes.

  17. Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) Grown Under Different Tidal Regimes Selects Rhizosphere Bacteria Capable of Promoting Plant Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Marasco, Ramona

    2016-04-01

    Halophytes classified under the common name of salicornia colonize salty and coastal environments across tidal inundation gradients. To unravel the role of tide-related regimes on the structure and functionality of root associated bacteria, the rhizospheric soil of Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) plants was studied in a tidal zone of the coastline of Southern Tunisia. Although total counts of cultivable bacteria did not change in the rhizosphere of plants grown along a tidal gradient, significant differences were observed in the diversity of both the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial communities. This observation indicates that the tidal regime is contributing to the bacterial species selection in the rhizosphere. Despite the observed diversity in the bacterial community structure, the PGP potential of cultivable rhizospheric bacteria, assessed through in vitro and in vivo tests, was equally distributed along the tidal gradient. Root colonization tests with selected strains proved that halophyte rhizospheric bacteria (i) stably colonize S. strobilacea rhizoplane and the plant shoot suggesting that they move from the root to the shoot and (ii) are capable of improving plant growth. The versatility in the root colonization, the overall PGP traits and the in vivo plant growth promotion under saline condition suggest that such beneficial activities likely take place naturally under a range of tidal regimes.

  18. Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) Grown Under Different Tidal Regimes Selects Rhizosphere Bacteria Capable of Promoting Plant Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Marasco, Ramona; Mapelli, Francesca; Rolli, Eleonora; Mosqueira Santillá n, Marí a José ; Fusi, Marco; Bariselli, Paola; Reddy, Muppala P.; Cherif, Ameur; Tsiamis, George; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Halophytes classified under the common name of salicornia colonize salty and coastal environments across tidal inundation gradients. To unravel the role of tide-related regimes on the structure and functionality of root associated bacteria, the rhizospheric soil of Salicornia strobilacea (synonym of Halocnemum strobilaceum) plants was studied in a tidal zone of the coastline of Southern Tunisia. Although total counts of cultivable bacteria did not change in the rhizosphere of plants grown along a tidal gradient, significant differences were observed in the diversity of both the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial communities. This observation indicates that the tidal regime is contributing to the bacterial species selection in the rhizosphere. Despite the observed diversity in the bacterial community structure, the PGP potential of cultivable rhizospheric bacteria, assessed through in vitro and in vivo tests, was equally distributed along the tidal gradient. Root colonization tests with selected strains proved that halophyte rhizospheric bacteria (i) stably colonize S. strobilacea rhizoplane and the plant shoot suggesting that they move from the root to the shoot and (ii) are capable of improving plant growth. The versatility in the root colonization, the overall PGP traits and the in vivo plant growth promotion under saline condition suggest that such beneficial activities likely take place naturally under a range of tidal regimes.

  19. Selective hydrogenation of acetylene on SiO{sub 2} supported Ni-In bimetallic catalysts: Promotional effect of In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanjun; Chen, Jixiang, E-mail: jxchen@tju.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A suitable Ni/In ratio remarkably enhanced the acetylene conversion, the selectivity to ethylene and the catalyst stability. Display Omitted - Highlights: • There was a promotional effect of In on the performance of Ni/SiO{sub 2}. • A suitable Ni/In ratio was required for good performance of Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2}. • Both geometrical and electronic effects of In contributed to good performance. • Ni/SiO{sub 2} deactivation is mainly owing to phase change from Ni to nickel carbide. • The carbonaceous deposit was the main reason for Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2} deactivation. - Abstract: Ni/SiO{sub 2} and the bimetallic Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2} catalysts with different Ni/In ratios were tested for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene, and their physicochemical properties before and after the reaction were characterized by means of N{sub 2}-sorption, H{sub 2}-TPR, XRD, TEM, XPS, H{sub 2} chemisorption, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-TPD, NH{sub 3}-TPD, FT-IR of adsorbed pyridine, and TG/DTA and Raman. A promotional effect of In on the performance of Ni/SiO{sub 2} was found, and Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2} with a suitable Ni/In ratio gave much higher acetylene conversion, ethylene selectivity and catalyst stability than Ni/SiO{sub 2}. This is ascribed to the geometrical isolation of the reactive Ni atoms with the inert In ones and the charge transfer from the In atoms to Ni ones, both of which are favorable for reducing the adsorption strength of ethylene and restraining the C−C hydrogenolysis and the polymerizations of acetylene and the intermediate compounds. On the whole, Ni{sub 6}In/SiO{sub 2} and Ni{sub 10}In/SiO{sub 2} had better performance. Nevertheless, with increasing the In content, the selectivity to the C4+ hydrocarbons tended to increase due to the enhanced catalyst acidity because of the charge transfer from the In atoms to Ni ones. As the Lewis acid ones, the In sites could promote the polymerization. The catalyst deactivation was also analyzed

  20. Preparation and structural characterisation of novel and versatile amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride-modified hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne Diane; Guillaumie, Fanny; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    and structurally characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). The influence of four reaction parameters on the DS of the derivatives was studied by means of an experimental design. The results showed that the OSA/HA molar ratio, the buffer......The purpose of the present study was to prepare amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives and to study the influence of a selection of reaction parameters on the degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives. Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)–modified HA (OSA–HA) derivatives were prepared...... (NaHCO3) concentration and their interaction had the largest influence while the HA concentration and the reaction time only had a negligible effect. According to 1H NMR the maximum DS achieved within the experimental conditions tested was 43% per disaccharide unit. Moreover optimal reaction...

  1. Genotoxicity of meso-2,3-dimercapto succinic acid-coated silver sulfide quantum dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özkan Vardar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotecnology products have been used in wide applications in chemistry, electronics, energy generation, and medicine. Despite significant interest in developing quantum dots (QDs for biomedical applications, many researchers are convinced that QDs will never be used for the treatment of patients because of their potential toxicity. In various in vitro cell culture studies, the cytotoxic properties of some QD have been demonstrated and they have been suggested to be toxic in humans. In this study, the cytotoxic properties of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid nanomaterials in V79 cells (Chinese lung fibroblast cell line were determined by MTT assay. The genotoxic effects of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid were evaluated by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. The cells were treated with Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid at the concentrations of 5- 2000 µg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid at all concentrations studied was observed. No significant increases in DNA damage were found at the studied concentrations when compared to negative control in V79 cells. In conclusion, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the safety doses of Ag2S-(Meso-2,3-Dimercapto Succinic acid.

  2. A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid: process design and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Orjuela, Andrea; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-07-01

    Recovery and purification of organic acids produced in fermentation constitutes a significant fraction of total production cost. In this paper, the design and economic analysis of a process to recover succinic acid (SA) via dissolution and acidification of succinate salts in ethanol, followed by reactive distillation to form succinate esters, is presented. Process simulation was performed for a range of plant capacities (13-55 million kg/yr SA) and SA fermentation titers (50-100 kg/m(3)). Economics were evaluated for a recovery system installed within an existing fermentation facility producing succinate salts at a cost of $0.66/kg SA. For a SA processing capacity of 54.9 million kg/yr and a titer of 100 kg/m(3) SA, the model predicts a capital investment of $75 million and a net processing cost of $1.85 per kg SA. Required selling price of diethyl succinate for a 30% annual return on investment is $1.57 per kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emulsion stabilizing capacity of intact starch granules modified by heat treatment or octenyl succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timgren, Anna; Rayner, Marilyn; Dejmek, Petr; Marku, Diana; Sjöö, Malin

    2013-03-01

    Starch granules are an interesting stabilizer candidate for food-grade Pickering emulsions. The stabilizing capacity of seven different intact starch granules for making oil-in-water emulsions has been the topic of this screening study. The starches were from quinoa; rice; maize; waxy varieties of rice, maize, and barley; and high-amylose maize. The starches were studied in their native state, heat treated, and modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The effect of varying the continuous phase, both with and without salt in a phosphate buffer, was also studied. Quinoa, which had the smallest granule size, had the best capacity to stabilize oil drops, especially when the granules had been hydrophobically modified by heat treatment or by OSA. The average drop diameter (d 32) in these emulsions varied from 270 to 50 μm, where decreasing drop size and less aggregation was promoted by high starch concentration and absence of salt in the system. Of all the starch varieties studied, quinoa had the best overall emulsifying capacity, and OSA modified quinoa starch in particular. Although the size of the drops was relatively large, the drops themselves were in many instances extremely stable. In the cases where the system could stabilize droplets, even when they were so large that they were visible to the naked eye, they remained stable and the measured droplet sizes after 2 years of storage were essentially unchanged from the initial droplet size. This somewhat surprising result has been attributed to the thickness of the adsorbed starch layer providing steric stabilization. The starch particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion systems studied in this work has potential practical application such as being suitable for encapsulation of ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products.

  4. Health expenditure comparison of extended-release metoprolol succinate and immediate-release metoprolol tartarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya V

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Varun Vaidya, Pranav PatelCollege of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USABackground: Metoprolol, a selective beta-1 blocker, is available in two different salt forms in the market – metoprolol succinate (MS and metoprolol tartarate (MT. Both the formulations are Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of hypertension. Several studies have shown similar efficacies between the two salts; however, they differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and are therefore priced differently. The primary objective of this study was to compare the overall health care expenditures of hypertensive patients on MT and MS to see if the price difference in the two preparations is offset by savings in overall expenditure.Methods: Two cohorts of patients using MT and MS were selected from the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Propensity score matching technique was used to balance the cohorts on various parameters such as demographic information, insurance status, and comorbidity score. Patients using MT were matched to patients using MS on the logit of propensity score using calipers of width equal to 0.2 of the standard deviation of the logit of the propensity score. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between health expenditure and type of metoprolol salt, adjusting for other covariates.Results: A total of 742 patients were found to use metoprolol (MT-388, MS-354. After propensity score matching, a total of 582 patients were left in the sample for final analysis (291 patients in each cohort. The average annual health care expenditure was slightly higher in the MT cohort; however, after adjusting for covariates in a multivariate analysis, the difference was found to be statistically insignificant (P = 0.23.Conclusion: Both the products of metoprolol were found to have similar average annual total health care expenditure; however, MS once a day has higher out

  5. Highly Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers via Succinic Anhydride Esterification of Wheat Fibers and Facile Mechanical Disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehaqui, H; Kulasinski, K; Pfenninger, N; Zimmermann, T; Tingaut, P

    2017-01-09

    We report herein the preparation of 4-6 nm wide carboxyl-functionalized cellulose nanofibers (CNF) via the esterification of wheat fibers with cyclic anhydrides (maleic, phtalic, and succinic) followed by an energy-efficient mechanical disintegration process. Remarkable results were achieved via succinic anhydride esterification that enabled CNF isolation by a single pass through the microfluidizer yielding a transparent and thick gel. These CNF carry the highest content of carboxyl groups ever reported for native cellulose nanofibers (3.8 mmol g -1 ). Compared to conventional carboxylated cellulose nanofibers prepared via Tempo-mediated oxidation of wheat fibers, the present esterified CNF display a higher molar-mass and a better thermal stability. Moreover, highly carboxylated CNF from succinic anhydride esterification were effectively integrated into paper filters for the removal of lead from aqueous solution and are potentially of interest as carrier of active molecules or as transparent films for packaging, biomedical or electronic applications.

  6. Thermodynamics of U(VI) complexation by succinate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, Neetika [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tomar, B.S., E-mail: bstomar@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > lg {beta} and {Delta}H{sub C} for U(VI)-succinate determined at variable temperatures. > Increase in lg {beta} with temperature well explained by Born equation. > {Delta}S{sub C} plays the dominant role in variation of {Delta}G{sub C} with temperature. > {Delta}H{sub C} for U(VI)-succinate increases linearly with temperature. > {Delta}C{sub P} of U(VI)-succinate is higher than that of oxalate and malonate complexes. - Abstract: Complexation of U(VI) by succinate has been studied at various temperatures in the range of (298 to 338) K by potentiometry and isothermal titration calorimetry at constant ionic strength (1.0 M). The potentiometric titrations revealed the formation of 1:1 uranyl succinate complex in the pH range of 1.5 to 4.5. The stability constant of uranyl succinate complex was found to increase with temperature. Similar trend was observed in the case of enthalpy of complex formation. However, the increase in entropy with temperature over-compensated the increase in enthalpy, thereby favouring the complexation reaction at higher temperatures. The linear increase of enthalpy of complexation with temperature indicates constancy of the change in heat capacity during complexation. The temperature dependence of stability constant data was well explained with the help of Born equation for electrostatic interaction between the metal ion and the ligand. The data have been compared with those for uranyl complexes with malonate and oxalate to study the effect of ligand size and hydrophobicity on the temperature dependence of thermodynamic quantities.

  7. Formation of itraconazole-succinic acid cocrystals by gas antisolvent cocrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Courtney A; Gupta, Ram B

    2012-12-01

    Cocrystals of itraconazole, an antifungal drug with poor bioavailability, and succinic acid, a water-soluble dicarboxylic acid, were formed by gas antisolvent (GAS) cocrystallization using pressurized CO(2) to improve itraconazole dissolution. In this study, itraconazole and succinic acid were simultaneously dissolved in a liquid solvent, tetrahydrofuran, at ambient conditions. The solution was then pressurized with CO(2), which decreased the solvating power of tetrahydrofuran and caused crystallization of itraconazole-succinic acid cocrystals. The cocrystals prepared by GAS cocrystallization were compared to those produced using a traditional liquid antisolvent, n-heptane, for crystallinity, chemical structure, thermal behavior, size and surface morphology, potential clinical relevance, and stability. Powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that itraconazole-succinic acid cocrystals with physical and chemical properties similar to cocrystals produced using a traditional liquid antisolvent technique can be prepared by CO(2) antisolvent cocrystallization. The dissolution profile of itraconazole was significantly enhanced through GAS cocrystallization with succinic acid, achieving over 90% dissolution in less than 2 h. The cocrystals appeared stable against thermal stress for up to 4 weeks under accelerated stability conditions, showing only moderate decreases in their degree of crystallinity but no change in their crystalline structure. This study shows the utility of an itraconazole-succinic acid cocrystal for improving itraconazole bioavailability while also demonstrating the potential for CO(2) to replace traditional liquid antisolvents in cocrystal preparation, thus making cocrystal production more environmentally benign and scale-up more feasible.

  8. One-step Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Succinic Acid Using I2/t-BuOK System: The Iodoform Reaction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasumi, Ryosuke; Narita, Shodai; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Tominaga, Ken-Ichi; Takita, Ryo; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2017-12-21

    The iodoform reaction has long been used as a qualitative test for acetyl and/or ethanol units in organic molecules. However, its synthetic applications are quite limited. Here, we describe a tuned iodoform reaction for oxidative demethylation reaction with I 2 and t-BuOK in t-BuOH, in which in situ-generated t-BuOI serves as the chemoselective iodinating agent. This system enables one-step conversion of levulinic acid to succinic acid, a major four-carbon chemical feedstock. This oxidative demethylation is also applicable to other compounds containing an acetyl group/ethanol unit, affording the corresponding carboxylic acids in a selective manner.

  9. Pregnancy promotes tolerance to future offspring by programming selective dysfunction in long-lived maternal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brendan M; Xu, Rong; Wherry, E John; Porrett, Paige M

    2017-04-01

    Fetal antigen available during pregnancy induces the proliferation of maternal T cells. It is unknown, however, whether these antigen-activated T cells differentiate into long-lived memory T cells that are capable of mediating rapid-recall responses to tissue antigens. To test the hypothesis that pregnancy induces an alternative fate in fetal-specific maternal T cells, we used a murine model to track longitudinally fetal-specific T cells in pregnant and postpartum animals and test the response of these cells when challenged with the same antigen during sequential pregnancy or skin transplantation. Fetal-specific CD8 + T cells were robustly primed during pregnancy but failed to acquire robust effector functions. These primed cells persisted long term in postpartum animals, frequently maintained a programmed death 1 (PD-1) + phenotype, and failed to expand or produce cytokines robustly in response to second pregnancy or skin transplantation. However, whereas there was no impact on second pregnancy as a result of the persistence of fetal-primed memory CD8 + T cells in the mother, skin grafts bearing the same antigen were rejected more rapidly. Altogether, our data suggest that fetal antigen exposure during pregnancy induces the differentiation of long-lived maternal CD8 + T cells with context-dependent, selective effector dysfunction. This programmed effector dysfunction provides temporal and systemic restraint of maternal anti-fetal alloreactivity to promote reproductive fitness efficiently, while preserving potentially protective effector T cell responses. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Microbial Cell Factories for Succinic Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    anhydride. There are several biomass platforms, all prokaryotic, for succinic acid production; however, overproduction of succinic acid in S. cerevisiae offers distinct process advantages. For example, S. cerevisiae has been awarded GRAS status for use in human consumables, grows well at low p......H significantly minimizing purification and acidification costs associated with organic acid production, and can utilize diverse carbon substrates in chemically defined medium. S. cerevisiae offers the unique advantage of being the most well characterized eukaryotic expression system. Here we describe the use...

  11. Modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride in TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent under catalyst-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed in tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU) and TBAA dosage were investigated as paramete...

  12. Modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride in TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent under catalyst-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping-Ping Xin; Yao-Bing Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Huai N. Cheng; Chaobo Huang; Hui. Pan

    2017-01-01

    Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The highest degree of substitution (DS)...

  13. The role of tin-promoted Pd/MWNTs via the management of carbonaceous species in selective hydrogenation of high concentration acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Elaheh; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Rashidi, Ali Morad; Rashidzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of highly active tin-promoted catalysts by polyol method for selective hydrogenation of high concentration of acetylene. ► A positive change in the catalytic activities of tin-promoted catalysts results from distinct geometric and electronic effects. ► Change in the coverage of acetylenic overlayers for different temperature regions corresponds to the change of the number of isolated adsorption sites. ► The isolated adsorption sites are responsible for the enhancement of selectivity to ethylene with increased temperatures, via the management of the carbonaceous species over the catalyst surface. - Abstract: In the present study, Pd/MWNTs are synthesized using polyol process and modified by tin as a promoter for selective hydrogenation of high concentrated acetylene feedstock. Polyol method results in highly dispersed nanoparticles with a depletion of particle size for tin-promoted Pd catalysts as characterized by TEM. Tin promoter plays a considerable role in hydrogenation of pure acetylene stream. This is attributed to formation of Pd 2 Sn structural phase, confirmed by XRD and TPR techniques, composed mainly of intermetallic species. Catalytic behavior of tin-promoted Pd catalysts is affected by geometric and electronic factors which are more pronounced in the case of Sn/Pd = 0.25. A discontinuity in Arrhenius plots for the Sn-promoted catalysts is appeared, which seems to be due to a kinetic factor as a result of change in acetylene coverage on Pd metallic ensembles at low and high temperature ranges. Higher selectivity of the catalysts to ethylene is attributed to the presence of more isolated adsorption sites on the catalyst surface originated from both intermetallic compounds confirmed by XPS and the ones formed via the carbonaceous species upon the acetylene hydrogenation reaction.

  14. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits

  15. CRISPR-Cas9 for the genome engineering of cyanobacteria and succinate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hung; Shen, Claire R; Huang, Chun-Hung; Sung, Li-Yu; Wu, Meng-Ying; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2016-11-01

    Cyanobacteria hold promise as a cell factory for producing biofuels and bio-derived chemicals, but genome engineering of cyanobacteria such as Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 poses challenges because of their oligoploidy nature and long-term instability of the introduced gene. CRISPR-Cas9 is a newly developed RNA-guided genome editing system, yet its application for cyanobacteria engineering has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrated that CRISPR-Cas9 system can effectively trigger programmable double strand break (DSB) at the chromosome of PCC 7942 and provoke cell death. With the co-transformation of template plasmid harboring the gene cassette and flanking homology arms, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated DSB enabled precise gene integration, ameliorated the homologous recombination efficiency and allowed the use of lower amount of template DNA and shorter homology arms. The CRISPR-Cas9-induced cell death imposed selective pressure and enhanced the chance of concomitant integration of gene cassettes into all chromosomes of PCC 7942, hence accelerating the process of obtaining homogeneous and stable recombinant strains. We further explored the feasibility of engineering cyanobacteria by CRISPR-Cas9-assisted simultaneous glgc knock-out and gltA/ppc knock-in, which improved the succinate titer to 435.0±35.0μg/L, an ≈11-fold increase when compared with that of the wild-type cells. These data altogether justify the use of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering and manipulation of metabolic pathways in cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chiral separation of (d- and (l-enantiomers of doxylamine succinate in rat plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadiboyina Sirisha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A selective chiral ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC-DAD method was developed and validated to separate and quantify the (d- and (l-enantiomers of doxylamine in rat plasma. After extraction of the plasma samples with acetonitrile, the separation of doxylamine succinate enantiomers and internal standard (I.S., diphenhydramine hydrochloride was achieved on a cellulose Tris (4-chloro,3-methylphenylcarbamate column with a mobile phase of 20 mM ammonium bicarbonate buffer–acetonitrile (65:35 v/v with 0.15% diethylamine in the buffer at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The diode array (DAD detection wavelength was set at 220 nm. The peaks obtained were identified as (d and (l by injecting the pure (d form into the liquid chromatography and comparing the chromatograms. The effect of column oven temperature on the retention of doxylamine and mobile phase variables which have an effect on the enantiomers separation like ionic strength, type and concentration of organic modifier was studied. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the range of 100–1400 ng/mL in plasma for both enantiomers (R2 > 0.995. The mean extraction recoveries were 94.5–104.7% of rat plasma. The mean relative standard deviation (RSD% of accuracy and intra-day and inter-day precision for both enantiomers were ⩽10%. The method can be further applied to determine the pharmacokinetics of (d- and (l-enantiomers in rat plasma.

  17. Selective hydrogenation of maleic anhydride over Pd/Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Pd/Al2O3 catalyst; maleic anhydride; selective hydrogenation; succinic anhydride. 1. Introduction ... attracted a significant amount of attention because the majority of its ... added, and the colour of the resulting mixture turned brown.

  18. Catalytic ozonation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation: A selective and competitive reaction process related to metal-carboxylate complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozonation following non-hydroxyl radical pathway is an important technique not only to degrade refractory carboxylic-containing organic compounds/matter but also to avoid catalyst deactivation caused by metal-carboxylate complexation. It is unknown whether this process is effective for all carboxylates or selective to special molecule structures. In this work, the selectivity was confirmed using O3/(CuO/CeO2) and six distinct ozone-resistant probe carboxylates (i.e., acetate, citrate, malonate, oxalate, pyruvate and succinate). Among these probe compounds, pyruvate, oxalate, and citrate were readily degraded following the rate order of oxalate>citrate>pyruvate, while the degradation of acetate, malonate, and succinate was not promoted. The selectivity was independent on carboxylate group number of the probe compounds and solution pH. Competitive degradation was observed for carboxylate mixtures following the preference order of citrate, oxalate, and finally pyruvate. The competitive degradation was ascribed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst surface. It was revealed that the catalytically degradable compounds formed bidentate chelating or bridging complexes with surface copper sites of the catalyst, i.e., the active sites. The catalytically undegradable carboxylates formed monodentate complexes with surface copper sites or just electrostatically adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The selectivity, relying on the structure of surface metal-carboxylate complex, should be considered in the design of catalytic ozonation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  20. Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Caixia; Thygesen, Anders; Liu, Yilan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Succinic acid is one of the key platform chemicals which can be produced via biotechnology process instead of petrochemical process. Biomass derived bio-oil have been investigated intensively as an alternative of diesel and gasoline fuels. Bio-oil could be fractionized into organic...

  1. Formation and stability of Vitamin E enriched nanoemulsions stabilized by Octenyl Succinic Anhydride modified starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E (VE) is highly susceptible to autoxidation; therefore, it requires systems to encapsulate and protect it from autoxidation.In this study,we developed VE delivery systems, which were stabilized by Capsul® (MS), a starch modified with octenyl succinic anhydride. Influences of interfacial ten...

  2. Succinate-based preparation alleviates manifestations of the climacteric syndrome in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, A B; Maevskii, E I; Uchitel', M L; Sakharova, N Yu; Vize-Khripunova, M A

    2005-09-01

    Clinical placebo-controlled study of Enerlit-Clima (bioactive succinate-based food additive) a showed positive effect of the preparation on general clinical and psychoemotional manifestations of the climacteric syndrome. A trend to an increase in estradiol level in early pathological climacteric and normalization of the endometrial status were observed.

  3. Intracellular product recycling in high succinic acid producing yeast at low pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahl, S.A.; Bernal Martinez, C.; Zhao, Zheng; van Gulik, W.M.; Jansen, Mickel L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of succinic acid has progressed dramatically, and a series of high-producing hosts are available. At low cultivation pH and high titers, the product transport can become bidirectional, i.e. the acid is reentering

  4. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  5. Viscoelastic and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes filled poly(butylene succinate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-containing composites of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) were prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer with three concentrations by weight of CNTs: 1, 2 and 3 %. State of dispersion-distribution of the CNTs in the PBS...

  6. Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MBI International

    2007-12-31

    MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

  7. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibits malignant mesothelioma by disrupting the fibroblast growth factor autocrine loop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stapelberg, M.; Gellert, N.; Swettenham, E.; Tomasetti, M.; Witting, P. K.; Procopio, A.; Neužil, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 27 (2005), s. 25369-25376 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : alpha-tocopheryl succinate * malignant mesothelioma * fibroblast growth factor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2005

  8. Inhibition of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by alpha-tocopheryl succinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina; Drahota, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, AUG (2014), s. 409-413 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue mitochondria * oxygen consumption * glycerol-3-phosphate * succinate * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.046, year: 2014

  9. Tocopherol-associated protein-1 accelerates apoptosis induced by alpha-tocopheryl succinate in mesothelioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Dong, L.F.; Wang, X.F.; Zingg, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 343, č. 4 (2006), s. 1113-1117 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : apoptosis * tocopherol-associated protein * alpha-tocopheryl succinate Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.855, year: 2006

  10. Efficient production of succinic acid in immobilized fermentation with crude glycerol from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Aziati, A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the price of commercial succinic acid has necessitated the need for its synthesis from waste materials such as glycerol. Glycerol residue is a waste product of Oleochemical production which is cheaply available and a very good source of carbon. The use of immobilized cells can further reduce the overall cost of the production process. This study primarily aims to produce succinic acid from glycerol residue through the use of immobilized Escherichia coli in a batch fermentation process. The parameters which affect bacterial fermentation process such as the mass substrate, temperature, inoculum size and duration of fermentation were screened using One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT method. The result of the screening process shows that a substrate (glycerol concentration of 30 g, inoculum size 20% v/v, and time 4 h produced the maximum succinic acid concentration of 117.99 g/L. The immobilized cells were found to be stable as well as retain their fermentative ability up to the 6th cycle of recycling, thereby presenting as an advantage over the free cell system. Therefore, conclude that using immobilized cells can contribute immensely to the cost-effective production of succinic acid from glycerol residue.

  11. Amorphous/crystal and polymer/filler interphases in biocomposites from poly(butylene succinate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signori, Francesca [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (CNR-IPCF), Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Pelagaggi, Martina [Universita di Pisa - Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Risorgimento 35, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Bronco, Simona [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (CNR-IPCF), Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Righetti, Maria Cristina, E-mail: righetti@ipcf.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (CNR-IPCF), Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of intermolecular interactions between poly(butylene succinate) and hemp fibres was proved from specific heat capacities data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different degrees of mobility of the poly(butylene succinate) amorphous segments were evidenced at the amorphous/crystal interphase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Devitrification of the rigid amorphous fraction in poly(butylene succinate) was found to occur before and simultaneously with the fusion. - Abstract: Poly(butylene succinate)-hemp composites (PBS-hemp), with hemp content in the range 0-40 wt.%, were prepared in the melt and characterized. This paper focuses on the detailed analysis of the thermal behaviour of the PBS-hemp composites, investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to enlighten the polymer/fibre interphase features. The occurrence of specific intermolecular interactions between PBS and hemp was assessed from specific heat capacity data. Different degrees of mobility of the PBS amorphous segments were found at the amorphous/crystal interphases. A broadening of the bulk glass transition was observed, and attributed to the presence of polymer segments slightly constrained. Moreover, a rigid amorphous fraction that devitrifies at temperatures higher than the bulk glass transition, partly before the melting region and partly simultaneously with the fusion, was observed and quantified, and attributed to the presence of major constraints probably occurring in geometrically restricted areas.

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study on Cation adsorption on Viscose Rayon Succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Khasbaatar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion-exchange materials have been considered as suitable material for the recovery of heavy metals in water. A viscose rayon succinate, synthesized from viscose rayon and succinic anhydride in presence of DMSO, to remove trace bivalent metal ions such as Ag+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+, was studied using FT-IR for the behavior of metal adsorption. Both esterification and carboxyl bonding of viscose rayon succinate were assigned essentially at 1729 and 1693cm-1, respectively. And the essential band of bonding between metal and the material was determined at 1625cm-1. The available adsorption capacity of this fiber was 6.2 mequiv/g. The adsorption of metal ions on the viscose rayon succinate follows the order of Cu2+>Cr3+>Ni2+>Pb2+>Zn2+>Ag+ with maximum adsorptions capacities 4.2, 1.42, 0.91, 0.83, 0.69 and 0.35 mmol/g, respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.189 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 136-141

  13. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  14. Studies on Cross-linking of succinic acid with chitosan/collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study summarizes the cross-linking property of succinic acid with chitosan /collagen. In detail, the chemistry behind the cross-linking and the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked material were discussed with suitable instruments and bioinformatics tools. The concentration of succinic acid with reference to the chosen polymers was optimized. A 3D scaffold prepared using an optimized concentration of succinic acid (0.2% (w/v with chitosan (1.0% (w/v and similarly with collagen (0.5% (w/v, was subjected to surface morphology, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength assessment, thermal stability and biocompatibility. Results revealed, cross-linking with succinic acid impart appreciable mechanical strength to the scaffold material. In silico analysis suggested the prevalence of non-covalent interactions, which played a crucial role in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked scaffold. The resultant 3D scaffold may find application as wound dressing material, as an implant in clinical applications and as a tissue engineering material.

  15. CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENTS OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE/SUCCINATE USAGE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Soura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and clinicoeconomical studies review is presented as well as results of author’s comparative cost analysis on metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc and metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK usage in patients with ischemic heart disease. Efficacy of metoprolol therapy is proven in randomized clinical studies in patients with angina and myocardial infarction (MI. In angina patients metoprolol prevents cardiac attacks, MI, reduces nitroglycerine consumption, increases exercise tolerability, prolongs the exercise time before ST segment depression (succinate better than tartrate, decrease of angina intensity. In MI patients metoprolol therapy reduces mortality, sudden death, recurring MI and the rate of early post MI angina attacks. Nowadays metoprolol is the only β-blocker having indication on secondary MI prevention. Besides for the present metoprolol succinate is the only β-blocker with proven direct antisclerosis effect. According to Swedish clinicoeconomical study in patients after MI secondary prevention with metoprolol therapy saves the costs in comparison with placebo. American clinicoeconomical model of metoprolol and atenolol usage in all patients with MI could result in significant reduction in mortality and recurring MI rate, prolong the life and improve its quality, save financial resources. The cost of monthly treatment of angina patient with metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc and metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK is 135 and 354 rubles, respectively. The price range of comparative β-blockers in ascending order is the following: atenolol (Atenolol Nicomed → metoprolol tartrate (Betaloc → metoprolol succinate (Betaloc ZOK → bisoprolol (Concor → nebivolol (Nebilet. In conclusion, metoprolol therapy is the one of mostly economically reasonable approach.

  16. Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Siles, Jose A; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-10-01

    Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed.

  17. Assessing the effects of data selection and representation on the development of reliable E. coli sigma 70 promoter region predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M Abbas

    Full Text Available As the number of sequenced bacterial genomes increases, the need for rapid and reliable tools for the annotation of functional elements (e.g., transcriptional regulatory elements becomes more desirable. Promoters are the key regulatory elements, which recruit the transcriptional machinery through binding to a variety of regulatory proteins (known as sigma factors. The identification of the promoter regions is very challenging because these regions do not adhere to specific sequence patterns or motifs and are difficult to determine experimentally. Machine learning represents a promising and cost-effective approach for computational identification of prokaryotic promoter regions. However, the quality of the predictors depends on several factors including: i training data; ii data representation; iii classification algorithms; iv evaluation procedures. In this work, we create several variants of E. coli promoter data sets and utilize them to experimentally examine the effect of these factors on the predictive performance of E. coli σ70 promoter models. Our results suggest that under some combinations of the first three criteria, a prediction model might perform very well on cross-validation experiments while its performance on independent test data is drastically very poor. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating promoter region predictors using independent test data, which corrects for the over-optimistic performance that might be estimated using the cross-validation procedure. Our analysis of the tested models shows that good prediction models often perform well despite how the non-promoter data was obtained. On the other hand, poor prediction models seems to be more sensitive to the choice of non-promoter sequences. Interestingly, the best performing sequence-based classifiers outperform the best performing structure-based classifiers on both cross-validation and independent test performance evaluation experiments. Finally, we propose a

  18. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Susan; Peitzsch, Mirko; Rapizzi, Elena; Lenders, Jacques W; Qin, Nan; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Schiavi, Francesca; Rao, Jyotsna U; Beuschlein, Felix; Quinkler, Marcus; Timmers, Henri J; Opocher, Giuseppe; Mannelli, Massimo; Pacak, Karel; Robledo, Mercedes; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2014-10-01

    Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase product-precursor relationships, manifested by differences in tumor ratios of succinate to fumarate or other metabolites, might aid in identifying and stratifying patients with SDHx mutations. PPGL tumor specimens from 233 patients, including 45 with SDHx mutations, were provided from eight tertiary referral centers for mass spectrometric analyses of Krebs cycle metabolites. Diagnostic performance of the succinate:fumarate ratio for identification of pathogenic SDHx mutations. SDH-deficient PPGLs were characterized by 25-fold higher succinate and 80% lower fumarate, cis-aconitate, and isocitrate tissue levels than PPGLs without SDHx mutations. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for use of ratios of succinate to fumarate or to cis-aconitate and isocitrate to identify SDHx mutations indicated areas under curves of 0.94 to 0.96; an optimal cut-off of 97.7 for the succinate:fumarate ratio provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 93% at a specificity of 97% to identify SDHX-mutated PPGLs. Succinate:fumarate ratios were higher in both SDHB-mutated and metastatic tumors than in those due to SDHD/C mutations or without metastases. Mass spectrometric-based measurements of ratios of succinate:fumarate and other metabolites in PPGLs offer a useful method to identify patients for testing of SDHx mutations, with additional utility to quantitatively assess functionality of mutations and metabolic factors responsible for malignant risk.

  19. Potentiation of amygdala AMPA receptor activity selectively promotes escalated alcohol self-administration in a CaMKII-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Reginald; Fisher, Kristen R; Graham, Caitlin; Crayle, Jesse; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2017-05-01

    Growing evidence indicates that drugs of abuse gain control over the individual by usurping glutamate-linked mechanisms of neuroplasticity in reward-related brain regions. Accordingly, we have shown that glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) activity in the amygdala is required for the positive reinforcing effects of alcohol, which underlie the initial stages of addiction. It is unknown, however, if enhanced AMPAR activity in the amygdala facilitates alcohol self-administration, which is a kernel premise of glutamate hypotheses of addiction. Here, we show that low-dose alcohol (0.6 g/kg/30 minutes) self-administration increases phosphorylation (activation) of AMPAR subtype GluA1 S831 (pGluA1 S831) in the central amygdala (CeA), basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) of selectively bred alcohol-preferring P-rats as compared with behavior-matched (non-drug) sucrose controls. The functional role of enhanced AMPAR activity was assessed via site-specific infusion of the AMPAR positive modulator, aniracetam, in the CeA and AcbC prior to alcohol self-administration. Intra-CeA aniracetam increased alcohol-reinforced but not sucrose-reinforced responding and was ineffective following intra-AcbC infusion. Because GluA1 S831 is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) substrate, we sought to determine if AMPAR regulation of enhanced alcohol self-administration is dependent on CaMKII activity. Intra-CeA infusion of the cell-permeable CaMKII peptide inhibitor myristolated autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (m-AIP) dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration. A subthreshold dose of m-AIP also blocked the aniracetam-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration, demonstrating that AMPAR-mediated potentiation of alcohol reinforcement requires CaMKII activity in the amygdala. Enhanced activity of plasticity-linked AMPAR-CaMKII signaling in the amygdala may promote escalated alcohol use

  20. Remarkable promoting effect of rhodium on the catalytic performance of Ag/Al2O3 for the selective reduction of NO with decane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhito; Yoshinari, Tomohiro; Kintaichi, Yoshiaki; Haneda, Masaaki; Hamada, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of rhodium enhanced the activity of Ag/Al 2 O 3 catalyst for the selective reduction of NO with decane at low temperatures. The Rh-promoted Ag/Al 2 O 3 showed its high performance even in the presence of low concentrations of SO 2 . Based on the catalytic activity for elementary reactions, it was suggested that the role of added rhodium is to enhance the reaction between NO x and decane-derived species, leading to NO reduction. Catalyst characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy indicated that the major silver species on Rh-promoted Ag/Al 2 O 3 is Ag nn δ+ clusters, which would be responsible for the high activity. FT-IR measurements revealed that the formation rate of isocyanate species, which is a major reaction intermediate, is higher on Rh-promoted Ag/Al 2 O 3

  1. Novel poly(butylene succinate nanocomposites containing strontium hydroxyapatite nanorods with enhanced osteoconductivity for tissue engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nerantzaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three series of poly(butylene succinate (PBSu nanocomposites containing 0.5, 1 and 2.5 wt% strontium hydroxyapatite [Sr5(PO43OH] nanorods (SrHAp nrds were prepared by in situ polymerisation. The structural effects of Sr5(PO43OH nanorods, for the different concentrations, inside the polymeric matrix (PBSu, were studied through high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM. HAADF-STEM measurements revealed that the SrHAp nanorods at low concentrations are dispersed inside the polymeric PBSu matrix while in 1 wt% some aggregates are formed. These aggregations affect the mechanical properties giving an enhancement for the concentration of 0.5 wt% SrHAp nrds in tensile strength, while a reduction is recorded for higher loadings of the nanofiller. Studies on enzymatic hydrolysis revealed that all nanocomposites present higher hydrolysis rates than neat PBSu, indicating that nanorods accelerate the hydrolysis degradation process. In vitro bioactivity tests prove that SrHAp nrds promote the formation of hydroxyapatite on the PBSu surface. All nanocomposites were tested also in relevant cell culture using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 to demonstrate their biocompatibility showing SrHAp nanorods support cell attachment.

  2. Deconstructing selectivity in the gold-promoted cyclization of alkynyl benzothioamides to six-membered mesoionic carbene or acyclic carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Falivene, Laura; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the experimentally observed switch in selectivity from 5-exo-dig to 6-endo-dig cyclization of an alkynyl substrate, promoted by Au I and AuIII complexes, is connected to a switch from thermodynamic to kinetic reaction control. The AuIII center pushes alkyne coordination toward a single Au-C(alkyne) σ-bond, conferring carbocationic character (and reactivity) to the distal alkyne C atom. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Deconstructing selectivity in the gold-promoted cyclization of alkynyl benzothioamides to six-membered mesoionic carbene or acyclic carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2014-05-02

    We demonstrate that the experimentally observed switch in selectivity from 5-exo-dig to 6-endo-dig cyclization of an alkynyl substrate, promoted by Au I and AuIII complexes, is connected to a switch from thermodynamic to kinetic reaction control. The AuIII center pushes alkyne coordination toward a single Au-C(alkyne) σ-bond, conferring carbocationic character (and reactivity) to the distal alkyne C atom. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. PTSD and DNA Methylation in Select Immune Function Gene Promoter Regions: A Repeated Measures Case-control Study of U.S. Military Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    other relevant exposures which may influ- ence DNA methylation , such as dietary factors ( folate , vitamin B12 intake) (Fenech, 2001; Piyathilake and...ARTICLE published: 24 June 2013 doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00056 PTSD and DNA methylation in select immune function gene promoter regions: a repeated measures...largely unknown. Dis- tinct expression signatures for PTSD have been found, in particular for immune activation transcripts. DNA methylation may be

  5. Enterobacter sp. LU1 as a novel succinic acid producer - co-utilization of glycerol and lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podleśny, Marcin; Jarocki, Piotr; Wyrostek, Jakub; Czernecki, Tomasz; Kucharska, Jagoda; Nowak, Anna; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2017-03-01

    Succinic acid is an important C4-building chemical platform for many applications. A novel succinic acid-producing bacterial strain was isolated from goat rumen. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Enterobacter. This is the first report of a wild bacterial strain from the genus Enterobacter that is capable of efficient succinic acid production. Co-fermentation of glycerol and lactose significantly improved glycerol utilization under anaerobic conditions, debottlenecking the utilization pathway of this valuable biodiesel waste product. Succinic acid production reached 35 g l -1 when Enterobacter sp. LU1 was cultured in medium containing 50 g l -1 of glycerol and 25 g l -1 of lactose as carbon sources. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. The impact of nanoclay on the crystal growth kinetics and morphology of biodegradable poly(ethylene succinate) composite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of nanoclay on the isothermal crystal growth kinetics and morphology of biodegradable poly(ethylene succinate) (PES) is reported. A PES composite (PESNC) containing 5 wt% organically modified montmorillonite, was prepared via solvent...

  7. [Effects of Light Near-Infrared Radiation on Rats Assessed by Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity in Lymphocytes on Blood Smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunderyakova, N V; Zakharchenko, A V; Zakharchenko, M V; Muller, H; Fedotcheva, I; Kondrashova, M N

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of light near infrared radiation (850 nm), with modulation acoustic frequency of 101 Hz, was studied. The study was conducted on rats, the effect was recorded by succinate dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes on the blood smear after administration of the activating dose of adrenaline, which simulates the state of the organism in the early stages of the pathogenic effects (stress). A pronounced regulating effect of infrared radiation on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in animals activated by adrenaline was shown. Infrared radiation has a normalizing effect reducing the degree of inhibition or activation of the enzyme induced by adrenaline and had no effect on the control animals. Thus, by modulating the activity of succinate dehydrogenase infrared radiation regulates energy production in the mitochondria supported by the most powerful oxidation substrate--succinic acid, which is especially pronounced under stress.

  8. Ferulenol specifically inhibits succinate ubiquinone reductase at the level of the ubiquinone cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahouel, Mesbah; Zini, Roland; Zellagui, Ammar; Rhouati, Salah; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Morin, Didier

    2007-01-01

    The natural compound ferulenol, a sesquiterpene prenylated coumarin derivative, was purified from Ferula vesceritensis and its mitochondrial effects were studied. Ferulenol caused inhibition of oxidative phoshorylation. At low concentrations, ferulenol inhibited ATP synthesis by inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocase without limitation of mitochondrial respiration. At higher concentrations, ferulenol inhibited oxygen consumption. Ferulenol caused specific inhibition of succinate ubiquinone reductase without altering succinate dehydrogenase activity of the complex II. This inhibition results from a limitation of electron transfers initiated by the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol in the ubiquinone cycle. This original mechanism of action makes ferulenol a useful tool to study the physiological role and the mechanism of electron transfer in the complex II. In addition, these data provide an additional mechanism by which ferulenol may alter cell function and demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction is an important determinant in Ferula plant toxicity

  9. Influence of VO2+ ions on structural and optical properties of potassium succinate-succinic acid single crystal for non-linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet sheela, K.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    A transparent and good optical quality semi organic single crystal of vanadium doped potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) was synthesized by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The structural perfection was supported by the powder XRD of the KSSA-VO2+ single crystal. Optical behavior of the material was discovered from the absorption and transmission spectra of UV-vis-NIR characterization. Functional group and presence of metal ion in the specimen are depicted from FTIR traces. From the photoluminescence studies, emission of wavelength in the violet region (418 nm) at the excitation of 243 nm could be ascertained. EDAX, SEM measurements identify presence of elements and pictures the step-line growth and the imperfection presents in the grown crystal. EPR analysis extracts the information about the local site symmetry around the impurity ion, molecular orbital coefficients, admixture coefficients and ground state wave function of VO2+ doped KSSA single crystal. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystal was investigated to explore the NLO characteristic of the material.

  10. Miscibility, crystallization and mechanical properties of biodegradable blends of poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(butylene succinate-b-ethylene succinate) multiblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Ling; Huang, Cai-Li; Zeng, Jian-Bing; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The blend of PLLA and PBES showed limited miscibility. ► The crystallization rate of PLLA was accelerated by blending with PBES. ► The crystal structures of PLLA and PBES did not change. - Abstract: Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is regarded as one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable polymers. However, its application was restricted due to the brittle nature. In the present study, PLLA was blended with a novel biodegradable flexible multiblock copolymer, poly(butylene succinate-b-ethylene succinate) (PBES) to produce new biodegradable materials. PLLA/PBES blends with different composition were prepared by solution blending and casting method with chloroform as a mutual solvent. Miscibility, crystallization behavior, and mechanical properties of the blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and tensile tests. The results indicated that PLLA and PBES showed limited miscibility in the amorphous phase. The crystallization rate of PLLA was accelerated with the increase of PBES in the blends while the crystallization mechanism did not change. The results of tensile tests suggest that the blends showed longer elongation at break than neat PLLA. The elongation at break of PLLA was obtained to be 10%, and those of PLLA/PBES 80/20, 60/40, 40/60 and 20/80 were 29, 110, 442, and 455%, respectively.

  11. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru. Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  12. Use of wind energy in selected European countries -- Legislation and promotion incentives; Windenergienutzung in ausgewaehlten europaeischen Laendern: Gesetzgebung und Foerdermassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langraf, B.; Kellner, T.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the strategies for the promotion of the use of wind energy used in various countries in Europe. The three main types of promotion - fixed-tariff purchase of renewable energy, call-for-tender systems and the trading of green energy certificates - are described. An appendix illustrates these three types of promotion with their advantages and disadvantages. The ambitious European Union guidelines on the proposed raising of the proportion of renewable energy are reviewed and the commercial implications in terms of increased turnover are looked at. The effects of electricity market liberalisation are examined, particularly in the fixed-tariff purchasing area. The situation in Switzerland, where much less effort is being made to promote renewable energy sources, is reviewed and the dangers of being left behind in the worldwide market for economic and ecological energy technology are stressed. The report is concluded with recommendations for Switzerland on how existing regulations can be improved and how the market for electricity from renewable sources can be opened.

  13. Alpha-Tocopheryl succinate causes mitochondrial permeabilization by preferential formation of Bak channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, L.; Dong, L.F.; Vališ, Karel; Freeman, R.; Ralph, S.J.; Turánek, J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2010), s. 782-794 ISSN 1360-8185 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Vitamin E succinate * apoptosis * Noxa-Bak Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.397, year: 2010

  14. Industrial Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enables Novel Succinic Acid Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Cimini, Donatella; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, the preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust commerically compatible scaffold to be exploitted for diverse chemical production. Succinic acid is a highly sought......-direction of carbon fluxes in S. cerevisiae, and hence show proof of concept that this is a potentially attractive cell factory for over-producing different platform chemicals....

  15. Bisoprolol compared with carvedilol and metoprolol succinate in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Torres, Lorella; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Corletto, Anna; Kazmi, Syed; Goode, Kevin; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Katus, Hugo A; Cleland, John G F; Atar, Dan; Clark, Andrew L; Agewall, Stefan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    Beta-blockers are recommended for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). However, it is disputed whether beta-blockers exert a class effect or whether there are differences in efficacy between agents. 6010 out-patients with stable CHF and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction prescribed either bisoprolol, carvedilol or metoprolol succinate were identified from three registries in Norway, England, and Germany. In three separate matching procedures, patients were individually matched with respect to both dose equivalents and the respective propensity scores for beta-blocker treatment. During a follow-up of 26,963 patient-years, 302 (29.5%), 637 (37.0%), and 1232 (37.7%) patients died amongst those prescribed bisoprolol, carvedilol, and metoprolol, respectively. In univariable analysis of the general sample, bisoprolol and carvedilol were both associated with lower mortality as compared with metoprolol succinate (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.91, p < 0.01, and HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.94, p < 0.01, respectively). Patients prescribed bisoprolol or carvedilol had similar mortality (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82-1.08, p = 0.37). However, there was no significant association between beta-blocker choice and all-cause mortality in any of the matched samples (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.76-1.06; p = 0.20; HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.31, p = 0.24; and HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.95-1.22, p = 0.26 for bisoprolol vs. carvedilol, bisoprolol vs. metoprolol succinate, and carvedilol vs. metoprolol succinate, respectively). Results were confirmed in a number of important subgroups. Our results suggest that the three beta-blockers investigated have similar effects on mortality amongst patients with CHF.

  16. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sarir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C, supplementation (S, HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002. Also, serum TNF-a concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001 in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-a when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05. However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-a (P = 0.31 and IL-6 (P = 0.52 concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  17. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarir, Hadi; Emdadifard, Ghodsieh; Farhangfar, Homayoun; TaheriChadorneshin, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT). In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C), supplementation (S), HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S) groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min) and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day) was conducted for 6 weeks. Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002). Also, serum TNF-α concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001) in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-α when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-α (P = 0.31) and IL-6 (P = 0.52) concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  18. Synthesis and performances of poly(butylene-succinate) with enhanced viscosity and crystallization rate via introducing a small amount of diacetylene groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Cheng Liu; Wen-Qiang Zhang; Xiu-Li Wang; Yu-Zhong Wang

    2017-01-01

    A cross-linkable comonomer containing a diacetylene group,named dimethyl 4,4'-(buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyl)dibenzoate (DA) was synthesized and copolymerized with dimethyl succinate and 1,4-butanediol to prepare a series of slightly cross-linked PBS copolyesters (PBDA Sx).The chemical structure,crystallization and theological behaviours of PBDASx were well investigated.Compared to neat PBS,PBDASx showed the greatly increased crystallization rate because of the promoting nucleation of the cross-linking domains,and the XRD results indicated that it had no influence on crystallization structure of PBS.The rheological behaviours indicate that PBDASx possessed higher viscosity than neat PBS even at high shear rate and temperature.PBDAS0.3 exhibited better comprehensive properties than neat PBS,which will widen applications of PBS.

  19. Enhanced Bioactivity of α-Tocopheryl Succinate Based Block Copolymer Nanoparticles by Reduced Hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao-Suay, Raquel; Aguilar, María Rosa; Parra-Ruiz, Francisco J; Maji, Samarendra; Hoogenboom, Richard; Rohner, Nathan A; Thomas, Susan N; Román, Julio San

    2016-12-01

    Well-structured amphiphilic copolymers are necessary to obtain self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) based on synthetic polymers. Highly homogeneous and monodispersed macromolecules obtained by controlled polymerization have successfully been used for this purpose. However, disaggregation of the organized macromolecules is desired when a bioactive element, such as α-tocopheryl succinate, is introduced in self-assembled NPs and this element must be exposed or released to exert its action. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that the bioactivity of synthetic NPs based on defined reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization copolymers can be enhanced by the introduction of hydrophilic comonomers in the hydrophobic segment. The amphiphilic terpolymers are based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as hydrophilic block, and a hydrophobic block based on a methacrylic derivative of α-tocopheryl succinate (MTOS) and small amounts of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) (PEG-b-poly(MTOS-co-HEMA)). The introduction of HEMA reduces hydrophobicity and introduces "disorder" both in the homogeneous blocks and the compact core of the corresponding NPs. These NPs are able to encapsulate additional α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) with high efficiency and their biological activity is much higher than that described for the unmodified copolymers, proposedly due to more efficient degradation and release of α-TOS, demonstrating the importance of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. [Effects of different neutralizing agents on succinate production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuona; Jiang, Min; Li, Jian; Fang, Xiaojiang; Ye, Guizi; Bai, Xuefei; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Wei, Ping

    2010-11-01

    Different neutralizing agents were used as pH controller to investigate their effects on the growth and succinic acid production of Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The fermentation results showed that Ca(OH)2, CaCO3 and NH4OH were not suitable for succinic acid production by A. succinogenes NJ113 because of their negative effects on cell growth. When Na-base was used, cells would flocculate and lump, and due to the sodium ion concentration reaching to a high level, OD660 dropped sharply after 12 h of fermentation. Mg-base was better because there was no significant inhibition by magnesium ion. Two combined neutralizing agents were used to maintain pH level, one with NaOH and Mg(OH)2 while the other with Na2CO3 and Mg(OH)2. The optimum ratios of the combined neutralizing agents were both 1:1 (g:g) when using 100 g/L glucose. When NaOH and Mg(OH)2 were chosen with the ratio of 1:1(g:g), 69.8 g/L of the succinic acid and 74.5% of the yield was obtained.

  1. Co-Consumption of Methanol and Succinate by Methylobacterium extorquens AM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraud, Rémi; Kiefer, Patrick; Christen, Philipp; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is a facultative methylotrophic Alphaproteobacterium and has been subject to intense study under pure methylotrophic as well as pure heterotrophic growth conditions in the past. Here, we investigated the metabolism of M. extorquens AM1 under mixed substrate conditions, i.e., in the presence of methanol plus succinate. We found that both substrates were co-consumed, and the carbon conversion was two-thirds from succinate and one-third from methanol relative to mol carbon. 13C-methanol labeling and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses revealed the different fates of the carbon from the two substrates. Methanol was primarily oxidized to CO2 for energy generation. However, a portion of the methanol entered biosynthetic reactions via reactions specific to the one-carbon carrier tetrahydrofolate. In contrast, succinate was primarily used to provide precursor metabolites for bulk biomass production. This work opens new perspectives on the role of methylotrophy when substrates are simultaneously available, a situation prevailing under environmental conditions. PMID:23133625

  2. Out of plane distortions of the heme b of Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang M Tran

    Full Text Available The role of the heme b in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase is highly ambiguous and its role in catalysis is questionable. To examine whether heme reduction is an essential step of the catalytic mechanism, we generated a series of site-directed mutations around the heme binding pocket, creating a library of variants with a stepwise decrease in the midpoint potential of the heme from the wild-type value of +20 mV down to -80 mV. This difference in midpoint potential is enough to alter the reactivity of the heme towards succinate and thus its redox state under turnover conditions. Our results show both the steady state succinate oxidase and fumarate reductase catalytic activity of the enzyme are not a function of the redox potential of the heme. As well, lower heme potential did not cause an increase in the rate of superoxide production both in vitro and in vivo. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrum of the heme in the wild-type enzyme is a combination of two distinct signals. We link EPR spectra to structure, showing that one of the signals likely arises from an out-of-plane distortion of the heme, a saddled conformation, while the second signal originates from a more planar orientation of the porphyrin ring.

  3. Succinic acid production from acid hydrolysate of corn fiber by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Yao, Jiaming; Wu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Dilute acid hydrolysate of corn fiber was used as carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiments. When corn fiber particles were of 20 mesh in size and treated with 1.0% sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 2 h, the total sugar yield could reach 63.3%. It was found that CaCO(3) neutralization combined with activated carbon adsorption was an effective method to remove fermentation inhibitors especially furfural that presented in the acid hydrolysate of corn fiber. Only 5.2% of the total sugar was lost, while 91.9% of furfural was removed. The yield of succinic acid was higher than 72.0% with the detoxified corn fiber hydrolysate as the carbon source in anaerobic bottles or 7.5 L fermentor cultures. It was proved that the corn fiber hydrolysate could be an alternative to glucose for the production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113.

  4. Genome-scale modeling enables metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for succinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, Rasmus; Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we describe the application of a genome-scale metabolic model and flux balance analysis for the prediction of succinic acid overproduction strategies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The top three single gene deletion strategies, Δmdh1, Δoac1, and Δdic1, were tested using knock-out strains cultivated anaerobically on glucose, coupled with physiological and DNA microarray characterization. While Δmdh1 and Δoac1 strains failed to produce succinate, Δdic1 produced 0.02 C-mol/C-mol glucose, in close agreement with model predictions (0.03 C-mol/C-mol glucose). Transcriptional profiling suggests that succinate formation is coupled to mitochondrial redox balancing, and more specifically, reductive TCA cycle activity. While far from industrial titers, this proof-of-concept suggests that in silico predictions coupled with experimental validation can be used to identify novel and non-intuitive metabolic engineering strategies.

  5. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection shaped the evolution of mouse androgen-binding protein (ABP) function and promoted the duplication of Abp genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    In the present article, we summarize two aspects of our work on mouse ABP (androgen-binding protein): (i) the sexual selection function producing incipient reinforcement on the European house mouse hybrid zone, and (ii) the mechanism behind the dramatic expansion of the Abp gene region in the mouse genome. Selection unifies these two components, although the ways in which selection has acted differ. At the functional level, strong positive selection has acted on key sites on the surface of one face of the ABP dimer, possibly to influence binding to a receptor. A different kind of selection has apparently driven the recent and rapid expansion of the gene region, probably by increasing the amount of Abp transcript, in one or both of two ways. We have shown previously that groups of Abp genes behave as LCRs (low-copy repeats), duplicating as relatively large blocks of genes by NAHR (non-allelic homologous recombination). The second type of selection involves the close link between the accumulation of L1 elements and the expansion of the Abp gene family by NAHR. It is probably predicated on an initial selection for increased transcription of existing Abp genes and/or an increase in Abp gene number providing more transcriptional sites. Either or both could increase initial transcript production, a quantitative change similar to increasing the volume of a radio transmission. In closing, we also provide a note on Abp gene nomenclature.

  7. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Du, Li [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: chsjliao@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir. - Highlights: • Mesoporous nanoparticles were synthesized and used as support for metal catalyst. • PdIr bimetallic catalyst exhibited significantly improved hydrogenation activity. • The strong promotion of Ir was recognized firstly and investigated intensively. • PdIr exhibits 18 times higher activity than Pd to the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. - Abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction

  8. Promoted V2O5/TiO2 catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Schill, Leonhard; Godiksen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, Raman, FTIR and EPR spectroscopy to investigate the properties of the catalysts. XRPD, Raman and FTIR showed that promotion with 15 wt.% HPA does not cause V2O5 to be present in crystalline form, also at a loading of 5 wt.% V2O5. Hence, use of HPAs does......The influence of varying the V2O5 content (3–6 wt.%) was studied for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides by ammonia on heteropoly acid (HPA)- and tungsten oxide (WO3)-promoted V2O5/TiO2 catalysts. The SCR activity and alkali deactivation resistance of HPA-promoted V2O5/TiO2...... catalysts was found to be much higher than for WO3-promoted catalysts. By increasing the vanadium content from 3 to 5 wt.% the catalysts displayed a two fold increase in activity at 225 °C and retained their initial activity after alkali doping at a molar K/V ratio of 0.181. Furthermore, the catalysts were...

  9. In vitro modeling of experimental succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD using brain-derived neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Vogel

    Full Text Available We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH. Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1 production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate, the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2 rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3 mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4 total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5 selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD. Patterns of dysfunction were observed in all of these parameters and mirrored earlier findings in aldh5a1-/- mice. Patterns of dysregulated gene expression between hypothalamus and NSCs centered on ion channels, GABAergic receptors, and inflammation, suggesting novel pathomechanisms as well as a developmental ontogeny for gene expression potentially associated with the murine epileptic phenotype. The NSC model of SSADHD will be valuable in providing a first-tier screen for centrally-acting therapeutics and prioritizing therapeutic concepts of preclinical animal studies applicable to SSADHD.

  10. Comparative Study Between Different Ready-Made Orally Disintegrating Platforms for the Formulation of Sumatriptan Succinate Sublingual Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Saadya A; El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Amin, Maha M; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H

    2017-02-01

    Sumatriptan succinate (SS) is a selective serotonin receptor agonist used for the treatment of migraine attacks, suffering from extensive first-pass metabolism and low oral bioavailability (∼14%). The aim of this work is to compare the performance of different ready-made co-processed platforms (Pharmaburst®, Prosolv ODT®, Starlac®, Pearlitol Flash®, or Ludiflash®) in the formulation of SS sublingual orodispersible tablets (ODTs) using direct compression technique. The prepared SS ODT formulae were evaluated regarding hardness, friability, simulated wetting time, and in vitro disintegration and dissolution tests. Different mucoadhesive polymers-HPMC K4M, Carbopol®, chitosan, or Polyox®-were tested aiming to increase the residence time in the sublingual area. A pharmacokinetic study on healthy human volunteers was performed, using LC/MS/MS assay, to compare the optimum sublingual formula (Ph25/HPMC) with the conventional oral tablet Imitrex®. Results showed that tablets prepared using Pharmaburst® had significantly (p disintegration times of 17.17 and 23.50 s, respectively, with Q 5 min of 83.62%. HPMC showed a significant (p tablet Imitrex®. In conclusion, Pharmaburst® was chosen as the optimum ready-made co-processed platform that can be successfully used in the preparation of SS sublingual tablets for the rapid relief of migraine attacks.

  11. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly [Orlando, FL; Rossin, Joseph A [Columbus, OH; Knapke, Michael J [Columbus, OH

    2011-08-02

    A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

  12. S100A7, a novel Alzheimer's disease biomarker with non-amyloidogenic alpha-secretase activity acts via selective promotion of ADAM-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Qin

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia among older people. At present, there is no cure for the disease and as of now there are no early diagnostic tests for AD. There is an urgency to develop a novel promising biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry SELDI-(MS proteomic technology, we identified and purified a novel 11.7-kDa metal- binding protein biomarker whose content is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in the brain of AD dementia subjects as a function of clinical dementia. Following purification and protein-sequence analysis, we identified and classified this biomarker as S100A7, a protein known to be involved in immune responses. Using an adenoviral-S100A7 expression system, we continued to examine the potential role of S100A7 in AD amyloid neuropathology in in vitro model of AD. We found that the expression of exogenous S100A7 in primary cortico-hippocampal neuron cultures derived from Tg2576 transgenic embryos inhibits the generation of beta-amyloid (Abeta(1-42 and Abeta(1-40 peptides, coincidental with a selective promotion of "non- amyloidogenic" alpha-secretase activity via promotion of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-10. Finally, a selective expression of human S100A7 in the brain of transgenic mice results in significant promotion of alpha-secretase activity. Our study for the first time suggests that S100A7 may be a novel biomarker of AD dementia and supports the hypothesis that promotion of S100A7 expression in the brain may selectively promote alpha-secretase activity in the brain of AD precluding the generation of amyloidogenic peptides. If in the future we find that S1000A7 protein content in CSF is sensitive to drug intervention experimentally and eventually in the clinical setting, S100A7 might be developed as novel surrogate index (biomarker of therapeutic efficacy in the characterization of novel drug agents for

  13. Control of selectivity in hydrosilane-promoted heterogeneous palladium-catalysed reduction of furfural and aromatic carboxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Zhao, Wenfeng; Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel

    2018-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels and fine chemicals often involves multi-step reaction processes with selective hydrogenation as one of the key steps. This step most often depends on high-pressure excess hydrogen gas, fossil resources, and newly prepared metallic catalysts. Here we describe an appr...

  14. Evidence based selection of probiotic strains to promote astronaut health or alleviate symptoms of illness on long duration spaceflight missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G L; Voorhies, A A

    2017-10-13

    Spaceflight impacts multiple aspects of human physiology, which will require non-invasive countermeasures as mission length and distance from Earth increases and the capability for external medical intervention decreases. Studies on Earth have shown that probiotics have the potential to improve some of the conditions that have manifested during spaceflight, such as gastrointestinal distress, dermatitis, and respiratory infections. The constraints and risks of spaceflight make it imperative that probiotics are carefully selected based on their strain-specific benefits, doses, delivery mechanisms, and relevance to likely crew conditions prior to evaluation in astronauts. This review focuses on probiotics that have been incorporated into healthy human gastrointestinal microbiomes and associated clinically with improvements in inflammatory state or alleviation of symptoms of crew-relevant illness. These studies provide an evidence base for probiotic selection with the greatest potential to support crew health and well-being in spaceflight.

  15. Selection and performance of village health teams (VHTs) in Uganda: lessons from the natural helper model of health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Turinawe, E.B.; Rwemisisi, J.T.; Musinguzi, L.K.; Groot, M.; Muhangi, D.; de Vries, D.H.; Mafigiri, D.K.; Pool, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Community health worker (CHW) programmes have received much attention since the 1978 Declaration of Alma-Ata, with many initiatives established in developing countries. However, CHW programmes often suffer high attrition once the initial enthusiasm of volunteers wanes. In 2002, Uganda began implementing a national CHW programme called the village health teams (VHTs), but their performance has been poor in many communities. It is argued that poor community involvement in the select...

  16. An InDel in the Promoter of Al-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9 Selected during Tomato Domestication Determines Fruit Malate Contents and Aluminum Tolerance[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Hu, Tixu; Zhang, Fengxia; Wang, Bing; Li, Changxin; Yang, Tianxia; Li, Hanxia; Lu, Yongen; Ye, Zhibiao

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the mechanism of malate accumulation in plants would contribute to a greater understanding of plant chemistry, which has implications for improving flavor quality in crop species and enhancing human health benefits. However, the regulation of malate metabolism is poorly understood in crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we integrated a metabolite-based genome-wide association study with linkage mapping and gene functional studies to characterize the genetics of malate accumulation in a global collection of tomato accessions with broad genetic diversity. We report that TFM6 (tomato fruit malate 6), which corresponds to Al-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9 (Sl-ALMT9 in tomato), is the major quantitative trait locus responsible for variation in fruit malate accumulation among tomato genotypes. A 3-bp indel in the promoter region of Sl-ALMT9 was linked to high fruit malate content. Further analysis indicated that this indel disrupts a W-box binding site in the Sl-ALMT9 promoter, which prevents binding of the WRKY transcription repressor Sl-WRKY42, thereby alleviating the repression of Sl-ALMT9 expression and promoting high fruit malate accumulation. Evolutionary analysis revealed that this highly expressed Sl-ALMT9 allele was selected for during tomato domestication. Furthermore, vacuole membrane-localized Sl-ALMT9 increases in abundance following Al treatment, thereby elevating malate transport and enhancing Al resistance. PMID:28814642

  17. Direct Succinic Acid Production from Minimally Pretreated Biomass Using Sequential Solid-State and Slurry Fermentation with Mixed Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerico Alcantara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bio-based succinic acid production involves anaerobic bacterial fermentation of pure sugars. This study explored a new route for directly producing succinic acid from minimally-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass via a consolidated bioprocessing technology employing a mixed lignocellulolytic and acidogenic fungal co-culture. The process involved a solid-state pre-fermentation stage followed by a two-phase slurry fermentation stage. During the solid-state pre-fermentation stage, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were co-cultured in a nitrogen-rich substrate (e.g., soybean hull to induce cellulolytic enzyme activity. The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown separately on carbon-rich birch wood chips to induce ligninolytic enzymes, rendering the biomass more susceptible to cellulase attack. The solid-state pre-cultures were then combined in a slurry fermentation culture to achieve simultaneous enzymatic cellulolysis and succinic acid production. This approach generated succinic acid at maximum titers of 32.43 g/L after 72 h of batch slurry fermentation (~10 g/L production, and 61.12 g/L after 36 h of addition of fresh birch wood chips at the onset of the slurry fermentation stage (~26 g/L production. Based on this result, this approach is a promising alternative to current bacterial succinic acid production due to its minimal substrate pretreatment requirements, which could reduce production costs.

  18. An Evolutionary/Biochemical Connection Between Promoter- and Primer-Dependent Polymerases Revealed by Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Katherine J; Achuthan, Vasudevan; Schneider, Thomas D; DeStefano, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-16

    DNA polymerases (DNAPs) recognize 3' recessed termini on duplex DNA and carry out nucleotide catalysis. Unlike promoter-specific RNA polymerases (RNAPs), no sequence specificity is required for binding or initiation of catalysis. Despite this, previous results indicate that viral reverse transcriptases bind much more tightly to DNA primers that mimic the polypurine tract. In the current report, primer sequences that bind with high affinity to Taq and Klenow polymerases were identified using a modified Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) approach. Two Taq -specific primers that bound ∼10 (Taq1) and over 100 (Taq2) times more stably than controls to Taq were identified. Taq1 contained 8 nucleotides (5' -CACTAAAG-3') that matched the phage T3 RNAP "core" promoter. Both primers dramatically outcompeted primers with similar binding thermodynamics in PCR reactions. Similarly, exonuclease minus Klenow polymerase also selected a high affinity primer that contained a related core promoter sequence from phage T7 RNAP (5' -ACTATAG-3'). For both Taq and Klenow, even small modifications to the sequence resulted in large losses in binding affinity suggesting that binding was highly sequence-specific. The results are discussed in the context of possible effects on multi-primer (multiplex) PCR assays, molecular information theory, and the evolution of RNAPs and DNAPs. Importance This work further demonstrates that primer-dependent DNA polymerases can have strong sequence biases leading to dramatically tighter binding to specific sequences. These may be related to biological function, or be a consequences of the structural architecture of the enzyme. New sequence specificity for Taq and Klenow polymerases were uncovered and among them were sequences that contained the core promoter elements from T3 and T7 phage RNA polymerase promoters. This suggests the intriguing possibility that phage RNA polymerases exploited intrinsic binding affinities of

  19. Promoting Ethylene Selectivity from CO2 Electroreduction on CuO Supported onto CO2 Capture Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong; Hong, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Peng-Yang; Wang, Tao; Chen, Li-Na; Zhang, Feng-Yang; Wu, Qi-Hui; Tian, Na; Zhou, Zhi-You; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2018-03-09

    Cu is a unique catalyst for CO 2 electroreduction, since it can catalyze CO 2 reduction to a series of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and carboxylic acids. Nevertheless, such Cu catalysts suffer from poor selectivity. High pressure of CO 2 is considered to facilitate the activity and selectivity of CO 2 reduction. Herein, a new strategy is presented for CO 2 reduction with improved C 2 H 4 selectivity on a Cu catalyst by using CO 2 capture materials as the support at ambient pressure. N-doped carbon (N x C) was synthesized through high-temperature carbonization of melamine and l-lysine. We observed that the CO 2 uptake capacity of N x C depends on both the microporous area and the content of pyridinic N species, which can be controlled by the carbonization temperature (600-800 °C). The as-prepared CuO/N x C catalysts exhibit a considerably higher C 2 H 4 faradaic efficiency (36 %) than CuO supported on XC-72 carbon black (19 %), or unsupported CuO (20 %). Moreover, there is a good linear relationship between the C 2 H 4 faradaic efficiency and CO 2 uptake capacity of the supports for CuO. The local high CO 2 concentration near Cu catalysts, created by CO 2 capture materials, was proposed to increase the coverage of CO intermediate, which is favorable for the coupling of two CO units in the formation of C 2 H 4 . This study demonstrates that pairing Cu catalysts with CO 2 capture supports is a promising approach for designing highly effective CO 2 reduction electrocatalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Quaternary ammonium promoted ultra selective and sensitive fluorescence detection of fluoride ion in water and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ji, Yuzhuo; Tang, Xinjing

    2014-10-21

    Highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probes with a quaternary ammonium moiety have been rationally designed and developed for fast and sensitive fluorescence detection of fluoride ion (F(-) from NaF, not TBAF) in aqueous solution and living cells. With the sequestration effect of quaternary ammonium, the detection time was less than 2 min and the detection limit of fluoride ion was as low as 0.57 ppm that is among the lowest detection limits in aqueous solutions of many fluoride fluorescence probes in the literature.

  1. Radiation-induced alterations in succinate dehydrogenase activity in the muscle of pigeon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.

    1983-01-01

    The histochemical changes in succinate dehydrogenase were investigated in pectoralis major muscle of pigeon exposed to sub-lethal dose (400 rad) of γ-irradiation. Biochemical study was also carried out after 200, 300 and 400 rad of irradiation. In the present study the overall decrease in enzyme activity could be due to the structural and/or functional damage to mitochondria after treatment of pigeon to different sub-lethal doses of γ-irradiation. The significance of these results has been discussed with special reference to oxidative metabolism. (author)

  2. Mitochondrially Targeted Vitamin E Succinate Modulates Expression of Mitochondrial DNA Transcripts and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truksa, Jaroslav; Dong, L.F.; Rohlena, Jakub; Stursa, J.; Vondrusová, Magdaléna; Goodwin, J.; Nguyen, M.; Klučková, Katarína; Rychtarčíková, Zuzana; Lettlová, Sandra; Spáčilová, Jana; Stapelberg, M.; Zoratti, M.; Neužil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 11 (2015), s. 883-900 ISSN 1523-0864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1937; GA AV ČR KAN200520703; GA ČR GAP305/12/1708; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : ALPHA-TOCOPHERYL SUCCINATE * ELECTRON-TRANSPORT CHAIN * RESPIRATORY COMPLEX-II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.093, year: 2015

  3. Evidence of redox imbalance in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Niemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency is not completely understood. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial pathology, and low reduced glutathione levels have been demonstrated in mice, but no studies have been reported in humans. We report on a patient with SSADH deficiency in whom we found low levels of blood reduced glutathione (GSH, and elevations of dicarboxylic acids in urine, suggestive of possible redox imbalance and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, targeting the oxidative stress axis may be a potential therapeutic approach if our findings are confirmed in other patients.

  4. Influence of adrenaline on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in peripheral blood lymphocytes of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroleva, L.V.; Vasin, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel female rats, the influence of adrenaline on succinate dehydrogenase (SDG) activity in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of irradiated and intact animals has been investigated. Two minutes after the intraperitoneal administration of adrenaline (1 mg/kg) to intact rats SDG activity sharply rises and 3-4 min it drastically falls. In 6 to 8 min the second peak in the enzyme activity is registered. Twenty minutes after irradiation of rats in the crano-caudal direction with a dose of 75 Gy delivered to head, the reaction to adrenaline, manifested by the rise in SDG activity, is absent

  5. Selective dicer suppression in the kidney alters GSK3β/β-catenin pathways promoting a glomerulocystic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iervolino

    Full Text Available Dicer is a crucial enzyme for the maturation of miRNAs. Mutations in the Dicer gene are highly associated with Pleuro Pulmonary Blastoma-Family Dysplasia Syndrome (PPB-FDS, OMIM 601200, recently proposed to be renamed Dicer syndrome. Aside from the pulmonary phenotype (blastoma, renal nephroma and thyroid goiter are frequently part of Dicer syndrome. To investigate the renal phenotype, conditional knockout (cKO mice for Dicer in Pax8 expressing cells were generated. Dicer cKO mice progressively develop a glomerulocystic phenotype coupled with urinary concentration impairment, proteinuria and severe renal failure. Higher cellular turnover of the parietal cells of Bowman's capsule precedes the development of the cysts and the primary cilium progressively disappears with cyst-enlargement. Upregulation of GSK3β precedes the development of the glomerulocystic phenotype. Downregulation of β-catenin in the renal cortex and its cytosolic removal in the cells lining the cysts may be associated with observed accumulation of GSK3β. Alterations of β-catenin regulating pathways could promote cystic degeneration as in other models. Thus, miRNAs are fundamental in preserving renal morphology and function. Alteration of the GSK3β/β-catenin pathway could be a crucial mechanism linking miRNA dysregulation and the development of a glomerulocystic disease.

  6. Selecting interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption: from policy to action, a planning framework case study in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Lewis, Janette M; Binns, Colin W

    2008-12-24

    The Department of Health in Western Australia identified access to, and daily consumption of recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, as priority health determinants. The numerous factors that influence supply and consumption of fruit and vegetables indicated that a comprehensive approach would be required.A government and non-government sector steering group was set up to select priority interventions using the National Public Health Partnership's Framework for Implementing Public Health Strategies. This structured framework was used for developing strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply, and to identify implementation priorities.After one year a desktop audit of progress on framework interventions was undertaken. The structured framework led to a plan for defined actions, partners, costs, and performance indicators for strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply. Lead agency custodians for management of the selected interventions were identified.After one year there was significant progress in the implementation of a number of the high-ranking interventions. The exception was interventions that provide the infrastructure support such as research and development capacity, information systems. A structured framework and stakeholder participation assisted in developing a fruit and vegetable implementation strategy. Engagement and commitment of influential and diverse stakeholders is needed, not just for program support, but particularly in the areas of food and nutrition policy development and providing the infrastructure support required. Further work is required to develop performance outcomes and cost effectiveness measures for many of the strategies that have been proposed to address portfolio objectives.

  7. Different temperatures select distinctive acetic acid bacteria species and promotes organic acids production during Kombucha tea fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-08-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and -independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Viana, Nathan Bessa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Laboratorio de Pincas Oticas, Coordenacao de Programas de Estudos Avancados, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marcondes, Jorge [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Servico de Neurocirurgia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Legrand, Chantal [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Universite Paris-Diderot, Paris 7, INSERM U553, Paris (France); Moura-Neto, Vivaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2011-09-10

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  9. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues; Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina; Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline; Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Viana, Nathan Bessa; Marcondes, Jorge; Legrand, Chantal; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  10. Advice for a career in academic gastroenterology: from fellowship application through job selection and contract negotiations to research and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S

    2009-03-01

    This study aims to describe a comprehensive strategy for success in academic gastroenterology by reporting common sense, but mostly previously unpublished, recommendations. The recommendation are based on expert opinion from personal experience mentoring 125 gastroenterology fellows and residents as a program director for nine years and from mentoring research while publishing more than 160 articles in peer-reviewed journals and editing 11 books during a 23-year academic career. Primary criteria for fellowship applicant selection include board scores, clinical performance, interview performance, clinical training, and research productivity. For optimal chances, select the subspecialty of gastroenterology early during residency, consult a mentor, and develop a well-planned strategy. Faculty advancement depends upon publications, grants, national recognition, interpersonal skills, and recommendations. Article categories from highest-to-lowest in prestige are original investigations, review articles, book chapters, case reports, and letters/abstracts. Articles are judged by the prestige of the journal of publication. Resubmit rejected articles to successively less prestigious journals until accepted for publication. Articles in journals without peer-review have negligible career impact. Grant support creates protected time. Institutional reputation is important in academics. Do not accept a job without a written contract. Have a lawyer review your contract. An outside offer strengthens a negotiating position. Be sociable and nonconfrontational at work. Network with colleagues. Seek a mentor. Meet your supervisor regularly for feedback. Never express anger at your boss or patients. Avoid litigation with employers. Sub-subspecialize to develop expertise in one area. Focus on this area in your research and clinical practice. In conclusion, a well-planned strategy can help you achieve a senior academic position early and efficiently.

  11. [Pathomorphology of regenerative processes in mandibular fracture after sodium succinate treatment and laser magnetotherapy in an experimental setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustov, L A; Nedel'ko, N A; Morozova, M V

    2001-01-01

    Morphological reactions in tissue adjacent to mandibular angular fracture were studied in guinea pigs treated with sodium succinate and laser magnetotherapy. Due to succinate therapy the exudative component of inflammation was less expressed in comparison with the control, macrophagal reaction and neoangiogenesis were activated, the volume of damaged muscle tissue and the incidence of suppurations decreased. The number of osteoblasts increased and new bone structures acquired a lamellar pattern earlier than in the control. Sodium succinate therapy in combination with laser magnetotherapy had a more pronounced positive effect as regards activation of macrophagal reaction and neoangiogenesis and a decrease in the area of fibrosclerotic changes in the zone of damaged muscles, where newly formed myosymplasts differentiated into myotubes and even in muscle fibers. Suppuration of the wound was prevented. Bone tissue in the fracture zone formed without preliminary formation of cartilaginous tissue, which resulted in more rapid osteogenesis (lamellar bone growth in the fracture zone).

  12. Crystallization and degradation behaviors of poly(butylene succinate)/poly(Z-L-lysine) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Licheng; Hu, Jun; Ye, Suwen; Wei, Junchao; Chen, Yiwang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/poly(Z-L-lysine) (PZlys) composites were successfully prepared through physical blend. • PZlys may greatly affected the crystallization behaviors of PBS without changing its crystalline structure. • The degradation speed of PBS may be greatly accelerated by introduction of PZlys in PBS matrix. - Abstract: A new type of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/poly(Z-L-lysine) (PZlys) composites were prepared. The crystallization behaviors were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and the results showed that PZlys can restrict the crystallization of PBS, the crystallization speed of PBS/PZlys were slower than that of PBS, and the crystallization degree of the composites were smaller than that of PBS. However, the WAXD results showed that the incorporation of PZlys did not change the crystalline structure of PBS. The in vitro degradation experiments demonstrated that the degradation speed of the composites were faster than that of PBS. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the composites showed that the composites with a proper composition (for example, 80/20) can keep the mechanical properties of PBS without evident difference, which implied that the composites might be potentially useful as biodegradable materials

  13. Succinate Functionalization of Hyperbranched Polyglycerol-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Draw Solute During Forward Osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee-Man; Choi, Hye Min; Jang, Sung-Chan; Han, Myeong Jin; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbranched polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SHPG-MNPs) were functionalized with succinate groups to form a draw solute for use in a forward osmosis (FO). After the one-step synthesis of hyperbranched polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (HPG-MNPs), the polyglycerol groups on the surfaces of the HPG-MNPs were functionalized with succinic anhydride moieties. The resulting SHPG-MNPs showed no change of size and magnetic property compared with HPG-MNPs and displayed excellent dispersibility in water up to the concentration of 400 g/L. SHPG-MNPs solution showed higher osmotic pressure than that of HPG-MNPs solution due to the presence of surface carboxyl groups in SHPG-MNPs and could draw water from a feed solution across an FO membrane without any reverse draw solute leakage during FO process. Moreover, the water flux remained nearly constant over several SHPG-MNP darw solute regeneration cycles applied to the ultrafiltration (UF) process. The SHPG-MNPs demonstrate strong potential for use as a draw solute in FO processes.

  14. Review of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kuroda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC was first identified in 2004 and has been integrated into the 2016 WHO classification of RCC. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH is an enzyme complex composed of four protein subunits (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The tumor which presents this enzyme mutation accounts for 0.05 to 0.2% of all renal carcinomas. Multiple tumors may occur in approximately 30% of affected patients. SDHB-deficient RCC is the most frequent, and the tumor histologically consists of cuboidal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, vacuolization, flocculent intracytoplasmic inclusion and indistinct cell borders. Ultrastructurally, the tumor contains abundant mitochondria. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells are positive for SDHA, but negative for SDHB in SDHB-, SDHC- and SDHD-deficient RCCs. However, SDHA-deficient RCC shows negativity for both SDHA and SDHB. In molecular genetic analyses, a germline mutation in the SDHB , SDHC or SDHD gene (in keeping with most patients having germline mutations in an SDH gene has been identified in patients with or without a family history of renal tumors, paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor. While most tumors are low grade, some tumors may behave in an aggressive fashion, particularly if they are high nuclear grade, and have coagulative necrosis or sarcomatoid differentiation.

  15. Role of O2 in the Growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 on Glucose and Succinate

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Rachel M.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Geddes, Barney A.; Perry, Benjamin J.; Yost, Chris K.; Poole, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv3841) grown on glucose or succinate at both 21% and 1% O2 was used to understand how O2 concentration alters metabolism. Two transcriptional regulators were required for growth on glucose (pRL120207 [eryD] and RL0547 [phoB]), five were required on succinate (pRL100388, RL1641, RL1642, RL3427, and RL4524 [ecfL]), and three were required on 1% O2 (pRL110072, RL0545 [phoU], and RL4042). A novel toxin-antitoxin s...

  16. Modeling of the selective pertraction of carboxylic acids obtained by citric fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Facilitated pertraction was applied for the selective separation of citric, maleic and succinic acids from a mixture obtained by citric fermentation. The pertraction equipment included a U-shaped cell containing 1,2-dichloro-ethane as the liquid membrane and Amberlite LA-2 as the carrier. The experimental data indicated that maleic and succinic acids can be initially selectively separated from citric acid, followed by the selectively separation of maleic acid from succinic acid. Using statistical analysis and a second order factorial experiment, two mathematical correlations describing the influence of the main process variables on pertraction selectivity were established. For both extraction systems, the considered variables controlled the extraction process to an extent of 92.9-99.9%, the carrier concentration inside the liquid membrane exhibiting the most important influence.

  17. Carbetocin is a Functional Selective Gq Agonist That Does Not Promote Oxytocin Receptor Recycling After Inducing β-Arrestin-Independent Internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, I; Leonzino, M; Gigliucci, V; Chini, B; Busnelli, M

    2016-04-01

    Carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analogue, has been reported to elicit interesting and peculiar behavioural effects. The present study investigated the molecular pharmacology of carbetocin, aiming to better understand the molecular basis of its action in the brain. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensors, we characterised the effects of carbetocin on the three human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors expressed in the nervous system: the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the vasopressin V1a (V1aR) and V1b (V1bR) receptors. Our results indicate that (i) carbetocin activates the OXTR but not the V1aR and V1bR at which it may act as an antagonist; (ii) carbetocin selectively activates only the OXTR/Gq pathway displaying a strong functional selectivity; (iii) carbetocin is a partial agonist at the OXTR/Gq coupling; (iv) carbetocin promotes OXTR internalisation via a previously unreported β-arrestin-independent pathway; and (v) carbetocin does not induce OXTR recycling to the plasma membrane. Altogether, these molecular pharmacology features identify carbetocin as a substantially different analogue compared to the endogenous oxytocin and, consequently, carbetocin is not expected to mimic oxytocin in the brain. Whether these unique features of carbetocin could be exploited therapeutically remains to be established. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  18. An IFNG SNP with an estrogen-like response element selectively enhances promoter expression in peripheral but not lamina propria T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsky, R; Deem, R L; Bream, J H; Young, H A; Targan, S R

    2006-07-01

    This study examines mucosa-specific regulatory pathways involved in modulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in lamina propria T cells. Previous studies identified mucosa-specific CD2 cis-elements within the -204 to -108 bp IFNG promoter. Within this region, a single-site nucleotide polymorphism, -179G/T, imparts tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation of IFNG in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and is linked with accelerated AIDS progression. We discovered a putative estrogen response element (ERE) introduced by the -179T, which displays selective activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) vs lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC). Transfection of PBMC with constructs containing the -179G or -179T site revealed CD2-mediated enhancement of the -179T compared to -179G allele, although, in LPMC, a similar level of expression was detected. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis demonstrated CD2-mediated nucleoprotein binding to the -179T but not the -179G in PBMC. In LPMC, binding is constitutive to both -179G and -179T regions. Sequence and EMSA analysis suggests that the -179T allele creates an ERE-like binding site capable of binding recombinant estrogen receptor. Estrogen response element transactivation is enhanced by CD2 signaling, but inhibited by estrogen in PBMC but not in LPMC, although expression of estrogen receptor was similar. This is the first report to describe a potential molecular mechanism responsible for selectively controlling IFN-gamma production in LPMC.

  19. A novel mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene in siblings with the hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene are now known to be associated with hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndromes. Since the initial succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene mutation was identified about a decade ago, more than 131 unique variants have been reported. We report the case of two siblings presenting with multiple paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas; they were both found to carry a mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene involving a substitution of thymine to guanine at nucleotide 236 in exon 3. This particular mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene has only been reported in one previous patient in Japan; this is, therefore, the first report of this pathogenic mutation in siblings and the first report of this mutation in North America. With continued screening of more individuals, we will be able to create a robust mutation database that can help us understand disease patterns associated with particular variants and may be a starting point in the development of new therapies for familial paraganglioma syndromes.

  20. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  1. Linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of the porcine gene for subunit C of succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHC)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stratil, Antonín; Reiner, G.; Peelman, L. J.; Poucke, M.; Geldermann, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2001), s. 110-112 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113; GA ČR GA523/00/0669 Keywords : succinate dehydrogenase complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2001

  2. Discovering novel Alternaria solani succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors by in silico modeling and virtual screening strategies to combat early blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftikhar, Sehrish; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Halim, Sobia A.; Wolters, Pieter J.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shahbaz

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against

  3. Utilization of CO2 fixating bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z for simultaneous biogas upgrading and bio-succinic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Biogas is an attractive renewable energy carrier. However, it contains CO2 which limits certain applications of biogas. Here we report a novel approach for removing CO2 from biogas and capturing it as a biochemical through a biological process. This approach entails converting CO2 into bio...... and titre, CO2 consumption rate and CH4 purity. When using biogas as the only CO2 source at 140 kPa, the CO2 consumption rate corresponded to 2.59 L CO2 L-1 d-1 with a final succinic acid titre of 14.4 g L-1. Under this pressure condition the highest succinic acid yield and biogas quality reached......-succinic acid using the bacterial strain Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z, and simultaneously producing high purity CH4 (>95%). Results showed that when pressure during fermentation was increased from 101.325 to 140 kPa, higher CO2 solubility was achieved, thereby positively affecting final succinic acid yield...

  4. Enhancing succinic acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by engineering its global transcription factor, catabolite repressor/activator (Cra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Xia, Shi-Tao; Wei, Li-Na; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-11-04

    This study was initiated to improve E. coli succinate production by engineering the E. coli global transcription factor, Cra (catabolite repressor/activator). Random mutagenesis libraries were generated through error-prone PCR of cra. After re-screening and mutation site integration, the best mutant strain was Tang1541, which provided a final succinate concentration of 79.8 ± 3.1 g/L: i.e., 22.8% greater than that obtained using an empty vector control. The genes and enzymes involved in phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation and the glyoxylate pathway were activated, either directly or indirectly, through the mutation of Cra. The parameters for interaction of Cra and DNA indicated that the Cra mutant was bound to aceBAK, thereby activating the genes involved in glyoxylate pathway and further improving succinate production even in the presence of its effector fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). It suggested that some of the negative effect of FBP on Cra might have been counteracted through the enhanced binding affinity of the Cra mutant for FBP or the change of Cra structure. This work provides useful information about understanding the transcriptional regulation of succinate biosynthesis.

  5. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate efficiently kills breast tumour-initiating cells in a complex II-dependent manner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yan, B.; Stantic, M.; Zobalová, Renata; Bezawork-Geleta, A.; Stapelberg, M.; Stursa, J.; Prokopová, Kateřina; Dong, L.; Neužil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 401 (2015) ISSN 1471-2407 R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14078; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Tumour-initiating cells * Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate * Complex II Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.265, year: 2015

  6. Bid integrates intrinsic and extrinsic signaling in apoptosis induced by alpha-tocopheryl succinate in human gastric carcinoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhao, Y.; Li, R.; Xia, W.; Neužil, Jiří; Lu, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, X.; Sun, C.; Wu, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 288, č. 1 (2010), s. 42-49 ISSN 0304-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/08/0811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Alpha-tocopheryl succinate * signaling * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2010

  7. Alpha-Tocopheryl succinate induces cytostasis and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells: the role of E2F1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alleva, R.; Benassi, M.S.; Tomasetti, M.; Gellert, N.; Ponticelli, F.; Borghi, B.; Picci, P.; Neužil, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 331, č. 4 (2005), s. 1515-1521 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : osteosarcoma * alpha-tocopheryl succinate * E2F1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  8. Physical and chemical stability of palonosetron hydrochloride with dacarbazine and with methylprednisolone sodium succinate during simulated y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissel, Lawrence A; Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Quanyun A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of mixtures of undiluted palonosetron hydrochloride 50 micrograms/mL with dacarbazine 4 mg/mL and with methylprednisolone sodium succinate 5 mg/mL in 5% dextrose injection during simulated Y-site administration. Triplicate test samples were prepared by admixing 7.5 mL of palonosetron hydrochloride with 7.5 mL of dacarbazine solution and, separately, methylprednisolone sodium succinate solution. Physical stability was assessed by using a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assessed by using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical techniques that determined drug concentrations. Evaluations were performed immediately after mixing and 1 and 4 hours after mixing. The palonosetron hydrochloride-dacarbazine samples were clear and colorless when viewed in normal fluorescent room light and when viewed with a Tyndall beam. Measured turbidities remained unchanged; particulate contents were low and exhibited little change. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that palonosetron hydrochloride and dacarbazine remained stable throughout the 4-hour test with no drug loss. Palonosetron hydrochloride is, therefore, physically compatible and chemically stable with dacarbazine during Y-site administration. Within 4 hours, the mixtures of palonosetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate developed a microprecipitate that became a white precipitate visible to the unaided eye. The precipitate was analyzed and identified as methylprednisolone. Palonosetron hydrochloride is incompatible with methylprednisolone sodium succinate.

  9. Development of chitosan/gelatin/keratin composite containing hydrocortisone sodium succinate as a buccal mucoadhesive patch to treat desquamative gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad; Houshmand, Behzad; Eslahi, Niloofar; Khoshroo, Kimia; Rasoulianboroujeni, Morteza; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop chitosan/gelatin/keratin composite containing hydrocortisone sodium succinate as a buccal mucoadhesive patch to treat desquamative gingivitis, which was fabricated through an environmental friendly process. Mucoadhesive films increase the advantage of higher efficiency and drug localization in the affected region. In this research, mucoadhesive films, for the release of hydrocortisone sodium succinate, were prepared using different ratios of chitosan, gelatin and keratin. In the first step, chitosan and gelatin proportions were optimized after evaluating the mechanical properties, swelling capacity, water uptake, stability, and biodegradation of the films. Then, keratin was added at different percentages to the optimum composite of chitosan and gelatin together with the drug. The results of surface pH showed that none of the samples were harmful to the buccal cavity. FTIR analysis confirmed the influence of keratin on the structure of the composite. The presence of a higher amount of keratin in the composite films resulted in high mechanical, mucoadhesive properties and stability, low water uptake and biodegradation in phosphate buffer saline (pH = 7.4) containing 10 4  U/ml lysozyme. The release profile of the films ascertained that keratin is a rate controller in the release of the hydrocortisone sodium succinate. Finally, chitosan/gelatin/keratin composite containing hydrocortisone sodium succinate can be employed in dental applications.

  10. Hepatoprotective Activity of a Complex Compound of 5-Hydroxy-6-Methyluracil and Succinic Acid in Experimental Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Yenikeyev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the hepatoprotective efficacy of a complex compound of 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil and succinic acid in experimental peritonitis. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 48 male albino rats in which peritonitis was simulated via intraperitoneal administration of 7% fecal suspension in a dose of 0.6 ml per 100 g bodyweight. The rate of free radical oxidation processes, the activity of antioxidative protection, the degree of endogenous intoxication and cytolytic syndrome, and the effect of the test compound on these parameters were estimated in the experiment. Results. With the development of an abdominal inflammatory process, there were increases in rates of endogenous intoxication and free radical oxidation (FRO, a change in the activity of antioxidative protection enzymes, and a reduction in the levels of ceruloplasmin and sulfahydryl groups. The complex compound, that comprised 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil and succinic acid used as monotherapy, reduced the degree of endogenous intoxication, FRO, and lipid peroxidation-antioxidative defense system imbalance. Conclusion. The experimental data suggest that the use of the complex compound containing succinic acid and 5-hydroxy-6-methy-luracil is pathogenetically warranted. Key words: peritonitis, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, succinic acid, pyrim-idine derivatives.

  11. Two transgenic mouse models for β-subunit components of succinate-CoA ligase yielding pleiotropic metabolic alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacso, Gergely; Ravasz, Dora; Doczi, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Succinate-CoA ligase (SUCL) is a heterodimer enzyme composed of Suclg1 α-subunit and a substrate-specific Sucla2 or Suclg2 β-subunit yielding ATP or GTP, respectively. In humans, the deficiency of this enzyme leads to encephalomyopathy with or without methylmalonyl aciduria, in addition to result...

  12. Surface Functionalization of WO3 Thin Films with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and Succinic Anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh; Tran, Thi Nhu Hoa; Tran, Quang Minh Nhat; Pham, Duy Phong; Pham, Kim Ngoc; Cao, Thi Thanh; Kim, Yong Soo; Tran, Dai Lam; Ju, Heongkyu; Phan, Bach Thang

    2017-06-01

    We report effects of oxygen plasma treatment on the surface functionalization of WO3 thin films with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and succinic anhydride (SA). X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the existence of the WO3 phase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement shows clear bands at 1040 cm-1 (Si-O-Si), 1556 cm-1 (N-H), 1655 cm-1 (C=O), 2937 cm-1 (C-H) and 3298 cm-1 (N-H), confirming the surface functionalization efficiency enhanced by prior treatment of oxygen plasma. It thus follows that the prior oxygen plasma treatment activates hydroxylation with more -OH groups on the WO3 surface, which can pave a highly efficient way to the surface functionalization by APTES and SA.

  13. Vickers microhardness studies on solution-grown single crystals of potassium boro-succinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipriya, M.; Rajan Babu, D.; Ezhil Vizhi, R.

    2015-02-01

    The semiorganic crystals of potassium boro-succinate (KBS) were grown by slow evaporation method. KBS crystallizes in monoclinic system which was confirmed by powder XRD analysis. Vickers microhardness study has been carried out over a load range of 25-100 g. The Vickers hardness numbers (Hv) of the material increases as the load increases so the material is suitable for device fabrication. The Meyer index 'n' is estimated to be greater than 1.6, the crystal system belongs to the soft material category. The elastic stiffness coefficient, c11, has also been calculated using Wooster's empirical relation from the hardness data. The fracture toughness values 'Kc', determined from measurements of crack lengths, were estimated to be 0.15166 MN/m3/2. The brittleness indices 'Bi' were estimated as 276 m-1/2.

  14. Enhanced performance of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X W; Zhang, C-A; Wang, P L; Zhao, J; Zhang, W; Ji, J H; Hua, K; Zhou, J; Yang, X B; Li, X P

    2012-05-08

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were facilely prepared via in situ polymerization. The properties of the nanocomposites were studied using FTIR, XRD, and (1)H NMR, and the state of dispersion of GO in the PBS matrix was examined by SEM. The crystallization and melting behavior of the PBS matrix in the presence of dispersed GO nanosheets have been studied by DSC and polarized optical microscopy. Through the mechnical testing machine and DMA, PBS/GO nanocomposites with 3% GO have shown a 43% increase in tensile strength and a 45% improvement in storage modulus. This high performance of the nanocomposites is mainly attributed to the high strength of graphene oxide combined with the strong interfacial interactions in the uniformly dispersed PBS/GO nanocomposites.

  15. Preparation of nanocomposites based on poly(Butylene Succinate) and montmorillonite organoclay via in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Leticia P.; Moreira, Andrei N.; Souza Junior, Fernando G. de; Pinto, Jose Carlos Costa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and organophilic montmorillonite were synthesized via in situ polymerization using three different clay compositions (4, 6 and 8 wt%). The products were characterized by several different techniques. X-ray diffraction was useful to confirm the increase of the interlayer spacing of the clay due to the presence of the polymer chains among layers. Thermal analysis indicated that the polymerization method chosen led to materials with lower thermal stability compared to the pure PBS, due to the difficulty of chain growth in the presence of the clay. Low-field NMR technique was used to assess clay dispersion in the polymer, with exfoliated structures predominating in the nanocomposites. (author)

  16. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    composition of the specific biomass feedstock, as well as which pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation and extraction techniques are used. Furthermore, integrating biological processes into the biorefinery that effectively consume CO2 will become increasingly important. Such process integration could...... significantly improve the sustainability indicators of the overall biorefinery process. In this study, unconventional lignocellulosic- and aquatic biomasses were investigated as biorefinery feedstocks. The studied biomasses were Jerusalem artichoke, industrial hemp and macroalgae species Laminaria digitata....... The chemical composition of biomasses was determined in order to demonstrate their biorefinery potential. Bioethanol and biogas along with succinic acid production were the explored bioconversion routes, while potential production of other compounds was also investigated. Differences and changes in biomass...

  17. Dissolving polyvinylpyrrolidone-based microneedle systems for in-vitro delivery of sumatriptan succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnander, P; Simon, L; Spilgies, H; Koch, A; Scherr, S

    2018-03-01

    In-vitro permeation studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of fabricating dissolving-microneedle-array systems to release sumatriptan succinate. The formulations consisted mainly of the encapsulated active ingredient and a water-soluble biologically compatible polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tests with Franz-type diffusion cells and Göttingen minipig skins showed an increase of the transdermal flux compared to passive diffusion. A preparation, containing 30% by mass of PVP and 8.7mg sumatriptan, produced a delivery rate of 395±31μg/cm 2 h over a 7-hour period after a negligible lag time of approximately 39min. Theoretically, a 10.7cm 2 microneedle-array patch loaded with 118.8mg of the drug would provide the required plasma concentration, 72ng/mL, for nearly 7h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The ALDH21 gene found in lower plants and some vascular plants codes for a NADP+ -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopečná, Martina; Vigouroux, Armelle; Vilím, Jan; Končitíková, Radka; Briozzo, Pierre; Hájková, Eva; Jašková, Lenka; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2017-10-01

    Lower plant species including some green algae, non-vascular plants (bryophytes) as well as the oldest vascular plants (lycopods) and ferns (monilophytes) possess a unique aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene named ALDH21, which is upregulated during dehydration. However, the gene is absent in flowering plants. Here, we show that ALDH21 from the moss Physcomitrella patens codes for a tetrameric NADP + -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSALDH), which converts succinic semialdehyde, an intermediate of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway, into succinate in the cytosol. NAD + is a very poor coenzyme for ALDH21 unlike for mitochondrial SSALDHs (ALDH5), which are the closest related ALDH members. Structural comparison between the apoform and the coenzyme complex reveal that NADP + binding induces a conformational change of the loop carrying Arg-228, which seals the NADP + in the coenzyme cavity via its 2'-phosphate and α-phosphate groups. The crystal structure with the bound product succinate shows that its carboxylate group establishes salt bridges with both Arg-121 and Arg-457, and a hydrogen bond with Tyr-296. While both arginine residues are pre-formed for substrate/product binding, Tyr-296 moves by more than 1 Å. Both R121A and R457A variants are almost inactive, demonstrating a key role of each arginine in catalysis. Our study implies that bryophytes but presumably also some green algae, lycopods and ferns, which carry both ALDH21 and ALDH5 genes, can oxidize SSAL to succinate in both cytosol and mitochondria, indicating a more diverse GABA shunt pathway compared with higher plants carrying only the mitochondrial ALDH5. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gamma radiation effects on random copolymers based on poly(butylene succinate) for packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrin, M.; Macerata, E.; Consolati, G.; Quasso, F.; Genovese, L.; Soccio, M.; Giola, M.; Lotti, N.; Munari, A.; Mariani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Within the context of new bioplastic materials, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and four novel poly(butylene/thiodiethylene succinate) random copolymers (PBS-PTDGS), in sheets as well as in films, were exposed to gamma radiation, in air and in water, and their behavior along with the effect on their biodegradability was investigated. The molecular weight data obtained from gel permeation chromatography indicate that the sensibility to radiation increases with the amount of sulfur-containing co-unit (TDGS). At 200 kGy the average molecular weight of PBS film halves, while for P(BS60TDGS40) the residual molecular weight is about 20%. The calculated intermolecular crosslink Gx and scissioning Gs yields confirmed that degradation is predominant over crosslink for all the aliphatic systems. As shown by thermal analyses, gamma radiation affects the thermal properties, leading to an increased crystallinity of the systems, remarkable for PBS, and lower decomposition temperatures. Variations of crystallinity with the increasing absorbed dose were confirmed also by PALS analyses. Water contact angle measurements revealed post-irradiation wettability alterations that could positively affect polymer biodegradability. In particular, when irradiated in water at 100 kGy PBS film exhibits a water contact angle decrease of about 17%, indicating an enhanced wettability. After degradation in compost, changes in the surface morphology were observed by means of SEM and sample weight losses were determined, at different extent, according to the irradiation environment. Interestingly, after 52 days in compost PBS films, both pristine and irradiated in air at 25 kGy, showed a residual weight of about 60%, while the ones irradiated in water at 25 kGy of about 44%. Experimental data confirmed that gamma irradiation could represent a viable treatment to enhance biodegradation in compost of PBS and PBS-based copolymers.

  20. Metabolism of 14C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of [ 14 C]doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus [ 14 C]doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] acetic acid, 1-[1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination

  1. Mechanical and thermal properties of basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yihe; Yu Chunxiao; Chu, Paul K.; Lv Fengzhu; Zhang Changan; Ji Junhui; Zhang Rui; Wang Heli

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel basalt fiber-reinforced biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) composites have been successfully fabricated with various fiber loadings. ► The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved significantly by increasing the fiber loading in the composites. ► The impact strength of the BF/PBS composite decreases with the addition fibers primarily and increases with increasing fiber loading due to energy dissipation when the fibers are pulled out. ► Heat deflection temperature tests clearly show that the HDT of the basalt fiber reinforced PBS composites is significantly higher than the HDT of the PBS resin. - Abstract: Basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites have been fabricated with different fiber contents by a injection molding method and their tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as thermal stability have been investigated. The tensile and flexural properties of the PBS matrix resin are improved markedly by increasing the fiber contents in the composites. The values are relatively higher than the natural fiber/PP systems reported earlier by other research groups. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature (VST) of the composites are significantly higher than those of the neat PBS resin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) conducted on the fracture surfaces of the composites reveals superior interfacial linkage between the basalt fibers and PBS matrix. The results suggest that the BF/PBS composites may be a potential candidate of PP or PP composites to manufacturing some daily commodities to solve the “white pollution” in environmental management.

  2. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  3. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae, and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  4. Binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium for the systems formed by succinic acid, urea and diethylene glycol: Determination and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanxun; Li, Congcong; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was determined. • Solubility of succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol was determined. • Three ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the ternary system. • The ternary phase diagrams were correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solid-liquid phase equilibrium for binary system of succinic acid + diethylene glycol at the temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 333.15) K and ternary system of (succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol) at 298.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K was built by using the isothermal saturation method under atmospheric pressure (101.2 kPa), and the solubilities were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography. The solid-phases formed in the ternary system of ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) were confirmed by Schreinemaker’s method of wet residue, which corresponded to urea, succinic acid, and adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid (mole ratio). Three isothermal phase diagrams for the ternary system were constructed based on the measured mutual solubility. Each isothermal phase diagram included six crystallization fields, three invariant curves, two invariant points and two co-saturated points. The crystalline region of adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid is larger than those of the other two solids. The solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was correlated with the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation and NRTL model; and the mutual solubility of the ternary ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) system was correlated and calculated by the NRTL model. The interaction parameters’ values of succinic acid-urea were acquired. The value of RMSD was 7.11 × 10 −3 for the ternary system. The calculation results had good agreement with the experiment values. Furthermore, the densities of equilibrium liquid phase were acquired. The phase diagrams and the thermodynamic model of the ternary system could provide the basis for design of

  5. Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency due to mutations in SUCLA2 and SUCLG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzo, Rosalba; Verrigni, Daniela; Rasmussen, Magnhild

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The encephalomyopathic mtDNA depletion syndrome with methylmalonic aciduria is associated with deficiency of succinate-CoA ligase, caused by mutations in SUCLA2 or SUCLG1. We report here 25 new patients with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency, and review the clinical and molecular findings...... deficiency of complexes I and IV, but normal histological and biochemical findings in muscle did not preclude a diagnosis of succinate-CoA ligase deficiency. In five patients, the urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid was only marginally elevated, whereas elevated plasma methylmalonic acid was consistently...

  6. Generation of Murine Cardiac Pacemaker Cell Aggregates Based on ES-Cell-Programming in Combination with Myh6-Promoter-Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmbach, Christian; Jung, Julia J.; David, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of the “sick sinus syndrome” is based on artificial pacemakers. These bear hazards such as battery failure and infections. Moreover, they lack hormone responsiveness and the overall procedure is cost-intensive. “Biological pacemakers” generated from PSCs may become an alternative, yet the typical content of pacemaker cells in Embryoid Bodies (EBs) is extremely low. The described protocol combines “forward programming” of murine PSCs via the sinus node inducer TBX3 with Myh6-promoter based antibiotic selection. This yields cardiomyocyte aggregates consistent of >80% physiologically functional pacemaker cells. These “induced-sinoatrial-bodies” (“iSABs”) are spontaneously contracting at yet unreached frequencies (400-500 bpm) corresponding to nodal cells isolated from mouse hearts and are able to pace murine myocardium ex vivo. Using the described protocol highly pure sinus nodal single cells can be generated which e.g. can be used for in vitro drug testing. Furthermore, the iSABs generated according to this protocol may become a crucial step towards heart tissue engineering. PMID:25742394

  7. Fractalkine Signaling Regulates Macrophage Recruitment into the Cochlea and Promotes the Survival of Spiral Ganglion Neurons after Selective Hair Cell Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Zamani, Darius; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Hirose, Keiko; Warchol, Mark E

    2015-11-11

    Macrophages are recruited into the cochlea in response to injury caused by acoustic trauma or ototoxicity, but the nature of the interaction between macrophages and the sensory structures of the inner ear remains unclear. The present study examined the role of fractalkine signaling in regulating the injury-evoked behavior of macrophages following the selective ablation of cochlear hair cells. We used a novel transgenic mouse model in which the human diphtheria toxin receptor (huDTR) is selectively expressed under the control of Pou4f3, a hair cell-specific transcription factor. Administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to these mice resulted in nearly complete ablation of cochlear hair cells, with no evident pathology among supporting cells, spiral ganglion neurons, or cells of the cochlear lateral wall. Hair cell death led to an increase in macrophages associated with the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. Their numbers peaked at 14 days after DT and then declined at later survival times. Increased macrophages were also observed within the spiral ganglion, but their numbers remained elevated for (at least) 56 d after DT. To investigate the role of fractalkine signaling in macrophage recruitment, we crossed huDTR mice to a mouse line that lacks expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1). Disruption of fractalkine signaling reduced macrophage recruitment into both the sensory epithelium and spiral ganglion and also resulted in diminished survival of spiral ganglion neurons after hair cell death. Our results suggest a fractalkine-mediated interaction between macrophages and the neurons of the cochlea. It is known that damage to the inner ear leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells (macrophages), but the chemical signals that initiate this recruitment and the functions of macrophages in the damaged ear are unclear. Here we show that fractalkine signaling regulates macrophage recruitment into the cochlea and also promotes the survival of cochlear afferents after

  8. Assessing food selection in a health promotion program: validation of a brief instrument for American Indian children in the southwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K M; Cunningham-Sabo, L; Lambert, L C; McCalman, R; Skipper, B J; Davis, S M

    2000-02-01

    Brief dietary assessment instruments are needed to evaluate behavior changes of participants in dietary intervention programs. The purpose of this project was to design and validate an instrument for children participating in Pathways to Health, a culturally appropriate, cancer prevention curriculum. Validation of a brief food selection instrument, Yesterday's Food Choices (YFC), which contained 33 questions about foods eaten the previous day with response choices of yes, no, or not sure. Reference data for validation were 24-hour dietary recalls administered individually to 120 students selected randomly. The YFC and 24-hour dietary recalls were administered to American Indian children in fifth- and seventh-grade classes in the Southwest United States. Dietary recalls were coded for food items in the YFC and results were compared for each item using percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Percentage agreement for all items was greater than 60%; for most items it was greater than 70%, and for several items it was greater than 80%. The amount of agreement beyond that explained by chance (kappa statistic) was generally small. Three items showed substantial agreement beyond chance (kappa > or = 0.6); 2 items showed moderate agreement (kappa = 0.40 to 0.59) most items showed fair agreement (kappa = 0.20 to 0.39). The food items showing substantial agreement were hot or cold cereal, low-fat milk, and mutton or chile stew. Fried or scrambled eggs and deep-fried foods showed moderate agreement beyond chances. Previous development and validation of brief food selection instruments for children participating in health promotion programs has had limited success. In this study, instrument-related factors that apparently contributed to poor agreement between data from the YFC and 24-hour dietary recall were inclusion of categories of foods vs specific foods; food knowledge, preparation, and vocabulary, item length, and overreporting of attractive foods. Collecting and

  9. Selective suppression of autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by two-step transcriptional amplified human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter on ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Xin, Xing; Xia, Zhijun; Zhai, Xingyue; Shen, Keng

    2014-07-01

    The objective of our study was to construct recombinant adenovirus (rAd) AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3, which expresses autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (hTERTp) with a two-step transcription amplification (TSTA) system and investigate its antitumor effects on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent detection was used to detect EGFP expression in various cells. Cell viabilities were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry. RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays were used to detect cellular apoptotic activities. Tumor growth and survival of tumor-bearing mice were studied. The hTERTp-TSTA system showed the strongest activity in hTERT-positive cancer cells when compared with hTERTp and cytomeglovirus promoter (CMVp). In contrast, it showed no activity in hTERT‑negative HUVECs. AdHTVP2G5‑rev-casp3 markedly suppressed the survival of AO cells in a dose-dependent modality with a viability rate of 17.8 ± 3.5% at an MOI of 70, which was significantly lower than that by AdHT-rev-casp3 and Ad-rev-casp3 (rAds which express rev-caspase-3 driven by hTERTp and CMVp, respectively). In contrast, AdHTVP2G5‑rev-casp3 induced little HUVEC death with a viability rate of 92.7 ± 5.2% at the same MOI. Additionally, AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 (MOI=70) caused significant apoptosis in AO cells with an apoptotic rate of 42%. The tumor growth suppression rate of AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 was 81.52%, significantly higher than that of AdHT-rev-casp3 (54.94%) or Ad-rev-casp3 (21.35%). AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 significantly improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice with little liver damage, with a mean survival of 258 ± 28 days. These results showed that AdHTVP2G5-rev-casp3 caused effective apoptosis with significant tumor selectivity, strongly suppressed tumor growth and improved mouse survival with little liver toxicity. It can be a potent therapeutic agent for tumor targeted treatment of ovarian cancer.

  10. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2 were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial

  11. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial cell activation in

  12. Characterization of the bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein gene family – analysis of gene sequences, regulatory regions within the promoter and expression of selected genes

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    Walker Angela M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs belong to a large family of aspartic peptidases expressed exclusively in the placenta of species in the Artiodactyla order. In cattle, the PAG gene family is comprised of at least 22 transcribed genes, as well as some variants. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the PAG family segregates into 'ancient' and 'modern' groupings. Along with sequence differences between family members, there are clear distinctions in their spatio-temporal distribution and in their relative level of expression. In this report, 1 we performed an in silico analysis of the bovine genome to further characterize the PAG gene family, 2 we scrutinized proximal promoter sequences of the PAG genes to evaluate the evolution pressures operating on them and to identify putative regulatory regions, 3 we determined relative transcript abundance of selected PAGs during pregnancy and, 4 we performed preliminary characterization of the putative regulatory elements for one of the candidate PAGs, bovine (bo PAG-2. Results From our analysis of the bovine genome, we identified 18 distinct PAG genes and 14 pseudogenes. We observed that the first 500 base pairs upstream of the translational start site contained multiple regions that are conserved among all boPAGs. However, a preponderance of conserved regions, that harbor recognition sites for putative transcriptional factors (TFs, were found to be unique to the modern boPAG grouping, but not the ancient boPAGs. We gathered evidence by means of Q-PCR and screening of EST databases to show that boPAG-2 is the most abundant of all boPAG transcripts. Finally, we provided preliminary evidence for the role of ETS- and DDVL-related TFs in the regulation of the boPAG-2 gene. Conclusion PAGs represent a relatively large gene family in the bovine genome. The proximal promoter regions of these genes display differences in putative TF binding sites, likely contributing to observed

  13. Polymer blends of polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene succinate-adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenguang

    A series of blends consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and aliphatic succinate polyester (BionolleRTM #3000) had been prepared and investigated. The results of mechanical property investigations showed that using 20 wt% Bionolle#3000 can significantly increase the toughness of PLA. BionolleRTM #3000 also reduces the physical aging rate of PLA so blends remain tough longer. Conversely, the stiffness of BionolleRTM #3000 can be significantly increased by blending in PLA. DMA and DSC results show that PLA/BionolleRTM 3000 blends are not thermodynamically miscible, but are compatible blends. Studies have also been performed to determine the amount and rate of aerobic biodegradation of PLA/aliphatic succinate polyester blends in biologically active composting, enzymatic, and soil environments. The changes in molecular weight, molecular structure and thermal properties in the composting environment were also studied by GPC, NMR and DSC analyses. The research results showed BionolleRTM #3000 had a high degradation rate, while PLA had a low degradation rate. PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends had moderate degradation rates that increased with BionolleRTM #3000 content. The melt flow behavior of PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends has been studied by capillary rheometry. The relationship of the blends' viscosity with their composition, shear stress, shear rate, and temperature has been investigated. Power law index and activation energy of PLA, BionolleRTM #3000 and their blends have been calculated. The experimental and theoretical data can let us understand the processability of PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the morphological structure of the PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends. Micrographs of the samples made from different methods (blown film, extrudate and compression molding sheet) were taken; their differences in morphology were compared. For comparison, the micrographs of blend PLA/BionolleRTM #6000 was also studied. The

  14. Vitamin E succinate-conjugated F68 micelles for mitoxantrone delivery in enhancing anticancer activity

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    Liu Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuling Liu,1,* Yingqi Xu,2,* Minghui Wu,3 Lijiao Fan,1 Chengwei He,2 Jian-Bo Wan,2 Peng Li,2 Meiwan Chen,2 Hui Li11Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mitoxantrone (MIT is a chemotherapeutic agent with promising anticancer efficacy. In this study, Pluronic F68-vitamine E succinate (F68-VES amphiphilic polymer micelles were developed for delivering MIT and enhancing its anticancer activity. MIT-loaded F68–VES (F68–VES/MIT micelles were prepared via the solvent evaporation method with self-assembly under aqueous conditions. F68–VES/MIT micelles were found to be of optimal particle size with the narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images of F68–VES/MIT micelles showed homogeneous spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. F68–VES micelles had a low critical micelle concentration value of 3.311 mg/L, as well as high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, F68–VES/MIT micelles were stable in the presence of fetal bovine serum for 24 hours and maintained sustained drug release in vitro. Remarkably, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of F68–VES/MIT micelles was lower than that of free MIT in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (two human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, compared with free MIT, there was an increased trend of apoptosis and cellular uptake of F68–VES/MIT micelles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that F68–VES polymer micelles were able to effectively deliver MIT and largely improve its potency in cancer therapy. Keywords: F68, vitamin E

  15. Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Lagrain, Bert; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-01-15

    Fermenting yeast does not merely cause dough leavening, but also contributes to the bread aroma and might alter dough rheology. Here, the yeast carbon metabolism was mapped during bread straight-dough fermentation. The concentration of most metabolites changed quasi linearly as a function of fermentation time. Ethanol and carbon dioxide concentrations reached up to 60 mmol/100g flour. Interestingly, high levels of glycerol (up to 10 mmol/100g flour) and succinic acid (up to 1.6 mmol/100g flour) were produced during dough fermentation. Further tests showed that, contrary to current belief, the pH decrease in fermenting dough is primarily caused by the production of succinic acid by the yeast instead of carbon dioxide dissolution or bacterial organic acids. Together, our results provide a comprehensive overview of metabolite production during dough fermentation and yield insight into the importance of some of these metabolites for dough properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of lactate and succinate from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Recent increasing attention to environmental issues and the shortage of oil resources have spurred political and industrial interest in the development of environmental friendly and cost-effective processes for the production of bio-based chemicals from renewable resources. Thus, microbial production of commercially important chemicals is viewed as a desirable way to replace current petrochemical production. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, is one of the most important industrial microorganisms as a platform for the production of various amino acids. Recent research has explored the use of C. glutamicum as a potential cell factory for producing organic acids such as lactate and succinate, both of which are commercially important bulk chemicals. Here, we summarize current understanding in this field and recent metabolic engineering efforts to develop C. glutamicum strains that efficiently produce L- and D-lactate, and succinate from renewable resources.

  17. The H+/O ratio of proton translocation linked to the oxidation of succinate by mitochondria. Reply to a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, A L; Reynafarje, B; Hendler, R W; Shrager, R I

    1985-11-18

    Costa, L.E., Reynafarje, B. and Lehninger, A.L. [(1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4802-4811] have reported 'second-generation' measurements of the H+/O ratio approaching 8.0 for vectorial H+ translocation coupled to succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria. In a Commentary in this Journal [Krab, K., Soos, J. and Wikström, M. (1984) FEBS Lett. 178, 187-192] it was concluded that the measurements of Costa et al. significantly overestimated the true H+/O stoichiometry. It is shown here that the mathematical simulation on which Krab et al. based this claim is faulty and that data reported by Costa et al. had already excluded the criticism advanced by Krab et al. Also reported are new data, obtained under conditions in which the arguments of Krab et al. are irrelevant, which confirm that the H+/O ratio for succinate oxidation extrapolated to level flow is close to 8.

  18. Contribution of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the glyoxylate shunt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to succinic acid production during dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Aslankoohi, Elham; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-07-02

    Succinic acid produced by yeast during bread dough fermentation can significantly affect the rheological properties of the dough. By introducing mutations in the model S288C yeast strain, we show that the oxidative pathway of the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt contribute significantly to succinic acid production during dough fermentation. More specifically, deletion of ACO1 and double deletion of ACO1 and ICL1 resulted in a 36 and 77% decrease in succinic acid levels in fermented dough, respectively. Similarly, double deletion of IDH1 and IDP1 decreased succinic acid production by 85%, while also affecting the fermentation rate. By contrast, double deletion of SDH1 and SDH2 resulted in a two-fold higher succinic acid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Deletion of fumarate reductase activity (FRD1 and OSM1) in the reductive pathway of the TCA cycle did not affect the fermentation rate and succinic acid production. The changes in the levels of succinic acid produced by mutants Δidh1Δidp1 (low level) and Δsdh1Δsdh2 (high level) in fermented dough only resulted in small pH differences, reflecting the buffering capacity of dough at a pH of around 5.1. Moreover, Rheofermentometer analysis using these mutants revealed no difference in maximum dough height and gas retention capacity with the dough prepared with S288C. The impact of the changed succinic acid profile on the organoleptic or antimicrobial properties of bread remains to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over a novel Ce-Sn-Ti mixed oxides catalyst: Promotional effect of SnO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming'e.; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yin'e.

    2015-07-01

    A series of novel catalysts (CexSny) for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 were prepared by the inverse co-precipitation method. The aim of this novel design was to improve the NO removal efficiency of CeTi by the introduction of SnO2. It was found that the Ce-Sn-Ti catalyst was much more active than Ce-Ti and the best Ce:Sn molar ratio was 2:1. Ce2Sn1 possessed a satisfied NO removal efficiency at low temperature (160-280 °C), while over 90% NO removal efficiency maintained in the temperature range of 280-400 °C at the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 50,000 h-1. Besides, Ce2Sn1 kept a stable NO removal efficiency within a wide range of GHSV and a long period of reacting time. Meanwhile, Ce2Sn1 exhibited remarkable resistance to both respectively and simultaneously H2O and SO2 poisoning due to the introduction of SnO2. The promotional effect of SnO2 was studied by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) for detail information. The characterization results revealed that the excellent catalytic performance of Ce2Sn1 was associated with the higher specific surface area, larger pore volume and poorer crystallization. Besides, the introduction of SnO2 could result in not only greater conversion of Ce4+ to Ce3+ but also the increase amount of chemisorbed oxygen, which are beneficial to improve the SCR activity. More importantly, a novel peak appearing at lower temperatures through the new redox equilibrium of 2Ce4+ + Sn2+ ↔ 2Ce3+ + Sn4+ and higher total H2 consumption can be obtained by the addition of SnO2. Finally, the possible reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction over Ce2Sn1 was also proposed.

  20. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Synthesized cellulose/succinic anhydride as an ion exchanger. Calorimetry of divalent cations in aqueous suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Julio C.P. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, Edson C. [LIMAV, Federal University of Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Santana, Sirlane A.A. [Departamento de Quimica/CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Av. dos Portugueses S/N, Campus do Bacanga, 65080-540 Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} Synthetic route based on anhydride melting point. {yields} Cellulosic biopolymer/anhydride as ion exchanger. {yields} Calorimetry of cation exchange at solid/liquid interface. {yields} Favorable thermodynamic data of exchanging process. - Abstract: A synthetic route to a biopolymer/anhydride ion exchanger adds cellulose directly to molten succinic anhydride in a quasi solvent-free procedure. An amount of 3.07 {+-} 0.05 mmol of pendant groups incorporated onto the polymeric structure, which was characterized by elemental analysis, solid state carbon NMR, infrared, X-ray and thermogravimetry. The new polysaccharide is able to exchange cations from aqueous solution through a batchwise methodology, to obtain 2.46 {+-} 0.09 mmol g{sup -1} for divalent cobalt and nickel cations. The net thermal effects obtained from calorimetric titrations gave endothermic values of 3.81 {+-} 0.02 and 2.35 {+-} 0.01 kJ mol{sup -1}. The spontaneity of this ion-exchange process reflected in negative Gibbs energies and also a positive entropic contribution. These thermodynamic data at the solid/liquid interface suggests a favorable ion exchange process for this anchored biopolymer, for cation removal from the environment.

  2. Mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(butylenes succinate) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenmin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers have attracted much attention nowadays, and more and more researches have been done on biodegradable polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were melt-mixing with poly (butylenes succinate) (PBS) to prepare the material, which could be used in the biomedical industry. To develop high-performance PBS for cryogenic engineering applications, it is necessary to investigate the cryogenic mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of HA/PBS composites. Cryogenic mechanical behaviors of the composites were studied in terms of tensile and impact strength at the glass transition temperature (-30°C) and compared to their corresponding behaviors at room temperature. With the increase of HA content, the crystallization of HA/PBS composites decreased and crystallization onset temperature shifted to a lower temperature. The diameter of spherulites increased at first and decreased with a further HA content. At the same time, the crystallization rate became slow when the HA content was no more than 15wt% and increased when HA content reached 20wt%. In all, the results we obtained demonstrate that HA/PBS composites reveal a better tensile strength at -30°C in contrast to the strength at room temperature. HA particles with different amount affect the crystallization of PBS in different ways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cloning and functional analysis of succinate dehydrogenase gene PsSDHA in Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuemin; Ye, Tao; Gao, Zhimou

    2017-07-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is one of the key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and a proven target of fungicides for true fungi. To explore the roles of the SDHA gene in Phytophthora sojae, we first cloned PsSDHA to construct the PsSDHA silenced expression vector pHAM34-PsSDHA, and then utilized PEG to mediate the P. sojae protoplast transformation experiment. Through transformation screening, we obtained the silenced mutants A1 and A3, which have significant suppressive effect. Further study showed that the hyphae of the silenced mutant strains were shorter and more bifurcated; the growth of the silenced mutants was clearly inhibited in 10% V8 agar medium containing sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) or Congo Red, respectively. The pathogenicity of the silenced mutants was significantly reduced compared with the wild-type strain and the mock. The results could help us better to understand the position and function of SDH in P. sojae and provide a proven target of fungicides for the oomycete. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  5. Ovicidal activity of succinic acid isolated from sisal waste (Agave sisalana against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Silva de Souza Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the succinic acid (SA isolated from sisal waste against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats, using the egg hatching and larvae motility assays. In addition, potential cytotoxicity of SA on Vero cell cultures was investigated by means of MTT (3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide test. The SA induced a significant inhibition of egg hatching (P<0.05 at all concentrations tested (60 to 250µg mL-1, and the concentrations to inhibit 50% (EC50 and 90% (EC90 values (mean ± standard deviation were 90.3±2.8 and 130.6±3.5µg mL-1, respectively. The SA has not shown larvicidal activity. The SA was less toxic to the Vero cells, with the mean percentage of cell viability equal to 85±6.2% at the concentration of 130µg mL-1. The results suggested that SA has potential anthelmintic effect; although, more research is needed to confirm its activity in vivo.

  6. Succinate Dehydrogenase B Subunit Immunohistochemical Expression Predicts Aggressiveness in Well Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milione, Massimo [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Pusceddu, Sara [Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Gasparini, Patrizia [Molecular Cytogenetics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Melotti, Flavia [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Maisonneuve, Patrick [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan 20141 (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo [Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Braud, Filippo G. de [Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Pelosi, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.pelosi@unimi.it [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Università degli Studi, Facoltà di Medicina, Milan 20122 (Italy)

    2012-08-16

    Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene.

  7. Succinate Dehydrogenase B Subunit Immunohistochemical Expression Predicts Aggressiveness in Well Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milione, Massimo; Pusceddu, Sara; Gasparini, Patrizia; Melotti, Flavia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Braud, Filippo G. de; Pelosi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene

  8. Effects of Radiation on Mechanical Properties of Poly (butylene succinate) and Cassava Starch Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemvichian, K.; Dechasasawat, K.; Kangsumrith, W.; Suwanmala, P.

    2014-01-01

    This research compared the effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation at different doses on the mechanical properties of polymer blends between poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and cassava starch. Two types of starch were used to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS), native cassava starch and hydrophobic starch. PBS/TPS blends were compounded at five different weight ratios using a twin-screw extruder. Mechanical properties and degradation were evaluated in comparison to unirradiated samples. Results indicated that the incorpora- tion of TPS prepared from native cassava starch decreased the mechanical properties of PBS/TPS blends, whereas the addition of TPS prepared from hydrophobic starch improved the mechanical properties of the blends. In addition, the maximum mechanical properties of PBS/TPS blends were achieved when samples were exposed to irradiation at 120 kGy. Using soil burial evaluation, the degradation rate of blends was found to increase with the addition of TPS. Therefore we have demonstrated in this study that the type of TPS and irradiation treatment can significantly alter the mechanical properties and degradation of PBS/TPS blends.

  9. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  10. Preparation And Physicochemical Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA) Modified Sago Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Farhana Zainal Abiddin; Anida Yusoff; Noorlaila Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Starch from sago (Metroxylon sagu) was esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) in order to regulate its shortcoming by adding amphiphilic properties. The objective of this work is to determine the physicochemical properties of native sago and OSA sago starches. The OSA sago starch was produced according to the optimum condition generated via response surface methodology (RSM) with 5.00 % OSA at pH 7.20 and a reaction time of 9.65 hours. The esterified sago starch gives a degree of substitution (DS) value of 0.012. The physicochemical properties of OSA sago starch was determined by measuring the amylose content, laser diffraction particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The amylose content for OSA sago starch was found to be reduced after esterification reaction. The particle size of OSA sago starch was found to increase significantly (p<0.05) compared to their native starches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that OSA starch developed slightly rough surface and their edges lost some definition. FT-IR spectroscopy shows that there was appearance of new absorption correspond to ester carbonyl group (1717 cm -1 ) and carboxylate RCOO- (1569 cm -1 ). This study showed that the physicochemical properties of modified starches were influenced not only by DS but also on the botanical origin of the starches. (author)

  11. Synthesis and antifungal activity of nicotinamide derivatives as succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Hao; Ma, Liang; Dai, Zhi-Cheng; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Dong-Dong; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2014-05-07

    Thirty-eight nicotinamide derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI) and precisely characterized by (1)H NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The compounds were evaluated against two phytopathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, by mycelia growth inhibition assay in vitro. Most of the compounds displayed moderate activity, in which, 3a-17 exhibited the most potent antifungal activity against R. solani and S. sclerotiorum with IC50 values of 15.8 and 20.3 μM, respectively, comparable to those of the commonly used fungicides boscalid and carbendazim. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of nicotinamide derivatives demonstrated that the meta-position of aniline was a key position contributing to the antifungal activity. Inhibition activities against two fungal SDHs were tested and achieved the same tendency with the data acquired from in vitro antifungal assay. Significantly, 3a-17 was demonstrated to successfully suppress disease development in S. sclerotiorum infected cole in vivo. In the molecular docking simulation, sulfur and chlorine of 3a-17 were bound with PHE291 and PRO150 of the SDH homology model, respectively, which could explain the probable mechanism of action between the inhibitory and target protein.

  12. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(butylene succinate Films Reinforced with Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangviroon Nanthaporn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, bioplastics have become more popular resulting from the growing concerns on environmental issues and the rising fossil fuel price. However, their applications were limited by its mechanical and thermal properties. The aim of this research is thus to improve mechanical and thermal properties of PBS bioplastic films by reinforcing with silica. Due to the poor interfacial interaction between the PBS matrix and silica, glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly(butylene succinate (PBS-g-GMA was used as a compatibilizer in order to improve the interaction between bioplastic films and filler. PBS-g-GMA was prepared in a twin-screw extruder and analyzed by the FTIR spectrometer. PBS and silica were then mixed in a twin-screw extruder and processed into films by a chill-roll cast extruder. The effects of silica loading on thermal and mechanical properties of the prepared bioplastic films were investigated. It was found that the mechanical properties of PBS/silica composite films were improved when 1%wt of silica was added. However, the mechanical properties decreased with increasing silica loading due to the agglomeration of silica particles. The results also show that the silica/PBS films with PBS-g-GMA possessed improved mechanical properties over the films without the compatibilizer.

  13. Influence of protoporphyrin IX loaded phloroglucinol succinic acid dendrimer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Suresh; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the major problems reported clinically for photosensitizers (PS) in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is, the cause of side-effects to normal tissue due to dark toxicity. The usefulness of photosensitizers can be made possible by reducing its dark toxicity nature. In such scenario, biocompatible carriers can be used as a drug delivery system to evade the problems that arises while using free (dark toxic) drugs. So in this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system called Phloroglucinol Succinic acid (PGSA) dendrimer, entrapped a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) inside the system and investigated whether the photodynamic efficacy of the anionic surface charged dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation is enhanced than achieved by the free PpIX in HeLa cancer cell lines. Moreover, the Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored using 2‧,7‧-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA)- ROS Marker with phase contrast microscopy for the IC50 values of free and dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation. Similarly, the mode of cell death has been confirmed by cell cycle analysis for the same. For the in vitro PDT application, we have used a simple light source (Light Emitting Diode) with a power of 30-50 mW for 20 min irradiation. Hence, in this study we have taken steps to report this anionic drug delivery system is good to consider for the photodynamic therapy applications with the photosensitizer, PpIX which satisfied the prime requirement of PDT.

  14. Impaired succinic dehydrogenase activity of rat Purkinje cell mitochondria during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoretti, P; Bertoni-Freddari, C; Caselli, U; Paoloni, R; Meier-Ruge, W

    1998-03-16

    The perikaryal Purkinje cell mitochondria positive to the copper ferrocyanide histochemical reaction for succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) have been investigated by means of semiautomatic morphometric methods in rats of 3, 12 and 24 months of age. The number of organelles/microm3 of Purkinje cell cytoplasm (Numeric density: Nv), the average mitochondrial volume (V) and the mitochondrial volume fraction (Volume density: Vv) were the ultrastructural parameters taken into account. Nv was significantly higher at 12 than at 3 and 24 months of age. V was significantly decreased at 12 and 24 months of age, but no difference was envisaged between adult and old rats. Vv was significantly decreased in old animals vs. the other age groups. In young and old rats, the percentage of organelles larger than 0.32 microm3 was 13.5 and 11%, respectively, while these enlarged mitochondria accounted for less than 1% in the adult group. Since SDH activity is of critical importance when energy demand is high, the marked decrease of Vv supports an impaired capacity of the old Purkinje cells to match actual energy supply at sustained transmission of the nervous impulse. However, the high percentage of enlarged organelles found in old rats may witness a morphofunctional compensatory response.

  15. Effect of Rubberwood Content on Biodegradability of Poly(butylene succinate Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemhong Anankaphong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(butylene succinate (PBS biocomposites incorporated with rubberwood powder (RWP were fabricated with various RWP weight fractions (i.e., 0 to 40% wt by injection moulding process. The soil burial test was employed to examine the biodegradability of such biocomposites under outdoor environment for 60 days. The physical appearance, percentage weight loss, chemical structure, and mechanical properties before and after the soil burial test were determined. Apparent changes in physical appearance of the biocomposites from optical micrographs were detected in terms of surface morphology and colour. The percentage of crystallinity of PBS/RWP biocomposites was studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD technique, and the XRD pattern revealed a decrease in percentage of crystallinity due to enhancing RWP weight fractions. This may be attributed to a presence of rubberwood powders providing more disordered molecular chain arrangement of PBS matrix and also an agglomeration of the rubberwood powder content at greater concentration as seen in SEM micrographs. With increasing RWP weight fractions and burial time, the results exhibited a considerable change in chemical structure (essentially ester linkage due to biodegradation mechanism of PBS, relatively greater percentage weight loss, and a substantial decrease in flexural properties. Consequently, the results indicate that incorporating RWP enhances biodegradability of PBS/RWP biocomposites; that is, the biodegradation rate of biocomposites increases with increasing RWP weight fractions and burial time.

  16. Stoichiometry of mitochondrial H+ translocation coupled to succinate oxidation at level flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L E; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-04-25

    The mechanistic stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria in the presence of a permeant cation has been determined under level flow conditions with a membraneless fast responding O2 electrode kinetically matched with a glass pH electrode. The reactions were initiated by rapid injection of O2 into the anaerobically preincubated test system under conditions in which interfering H+ backflow was minimized. The rates of O2 uptake and H+ ejection, obtained from computer-fitted regression lines, were monotonic and first order over 75% of the course of O2 consumption. Extrapolation of the observed rates to zero time, at which zero delta mu H+ and thus level flow prevails, yielded vectorial H+/O flow ratios above 7 and closely approaching 8. The mitochondria undergo no irreversible change and give identical H+/O ratios on repeated tests. In a further refinement, the lower and upper limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio were determined to be 7.55 and 8.56, respectively, from plots of the rates of O2 uptake versus H+ ejection at increasing malonate and increasing valinomycin concentrations, respectively. It is therefore concluded that the mechanistic H+/O ratio for energy-conserving sites 2 + 3 is 8, in confirmation of earlier measurements. KCl concentration is critical for maximal observed H+/O ratios. Optimum conditions and possible errors in determination of mechanistic H+/O translocation ratios are discussed.

  17. Application of finite inverse gas chromatography in hypromellose acetate succinate-water-acetone systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Wei; Sturm, Derek R; Moser, Justin D; Danner, Ronald P

    2016-09-30

    A modification of a GC was developed to investigate both infinitely dilute and finite concentrations of solvents in polymers. Thermodynamic properties of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-L)-acetone-water systems are important for the optimization of spray-drying processes used in pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dispersion formulations. These properties, at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, were investigated using capillary column inverse gas chromatography (CCIGC). Water was much less soluble in the HPMCAS-L than acetone. Experiments were also conducted at infinitely dilute concentrations of one of the solvents in HPMCAS-L that was already saturated with the other solvent. Overall the partitioning of the water was not significantly affected by the presence of either water or acetone in the polymer. The acetone partition coefficient decreased as either acetone or water was added to the HPMCAS-L. A representation of the HPMCAS-L structure in terms of UNIFAC groups has been developed. With these groups, the UNIFAC-vdw-FV model did a reasonable job of predicting the phase equilibria in the binary and ternary systems. The Flory-Huggins correlation with fitted interaction parameters represented the data well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rheological, pasting, thermal and retrogradation properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin WON

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the rheological, pasting, and thermal properties of octenyl succinic anhydrate (OSA-modified potato starch. Potato starch was modified using different concentrations of OSA (0, 1, 3, and 5%, v/v. The degree of substitution (DS for the OSA-modified starch ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0055. The amylose leaching values of native and OSA-modified potato starch with different DS levels were in the range of 47.09-87.32%. The gel strength values of the OSA-modified starch were lower than those of native potato starch. Rapid Visco Analyzer data showed that peak, hot pasting, final and setback viscosities of the native starch decreased after OSA modification. Dynamic shear rheological tests, conducted at 4 °C, indicated that OSA-modified potato starch had weak gel-like behavior with the storage moduli (G' higher than the loss moduli (G” over most of the frequency ranges (0.63-63.8 rad·s-1.

  19. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Conghu; Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen. - Highlights: • Acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation. • Acylated collagen had stronger thermostability than native collagen. • Amide I was the most sensitive band to the temperature for acylated collagen. • Amide II was the most sensitive band to the temperature for native collagen. • Auto-peak at 1680 cm −1 for acylated collagen disappeared at higher temperature

  20. Analysis of Gas Permeability Characteristics of Poly(Lactic Acid/Poly(Butylene Succinate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas permeability and morphological properties of nanocomposites prepared by the mixing of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and clay was investigated. While the composition of PLA and PBS polymers was fixed as 80% and 20% by weight, respectively, for all the nanocomposites, clay contents varied from 1 to 10 wt%. From the morphological studies using both wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, the nanocomposite having 1 wt% of clay was considered to have a mixed morphology of intercalated and delaminated structure, while some clusters or agglomerated particles were detected for nanocomposites having 3 and more than 3 wt% of clay content. However, the average particle size of the dispersed PBS phase was reduced significantly from 7 μm to 30–40 nm with the addition of clay in the blend. The oxygen barrier property was improved significantly as compared to the water vapor. A model based on gas barrier property was used for the validation of the oxygen relative permeabilities of PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites. PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites validated the Bharadwaj model up to 3 wt% of clay contents only, while for nanocomposites of higher clay contents the Bharadwaj model was invalid due to the clusters and agglomerates formed.

  1. In-vitro responses of T lymphocytes to poly(butylene succinate) based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Montree; Patntirapong, Somying; Janvikul, Wanida; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai

    2017-04-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBSu) and PBSu/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composites are biocompatible and good candidates as bone graft materials. However, little is known about the responses of T lymphocytes to these biomaterials, which play an important role in the success of bone grafting. Activated T lymphocytes were cultured onto 32 mm diameter films (PBSu/TCP films), that had previously been placed in 6-well culture plates, for 8, 24 and 72 hours. A plastic-well culture plate was used as a control surface. The effects of PBSu-based biomaterials on T lymphocytes were examined by the using flow cytometry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These biomaterials were non-toxic to T lymphocytes, allowing their normal DNA synthesis and activation. All materials induced only transient activation of T lymphocytes, which existed no longer than 72 hours. Proportions of four main CD4/CD8 T lymphocyte subpopulations were not affected by these biomaterials. Moreover, PBSu and PBSu/TCP significantly suppressed the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 genes by 15-35% and 21-26%, respectively. In contrast, a PBSu/TCP composite (at PBSu:TCP=60:40) significantly stimulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-13 genes by 17% and 19%, respectively. PBSu and PBSu/TCP composites were non-toxic to T lymphocytes and did not induce unfavorable responses of T lymphocytes. The tested biomaterials down-regulated key proinflammatory cytokine genes and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in T lymphocytes. These suggest that the biomaterials studied are good candidates as bone graft materials.

  2. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śmiga-Matuszowicz, Monika, E-mail: monika.smiga-matuszowicz@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaczmarek, Marcin [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, de Gaulle' a Street 66, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L. [Medical University of Silesia, Department of General and Molecular Biology and Genetics, Medyków Street 18, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Technology and Fuels, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ziołowa Street 45, 40-635 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3 h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. - Highlights: • Isosorbide-based resin was used as a component of biodegradable scaffolds. • CAC/carboxylic acid system was proven as facile method to obtain porous scaffolds. • Porous scaffolds displayed the formation of hydroxyapatite at their surfaces.

  3. Alpha-tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors mitigate radiation combined injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijay K.; Wise, Stephen Y.; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O.; Beattie, Lindsay A.; Ducey, Elizabeth J.; Seed, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5–12.5 Gy) of 60 Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans. (author)

  4. Influences of hyperbranched poly(amide-ester) on the properties of poly(butylene succinate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Run, Mingtao; Wang, Jian; Yao, Meng; Guo, Lijie; Wang, Hai-jun; Ba, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    The polymer blends of hyperbranched poly(amide-ester) and poly(butylene succinate) (HBP/PBS) were prepared by melt-blending method. The molecular interaction within the blends, phase morphology, crystal morphology, mechanical, rheological and dynamic mechanical properties were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile machine, polarized optical microscopy, rotational rheometer and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. The results suggest that PBS and HBP have a certain compatibility at amorphous state. A certain number of H-bonding was detected between PBS and HBP phases and it influences the material properties. HBP not only serves partially as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of PBS but also plays a role of plasticizer for the rheology of PBS. The glass transition temperatures of the blends slightly decrease with increasing HBP content. The proper amount of HBP (4–6%) has a reinforcement effect on the PBS matrix at glassy state. However, the blend with 10%HBP content has an improved impact strength mainly due to the plasticization effect or H-bonding effect of HBP on PBS matrix. The storage modulus is increased with increasing HBP contents, and the loss modulus is much smaller than the storage modulus in each blend at glassy state. At rubbery state the storage modulus of different samples is independent of HBP content. The complex viscosity of the melt decreases with increasing HBP content; however, the blend with 10%HBP is a special sample because of its abnormal larger complex viscosity at low shear frequencies. In addition, the melt’s elasticity behavior increases slightly with increasing HBP content. - Highlights: ► H-bonding was detected between PBS and HBP phases by FTIR. ► HBP serves partly as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of PBS. ► HBP plays a role of plasticizer for PBS. ► The blend with 10%HBP has abnormal larger complex viscosity

  5. The Effect of Nebivolol versus Metoprolol Succinate Extended Release on Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandavar, Ramprasad; Higashi, Yusuke; Chen, Wei; Blackstock, Christopher; Vaughn, Charlotte; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Sander, Gary E.; Roffidal, Louise E.; Delafontaine, Patrice; Giles, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if metoprolol succinate ER (MET), and nebivolol (NEB), a β1-AR with increased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), would have differing effects on plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration in hypertensives. Background It was hypothesized that NEB, a β1-AR antagonist and β3-AR agonist with NO- releasing properties and MET, only a β1-AR antagonist, would have different effects on plasma ADMA concentration. Methods Forty-one hypertensive subjects randomly received either 50 mg of MET (n = 19) or 5 mg of NEB (n = 22) for 4 weeks followed by 100 mg MET and 10 mg NEB for 4 weeks. ADMA and IGF-1 were measured by ELISA kit; endothelial progenitor cells were estimated using fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody to KDR and CD133 receptors; arterial augmentation index was measured by radial tonometry. Results Baseline systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 155.1 ± 18.7/85.3 ± 12.5 mm Hg for MET subjects and 157.6 ± 20.7/87.1 ± 14.0 mm Hg for NEB subjects. Baseline ADMA was 0.32 ± 0.123 μmol/L in the MET group and 0.4035 ± 0.1378 in the NEB group. ADMA increased 44.78% and 72% in the MET group at weeks 4 and 8 (p < 0.05 for both), respectively, without increase in the NEB group. At week 8 augmentation index was increased in the MET group (p<0.05). IGF-1 and EPC were unchanged by treatment. Conclusions Plasma ADMA and augmentation index are increased in a dose-dependent fashion by MET but not with NEB. PMID:21251896

  6. Successful chemotherapy of hepatic metastases in a case of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B-related paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Makey, D; Fojo, T; Adams, K T; Havekes, B; Eisenhofer, G; Sullivan, P; Lai, E W; Pacak, K

    2009-10-01

    Compared to other familial pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas (PHEO/PGLs), the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB)-related PHEO/PGLs often present with aggressive and rapidly growing metastatic lesions. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for malignant PHEO/PGLs. Here, we present a 35-year-old white man with primary malignant abdominal extra-adrenal 11 cm paraganglioma underwent surgical successful resection. But 6 months later, he developed extensive bone, liver, and lymph nodes metastasis, which were demonstrated by computed tomography scan and the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. However, his (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy was negative; therefore, the cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD) combination chemotherapy was initiated. The combination chemotherapy was very effective showing 80% overall reduction in the liver lesions and 75% overall reduction in the retroperitoneal mass and adenopathy, and normalization of plasma catecholamine and metanephrine levels. However, plasma levels of dopamine (DA) and methoxytyramine (MTY) were only partially affected and remained consistently elevated throughout the remaining period of follow-up evaluation. Genetic testing revealed an SDHB gene mutation. Here, we present an SDHB-related PHEO/PGL patient with extensive tumor burden, numerous organ lesions, and rapidly growing tumors, which responded extremely well to CVD therapy. We conclude patients with SDHB-related PHEO/PGLs can be particularly sensitive to CVD chemotherapy and may have an excellent outcome if this therapy is used and continued on periodic basis. The data in this patient also illustrate the importance of measuring plasma levels of DA and MTY to provide a more complete and accurate assessment of the biochemical response to therapy than provided by measurements restricted to other catecholamines and O-methylated metabolites.

  7. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate and TRAIL selectively synergise in induction of apoptosis in human malignant mesothelioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Rippo, M. R.; Alleva, R.; Moretti, S.; Anděra, Ladislav; Neuzil, J.; Procopio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, - (2004), s. 1644-1653 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026; GA AV ČR IAA5052001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : TRAiL, a-TOS, apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.742, year: 2004

  8. Alpha-tocopheryl succinate selectively induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells: potential therapy of malignancies of the nervous system?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swettenham, E.; Witting, P. K.; Salvatore, B.A.; Neužil, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2005), s. 1448-1456 ISSN 0022-3042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : apoptosis * neuroblastoma * vitamin E analogues Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.604, year: 2005

  9. An Investigation into the Effects of Mn Promotion on the Activity and Selectivity of Co/SiO2 for Fischer - Tropsch Synthesis: Evidence for Enhanced CO Adsorption and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Werner, Sebastian; Bell, Alexis T. (LBNL); (UCB)

    2016-03-04

    Mn is an effective promoter for improving the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts, but the mechanism by which this promoter functions is poorly understood. The work reported here was aimed at defining the manner in which Mn interacts with Co and determining how these interactions affect the activity and selectivity of Co. Detailed measurements are reported for the kinetics of FTS as a function of Mn/Co ratio, temperature, and reactant partial pressure. These data are described by a single, two-parameter rate expression. Mn promotion was found to increase both the apparent rate constant for CO consumption and the CO adsorption constant. Further evidence for enhanced CO adsorption and dissociation was obtained from measurements of temperature-programmed desorption of CO and CO disproportionation rates, respectively. Our quantitative analysis of elemental maps obtained by STEM-EDS revealed that the promoter accumulates preferentially on the surface of Co nanoparticles at low Mn loadings, resulting in a rapid onset of improvements in the product selectivity as the Mn loading increases. For catalysts prepared with loadings higher than Mn/Co = 0.1, the additional Mn accumulates in the form of nanometer-scale particles of MnO on the support. In situ IR spectra of adsorbed CO show that Mn promotion increases the abundance of adsorbed CO with weakened C-O bonds. Furthermore, it is proposed that the cleavage of the C-O bond is promoted through Lewis acid-base interactions between the Mn2+ cations located at the edges of MnO islands covering the Co nanoparticles and the O atom of CO adsorbates adjacent to the MnO islands. The observed decrease in selectivity to CH4 and the increased selectivity to C5+ products with increasing Mn/Co ratio are attributed to a decrease in the ratio of adsorbed H to CO on the surface of the supported Co nanoparticles.

  10. Mutants of GABA transaminase (POP2 suppress the severe phenotype of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ssadh mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ludewig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gamma-aminubutyrate (GABA shunt bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase (GABA-T; POP2 and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. We have previously shown that compromising the function of the GABA-shunt, by disrupting the SSADH gene of Arabidopsis, causes enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and cell death in response to light and heat stress. However, to date, genetic investigations of the relationships between enzymes of the GABA shunt have not been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the role of succinic semialdehyde (SSA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and GABA in the accumulation of ROIs, we combined two genetic approaches to suppress the severe phenotype of ssadh mutants. Analysis of double pop2 ssadh mutants revealed that pop2 is epistatic to ssadh. Moreover, we isolated EMS-generated mutants suppressing the phenotype of ssadh revealing two new pop2 alleles. By measuring thermoluminescence at high temperature, the peroxide contents of ssadh and pop2 mutants were evaluated, showing that only ssadh plants accumulate peroxides. In addition, pop2 ssadh seedlings are more sensitive to exogenous SSA or GHB relative to wild type, because GHB and/or SSA accumulate in these plants. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the lack of supply of succinate and NADH to the TCA cycle is not responsible for the oxidative stress and growth retardations of ssadh mutants. Rather, we suggest that the accumulation of SSA, GHB, or both, produced downstream of the GABA-T transamination step, is toxic to the plants, resulting in high ROI levels and impaired development.

  11. Structural studies on the actinide carboxylates. 4. The crystal and molecular structure of succinate dioxouranium(VI) monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombieri, G; Benetollo, F [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi; Del Pra, A; Rojas, R

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, UO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/COO)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O, has been determined from three-dimensional X-ray data. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pbcn with four formula units in a cell. The coordination geometry about the uranium atom is pentagonal bipyramidal. The uranyl ions are equatorially surrounded by one water oxygen and by four carboxylate oxygen atoms of different succinic ligands. Each ligand is shared by four uranyl units giving rise to a polymeric-like structure.

  12. Comparative analysis of succinate dehydrogenase activity in mammalian peripheral blood lymphocytes and radiomodifying action of gas hypoxis mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdamakin, A.N.; Abramov, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radiprotective efficiency of gas hypoxic mixtures (GHM) containing 5-12% of oxygen and the rate of the reaction of succinate dehydrogenase (V SDG ) activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon breathing GHM were comparatively studied in rats and dogs. V SDG was 4393.5 (%O 2 ) -2,58 and 130.76 (%O 2 ) -1.42 in dogs and rats respectively. Taking into account that DMF in rats is a function of oxygen concentration in the mixture one can obtain a formula for determining a dose modifying factors (DMF) as a function of the rate of SDG activity reaction

  13. The Transcription Bubble of the RNA Polymerase-Promoter Open Complex Exhibits Conformational Heterogeneity and Millisecond-Scale Dynamics : Implications for Transcription Start-Site Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robb, Nicole C.; Cordes, Thorben; Hwang, Ling Chin; Gryte, Kristofer; Duchi, Diego; Craggs, Timothy D.; Santoso, Yusdi; Weiss, Shimon; Ebright, Richard H.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial transcription is initiated after RNA polymerase (RNAP) binds to promoter DNA, melts similar to 14 bp around the transcription start site and forms a single-stranded "transcription bubble" within a catalytically active RNAP-DNA open complex (RPo). There is significant flexibility in the

  14. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  15. The inflammatory and tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin, activates platelets by selective mobilization of calcium as shown by protein phosphorylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastrup, Ole; Linnebjerg, H; Bjerrum, P J

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the activation of human blood platelets by the inflammatory and tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin. The effect of thapsigargin was compared with other common agonists (calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol ester TPA and thrombin). Platelet aggregation, serotonin release...

  16. Viral dsRNA-activated human dendritic cells produce IL-27, which selectively promotes cytotoxicity in naive CD8(+) T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Rosa; van Beelen, Astrid J.; Bakdash, Ghaith; Taanman-Kueter, Esther W. M.; de Jong, Esther C.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.

    2012-01-01

    Viral recognition programs DCs to express Signal 3 molecules that promote the differentiation of effector CD8(+) T cells. Besides IL-12, another DC-derived IL-12 family member, IL-27, has been reported to contribute herein, but its specific role is not well understood. Here, we show that whereas

  17. Blend membrane of succinic acid-crosslinked chitosan grafted with heparin/PVA-PEG (polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol) and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkota, V. D. A.; Lusiana, R. A.; Astuti, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Crosslinking and grafting reactions are required to modify the functional groups on chitosan to increase the number of its active groups. In this study, crosslinking reaction of succinic acid and grafting reaction of heparin on chitosan were conducted to produce a membrane as a candidate of a hemodialysis membrane. The mole ratio between chitosan and succinate acids was varied to obtain the best composition of modified materials. By blending all the material composition with PVA-PEG, the blend was transformed into a membrane. The resulted membrane was then characterized by various test methods such as tests of thickness, weight, water uptake, pH resistance, tensile strength and membrane hydrophilicity. The results showed that the best composition of the membrane reached in the addition of 0.011 gram of succinic acid proved by its highest mechanical strength compared to the other membranes.

  18. The Deletion of the Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene KlSDH1 in Kluyveromyces lactis Does Not Lead to Respiratory Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliola, Michele; Bartoccioni, Paola Chiara; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Falcone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated a Kluyveromyces lactis mutant unable to grow on all respiratory carbon sources with the exception of lactate. Functional complementation of this mutant led to the isolation of KlSDH1, the gene encoding the flavoprotein subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, which is essential for the aerobic utilization of carbon sources. Despite the high sequence conservation of the SDH genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. lactis, they do not have the same relevance in the metabolism of the two yeasts. In fact, unlike SDH1, KlSDH1 was highly expressed under both fermentative and nonfermentative conditions. In addition to this, but in contrast with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis strains lacking KlSDH1 were still able to grow in the presence of lactate. In these mutants, oxygen consumption was one-eighth that of the wild type in the presence of lactate and was normal with glucose and ethanol, indicating that the respiratory chain was fully functional. Northern analysis suggested that alternative pathway(s), which involves pyruvate decarboxylase and the glyoxylate cycle, could overcome the absence of SDH and allow (i) lactate utilization and (ii) the accumulation of succinate instead of ethanol during growth on glucose. PMID:15189981

  19. 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning and excretory urography in diagnosis of renal scars in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLorie, G.A.; Aliabadi, H.; Churchill, B.M.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the ability of excretory urography (without tomography) and 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning to detect renal scars in 32 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. These children did not have hydronephrosis, renal failure or urinary tract obstruction. In all cases both studies were conducted within a 10-month period. The findings from both modalities were in agreement for 51 of the 64 renal units evaluated (80%). Evaluation of the excretory urogram indicated 6 cases of diffuse and 2 of focal scarring that were not detected by evaluation of the renal scan. The sensitivity of excretory urography to detect renal scars was 84% and the specificity was 83%. The 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scan showed 5 cases of focal renal scarring not detected by excretory urography. The sensitivity of the renal scan to detect renal scars was 77% and the specificity was 75%. We conclude that neither study alone could effectively replace the other for the detection of renal scars, and recommend that both be included in the initial evaluation and followup of patients with renal scars

  20. [Changes in cell respiration of postural muscle fibers under long-term gravitational unloading after dietary succinate supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I V; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of cell respiration of the rat m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius c.m. and tibialis anterior fibers during 35-day gravitational unloading, with the addition of succinate in the diet at a dosage rate of 50 mg per 1 kg animal weight has been investigated. The gravitational unloading was modeled by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The intensity of cell respiration was estimated by polarography. It was shown that the rate of oxygen consumption by soleus and gastrocnemius fibers on endogenous and exogenous substrates and with the addition of ADP decreases after the discharge. This may be associated with the transition to the glycolytic energy path due to a decrease in the EMG-activity. At the same time, the respiration rate after the addition of exogenous substrates in soleus fibers did not increase, indicating a disturbance in the function of the NCCR-section of the respiratory chain and more pronounced changes in the structure of muscle fibers. In tibialis anterior fibers, no changes in oxygen consumption velocity were observed. The introduction of succinate to the diet of rats makes it possible to prevent the negative effects of hypokinesia, although it reduces the basal level of intensity of cell respiration.

  1. Effect of stretching on the mechanical properties in melt-spun poly(butylene succinate)/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Fan, Mao; Zhao, Yongsheng; Jin, Tianxiang; Fu, Qiang

    2016-04-20

    In order to prepare poly(butylene succinate)/microfibrillated cellulose composites with high performance, in this work, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was first treated by acetylchloride with ball-milling to improve its interfacial compatibility with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS). Then melt stretching processing was adopted to further improve the dispersion and orientation of MFC in as-spun PBS fiber. And the effect of MFC on the crystalline structure and mechanical properties were systematically investigated for the melt-spun fibers prepared with two different draw ratios. The dispersion, alignment of the MFC and interfacial crystalline structure in the composite fibers are significantly influenced by the stretching force during the melt spinning. The possible formation of nanohybrid shish kebab (NHSK) superstructure where aligned MFC as shish and PBS lamellae as kebab has been suggested via SEM and SAXS in the composite fibers prepared at the high draw ratio. Large improvement in tensile strength has been realized at the high draw ratio due to the enhanced orientation and dispersion of MFC as well as the formation of NHSK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction behaviour of 2-octylaminopyridine towards lead(II) from succinate media and its separation from other toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, Chandrashekhar P.; Anuse, Mansing A.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of lead(II) from succinate media was carried out with 2-octylaminopyridine (2-OAP) in chloroform. Lead(II) was quantitatively extracted with 0.036 M 2-OAP in chloroform from 0.005-0.007 M sodium succinate when equilibrated for 5 min. Lead(II) from the organic phase was stripped with three 10 mL portions of 0.4 M acetic acid and determined titrimetrically with EDTA. The nature of extracted species was determined from the log-log plot. The optimum conditions have been evaluated based on a critical study of weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and effect of diluents. The metal loading capacity of the reagent was found to be 8 mg of lead(II) with 10 mL 0.036 M of the extractant. The extraction of the lead(II) was carried out in presence of various ions to ascertain the tolerance limit of individual. Temperature dependence of the extraction equilibrium constants was examined to estimate the apparent thermodynamic functions (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) for extraction reaction. Lead(II) was successfully separated from commonly associated metal ions such as Bi(III), Hg(II), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Ca(II), Ba(II) and from binary and ternary mixtures. The method was extended for determination of lead(II) in real samples

  3. Diglycolic acid inhibits succinate dehydrogenase activity in human proximal tubule cells leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Dunning, Cody L; Conrad, Taylor; Hitt, Mallory J; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2013-08-29

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is a solvent used in consumer products allowing the increased risk for consumer exposure. DEG metabolism produces two primary metabolites, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (2-HEAA) and diglycolic acid (DGA). DGA has been shown to be the toxic metabolite responsible for the proximal tubule cell necrosis seen in DEG poisoning. The mechanism of DGA toxicity in the proximal tubule cell is not yet known. The chemical structure of DGA is very similar to citric acid cycle intermediates. Studies were designed to assess whether its mechanism of toxicity involves disruption of cellular metabolic pathways resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. First, DGA preferentially inhibited succinate dehydrogenase, including human kidney cell enzyme, but had no effect on other citric acid cycle enzyme activities. DGA produces a cellular ATP depletion that precedes cell death. Human proximal tubule (HPT) cells, pre-treated with increasing DGA concentrations, showed significantly decreased oxygen consumption. DGA did not increase lactate levels, indicating no effect on glycolytic activity. DGA increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HPT cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. These results indicate that DGA produced proximal tubule cell dysfunction by specific inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase and oxygen consumption. Disruption of these processes results in decreased energy production and proximal tubule cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the course prescription of sodium succinate on functional state and general physical working ability of footballers organism during the training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Володимирович Чернєв

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological purpose of metabotropic preparations including burshtin acid and its derivative succinate sodium copes with the number of tasks the main of which is an activation of alternative ways of energoproduction at the work of submaximal and maximal force and preliminary training of the separate links of metabolism.The task of research is to ascertain changes that take place in functional state of sportsmen during long physical loadings and optimization of the work of cardiovascular system (CVS and prophylaxis of psychical strains with the help of succinate sodium.Methods and organization of research. There were examined 84 sportsmen to ascertain changes that take place in the functional state of sportsmen during the long physical loadings and optimization of the work of CVS with the help of succinate sodium. Examinations took place during the training sessions (TS in January, February and July 2012-2013 years.Results of research and its discussion. There was studied an efficiency of the course use of succinate sodium in footballers 100 mg 3 times a day during 14 days. Energetic supply of processes of intracellular homeostasis in erythrocytes realizes by means of ATP that is created in the process of glycolysis. According to the results of research after course prescription of succinate sodium in sportsmen the content of ATP in erythrocytes increased and an amount of ADP and AMP decreased. An improvement of general metabolic situation under an influence of succinate sodium was proved by the decrease of products of reactions of peroxidation in blood plasma of footballers.These results indicated an essential antiacidotic effect of the course use of succinate sodium by footballers after loading in anaerobic and glycolytic zone of intensity. At the same time there was ascertain in our research that the use of succinate sodium had a positive effect on the dynamics of lactate content during the processes of renewal after training in aerobic

  5. Acetate and succinate production in amoebae, helminths, diplomonads, trichomonads and trypanosomatids: common and diverse metabolic strategies used by parasitic lower eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringaud, F; Ebikeme, C; Boshart, M

    2010-08-01

    Parasites that often grow anaerobically in their hosts have adopted a fermentative strategy relying on the production of partially oxidized end products, including lactate, glycerol, ethanol, succinate and acetate. This review focuses on recent progress in understanding acetate production in protist parasites, such as amoebae, diplomonads, trichomonads, trypanosomatids and in the metazoan parasites helminths, as well as the succinate production pathway(s) present in some of them. We also describe the unconventional organisation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle associated with the fermentative strategy adopted by the procyclic trypanosomes, which may resemble the probable structure of the primordial TCA cycle in prokaryotes.

  6. Short-Term Pretreatment of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Gentamycin Inhibits the Swarming Motility of Escherichia Coli by Down-Regulating the Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijing Zhuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Motility is a feature of many pathogens that contributes to the migration and dispersion of the infectious agent. Whether gentamycin has a post-antibiotic effect (PAE on the swarming and swimming motility of Escherichia coli (E. coli remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to examine whether short-term pretreatment of sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamycin alter motility of E. coli and the mechanisms involved therein. Methods: After exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations (0.8 μg/ml of gentamicin, the swarming and swimming motility of E. coli was tested in semi-solid media. Real-time PCR was used to detect the gene expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH. The production of SDH and fumarate by E. coli pretreated with or without gentamycin was measured. Fumarate was added to swarming agar to determine whether fumarate could restore the swarming motility of E. coli. Results: After pretreatment of E. coli with sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamycin, swarming motility was repressed in the absence of growth inhibition. The expression of all four subunits of SDH was down-regulated, and the intracellular concentration of SDH and fumarate, produced by E. coli, were both decreased. Supplementary fumarate could restore the swarming motility inhibited by gentamycin. A selective inhibitor of SDH (propanedioic acid could strongly repress the swarming motility. Conclusion: Sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamycin inhibits the swarming motility of E. coli. This effect is mediated by a reduction in cellular fumarate caused by down-regulation of SDH. Gentamycin may be advantageous for treatment of E. coli infections.

  7. Nitrogen transporter and assimilation genes exhibit developmental stage-selective expression in maize (Zea mays L.) associated with distinct cis-acting promoter motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Bi, Yong-Mei; Downs, Gregory S; Wu, Wenqing; Signorelli, Tara; Lu, Guangwen; Chen, Xi; Bondo, Eddie; Zhu, Tong; Lukens, Lewis N; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for maize (Zea mays L.), but there is limited understanding of the regulation of nitrogen-related genes during maize development. An Affymetrix 82K maize array was used to analyze the expression of ≤ 46 unique nitrogen uptake and assimilation probes in 50 maize tissues from seedling emergence to 31 d after pollination. Four nitrogen-related expression clusters were identified in roots and shoots corresponding to, or overlapping, juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases of development. Quantitative real time PCR data was consistent with the existence of these distinct expression clusters. Promoters corresponding to each cluster were screened for over-represented cis-acting elements. The 8-bp distal motif of the Arabidopsis 43-bp nitrogen response element (NRE) was over-represented in nitrogen-related maize gene promoters. This conserved motif, referred to here as NRE43-d8, was previously shown to be critical for nitrate-activated transcription of nitrate reductase (NIA1) and nitrite reductase (NIR1) by the NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6 (NLP6) in Arabidopsis. Here, NRE43-d8 was over-represented in the promoters of maize nitrate and ammonium transporter genes, specifically those that showed peak expression during early-stage vegetative development. This result predicts an expansion of the NRE-NLP6 regulon and suggests that it may have a developmental component in maize. We also report leaf expression of putative orthologs of nitrite transporters (NiTR1), a transporter not previously reported in maize. We conclude by discussing how each of the four transcriptional modules may be responsible for the different nitrogen uptake and assimilation requirements of leaves and roots at different stages of maize development.

  8. Succinic acid production derived from carbohydrates: An energy and greenhouse gas assessment of a platform chemical toward a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371750679; Tsiropoulos, I.; Roes, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303022388; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based succinic acid has the potential to become a platform chemical, i.e. a key building block for deriving both commodity and high-value chemicals, which makes it an attractive compound in a bio-based economy. A few companies and industrial consortia have begun to develop its industrial

  9. Hepatic processing determines dual activity of alpha-tocopheryl succinate: a novel paradigm for a shift in biological activity due to provitamin-to-vitamin conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Massa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 327, č. 4 (2005), s. 1024-1027 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vitamin E * alpha-tocopheryl succinate * hepatic processing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  10. Polystyrene/TiO2 composite electrospun fibers as fillers for poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate): Structure, morphology and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neppalli, R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, composite polystyrene/titanium dioxide (PS/TiO(sub2)) electrospun fibers were used as a reinforcement for a poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) matrix. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and degradation behavior...

  11. Effect of nanoclay loading on the thermal and mechanical properties of biodegradable Polylactide/Poly[(butylene succinate)- co-adipate] blend composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PLA/PBSA)-organoclay composites were prepared via melt compounding in a batch mixer. The weight ratio of PLA to PBSA was kept at 70:30, while the weight fraction of the organoclay was varied from 0...

  12. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  13. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum...... with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots...... degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation...

  14. Promotion Effect of Alkali Metal Hydroxides on Polymer-Stabilized Pd Nanoparticles for Selective Hydrogenation of C–C Triple Bonds in Alkynols

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoshvili, Linda Zh.; Bykov, Alexey V.; Khudyakova, Tatiana E.; Lagrange, Thomas; Héroguel, Florent; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.; Matveeva, Valentina G.; Sulman, Esther M.; Dyson, Paul J.; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2017-01-01

    Postimpregnation of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized within hyper-cross-linked polystyrene with sodium or potassium hydroxides of optimal concentration was found to significantly increase the catalytic activity for the partial hydrogenation of the C–C triple bond in 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol at ambient hydrogen pressure. The alkali metal hydroxide accelerates the transformation of the residual Pd(II) salt into Pd(0) NPs and diminishes the reaction induction period. In addition, the selectivity t...

  15. Genotypic characterization of Azotobacteria isolated from Argentinean soils and plant-growth-promoting traits of selected strains with prospects for biofertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Esteban Julián; Montecchia, Marcela Susana; Tosi, Micaela; Cassán, Fabricio Darío; Perticari, Alejandro; Correa, Olga Susana

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity among 31 putative Azotobacter isolates obtained from agricultural and non-agricultural soils was assessed using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting and identified to species level by ARDRA and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. High diversity was found among the isolates, identified as A. chroococcum, A. salinestris, and A. armeniacus. Selected isolates were characterized on the basis of phytohormone biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. Indole-3 acetic-acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA3) and zeatin (Z) biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, and siderophore production were found in all evaluated strains, with variation among them, but no phosphate solubilization was detected. Phytohormones excreted to the culture medium ranged in the following concentrations: 2.2-18.2 μ g IAA mL(-1), 0.3-0.7 μ g GA3 mL(-1), and 0.5-1.2 μ g Z mL(-1). Seed inoculations with further selected Azotobacter strains and treatments with their cell-free cultures increased the number of seminal roots and root hairs in wheat seedlings. This latter effect was mimicked by treatments with IAA-pure solutions, but it was not related to bacterial root colonization. Our survey constitutes a first approach to the knowledge of Azotobacter species inhabiting Argentinean soils in three contrasting geographical regions. Moreover, this phenotypic characterization constitutes an important contribution to the selection of Azotobacter strains for biofertilizer formulations.

  16. Genotypic Characterization of Azotobacteria Isolated from Argentinean Soils and Plant-Growth-Promoting Traits of Selected Strains with Prospects for Biofertilizer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Julián Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity among 31 putative Azotobacter isolates obtained from agricultural and non-agricultural soils was assessed using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting and identified to species level by ARDRA and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. High diversity was found among the isolates, identified as A. chroococcum, A. salinestris, and A. armeniacus. Selected isolates were characterized on the basis of phytohormone biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. Indole-3 acetic-acid (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and zeatin (Z biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, and siderophore production were found in all evaluated strains, with variation among them, but no phosphate solubilization was detected. Phytohormones excreted to the culture medium ranged in the following concentrations: 2.2–18.2 μg IAA mL−1, 0.3–0.7 μg GA3 mL−1, and 0.5–1.2 μg Z mL−1. Seed inoculations with further selected Azotobacter strains and treatments with their cell-free cultures increased the number of seminal roots and root hairs in wheat seedlings. This latter effect was mimicked by treatments with IAA-pure solutions, but it was not related to bacterial root colonization. Our survey constitutes a first approach to the knowledge of Azotobacter species inhabiting Argentinean soils in three contrasting geographical regions. Moreover, this phenotypic characterization constitutes an important contribution to the selection of Azotobacter strains for biofertilizer formulations.

  17. Discovering Novel Alternaria solani Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors by in Silico Modeling and Virtual Screening Strategies to Combat Early Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrish Iftikhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against A. solani. We employed computational methodologies to design new SDH inhibitors using homology modeling; pharmacophore modeling and structure based virtual screening. The three dimensional SDH model showed good stereo-chemical and structural properties. Based on virtual screening results twelve commercially available compounds were purchased and tested in vitro and in vivo. The compounds were found to inhibit mycelial growth of A. solani. Moreover in vitro trials showed that inhibitory effects were enhanced with increase in concentrations. Similarly increased disease control was observed in pre-treated potato tubers. Hence the applied in silico strategy led us to identify novel fungicides.

  18. Succinate, iron chelation, and monovalent cations affect the transformation efficiency of Acinetobacter baylyi ATCC 33305 during growth in complex media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Colleen G; Boyd, Caroline M; Roush, Kaleb S; Tenente, Ricardo; Lang, Kristine M; Lostroh, C Phoebe

    2017-10-01

    Natural transformation is the acquisition of new genetic material via the uptake of exogenous DNA by competent bacteria. Acinetobacter baylyi is model for natural transformation. Here we focus on the natural transformation of A. baylyi ATCC 33305 grown in complex media and seek environmental conditions that appreciably affect transformation efficiency. We find that the transformation efficiency for A. baylyi is a resilient characteristic that remains high under most conditions tested. We do find several distinct conditions that alter natural transformation efficiency including addition of succinate, Fe 2+ (ferrous) iron chelation, and substitution of sodium ions with potassium ones. These distinct conditions could be useful to fine tune transformation efficiency for researchers using A. baylyi as a model organism to study natural transformation.

  19. Effect of Anorganic Substance on Physical Properties of Poly (Butylene Succinate -co- Adipate) Irradiated by Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meri Suhartini

    2004-01-01

    Poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate), PBSA were electron beam irradiated in the presence of inorganic materials. The samples gave high gel fraction by irradiation in the presence of 2% silicon dioxide and 2% carbon black. It was found that addition of carbon black (CB) was effective for improving the heat stability of the sample. This is because of three-dimensional carbon black- polymer networks. Irradiated PBSA sheets broke immediately at 110 o C with load 6.67 kgf/cm 2 , while irradiated the same sample mixed with 2% carbon black did not break at the same condition. Biodegradability of crosslinked PBSA by soil burial tests was accelerated by addition of carbon black. (author)

  20. Effect of low dose x irradiation on the succinate dehydrogenase activity of guinea pig, rat and mouse tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V C; Bhatavdekar, J M; Aravinda Babu, K [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Zoology

    1976-07-01

    The histochemical changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were investigated in pectoralis major muscle of guinea pig, rat and mouse after level X-irradiation (72 R and 240 R) and compared with control animals. Biochemical studies were carried out on liver, kidney, muscle (pectoralis major), adrenal and spleen of these animals after low dose local X-irradiation and compared with control animals. Changes in SDH activity were studied up to 72-h post-irradiation, which shows that low dose local X-irradiation leads to increased enzymic activity. The increase in enzymic activity was remarkable in mouse tissues as compared with guinea pig and rat. Adrenals of all the three animals showed significant activation after all the doses of radiation studied. The significance of these results, with special reference to oxidative metabolism, has been discussed.

  1. Acylation Modification of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Using Succinic Anhydride and Its Effects on Enzymatic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation rate of tissue engineering scaffolds should match the regeneration rate of new tissues. Controlling the degradation behavior of silk fibroin is an important subject for silk-based tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin was successfully modified with succinic anhydride and then characterized by zeta potential, ninhydrin method, and FTIR. In vitro, three-dimensional scaffolds prepared with modified silk fibroin were incubated in collagenase IA solution for 18 days to evaluate the impact of acylation on the degradation behavior. The results demonstrated that the degradation rate of modified silk fibroin scaffolds was more rapid than unmodified ones. The content of the β-sheet structure in silk fibroin obviously decreased after acylation, resulting in a high degradation rate. Above all, the degradation behavior of silk fibroin scaffolds could be regulated by acylation to match the requirements of various tissues regeneration.

  2. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibits EL4 thymic lymphoma cell growth by inducing apoptosis and DNA synthesis arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Sanders, B G; Kline, K

    1997-01-01

    RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate (vitamin E succinate, VES) treatment of murine EL4 T lymphoma cells induced the cells to undergo apoptosis. After 48 hours of VES treatment at 20 micrograms/ml, 95% of cells were apoptotic. Evidence for the induction of apoptosis by VES treatments is based on staining of DNA for detection of chromatin condensation/fragmentation, two-color flow-cytometric analyses of DNA content, and end-labeled DNA and electrophoretic analyses for detection of DNA ladder formation. VES-treated EL4 cells were blocked in the G1 cell cycle phase; however, apoptotic cells came from all cell cycle phases. Analyses of mRNA expression of genes involved in apoptosis revealed decreased c-myc and increased bcl-2, c-fos, and c-jun mRNAs within three to six hours after treatment. Western analyses showed increased c-Jun, c-Fos, and Bcl-2 protein levels. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed increased AP-1 binding at 6, 12, and 24 hours after treatment and decreased c-Myc binding after 12 and 24 hours of VES treatment. Treatments of EL4 cells with VES+RRR-alpha-to-copherol reduced apoptosis without effecting DNA synthesis arrest. Treatments of EL4 cells with VES+rac-6-hydroxyl-2, 5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, or butylated hydroxyanisole had no effect on apoptosis or DNA synthesis arrest caused by VES treatments. Analyses of bcl-2, c-myc, c-jun, and c-fos mRNA levels in cells receiving VES + RRR-alpha-tocopherol treatments showed no change from cells receiving VES treatments alone, implying that these changes are correlated with VES treatments but are not causal for apoptosis. However, treatments with VES + RRR-alpha-tocopherol decreased AP-1 binding to consensus DNA oligomer, suggesting AP-1 involvement in apoptosis induced by VES treatments.

  3. TNF-α promotes nuclear enrichment of the transcription factor TonEBP/NFAT5 to selectively control inflammatory but not osmoregulatory responses in nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zariel I; Doolittle, Alexandra C; Snuggs, Joseph W; Shapiro, Irving M; Le Maitre, Christine L; Risbud, Makarand V

    2017-10-20

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) causes chronic back pain and is linked to production of proinflammatory molecules by nucleus pulposus (NP) and other disc cells. Activation of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP)/NFAT5 by non-osmotic stimuli, including proinflammatory molecules, occurs in cells involved in immune response. However, whether inflammatory stimuli activate TonEBP in NP cells and whether TonEBP controls inflammation during IDD is unknown. We show that TNF-α, but not IL-1β or LPS, promoted nuclear enrichment of TonEBP protein. However, TNF-α-mediated activation of TonEBP did not cause induction of osmoregulatory genes. RNA sequencing showed that 8.5% of TNF-α transcriptional responses were TonEBP-dependent and identified genes regulated by both TNF-α and TonEBP. These genes were over-enriched in pathways and diseases related to inflammatory response and inhibition of matrix metalloproteases. Based on RNA-sequencing results, we further investigated regulation of novel TonEBP targets CXCL1 , CXCL2 , and CXCL3 TonEBP acted synergistically with TNF-α and LPS to induce CXCL1 -proximal promoter activity. Interestingly, this regulation required a highly conserved NF-κB-binding site but not a predicted TonE, suggesting cross-talk between these two members of the Rel family. Finally, analysis of human NP tissue showed that TonEBP expression correlated with canonical osmoregulatory targets TauT/SLC6A6 , SMIT/SLC5A3 , and AR/AKR1B1 , supporting in vitro findings that the inflammatory milieu during IDD does not interfere with TonEBP osmoregulation. In summary, whereas TonEBP participates in the proinflammatory response to TNF-α, therapeutic strategies targeting this transcription factor for treatment of disc disease must spare osmoprotective, prosurvival, and matrix homeostatic activities. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Adenovirus small E1A employs the lysine acetylases p300/CBP and tumor suppressor Rb to repress select host genes and promote productive virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Gou, Dawei; Jawdekar, Gauri; Johnson, Sarah A; Nava, Miguel; Su, Trent; Yousef, Ahmed F; Zemke, Nathan R; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kurdistani, Siavash K; Berk, Arnold J

    2014-11-12

    Oncogenic transformation by adenovirus small e1a depends on simultaneous interactions with the host lysine acetylases p300/CBP and the tumor suppressor RB. How these interactions influence cellular gene expression remains unclear. We find that e1a displaces RBs from E2F transcription factors and promotes p300 acetylation of RB1 K873/K874 to lock it into a repressing conformation that interacts with repressive chromatin-modifying enzymes. These repressing p300-e1a-RB1 complexes specifically interact with host genes that have unusually high p300 association within the gene body. The TGF-β, TNF-, and interleukin-signaling pathway components are enriched among such p300-targeted genes. The p300-e1a-RB1 complex condenses chromatin in a manner dependent on HDAC activity, p300 lysine acetylase activity, the p300 bromodomain, and RB K873/K874 and e1a K239 acetylation to repress host genes that would otherwise inhibit productive virus infection. Thus, adenovirus employs e1a to repress host genes that interfere with viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Melibiose permease and alpha-galactosidase of Escherichia coli: Identification by selective labeling using a T7 RNA polymerase/promoter expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcher, T.; Bassilana, M.; Sarkar, H.K.; Kaback, H.R.; Leblanc, G.

    1990-01-01

    Identification and selective labeling of the melibiose permease and alpha-galactosidase in Escherichia coli, which are encoded by the melB and melA genes, respectively, have been accomplished by selectively labeling the two gene products with a T7 RNA polymerase expression system. Following generation of a novel EcoRI restriction site in the intergenic sequence between the two genes of the mel operon by oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis, melA and melB were separately inserted into plasmid pT7-6 of the T7 expression system. Expression of melB was markedly enhanced by placing a strong, synthetic ribosome binding site at an optimal distance upstream from the initiation codon of melB. Expression of cloned gene products was characterized functionally and by performing autoradiographic analysis on total cell, inner membrane, and cytoplasmic proteins from cells pulse labeled with (35S)methionine in the presence of rifampicin and resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results first confirm that alpha-galactosidase is a cytoplasmic protein with an Mr of 50K; in contrast, the membrane-bound melibiose permease is identified as a protein with an apparent Mr of 39K, a value significantly higher than that of 30K previously suggested

  6. Protective Macroautophagy Is Involved in Vitamin E Succinate Effects on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cell Line SGC-7901 by Inhibiting mTOR Axis Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Hou

    Full Text Available Vitamin E succinate (VES, a potential cancer therapeutic agent, potently induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of various cancer cells. Autophagy has been supposed to promote cancer cell survival or trigger cell death, depending on particular cancer types and tumor microenvironments. The role of autophagy in the growth suppressive effect of VES on gastric cancer cell is basically unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how autophagy affected the VES-induced inhibition of SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cell growth. SGC-7901 cells were treated with VES or pre-treated with autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ and 3-methyladenine (3-MA. Electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and Western blot were used to study whether VES induced autophagy reaction in SGC-7901 cells. Western blot evaluated the activities of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR axis. Then we used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and flow cytometry to detect the level of cell viability and apoptosis. Collectively, our data indeed strongly support our hypothesis that VES treatment produced cytological variations that depict autophagy, increased the amount of intracellular green fluorescent protein-microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence and the number of autophagic vacuoles. It altered the expression of endogenous autophagy marker LC3. VES activated the suppression of mTOR through inhibiting upstream regulators p38 MAPK and Akt. mTOR suppression consequently inhibited the activation of mTOR downstream targets p70S6K and 4E-BP-1. The activation of the upstream mTOR inhibitor AMPK had been up-regulated by VES. The results showed that pre-treatment SGC-7901 with autophagy inhibitors before VES treatment could increase the capacity of VES to reduce cell viability and to provoke apoptosis. In conclusion, VES-induced autophagy participates in SGC-7901 cell protection by inhibiting mTOR axis

  7. Effects of a culturally tailored physical activity promotion program on selected self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents of an underserved, multiethnic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Suzanne; Bush, Paula Louise; Chagnon, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    To implement a culturally tailored physical activity (PA) promotion program (FunAction) and to assess its impact on five self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents. Design . The design and implementation of the FunAction program were informed by social marketing principles. The study used a quasi-experimental approach to assess the impact of the program on specific outcome variables. A multiethnic, underserved middle school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The intervention group was made up of grade 8 students (n  =  165) and the control group was made up of grade 7 students (n  =  137). During the 16-week intervention, adolescents were able to choose from a variety of 45-minute cardiovascular PAs offered daily during their school lunch period. Adolescents participated in the activities on a voluntary basis. A self-report questionnaire was administered preintervention and postintervention to measure adolescents' scores on the following self-regulation skills and attitudes: self-control, self-esteem, attention/concentration, social competence, and interethnic relationships. Three-way repeated measures analyses of variance and correlational analyses were used. Results . A significant improvement was observed only in attention/concentration. Girls' attention/concentration scores improved significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (F(1,127)  =  16.26, p marketing principles can help encourage adolescents from underserved, multiethnic milieus to participate in PA during their school lunch hour. Furthermore, voluntary participation in a culturally tailored PA program can improve youths' attention/concentration.

  8. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    and Adolescent Health Promotion', Salutogenesis - from theory to practice' and Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007......In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...

  9. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol and Crude Glycerol (a By-Product or Waste Stream from the Biodiesel Industry to 1,2-Propanediol over B2O3 Promoted Cu/Al2O3 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaya R. Nanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of boron oxide (B2O3-promoted Cu/Al2O3 catalyst in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol and crude glycerol (a by-product or waste stream from the biodiesel industry to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO was investigated. The catalysts were characterized using N2-adsorption-desorption isotherm, Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, temperature programmed reduction (TPR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Incorporation of B2O3 to Cu/Al2O3 was found to enhance the catalytic activity. At the optimum condition (250 °C, 6 MPa H2 pressure, 0.1 h−1 WHSV (weight hourly space velocity, and 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst, 10 wt% aqueous solution of glycerol was converted into 1,2-PDO at 98 ± 2% glycerol conversion and 98 ± 2% selectivity. The effects of temperature, pressure, boron addition amount, and liquid hourly space velocity were studied. Different grades of glycerol (pharmaceutical, technical, or crude glycerol were used in the process to investigate the stability and resistance to deactivation of the selected 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst.

  10. Phage display selection of fully human antibody fragments to inhibit growth-promoting effects of glycine-extended gastrin 17 on human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Shirin; Tohidkia, Mohammad Reza; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Mehdipour, Tayebeh; Fathi, Farzaneh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2018-06-09

    Glycine-extended gastrin 17 (G17-Gly), a dominant processing intermediate of gastrin gene, has been implicated in the development or maintenance of colorectal cancers (CRCs). Hence, neutralizing G17-Gly activity by antibody entities can provide a potential therapeutic strategy in the patients with CRCs. To this end, we isolated fully human antibody fragments from a phage antibody library through biopanning against different epitopes of G17-Gly in order to obtain the highest possible antibody diversity. ELISA screening and sequence analysis identified 2 scFvs and 4 V L antibody fragments. Kinetic analysis of the antibody fragments by SPR revealed K D values to be in the nanomolar range (87.9-334 nM). The selected anti-G17-Gly antibody fragments were analyzed for growth inhibition and apoptotic assays in a CRC cell line, HCT-116, which is well-characterized for expressing gastrin intermediate species but not amidated gastrin. The antibody fragments exhibited significant inhibition of HCT-116 cells proliferation ranging from 36.5 to 73% of controls. Further, Annexin V/PI staining indicated that apoptosis rates of scFv H8 and V L G8 treated cells were 45.8 and 63%, respectively. Based on these results, we for the first time, demonstrated the isolation of anti-G17-Gly human scFv and V L antibodies with potential therapeutic applications in G17-Gly-responsive tumors.

  11. Selective estrogen receptor modulator promotes weight loss in ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by decreasing food intake and increasing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Shearin, Jean; Koegler, Frank H; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on body weight in postmenopausal women is controversial, with studies reporting an increase, a decrease, and no change in body weight. To examine estrogen receptor actions on body weight, we investigated the effects of treatment with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) on body weight, food intake, and activity and metabolic rate in a nonhuman primate model. Eighteen ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys were treated with a nonsteroidal SERM (GSK232802A, 5 mg/kg po) for 3 mo. GSK232802A decreased lutenizing hormone (P Physical activity increased during the 3rd mo of treatment (P = 0.04). Baseline activity level and the change in activity due to treatment were correlated, with the most sedentary individuals exhibiting increased physical activity during the 1st mo of treatment (P = 0.02). Metabolic rate did not change (P = 0.58). These results indicate that GSK232802A treatment reduces body weight and adiposity in ovariectomized nonhuman primates by suppressing food intake and increasing activity, particularly in the most sedentary individuals. These findings suggest that SERM treatment may counteract weight gain in postmenopausal women.

  12. The Influence of Green Surface Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber by Superheated Steam on the Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber/Poly(butylene succinate Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Yee Then

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, superheated steam (SHS was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200–230 °C and time (30–120 min under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate (PBS at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication.

  13. Redox-sensitive self-assembled nanoparticles based on alpha-tocopherol succinate-modified heparin for intracellular delivery of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoye; Cai, Xiaoqing; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2017-06-15

    To remedy the problems riddled in cancer chemotherapy, such as poor solubility, low selectivity, and insufficient intra-cellular release of drugs, novel heparin-based redox-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles were developed. The amphiphilic polymer, heparin-alpha-tocopherol succinate (Hep-cys-TOS) was synthesized by grafting hydrophobic TOS to heparin using cystamine as the redox-sensitive linker, which could self-assemble into nanoparticles in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with low critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values ranging from 0.026 to 0.093mg/mL. Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles were prepared via a dialysis method, exhibiting a high drug-loading efficiency of 18.99%. Physicochemical properties of the optimized formulation were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Subsequently, the redox-sensitivity of Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles was confirmed by the changes in size distribution, morphology and appearance after dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Besides, the in vitro release of PTX from Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles also exhibited a redox-triggered profile. Also, the uptake behavior and pathways of coumarin 6-loaded Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles were investigated, suggesting the nanoparticles could be taken into MCF-7 cells in energy-dependent, caveolae-mediated and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis manners. Later, MTT assays of different PTX-free and PTX-loaded formulations revealed the desirable safety of PTX-free nanoparticles and the enhanced anti-cancer activity of PTX-loaded Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles (IC 50 =0.79μg/mL). Apoptosis study indicated the redox-sensitive formulation could induce more apoptosis of MCF-7 cells than insensitive one (55.2% vs. 41.7%), showing the importance of intracellular burst release of PTX. Subsequently, the hemolytic toxicity confirmed the safety of the nanoparticles for intravenous administration. The results

  14. Characterization, in Vivo and in Vitro Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of Curcumin Containing d-α-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate and Mannitol

    OpenAIRE

    Im-Sook Song; Jin-Sun Cha; Min-Koo Choi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a solid dispersion formulation of curcumin to enhance its solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability. The formulation was prepared with d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and mannitol using solvent evaporation and freeze-drying methods, which yielded a solid dispersion composed of curcumin, TPGS, and mannitol at a ratio of 1:10:15 (w/w/w). The solubility and dissolution rate of the curcumin solid dispersion markedly improv...

  15. Improvement of Protective Properties of Top Coatings Applied on Zinc-Rich Primer by 3-Aminopropyl-Triethoxysilan and 2-(Benzothialylthio) Succinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, Trinh Anh; Hang, Thi Xuan; Oanh, Vu Ke; Dung, Nguyen Tuan

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of coating system consisting of zinc-rich primer (ZRP) and topcoat based on polyurethane resin with the presence of 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilan (APS) and 2-(benzothialylthio) succinic acid (BSA) was studied by electrochemical impedance and wet adhesion. The interface metal/primer/topcoat was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. It was found that the presence of APS and BSA improved adhesion and barrier property of the topcoats

  16. Isotopomer profiling of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes reveals important roles for succinate fermentation and aspartate uptake in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) anaplerosis, glutamate synthesis, and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Eleanor C; Ng, William W; Chambers, Jennifer M; Ng, Milica; Naderer, Thomas; Krömer, Jens O; Likic, Vladimir A; McConville, Malcolm J

    2011-08-05

    Leishmania parasites proliferate within nutritionally complex niches in their sandfly vector and mammalian hosts. However, the extent to which these parasites utilize different carbon sources remains poorly defined. In this study, we have followed the incorporation of various (13)C-labeled carbon sources into the intracellular and secreted metabolites of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and (13)C NMR. [U-(13)C]Glucose was rapidly incorporated into intermediates in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the cytoplasmic carbohydrate reserve material, mannogen. Enzymes involved in the upper glycolytic pathway are sequestered within glycosomes, and the ATP and NAD(+) consumed by these reactions were primarily regenerated by the fermentation of phosphoenolpyruvate to succinate (glycosomal succinate fermentation). The initiating enzyme in this pathway, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, was exclusively localized to the glycosome. Although some of the glycosomal succinate was secreted, most of the C4 dicarboxylic acids generated during succinate fermentation were further catabolized in the TCA cycle. A high rate of TCA cycle anaplerosis was further suggested by measurement of [U-(13)C]aspartate and [U-(13)C]alanine uptake and catabolism. TCA cycle anaplerosis is apparently needed to sustain glutamate production under standard culture conditions. Specifically, inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase with sodium fluoroacetate resulted in the rapid depletion of intracellular glutamate pools and growth arrest. Addition of high concentrations of exogenous glutamate alleviated this growth arrest. These findings suggest that glycosomal and mitochondrial metabolism in Leishmania promastigotes is tightly coupled and that, in contrast to the situation in some other trypanosomatid parasites, the TCA cycle has crucial anabolic functions.

  17. INFLUENCE OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE ON REGULATORY AND ADAPTIVE STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE FUNCTIONAL CLASS I. RESULTS OF NOT COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Tregubov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate metoprolol succinate effect on regulatory and adaptive status (RAS of patients with сhronic heart failure (CHF functional class (FC I and arterial hypertension (HT I-II stages. Material and methods. 51 patients with CHF FC I and HT I-II stage, (30 men and 21 women aged 52.6±1.4 yeas. Cardio-respiratory synchronism (CRS test, 6-minute walking test, tread-mill burden test with registration of maximal oxygen consumption, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography and determination of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP blood level were performed initially and after 6 months of therapy with metoprolol succinate (dose 78.1±5.7 mg/day in sustained-release presentation. Results. Metoprolol succinate therapy had no significant effect on RAS (there was no unidirectional dynamics of the basic CRS test parameters: a range of synchronization decreased significantly from 8.8±0.4 to 7.2±0.6 сardio-respiratory cycles per minute (in 18%; р<0.05, and duration of CRS development on the minimal boundary from 18.8±2.2 to 14.3±1.2 сardiocycles (in 24%; р<0,05; RAS index considerably did not change, myocardium structure, exercise tolerance and neuro-humoral activity. Metoprolol therapy only moderately improved left ventricle diastolic function. Conclusion. Metoprolol succinate therapy has no significant effect on RAS of patients with CHF FC I and HT I-II stages.

  18. Development of a validated HPLC method for the quantitative determination of trelagliptin succinate and its related substances in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xinjing; Wang, Guopeng; Du, Zhibo; Ma, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hao; Yu, Guohua; Liu, Aoxue; Li, Mengwei; Peng, Wei; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Trelagliptin succinate is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitor which is used as a new long-acting drug for once-weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, a rapid, sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for separation and determination of trelagliptin succinate and its eight potential process-related impurities. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Xselect CSH™ C 18 (250mm×4.6mm, 5.0μm) column. The mobile phases comprised of 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water as well as acetonitrile containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid. The compounds of interest were monitored at 224nm and 275nm. The stability-indicating capability of this method was evaluated by performing stress test studies. Trelagliptin succinate was found to degrade significantly in acid, base, oxidative and thermal stress conditions and only stable in photolytic degradation condition. The degradation products were well resolved from the main peak and its impurities. In addition, the major degradation impurities formed under acid, base, oxidative and thermal stress conditions were characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap). The method was validated to fulfill International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) requirements and this validation included specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision and robustness. The developed method in this study could be applied for routine quality control analysis of trelagliptin succinate tablets, since there is no official monograph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION POSITION OF HYDROXY GROUP AT BENZOIC ACID ON THE LUMINESCENT AND DEGRADATION PROPERTIES OF POLY[DI(CARBOXYPHENYL) SUCCINATE-co-SEBACIC ANHYDRIDE]S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fan; Hong-liang Jiang; Kang-jie Zhu

    2007-01-01

    In this work, two new diacids, di(m-carboxyphenyl) succinate (m-dCPS) and di(o-carboxyphenyl) succinate (o-dCPS), were synthesized by reaction of m-, o-hydroxy benzoic acid with succinic chloride, respectively. Their corresponding copolymers with sebacic acid (SA), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA), were prepared by melt copolycondensation and characterized by NMR, UV and DSC methods. Compared with inherently fluorescent poly[di(p-carboxyphenyl) succinateco-sebacic anhydride] (P(p-dCPS:SA)), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA) displayed different luminescent properties. P(m-dCPS:SA) could emit fluorescence under the excitation of both visible and UV light, while P(o-dCPS:SA) could only emit fluorescence when excited with UV light. Degradation rate of the two new copolyanhydrides increased with the increase of SA fraction in the copolymers. In addition, P(o-dCPS:SA) degraded more rapidly than P(m-dCPS:SA) with the same composition. Typical surface-degradation characteristics of these copolyanhydrides were observed.

  20. Biodegradability of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) controlled by temperature during the dried-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hana; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    Currently there is a growing interest in biodegradable plastics that can be readily degraded into H2O and CO2. Among them, poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)(PBSA) is one of the mechanically attractive materials that can be biodegraded by surrounding water molecules and microorganisms after the disposal of the plastics. In order to expand the use of PBSA, the proper and effective control of the biodegradability of PBSA should be realized. In this work, the dried-gel process of the PBSA was carefully studied considering the temperature of the process. Three different types of dried PBSA gels were prepared at three different gel-process temperatures. From the biodegradability testing by immersing the PBSA samples in NaOH aq., it was found that the percentage of the weight loss of the PBSA was increased, indicating that the biodegradability was enhanced as the gel preparation temperature became lower. In fact, smaller spherocrystals were observed in PBSA dried at cooler temperature, studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was therefore concluded that the microstructures of PBSA could be well controlled by changing the gel preparation temperatures for the precise control of the biodegradability of PBSA. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (No. 15H02298 to A.H.) and a Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (No.15H06586 to T.M.) from JSPS: KAKENHI\\x9D.

  1. Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-15

    Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of Chitin/Poly(butylene succinate/Chondroitin Sulfate Nanoparticles Ternary Composite Hydrogel Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin loss is one of the oldest and still not totally resolved problems in the medical field. Since spontaneous healing of the dermal defects would not occur, the regeneration of full thickness of skin requires skin substitutes. Tissue engineering constructs would provide a three dimensional matrix for the reconstruction of skin tissue and the repair of damage. The aim of the present work is to develop a chitin based scaffold, by blending it with poly(butylene succinate (PBS, an aliphatic, biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic polymer with excellent mechanical properties. The presence of chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles (CSnp in the scaffold would favor cell adhesion. A chitin/PBS/CSnp composite hydrogel scaffold was developed and characterized by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and swelling ratio of scaffolds were analyzed. The scaffolds were evaluated for the suitability for skin tissue engineering application by cytotoxicity, cell attachment, and cell proliferation studies using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF. The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies using HDF confirm the suitability of the scaffold for skin regeneration. In short, these results show promising applicability of the developed chitin/PBS/CSnps ternary composite hydrogel scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration.

  3. Evaluation of Influence of Various Polymers on Dissolution and Phase Behavior of Carbamazepine-Succinic Acid Cocrystal in Matrix Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of current study was to explore the influence of three commonly used polymers, that is, cellulosics and noncellulosics, for example, Methocel K4M, Kollidon VA/64, and Soluplus, on the phase disproportionation and drug release profile of carbamazepine-succinic acid (CBZ-SUC cocrystal at varying drug to polymer ratios (1 : 1 to 1 : 0.25 in matrix tablets. The polymorphic phase disproportionation during in-depth dissolution studies of CBZ-SUC cocrystals and its crystalline properties were scrutinized by X-ray powder diffractrometry and Raman spectroscopy. The percent drug release from HPMC formulations (CSH showed inverse relation with the concentration of polymer; that is, drug release increased with decrease in polymer concentration. On contrary, direct relation was observed between percent drug release and polymer concentrations of Kollidon VA 64/Soluplus (CSK, CSS. At similar polymer concentration, drug release from pure carbamazepine was slightly lower with HPMC formulations than that of cocrystal; however, opposite trend in release rate was observed with Kollidon VA/64 and Soluplus. The significant increase in dissolution rate of cocrystal occurred with Kollidon VA/64 and Soluplus at higher polymer concentration. Moreover, no phase change took place in Methocel and Kollidon formulations. No tablet residue was left for Soluplus formulation so the impact of polymer on cocrystal integrity cannot be predicted.

  4. Evaluation of Influence of Various Polymers on Dissolution and Phase Behavior of Carbamazepine-Succinic Acid Cocrystal in Matrix Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Majeed; Ullah, Hanif; Mahmood, Qaisar; Hussain, Izhar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of current study was to explore the influence of three commonly used polymers, that is, cellulosics and noncellulosics, for example, Methocel K4M, Kollidon VA/64, and Soluplus, on the phase disproportionation and drug release profile of carbamazepine-succinic acid (CBZ-SUC) cocrystal at varying drug to polymer ratios (1 : 1 to 1 : 0.25) in matrix tablets. The polymorphic phase disproportionation during in-depth dissolution studies of CBZ-SUC cocrystals and its crystalline properties were scrutinized by X-ray powder diffractrometry and Raman spectroscopy. The percent drug release from HPMC formulations (CSH) showed inverse relation with the concentration of polymer; that is, drug release increased with decrease in polymer concentration. On contrary, direct relation was observed between percent drug release and polymer concentrations of Kollidon VA 64/Soluplus (CSK, CSS). At similar polymer concentration, drug release from pure carbamazepine was slightly lower with HPMC formulations than that of cocrystal; however, opposite trend in release rate was observed with Kollidon VA/64 and Soluplus. The significant increase in dissolution rate of cocrystal occurred with Kollidon VA/64 and Soluplus at higher polymer concentration. Moreover, no phase change took place in Methocel and Kollidon formulations. No tablet residue was left for Soluplus formulation so the impact of polymer on cocrystal integrity cannot be predicted. PMID:26380301

  5. A new point mutation in the iron-sulfur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase confers resistance to boscalid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Duan, Yabing; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingguo

    2015-09-01

    Research has established that mutations in highly conserved amino acids of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex in various fungi confer SDH inhibitor (SDHI) resistance. For Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, a necrotrophic fungus with a broad host range and a worldwide distribution, boscalid resistance has been attributed to the mutation H132R in the highly conserved SdhD subunit protein of the SDH complex. In our previous study, however, only one point mutation, A11V in SdhB (GCA to GTA change in SdhB), was detected in S. sclerotiorum boscalid-resistant (BR) mutants. In the current study, replacement of the SdhB gene in a boscalid-sensitive (BS) S. sclerotiorum strain with the mutant SdhB gene conferred resistance. Compared with wild-type strains, BR and GSM (SdhB gene in the wild-type strain replaced by the mutant SdhB gene) mutants were more sensitive to osmotic stress, lacked the ability to produce sclerotia and exhibited lower expression of the pac1 gene. Importantly, the point mutation was not located in the highly conserved sequence of the iron-sulfur subunit of SDH. These results suggest that resistance based on non-conserved vs. conserved protein domains differs in mechanism. In addition to increasing our understanding of boscalid resistance in S. sclerotiorum, the new information will be useful for the development of alternative antifungal drugs. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Permeation of sumatriptan succinate across human skin using multiple types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays fabricated from sodium hyaluronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Kusamori, Kosuke; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Available formulations of sumatriptan succinate (SS) have low bioavailability or are associated with site reactions. We developed various types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs) fabricated from sodium hyaluronate as a new delivery system for SS and evaluated their skin permeation and irritation in terms of clinical application. In vitro permeation studies with human skin, physicochemical properties (needle length, thickness and density), and penetration enhancers (glycerin, sodium dodecyl sulfate and lauric acid diethanolamide) were investigated. SS-loaded high-density MNs of 800 µm in length were the optimal formulation and met clinical therapeutic requirements. Penetration enhancers did not significantly affect permeation of SS from MNs. Optical coherence tomography images demonstrated that SS-loaded high-density MNs (800 µm) uniformly created drug permeation pathways for the delivery of SS into the skin. SS-loaded high-density MNs induced moderate primary skin irritations in rats, but the skin recovered within 72 h of removal of the MNs. These findings suggest that high-density MNs of 800 µm in length are an effective and promising formulation for transdermal delivery of SS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SS permeation across human skin using self-dissolving MNs.

  7. Sustainable Synthesis of Oxalic and Succinic Acid through Aerobic Oxidation of C6 Polyols Under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maria; Williamson, David; Lobefaro, Francesco; Jones, Matthew D; Mattia, Davide; Nocito, Francesco; Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela

    2018-03-22

    The sustainable chemical industry encompasses a shift from the use of fossil carbon to renewable carbon. The synthesis of chemicals from nonedible biomass (cellulosic or oil) represents one of the key steps for "greening" the chemical industry. In this paper, we report the aerobic oxidative cleavage of C6 polyols (5-HMF, glucose, fructose and sucrose) to oxalic acid (OA) and succinic acid (SA) in water under mild conditions using M@CNT and M@NCNT (M=Fe, V; CNT=carbon nanotubes; NCNT=N-doped CNT), which, under suitable conditions, were recoverable and reusable without any loss of efficiency. The influence of the temperature, O 2 pressure (PO2 ), reaction time and stirring rate are discussed and the best reaction conditions are determined for an almost complete conversion of the starting material and a good OA yield of 48 %. SA and formic acid were the only co-products. The former could be further converted into OA by oxidation in the presence of formic acid, resulting in an overall OA yield of >62 %. This process was clean and did not produce organic waste nor gas emissions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Direct measurement of the initial proton extrusion to oxygen uptake ratio accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, O H; Shrager, R I; Bunow, B; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L; Hendler, R W

    1986-01-01

    The problem of obtaining very early ratios for the H+/O stoichiometry accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria was attacked using new techniques for direct measurement rather than extrapolations based on data obtained after mixing and the recovery of the electrode from initial injection of O2. Respiration was quickly initiated in a thoroughly mixed O2-containing suspension of mitochondria under a CO atmosphere by photolysis of the CO-cytochrome c oxidase complex-. Fast responding O2 and pH electrodes were used to collect data every 10 ms. The response time for each electrode was experimentally measured in each experiment and suitable corrections for electrode relaxations were made. With uncorrected data obtained after 0.8 s, the extrapolation back to zero time on the basis of single-exponential curve fitting confirmed values close to 8.0 as previously reported (Costa et al., 1984). The data directly obtained, however, indicate an initial burst in H+/O ratio that peaked to values of approximately 20 to 30 prior to 50 ms and which was no longer evident after 0.3 s. Newer information and considerations that place all extrapolation methods in question are discussed. PMID:3019443

  9. Development of hydrocortisone succinic acid/and 5-fluorouracil/chitosan microcapsules for oral and topical drug deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pik-Ling; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Wong, Raymond Siu-Ming; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun-Wah; Lam, Kim-Hung; Gambari, Roberto; Kok, Stanton Hon-Lung; Chui, Chung-Hin

    2012-05-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the safety use of calendula oil/chitosan microcapsules as a carrier for both oral and topical deliveries. We also reported the improved biological activity towards skin cells and Staphylococcus aureus of phyllanthin containing chitosan microcapsules. However, the possibility of both oral and topical applications was still necessary to be further studied. Here we investigated that both oral and topical applications of chitosan-based microcapsules were tested using hydrocortisone succinic acid (HSA) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), respectively. The drug loading efficiency, particle size, surface morphology and chemical compositions of both drug loaded microcapsules were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro release studies revealed that both HSA and 5-FU could be released form chitosan microcapsules. The mean adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration in HSA loaded microcapsule mice plasma was detected to be lower than that of water control. One hundred micrograms per milliliter of 5-FU containing microcapsules exhibited a stronger growth inhibition towards skin keratinocytes than that of free 5-FU. In vitro drug delivery model demonstrated the delivery of 5-FU from microcapsule treated textiles into nude mice skin. Further uses of the drug loaded microcapsules may provide an efficiency deliverable tool for both oral and topical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potassium Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Injection for the treatment of child epidemic parotitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-rui; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Zhang, Bing

    2015-11-01

    To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Potassium Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Injection (PDSI) in the treatment of child epidemic parotitis (EP). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding PDSI in the treatment of child EP were searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, PubMed, and Cochrane Library from inception to July 30, 2013. Two reviewers independently retrieved RCTs and extracted information. The Cochrane risk of bias method was used to assess the quality of included studies, and a meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 11 studies with 818 participants were included. The quality of the studies was generally low, among which only one study mentioned the random method. The meta-analysis indicated that PDSI was more effective than the conventional therapy with Western medicine for EP in the outcomes of the total effective rate [relative risk (RR)=1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.14, 1.33], Preview, 2 of which were mainly represented rash and diarrhea in the experiment group, while another 4 ADRs occurred in the control group. Based on the systematic review, PDSI was effectiveness and relatively safety in the treatment of child EP. But further rigorously designed trials are warranted to determine its effectiveness.

  11. Effect of organo-modified montmorillonite on poly(butylene succinate/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The composite material based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT were prepared by melt blending technique and characterized. Sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT was successfully modified by octadecylammonium (ODA and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDOA salts to become OMMT through cation exchange technique which is shown by the increase of basal spacing of clay by XRD. The addition of the OMMT to the PBS/PBAT blends produced nanocomposites which is proved by XRD and TEM. Tensile tests showed increase in tensile strength and modulus which is attributed to the existence of strong interactions between PBS/PBAT and clay, particularly with OMMT. Highest tensile strength of nanocomposite was observed at 1 wt% of OMMT incorporated. TGA study showed that the thermal stability of the blend increased after the addition of clays. SEM micrographs of the fracture surfaces show that the morphology of the blend becomes homogeneous and smoother with presence of OMMT.

  12. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  13. Fixation of radioactive elements on diethylene-glycol-succinate and its use for the determination of gross activity in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; Nazmy, A.F.; Eldesoky, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Studies are given to illustrate surface adsorption of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 232 Th, 235 U, 239 Pu and 241 Am on diethylene-glycol-succinate, DGS. Adsorption of these elements was studied from aqueous and phosphate solutions. A procedure for the determination of gross activity in urine, based on surface adsorption on DGS is described. Groups of nine solutions, in 30 ml 1N HNO 3 , were spiked with the investigated radioactive elements (approximately 5 pCi). The pH of the solutions was adjusted to a range of 0.5 to 10 using ammonia. Each solution was passed through the column and the fixed activity was removed from the column with 50 ml of 4N HCl, followed by two washes with 10 ml of distilled water. The acid solution was evaporated to dryness for alpha- or beta-counting. The percentage fixation was determined by comparison with a standard source of the same spiked element. Adsorption was found to depend on pH, age of the tracer solution, hydrolysis state of the radioelement and the ionic strength of the solution. The adsorption phenomenon which was particularly well observed could be used as a separation stage in a method for the determination of gross activity in urine. Recoveries of about 85% were obtained. (T.G.)

  14. Ascorbyl palmitate/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate monoester mixed micelles for prolonged circulation and targeted delivery of compound K for antilung cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Youwen Zhang, Deyin Tong, Daobiao Che, Bing Pei, Xiaodong Xia, Gaofeng Yuan, Xin Jin Department of Hospital Pharmacy, The First Hospital of Suqian, Suqian, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The roles of ginsenoside compound K (CK in inhibiting tumor have been widely recognized in recent years. However, low water solubility and significant P-gp efflux have restricted its application. In this study, CK ascorbyl palmitate (AP/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate monoester (TPGS mixed micelles were prepared as a delivery system to increase the absorption and targeted antitumor effect of CK. Consequently, the solubility of CK increased from 35.2±4.3 to 1,463.2±153.3 µg/mL. Furthermore, in an in vitro A549 cell model, CK AP/TPGS mixed micelles significantly inhibited cell growth, induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell migration compared to free CK, all indicating that the developed micellar delivery system could increase the antitumor effect of CK in vitro. Both in vitro cellular fluorescence uptake and in vivo near-infrared imaging studies indicated that AP/TPGS mixed micelles can promote cellular uptake and enhance tumor targeting. Moreover, studies in the A549 lung cancer xenograft mouse model showed that CK AP/TPGS mixed micelles are an efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery system with an effective antitumor effect. Western blot analysis further confirmed that the marked antitumor effect in vivo could likely be due to apoptosis promotion and P-gp efflux inhibition. Therefore, these findings suggest that the AP/TPGS mixed micellar delivery system could be an efficient delivery strategy for enhanced tumor targeting and antitumor effects. Keywords: ginsenoside CK, ascorbyl palmitate, TPGS, mixed micelles, anti-tumor therapy

  15. Targeted drug delivery nanosystems based on copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Doan Do, Hai; Thong Phan, Quoc; Nguyet Tran Thi, Minh; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Nhung Hoang Thi, My; Huong Le, Mai; Nguyen, Linh Toan; Quang Bui, Thuc; Hieu Phan, Van

    2016-03-01

    Along with the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery nanosystems (DDNSs) have attracted a great deal of concern among scientists over the world, especially in cancer treatment. DDNSs not only improve water solubility of anticancer drugs but also increase therapeutic efficacy and minimize the side effects of treatment methods through targeting mechanisms including passive and active targeting. Passive targeting is based on the nano-size of drug delivery systems while active targeting is based on the specific bindings between targeting ligands attached on the drug delivery systems and the unique receptors on the cancer cell surface. In this article we present some of our results in the synthesis and testing of DDNSs prepared from copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS), which carry anticancer drugs including curcumin, paclitaxel and doxorubicin. In order to increase the targeting effect to cancer cells, active targeting ligand folate was attached to the DDNSs. The results showed copolymer PLA-TPGS to be an excellent carrier for loading hydrophobic drugs (curcumin and paclitaxel). The fabricated DDNSs had a very small size (50-100 nm) and enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of drugs. Most notably, folate-decorated paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles (Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs) were tested on tumor-bearing nude mice. During the treatment time, Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs always exhibited the best tumor growth inhibition compared to free paclitaxel and paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles. All results evidenced the promising potential of copolymer PLA-TPGS in fabricating targeted DDNSs for cancer treatment.

  16. Outcomes of annual surveillance imaging in an adult and paediatric cohort of succinate dehydrogenase B mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufton, Nicola; Shapiro, Lucy; Srirangalingam, Umasuthan; Richards, Polly; Sahdev, Anju; Kumar, Ajith V; McAndrew, Lorraine; Martin, Lee; Berney, Daniel; Monson, John; Chew, Shern L; Waterhouse, Mona; Druce, Maralyn; Korbonits, Márta; Metcalfe, Karl; Drake, William M; Storr, Helen L; Akker, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    For 'asymptomatic carriers' of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene mutations, there is currently no consensus as to the appropriate modality or frequency of surveillance imaging. We present the results of a surveillance programme of SDHB mutation carriers. Review of clinical outcomes of a surveillance regimen in patients identified to have an SDHB gene mutation, based on annual MRI, in a single UK tertiary referral centre. A total of 92 patients were identified with an SDHB gene mutation. a total of 27 index patients presented with symptoms, and 65 patients were identified as asymptomatic carriers. Annual MRI of the abdomen, with alternate year MRI of the neck, thorax and pelvis. Presence of an SDHB-related tumour included paraganglioma (PGL), phaeochromocytoma (PCC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). A total of 43 PGLs, eight PCCs and one RCC occurred in the 27 index patients (23 solitary, four synchronous, five metachronous). A further 15 SDHB-related tumours (11 PGLs, three RCCs, one GIST) were identified in the asymptomatic carriers on surveillance screening (25% of screened carriers): 10 on the first surveillance imaging and five on subsequent imaging 2-6 years later. A total of 11 patients had malignant disease. SDHB-related tumours are picked up as early as 2 years after initial negative surveillance scan. We believe the high malignancy rate and early identification rate of tumours justifies the use of 1-2 yearly imaging protocols and MRI-based imaging could form the mainstay of surveillance in this patient group thereby minimizing radiation exposure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Morphology, Nucleation, and Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Poly(Butylene Succinate Mixed with a Polycarbonate/MWCNT Masterbatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi P. Gumede

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending poly(butylene succinate (PBS with a polycarbonate (PC/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs masterbatch, in a twin-screw extruder. The nanocomposites contained 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 wt% MWCNTs. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS results indicate that the blends are partially miscible, hence they form two phases (i.e., PC-rich and PBS-rich phases. The PC-rich phase contained a small amount of PBS chains that acted as a plasticizer and enabled crystallization of the PC component. In the PBS-rich phase, the amount of the PC chains present gave rise to increases in the glass transition temperature of the PBS phase. The presence of two phases was supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis, where most MWCNTs aggregated in the PC-rich phase (especially at the high MWCNTs content of 4 wt% and a small amount of MWCNTs were able to diffuse to the PBS-rich phase. Standard DSC scans showed that the MWCNTs nucleation effects saturated at 0.5 wt% MWCNT content on the PBS-rich phase, above this content a negative nucleation effect was observed. Isothermal crystallization results indicated that with 0.5 wt% MWCNTs the crystallization rate was accelerated, but further increases in MWCNTs loading (and also in PC content resulted in progressive decreases in crystallization rate. The results are explained by increased MWCNTs aggregation and reduced diffusion rates of PBS chains, as the masterbatch content in the blends increased.

  18. Biocompatibility and drug release behavior of scaffolds prepared by coaxial electrospinning of poly(butylene succinate) and polyethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, E.; Ibañez, H. [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Valle, L.J. del, E-mail: luis.javier.del.valle@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Puiggalí, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering (CrNE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Edifici C, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Scaffolds constituted by electrospun microfibers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) were studied. Specifically, coaxial microfibers having different core–shell distributions and compositions were considered as well as uniaxial micro/nanofibers prepared from mixtures of both polymers. Processing conditions were optimized for all geometries and compositions and resulting morphologies (i.e. diameter and surface texture) characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition, molecular interactions and thermal properties were evaluated by FTIR, NMR, XPS and differential scanning calorimetry. The PEG component of electrospun fibers could be solubilized by immersion of scaffolds in aqueous medium, giving rise to high porosity and hydrophobic samples. Nevertheless, a small amount of PEG was retained in the PBS matrix, suggesting some degree of mixing. Solubilization was slightly dependent on fiber structure; specifically, the distribution of PEG in the core or shell of coaxial fibers led to higher or lower retention levels, respectively. Scaffolds could be effectively loaded with hydrophobic drugs having antibacterial and anticarcinogenic activities like triclosan and curcumin, respectively. Their release was highly dependent on their chemical structure and medium composition. Thus, low and high release rates were observed in phosphate buffer saline (SS) and SS/ethanol (30:70 v/v), respectively. Slight differences in the release of triclosan were found depending on fiber distribution and composition. Antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated for both loaded and unloaded scaffolds. - Highlights: • Coaxial microfibers with different hydrophobicities were studied. • The surface morphology of the coaxial fiber shows the distribution of polymers. • Coaxial fiber microstructure favors the polymer molecular orientation. • These hybrid materials have greater advantages for loading and drug release. • PEG

  19. MexiB 6 AS A RESULT OF FORTIFICATION OF ETHYLMETHYLHYDROXYPYRIDINE SUCCINATE WITH MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE: PROTEOME EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS  depends on the concentration and activity of proteomic proteins. To provide the body with magnesium and pyridoxine is an important condition for the efficacy of EMHPS because these micronutrients are essential for maintaining neuronal function.Objective: to analyze the biological effects of pyridoxineand magnesium-dependent proteins providing the molecular mechanisms of multi-targeted action of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium.Material and methods. Proteins that interact with both pyridoxine and magnesium were found in the genomic and proteomic databases. A list of 78 vitamin B6-dependent proteins, which is based on the available human genome records in NCBIPROTEIN, EMBL,  UNIPROT,  and HumanProteomeMap databases, was analyzed using a functional binding assay. The same assay was also applied to analyze a list 720 magnesium-dependent proteins.Results. The analysis has shown that 78 pyridoxine-dependent proteomic proteins are necessary for: 1 the synthesis and processing of amino acids; 2 cell energy metabolism (ATP synthesis, and 3 the synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuronal membranes. MexiB 6 has numerous synergistic interactions between the molecules of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium. The combination of the components of EMHPS,  pyridoxine and magnesium in MexiB 6 (triple synergism allows prediction that the drug has more pronounced clinical effects than the molecules of EMHPS,  which emerges in its antihypoxic and antioxidant activities, the improvement of synaptic transmission of a signal, the neutralization of homocysteine, and the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (restoration of cell sensitivity to insulin and carbohydrates in patients with atherosclerosis and in those at risk for diabetes mellitus or obesity. Pyridoxineand magnesium-induced potentiation of the effects of EMHPS may enhance its activity.

  20. Targeted drug delivery nanosystems based on copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Do, Hai Doan; Phan, Quoc Thong; Thi, Minh Nguyet Tran; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Thi, My Nhung Hoang; Le, Mai Huong; Nguyen, Linh Toan; Bui, Thuc Quang; Phan, Van Hieu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery nanosystems (DDNSs) have attracted a great deal of concern among scientists over the world, especially in cancer treatment. DDNSs not only improve water solubility of anticancer drugs but also increase therapeutic efficacy and minimize the side effects of treatment methods through targeting mechanisms including passive and active targeting. Passive targeting is based on the nano-size of drug delivery systems while active targeting is based on the specific bindings between targeting ligands attached on the drug delivery systems and the unique receptors on the cancer cell surface. In this article we present some of our results in the synthesis and testing of DDNSs prepared from copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS), which carry anticancer drugs including curcumin, paclitaxel and doxorubicin. In order to increase the targeting effect to cancer cells, active targeting ligand folate was attached to the DDNSs. The results showed copolymer PLA-TPGS to be an excellent carrier for loading hydrophobic drugs (curcumin and paclitaxel). The fabricated DDNSs had a very small size (50–100 nm) and enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of drugs. Most notably, folate-decorated paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles (Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs) were tested on tumor-bearing nude mice. During the treatment time, Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs always exhibited the best tumor growth inhibition compared to free paclitaxel and paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles. All results evidenced the promising potential of copolymer PLA-TPGS in fabricating targeted DDNSs for cancer treatment. (paper)

  1. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE IN HIGH DOSES IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE COURSE OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare two initial doses (50 or 100mg/day ofmetoprolol succinate in control released presentation (Betaloc ZOK, AstraZeneca for achievement of target level of heart rate (HR in patients with stable course of ischemic heart disease (IHD.Material and methods. 50 patients (34 men and 16 women, aged 61,3 y.o., in average with IHD were involved into the open randomized comparative study. IHD duration was from 1 to 22 years (8,3 years in average. 47 patients completed study, 3 patients drop out because of side effects. Previous therapy with β-blockers or other HR reducing drugs was replaced on metoprolol. Patients were randomized in 2 groups (G1 and G2. The initial metoprolol dose was 50 mg in G1 patients and 100 mg - in G2 patients. The dose was enlarged twice if necessary. Study duration was 6 weeks. The change of HR, blood pressure, electrocardiogram parameters was evaluated. Patients filled in Seattle angina questionnaire initially and after 6 weeks treatment. Therapy tolerability was also estimated.Results. In 6 weeks of therapy 61% of G1 patients and 87,5% of G2 patients (p<0,01 reached HR target. Dependence of achievement of target HR and dose of metoprolol was observed (r=0,3; p=0,056. Improvement of the HR control was accompanied by reduction of frequency of angina attacks and increase of life quality.Conclusion. Metoprolol (Betaloc ZOK 200 mg/day provides more effective HR control in patients with IHD vs metoprolol 50-100 mg/day and has good tolerability.

  2. Preparation and characterization of new succinic anhydride grafted Posidonia for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadlia, Aguir; Mohamed, Khalfaoui; Najah, Laribi; Farouk, M'henni Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from Posidonia for adsorption of heavy metal ions and dye in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of Posidonia with succinic anhydride. Thus, we have obtained materials with various succinyl groups contents (from 29.8 to 39.2%). The obtained materials were characterized by infrared and CP/MAS 13 C-RMN spectroscopy. The rate of succinyl content of the modified Posidonia was determined by saponification. The second part is devoted to the evaluation of the adsorption capacity of metal ions such as Pb 2+ and dye such as direct red 75 (DR75) for raw and modified Posidonia materials. Two possible ways for the adsorption of these pollutants are studied: adsorption of each pollutant alone onto these supports, and cumulative adsorption of both metal ions and dye on the same supports. In the last case, the pollutant is adsorbed successively from two different solutions. The effects of pollutants concentration, support dose, pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption of each pollutant were evaluated. The results showed that the raw and modified Posidonia show a high capacity for Pb 2+ adsorption. The capacity of modified Posidonia saturated with Pb 2+ to adsorb DR75 was found 147.12 mg g -1 . While the adsorption capacity of the nonsaturated modified Posidonia was equal to 81.63 mg g -1 . The pseudo-second-order model was the best to represent adsorption kinetics of DR75. The pseudo-first-order model would be better for fitting the adsorption kinetic process of Pb 2+ onto raw and modified Posidonia. The adsorption isotherms of Pb 2+ could be described by the Jossens equation model. Any of the tested models can describe the adsorption of DR75 onto the studied materials. These results confirm that the adsorption of DR75 from aqueous solution was multilayer.

  3. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate efficiently kills breast tumour-initiating cells in a complex II-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bing; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Stapelberg, Michael; Stursa, Jan; Prokopova, Katerina; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that breast cancer involves tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which play a role in initiation, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and relapse of the disease. Emerging drugs that target TICs are becoming a focus of contemporary research. Mitocans, a group of compounds that induce apoptosis of cancer cells by destabilising their mitochondria, are showing their potential in killing TICs. In this project, we investigated mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES), a recently developed mitocan, for its in vitro and in vivo efficacy against TICs. The mammosphere model of breast TICs was established by culturing murine NeuTL and human MCF7 cells as spheres. This model was verified by stem cell marker expression, tumour initiation capacity and chemotherapeutic resistance. Cell susceptibility to MitoVES was assessed and the cell death pathway investigated. In vivo efficacy was studied by grafting NeuTL TICs to form syngeneic tumours. Mammospheres derived from NeuTL and MCF7 breast cancer cells were enriched in the level of stemness, and the sphere cells featured altered mitochondrial function. Sphere cultures were resistant to several established anti-cancer agents while they were susceptible to MitoVES. Killing of mammospheres was suppressed when the mitochondrial complex II, the molecular target of MitoVES, was knocked down. Importantly, MitoVES inhibited progression of syngeneic HER2 high tumours derived from breast TICs by inducing apoptosis in tumour cells. These results demonstrate that using mammospheres, a plausible model for studying TICs, drugs that target mitochondria efficiently kill breast tumour-initiating cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1394-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. Reinforcement effect of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-grafted cellulose nanocrystal on toughened PBS/polylactic acid blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuzhen; Zhang, Yong

    2016-04-20

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/polylactic acid (PLA) blends modified with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were reinforced by PBS-g-cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) through melt mixing. PBS-g-CNC was prepared through in situ polymerization and its structure was confirmed by FTIR, (13)C NMR, XPS and GPC analysis after saponification. The morphological analysis of PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites before and after etched by CH2Cl2 shows that the addition of DCP and PBS-g-CNC could decrease the size of PBS as a dispersed phase in PLA matrix and improve the dispersion of PBS-g-CNC in both PBS and PLA phases, which could affect the crystallization and mechanical properties of composites. The crystallinity of PLA α'-phase crystal in PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites is increased obviously by the addition of PBS-g-CNC, leading to an increase of the crystallinity of the composites. PBS/PLA blends modified by DCP have high Notched Izod impact strength and moduli, and the values are increased by the addition of PBS-g-CNC. Both storage modulus and glass translation temperature of PBS/PLA blend are increased by DCP and PBS-g-CNC, which is proved by DMA results, showing a weak molecular segment mobility of PBS/PLA matrix. The addition of DCP decreases the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of PBS/PLA composite, but increases the thermal stability of composites, mostly because of the crosslink effect of DCP on PBS/PLA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol following administration of intravenous and subcutaneous chloramphenicol sodium succinate, and subcutaneous chloramphenicol, to koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L A; McLachlan, A J; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P; Gillett, A; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2013-10-01

    Clinically normal koalas (n = 19) received a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) chloramphenicol sodium succinate (SS) (25 mg/kg; n = 6), subcutaneous (s.c.) chloramphenicol SS (60 mg/kg; n = 7) or s.c. chloramphenicol base (60 mg/kg; n = 6). Serial plasma samples were collected over 24-48 h, and chloramphenicol concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The median (range) apparent clearance (CL/F) and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of chloramphenicol after i.v. chloramphenicol SS administration were 0.52 (0.35-0.99) L/h/kg and 1.13 (0.76-1.40) h, respectively. Although the area under the concentration-time curve was comparable for the two s.c. formulations, the absorption rate-limited disposition of chloramphenicol base resulted in a lower median C(max) (2.52; range 0.75-6.80 μg/mL) and longer median tmax (8.00; range 4.00-12.00 h) than chloramphenicol SS (C(max) 20.37, range 13.88-25.15 μg/mL; t(max) 1.25, range 1.00-2.00 h). When these results were compared with susceptibility data for human Chlamydia isolates, the expected efficacy of the current chloramphenicol dosing regimen used in koalas to treat chlamydiosis remains uncertain and at odds with clinical observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, S; Lucas-Miyake, M

    1989-01-01

    This article will describe a marketing model for the development of a role for occupational therapy in the industrial market. Health promotion activities are used as a means to diversify existing revenue bases by establishing new referral sources in industry. The technique of need satisfaction -selling or marketing one's services to a customer based on needs expressed by the customer - is reviewed, and implementation of this approach is described from two settings, one in psychiatry and the other in rehabilitation.

  7. Carvedilol Compared With Metoprolol Succinate in the Treatment and Prognosis of Patients With Stable Chronic Heart Failure: Carvedilol or Metoprolol Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Zhao, Jingting; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Atar, Dan; Agewall, Stefan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2015-09-01

    β-Blockers exert a prognostic benefit in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Their pharmacological properties vary. The only substantial comparative trial to date-the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial-has compared carvedilol with short-acting metoprolol tartrate at different dose equivalents. We therefore addressed the relative efficacy of equal doses of carvedilol and metoprolol succinate on survival in multicenter hospital outpatients with chronic heart failure. Four thousand sixteen patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure who were using either carvedilol or metoprolol succinate were identified in the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and The Heart Failure Registry of the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Patients were individually matched on both the dose equivalents and the respective propensity scores for β-blocker treatment. During a follow-up for 17 672 patient-years, it was found that 304 (27.2%) patients died in the carvedilol group and 1066 (36.8%) in the metoprolol group. In a univariable analysis of the general sample, metoprolol therapy was associated with higher mortality compared with carvedilol therapy (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.69; P<0.001). This difference was not seen after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.50; P=0.75) and adjustment for propensity score and dose equivalents (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.20; P=0.36) or in the propensity and dose equivalent-matched sample (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.23; P=0.99). These results were essentially unchanged for all prespecified subgroups. In outpatients with chronic heart failure, no conclusive association between all-cause mortality and treatment with carvedilol or metoprolol succinate was observed after either multivariable adjustment or multilevel propensity score matching. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Comparative genomics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate associated with its deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaspina Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5A1 [ALDH5A1]; locus 6p22 occupies a central position in central nervous system (CNS neurotransmitter metabolism as one of two enzymes necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA recycling from the synaptic cleft. Its importance is highlighted by the neurometabolic disease associated with its inherited deficiency in humans, as well as the severe epileptic phenotype observed in Aldh5a1-/- knockout mice. Expanding evidence now suggests, however, that even subtle decreases in human SSADH activity, associated with rare and common single nucleotide polymorphisms, may produce subclinical pathological effects. SSADH, in conjunction with aldo-keto reductase 7A2 (AKR7A2, represent two neural enzymes responsible for further catabolism of succinic semialdehyde, producing either succinate (SSADH or γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; AKR7A2. A GABA analogue, GHB is a short-chain fatty alcohol with unusual properties in the CNS and a long pharmacological history. Moreover, SSADH occupies a further role in the CNS as the enzyme responsible for further metabolism of the lipid peroxidation aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, an intermediate known to induce oxidant stress. Accordingly, subtle decreases in SSADH activity may have the capacity to lead to regional accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates (GHB, 4-HNE. Polymorphisms in SSADH gene structure may also associate with quantitative traits, including intelligence quotient and life expectancy. Further population-based studies of human SSADH activity promise to reveal additional properties of its function and additional roles in CNS tissue.

  9. Promoting industrialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayfield, F.

    1986-04-01

    When the first nuclear power programme is decided upon, automatically the country has to initiate in parallel a programme to modify or add to its current industrial structure and resources. The extent of this new industrialisation depends upon many factors which both, the Government and the Industries have to consider. The Government has a vital role which includes the setting up of the background against which the industrial promotion should take place and in many cases may have also to play an active role all along this programme. Equally, the existing industries have an important role so as to achieve the most efficient participation in the nuclear programme. Invariably the industrial promotional programme will incur a certain degree of transfer of technology, the extent depending on the policies adopted. For this technology transfer to take place efficiently, both the donor and the receiver have to recognise each other's legitimate ambitions and fears. The transfer of technology is a process having a high human content and both donor and receiver have to take this into account. This can be further complicated when there is a difference in culture between them. Technology transfer is carried out within a contractual and organisational framework which will identify the donor (licensor) and the receiver (licensee). This framework may take various forms from a simple cooperative agreement, through a joint-venture organisation right to a standard contract between two separate entities. Each arrangement has its advantages and drawbacks and requires investment of different degrees. One of the keys to a successful industrial promotion is having it carried out in a timely fashion which will be parallel with the nuclear power programme. Experience in some countries has shown the problems when the industrialisation is out of phase with the programme whilst in other cases this industrialisation was at a level and scale unjustified. (author)

  10. Valorization of macroalga Saccharina latissima as novel feedstock for fermentation-based succinic acid production in a biorefinery approach and economic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    with a maximum productivity of 3.9 g L-1 h-1 was achieved. The high content of total phenolic compounds (TPCs) in the macroalgal biomass (July-August: 5-1% DM), and high concentration of macro- (Ca, K, Na, Mg, P, N and Fe) and micronutrients in the solid residue recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (PHSR), makes...... co-production of antioxidants (i.e. phenolics) and fertilizer very attractive. Finally, a simplified economic assessment showed that for the analyzed scenarios the main product's selling price (succinic acid) can be lowered significantly by coproducing added value products (fertilizers) and high...

  11. Novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate)s bearing functionalizable carbonate building blocks: II. Enzymatic biodegradation and in vitro biocompatibility assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tian, Weisheng; Li, Qiaobo; Li, Yang; Cao, Amin

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study, we have reported chemical synthesis of novel aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate) P(BS-co-CC)s bearing various functionalizable carbonate building blocks, and this work will continue to present our new studies on their enzymatic degradation and in vitro cell biocompatibility assay. First, enzymatic degradation of the novel P(BS-co-CC) film samples was investigated with two enzymes of lipase B Candida Antartic (Novozyme 435) and lipase Porcine Pancreas PPL, and it was revealed that copolymerizing linear poly(butylene succinate) PBS with a functionalizable carbonate building block could remarkably accelerate the enzymatic degradation of a synthesized product P(BS-co-CC), and its biodegradation behavior was found to strongly depend on the overall impacts of several important factors as the cyclic carbonate (CC) comonomer structure and molar content, molar mass, thermal characteristics, morphology, the enzyme-substrate specificity, and so forth. Further, the biodegraded residual film samples and water-soluble enzymatic degradation products were allowed to be analyzed by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). On the experimental evidences, an exo-type mechanism of enzymatic chain hydrolysis preferentially occurring in the noncrystalline domains was suggested for the synthesized new P(BS-co-CC) film samples. With regard to their cell biocompatibilities, an assay with NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell was conducted using the novel synthesized P(BS-co-CC) films as substrates with respect to the cell adhesion and proliferation, and these new biodegradable P(BS-co-CC) samples were found to exhibit as low cell toxicity as the PLLA control, particularly the two samples of poly(butylene succinate-co-18.7 mol % dimethyl

  12. The effect of epoxidized soybean oil on mechanical and rheological properties of poly(butylene succinate)/lignin via vane extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanyu; Huang, Zhaoxia; Qu, Jinping; Meng, Cong

    2016-03-01

    Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) have been used as the compatilizer in the Poly (butylene succinate)/lignin (PBS/lignin) composites. Compatibilized composites were fabricated by a novel vane extruder (VE) which can generate global and dynamic elongational flow. The effects of ESO on the mechanical, rheological properties and morphology of PBS/lignin were studied. The results indicated that the use of ESO had plasticizing effect on the matrix PBS while the addition reduced tensile strength. From SEM micrographs it could be clearly observed that there was a better interfacial adhesion between lignin and matrix. Meanwhile, rheological tests showed the incorporation of ESO improved its Newtonian behavior and can enhance PBS's flexibility.

  13. D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate-based derivative nanoparticles as a novel carrier for paclitaxel delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yupei Wu,1,* Qian Chu,2,* Songwei Tan,1 Xiangting Zhuang,1 Yuling Bao,1 Tingting Wu,1 Zhiping Zhang1,3,41Tongji School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical School, 3Hubei Engineering Research Center for NDDS, 4National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Paclitaxel (PTX is one of the most effective antineoplastic drugs. Its current clinical administration Taxol® is formulated in Cremophor EL, which causes serious side effects. Nanoparticles (NP with lower systemic toxicity and enhanced therapeutic efficiency may be an alternative formulation of the Cremophor EL-based vehicle for PTX delivery. In this study, novel amphipathic 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives, the conjugation of D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS and 4-arm-polyethylene glycol (4-arm-PEG with different molecular weights, have been successfully synthesized and used as carriers for the delivery of PTX. These 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives were able to self-assemble to form uniform NP with PTX encapsulation. Among them, 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP exhibited the smallest particle size, highest drug-loading efficiency, negligible hemolysis rate, and high physiologic stability. Therefore, it was chosen for further in vitro and in vivo investigations. Facilitated by the effective uptake of the NP, the PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP showed greater cytotoxicity compared with free PTX against human ovarian cancer (A2780, non-small cell lung cancer (A549, and breast adenocarcinoma cancer (MCF-7 cells, as well as a higher apoptotic rate and a more significant cell cycle arrest effect at the G2/M phase in A2780 cells. More importantly, PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP resulted in a significantly improved tumor growth inhibitory effect in comparison to Taxol® in S180 sarcoma-bearing mice models. This study suggested

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polyester copolymers based on poly(butylene succinate) and poly(ethylene glycol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A series of polyester copolymers was synthesized from 1,4-succinic acid with 1,4-butanediol and poly(ethylene glycol) through a two-step process of esterification and polycondensation in this article. The composition and physical properties of copolyesters were investigated via GPC, 1 HNMR, DSC and PLM. The copolymer composition was in good agreement with that expected from the feed composition of the reactants. The melting temperature (T m ), crystallization temperature (T c ), and crystallinity (X c ) of these copolyesters decreased gradually as the content of PEG unit increased. Otherwise, experimental results also showed that the contents of PEG in copolymers had an effect on the molecular weight, distribution, thermal properties, hydrolysis degradation properties, and crystalline morphology of polyester copolymers. - Graphical abstract: The composition of polyester copolymer was determined from the 1 H NMR spectra using the relative intensities of the proton peaks. As a sample, the 1 H NMR spectrum of polyester copolymer with 10 mol% of PEG is shown in Fig. 2: CO-(CH 2 ) 2 -CO; O-CH 2 - and C-(CH 2 ) 2 -C from the SA and BD unit at δ2.59; δ 4.08 and δ1.67; O-(CH 2 CH 2 ) n -O from the PEG unit at δ 3.61. The molar composition of polyester copolymer was measured as the area ratio of δ3.61/(δ4.08 + δ1.67) peak. The PEG unit is incorporated into the copolymers in an amount of about 9.12mol% less than that of the feed proportion. These results showed that the composition of the copolymers is in good agreement with that expected from the feed proportion. Highlights: ► The introduction of PEG unit changed the flexibility of PBS main chain. ► PEG unit did not alter the crystal form of PBS in copolymers. ► PEG unit hindered the formation of ring-banded spherulite morphology in copolymers. ► The copolyesters had good in vitro degradation performance. ► The composition ratio of PEG unit can adjust the in vitro degradation performance.

  15. Preparation and characterization of new succinic anhydride grafted Posidonia for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadlia, Aguir, E-mail: aguirc@yahoo.ca [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Appliquee et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Mohamed, Khalfaoui [Unite de Recherche de Physique Quantique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia); Najah, Laribi; Farouk, M' henni Mohamed [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Appliquee et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia)

    2009-12-30

    The present work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from Posidonia for adsorption of heavy metal ions and dye in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of Posidonia with succinic anhydride. Thus, we have obtained materials with various succinyl groups contents (from 29.8 to 39.2%). The obtained materials were characterized by infrared and CP/MAS {sup 13}C-RMN spectroscopy. The rate of succinyl content of the modified Posidonia was determined by saponification. The second part is devoted to the evaluation of the adsorption capacity of metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and dye such as direct red 75 (DR75) for raw and modified Posidonia materials. Two possible ways for the adsorption of these pollutants are studied: adsorption of each pollutant alone onto these supports, and cumulative adsorption of both metal ions and dye on the same supports. In the last case, the pollutant is adsorbed successively from two different solutions. The effects of pollutants concentration, support dose, pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption of each pollutant were evaluated. The results showed that the raw and modified Posidonia show a high capacity for Pb{sup 2+} adsorption. The capacity of modified Posidonia saturated with Pb{sup 2+} to adsorb DR75 was found 147.12 mg g{sup -1}. While the adsorption capacity of the nonsaturated modified Posidonia was equal to 81.63 mg g{sup -1}. The pseudo-second-order model was the best to represent adsorption kinetics of DR75. The pseudo-first-order model would be better for fitting the adsorption kinetic process of Pb{sup 2+} onto raw and modified Posidonia. The adsorption isotherms of Pb{sup 2+} could be described by the Jossens equation model. Any of the tested models can describe the adsorption of DR75 onto the studied materials. These results confirm that the adsorption of DR75 from aqueous solution was multilayer.

  16. Lessons learned from administration of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate for acute pediatric spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle C; Daugherty, Margot C; Moody, Suzanne M; Falcone, Richard A; Bierbrauer, Karin S; Geis, Gary L

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) has been studied as a pharmacological adjunct that may be given to patients with acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) to improve neurological recovery. MPSS treatment became the standard of care in adults despite a lack of evidence supporting clinical benefit. More recently, new guidelines from neurological surgeon groups recommended no longer using MPSS for ASCI, due to questionable clinical benefit and known complications. However, little information exists in the pediatric population regarding MPSS use in the setting of ASCI. The aim of this paper was to describe steroid use and side effects in patients with ASCI at the authors' Level 1 pediatric trauma center in order to inform other hospitals that may still use this therapy. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine adherence in ordering and delivery according to the guideline of the authors' institution and to determine types and frequency of complications. Inclusion criteria included age < 17 years, blunt trauma, physician concern for ASCI, and admission for ≥ 24 hours or treatment with high-dose intravenous MPSS. Exclusion criteria included penetrating trauma, no documentation of ASCI, and incomplete medical records. Charts were reviewed for a predetermined list of complications. RESULTS A total of 602 patient charts were reviewed; 354 patients were included in the study. MPSS was administered in 59 cases. In 34 (57.5%) the order was placed correctly. In 13 (38.2%) of these 34 cases, MPSS was administered according to the recommended timeline protocol. Overall, only 13 (22%) of 59 patients received the therapy according to protocol with regard to accurate ordering and administration. Among the patients with ASCI, 20 (55.6%) of the 36 who received steroids had complications, which was a significantly higher rate than in those who did not receive steroids (8 [24.2%] of 33, p = 0.008). Among the patients without ASCI, 10 (43.5%) of the 23

  17. Enhanced oral absorption and therapeutic effect of acetylpuerarin based on D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun DQ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Deqing Sun,1,2 Xinbing Wei,1 Xia Xue,2 Zengjun Fang,3 Manru Ren,1 Haiyan Lou,1 Xiumei Zhang11Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Acetylpuerarin (AP, because of its lower water solubility, shows poor absorption that hinders its therapeutic application. Thus, the aim of this study was to prepare nanoemulsions for AP, enhance its oral bioavailability, and thus improve the therapeutic effect.Methods: The nanoemulsions stabilized by D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of particle size, drug loading, morphology, and in vitro drug release. A lipid digestion model was used to predict in vivo drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal environment. The pharmacokinetics of AP formulations were performed in rats; meanwhile, a chylomicron flow-blocking rat model was used to evaluate the lymphatic drug transport. Moreover, the therapeutic effects of AP nanoemulsions on the model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion for brain injury were also assessed.Results: The nanoemulsions with a droplet size of 150 nm were well stabilized by TPGS and showed a high loading capacity for AP. In the digestion model, the distribution of AP in aqueous phase/pellet phase was about 90%/10% for nanoemulsions and 5%/95% for oil solution, indicating that the drug encapsulated in nanoemulsions would present in solubilized form after transportation into the gastrointestinal tract, whereas drug precipitation would occur as the oil solution was orally administered. The area under the curve value of AP nanoemulsions was 5.76±0.56 µg·hour·mL-1, or was about 2.6 and 1.7 times as great as that of suspension and oil solution, respectively, indicating enhanced drug

  18. Tumour risks and genotype-phenotype correlations associated with germline variants in succinate dehydrogenase subunit genes SDHB, SDHC and SDHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katrina A; Ascher, David B; Pires, Douglas Eduardo Valente; Barnes, Daniel R; Vialard, Lindsey; Casey, Ruth T; Bradshaw, Nicola; Adlard, Julian; Aylwin, Simon; Brennan, Paul; Brewer, Carole; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie A; Davidson, Rosemarie; Donaldson, Alan; Fryer, Alan; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley V; Irving, Richard; Lalloo, Fiona; McConachie, Michelle; McConnell, Vivienne P M; Morrison, Patrick J; Murday, Victoria; Park, Soo-Mi; Simpson, Helen L; Snape, Katie; Stewart, Susan; Tomkins, Susan E; Wallis, Yvonne; Izatt, Louise; Goudie, David; Lindsay, Robert S; Perry, Colin G; Woodward, Emma R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Maher, Eamonn R

    2018-06-01

    Germline pathogenic variants in SDHB/SDHC / SDHD are the most frequent causes of inherited phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Insufficient information regarding penetrance and phenotypic variability hinders optimum management of mutation carriers. We estimate penetrance for symptomatic tumours and elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large cohort of SDHB/SDHC / SDHD mutation carriers. A retrospective survey of 1832 individuals referred for genetic testing due to a personal or family history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma. 876 patients (401 previously reported) had a germline mutation in SDHB/SDHC / SDHD (n=673/43/160). Tumour risks were correlated with in silico structural prediction analyses. Tumour risks analysis provided novel penetrance estimates and genotype-phenotype correlations. In addition to tumour type susceptibility differences for individual genes, we confirmed that the SDHD: p.Pro81Leu mutation has a distinct phenotype and identified increased age-related tumour risks with highly destabilising SDHB missense mutations. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the penetrance (cumulative risk of clinically apparent tumours) in SDHB and (paternally inherited) SDHD mutation-positive non-probands (n=371/67 with detailed clinical information) by age 60 years was 21.8% (95% CI 15.2% to 27.9%) and 43.2% (95% CI 25.4% to 56.7%), respectively. Risk of malignant disease at age 60 years in non-proband SDHB mutation carriers was 4.2%(95% CI 1.1% to 7.2%). With retrospective cohort analysis to adjust for ascertainment, cumulative tumour risks for SDHB mutation carriers at ages 60 years and 80 years were 23.9% (95% CI 20.9% to 27.4%) and 30.6% (95% CI 26.8% to 34.7%). Overall risks of clinically apparent tumours for SDHB mutation carriers are substantially lower than initially estimated and will improve counselling of affected families. Specific genotype-tumour risk associations provides a basis for novel investigative strategies into succinate dehydrogenase

  19. Nanoformulation of D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) diblock copolymer for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laiqiang; Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Song, Xiaosong; Liu, Ranyi; Liu, Kexin; Zeng, Xiaowei; Mei, Lin

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop formulation of docetaxel-loaded biodegradable TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles for breast cancer chemotherapy. A novel diblock copolymer, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-ran-glycolide) [TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA)], was synthesized from ε-caprolactone, glycolide and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate by ring-opening polymerization using stannous octoate as catalyst. The obtained copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR, GPC and TGA. The docetaxel-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. The data showed that the fluorescence TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles could be internalized by MCF-7 cells. The TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles achieved significantly higher level of cytotoxicity than commercial Taxotere®. MCF-7 xenograft tumor model on SCID mice showed that docetaxel formulated in the TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) nanoparticles could effectively inhibit the growth of tumor over a longer period of time than Taxotere® at the same dose. In conclusion, the TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA) copolymer could be acted as a novel and potential biologically active polymeric material for nanoformulation in breast cancer chemotherapy. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  20. The influence of antioxidant and post-synthetic treatment on the properties of biodegradable poly(butylene succinates modified with poly(propylene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA PEPIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel poly(ester–ethers based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS as the hard segments and 30 mass % of poly(propylene oxide (PPO as the soft segments were synthesized with varying amount of the antioxidant (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, DPPD. The influences of the addition of DPPD and the impact of post-synthetic treatment by precipitation on the molecular structure, thermal and physical properties, as well as on the storage stability of the biodegradable aliphatic copolyesters, were investigated. The structure and composition of the copolymers were determined by means of 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the poly(ester–ethers were evaluated from solution viscosity and GPC measurements. The thermal properties and stability were evaluated, respecttively, by means of DSC and non-isothermal thermogravimetry in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. The biodegradability potential of the polymers was studied in hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests with Candida cylindracea lipase by monitoring the weight loss of polymer films after incubation. The weight losses of the samples increased with time and were in the range from 1 to 5 mass % after 4 weeks. GPC analysis confirmed that there were changes in the molecular weight of the copolyesters during both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests, leading to the conclusion that the degradation mechanism of poly(butylenes succinate modified with PPO occurred through surface erosion and bulk degradation.

  1. Crystal growth, structural, spectral, thermal, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of a new organic acentric material: L-Methionine-Succinic acid (2/1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageshwari, M.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Vinitha, G.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Sudha, S.; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2018-03-01

    L-Methionine-Succinic acid (2/1) (LMSA), 2C5H11NO2S·C4H6O4, a novel nonlinear optical material which belongs to the class of organic category was grown-up for the first time by the technique of slow evaporation. Purity of LMSA was improved using repetitive recrystallization. LMSA was analyzed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction investigation to affirm the crystal structure and crystalline character. The single crystal XRD revealed that LMSA corresponds to the crystal system of triclinic with P1 as space group showing the asymmetric unit consists of a neutral succinic acid molecule and two methionine residues which are crystallographically independent existing in zwitterionic form. The functional groups existing in LMSA was accomplished using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical transparency and the band gap energy were identified utilizing UV-Visible spectrum. The optical constants specifically reflectance and extinction coefficient clearly indicate the elevated transparency of LMSA. The thermal analyses affirmed its thermal stability. The luminescence behavior of LMSA has been analyzed by Photoluminescence (PL) spectral study. The mechanical, laser damage threshold and dielectric investigation of LMSA was done to suggest the material for practical applications. The second and third harmonic generation efficacy was confirmed by means of Kurtz-Perry and Z-scan procedure which attest its potentiality in the domain of nonlinear optics.

  2. Crystallization and crystallographic analysis of the ligand-binding domain of the Pseudomonas putida chemoreceptor McpS in complex with malate and succinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavira, J. A.; Lacal, J.; Ramos, J. L.; García-Ruiz, J. M.; Krell, T.; Pineda-Molina, E.

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization of the ligand-binding domain of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein chemoreceptor McpS (McpS-LBD) is reported. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) are transmembrane proteins that sense changes in environmental signals, generating a chemotactic response and regulating other cellular processes. MCPs are composed of two main domains: a ligand-binding domain (LBD) and a cytosolic signalling domain (CSD). Here, the crystallization of the LBD of the chemoreceptor McpS (McpS-LBD) is reported. McpS-LBD is responsible for sensing most of the TCA-cycle intermediates in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. McpS-LBD was expressed, purified and crystallized in complex with two of its natural ligands (malate and succinate). Crystals were obtained by both the counter-diffusion and the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion techniques after pre-incubation of McpS-LBD with the ligands. The crystals were isomorphous and belonged to space group C2, with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected at the ESRF synchrotron X-ray source to resolutions of 1.8 and 1.9 Å for the malate and succinate complexes, respectively

  3. Enhancement of malate-production and increase in sensitivity to dimethyl succinate by mutation of the VID24 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hiroaki; Kotaka, Atsushi; Matsumura, Kengo; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji

    2016-06-01

    Malate in sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage) is an important component for taste that is produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. To date, many researchers have developed methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeasts; however, genes responsible for the high-acidity phenotype are not known. We determined the mutated gene involved in high malate production in yeast, isolated as a sensitive mutant to dimethyl succinate. In the comparative whole genome analysis between high-malate-producing strain and its parent strain, one of the non-synonymous substitutions was identified in the VID24 gene. The mutation of VID24 resulted in enhancement of malate-productivity and sensitivity to dimethyl succinate. The mutation appeared to lead to a deficiency in Vid24p function. Furthermore, disruption of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh2p) gene in the VID24 mutant inhibited the high-malate-producing phenotype. Vid24p is known as a component of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase and participates in the degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes such as Mdh2p. We suggest that the enhancement of malate-productivity results from an accumulation of Mdh2p due to the loss of Vid24p function. These findings propose a novel mechanism for the regulation of organic acid production in yeast cells by the component of ubiquitin ligase, Vid24p. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy for patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and prediction of the clinical remedial value using the in vitro succinate dehydrogenase inhibition test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Sugimachi, Keizo; Ohno, Shinji; Mori, Masaki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    1989-01-01

    Hyperthermia combined with irradiation and chemotherapy was prescribed for patients with resectable (n=88) and unresectable (n=36) carcinoma of the esophagus. The histopathological effectiveness, and the long term results were compared between two groups of patients treated with hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy) and those treated with chemoradiotherapy (CR therapy). A correlation between the hyperthermia sensitivity test, using the in vitro succinate dehydrogenase inhibition test, and the clinical remedial value was also examined in malignant tissues from 47 patients with esophageal cancer, and treated with HCR therapy. In the resected cases, preoperative HCR therapy resulted in a significantly higher histopathological effectiveness rate (69%) compared with that in cases treated by CR therapy (48%) (P<0.05). The long term results of patients with both resectable and unresectable carcinoma, given HCR therapy were significanly better than those given CR therapy (P<0.05). On the other hand, the clinical remedial value, determined radiographically showed a correlation rate of 77% to the hyperthermia sensitivity test. Thus, the HCR therapy resulted in not only a higher histopathological effectiveness rate but also a significantly longer survival without severe side effects, and this hyperthermia sensitivity test using the succinate dehydrogenase inhibition test facilitates prediction of the outcome of the HCR therapy. (author)

  5. Complete Oxidation of Propionate, Valerate, Succinate, and Other Organic Compounds by Newly Isolated Types of Marine, Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Gram-Negative, Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures with either propionate, succinate, lactate, or valerate and elemental sulfur and inocula from shallow marine or deep-sea sediments were dominated by rod-shaped motile bacteria after three transfers. By application of deep-agar dilutions, five eubacterial strains were obtained in pure culture and designated Kyprop, Gyprop, Kysw2, Gylac, and Kyval. All strains were gram negative and grew by complete oxidation of the electron donors and concomitant stoichiometric reduction of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The isolates used acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, maleate, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and yeast extract. All isolates, except strain Gylac, used citrate as an electron donor but valerate was oxidized only by strain Kyval. Fumarate and malate were degraded by all strains without an additional electron donor or acceptor. Kyprop, Gyprop, and Gylac utilized elemental sulfur as the sole inorganic electron acceptor, while Kysw2 and Kyval also utilized nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or Fe(III)-citrate as an electron acceptor. Images PMID:16348934

  6. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  7. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K H; Cavalli, F

    2001-03-01

    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  8. Select estrogens within the complex formulation of conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin® are protective against neurodegenerative insults: implications for a composition of estrogen therapy to promote neuronal function and prevent Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinton Roberta

    2006-03-01

    . Coadministration of two out of three neuroprotective estrogens, 17β-estradiol, equilin and Δ8,9-dehydroestrone, exerted greater neuroprotective efficacy than individual estrogens. Computer-aided analyses to determine structure/function relationships between the estrogenic structures and their neuroprotective activity revealed that the predicted intermolecular interactions of estrogen analogues with ER correlate to their overall neuroprotective efficacy. Conclusion The present study provides the first documentation of the neuroprotective profile of individual estrogens contained within the complex formulation of CEE at concentrations commensurate with their plasma levels achieved after an oral administration of 0.625 mg CEE in women. Our analyses demonstrate that select estrogens within the complex formulation of CEE contribute to its neuroprotective efficacy. Moreover, our data predict that the magnitude of neuroprotection induced by individual estrogens at relatively low concentrations may be clinically undetectable and ineffective, whereas, a combination of select neuroprotective estrogens could provide an increased and clinically meaningful efficacy. More importantly, these data suggest a strategy for determining neurological efficacy and rational design and development of a composition of estrogen therapy to alleviate climacteric symptoms, promote neurological health, and prevent age-related neurodegeneration, such as AD, in postmenopausal women.

  9. Optimization of sodium hydroxide pretreatment and enzyme loading for efficient hydrolysis of rice straw to improve succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122 under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawisit, Apichai; Jampatesh, Surawee; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2018-07-01

    Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) before subsequent use for succinate production by Escherichia coli KJ122 under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The NaOH pretreated rice straw was significantly enhanced lignin removal up to 95%. With the optimized enzyme loading of 4% cellulase complex + 0.5% xylanase (endo-glucanase 67 CMC-U/g, β-glucosidase 26 pNG-U/g and xylanase 18 CMC-U/g dry biomass), total sugar conversion reached 91.7 ± 0.8% (w/w). The physicochemical analysis of NaOH pretreated rice straw indicated dramatical changes in its structure, thereby favoring enzymatic saccharification. In batch SSF, succinate production of 69.8 ± 0.3 g/L with yield and productivity of 0.84 g/g pretreated rice straw and 0.76 ± 0.02 g/L/h, respectively, was obtained. Fed-batch SSF significantly improved succinate concentration and productivity to 103.1 ± 0.4 g/L and 1.37 ± 0.07 g/L/h with a comparable yield. The results demonstrated a feasibility of sequential saccharification and fermentation of rice straw as a promising process for succinate production in industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 5 CFR 302.403 - Qualifications for promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for promotion. 302.403... EMPLOYMENT IN THE EXCEPTED SERVICE Selection and Appointment; Reappointment; and Qualifications for Promotion § 302.403 Qualifications for promotion. In determining qualifications for promotion with respect to an...

  11. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  12. Sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives of 25-OH-PPD and their activities to MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Cao, Jia-Qing; Wang, Xu-De; Guo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-02-15

    In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 1 (25-OH-PPD, 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol), 12 novel sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 1, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on A-549 and BGC-823 cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 2 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An isoperibol micro-bomb calorimeter for measurement of the enthalpy of combustion of organic compounds. Application to the study of succinic acid and acetanilide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Aaron. E-mail: arojas@mail.cinvestav.mx; Valdes, Alejandro

    2003-08-01

    A micro static-bomb combustion calorimeter, developed from a 1107 Parr semi-micro bomb, has been provided with a new micro-bomb and calorimetric bucket. In the best conditions of operation, the energy equivalent of this calorimetric arrangement is just {epsilon}(calor)=(731.82 {+-} 0.22) J {center_dot} K{sup -1}, which means an uncertainty of 0.03 per cent for the calibration with benzoic acid NIST 39j. This combustion calorimeter has been used in the measurement of the enthalpy of combustion of the succinic acid and acetanilide, giving -(1489.3 {+-} 1.6) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and -(4222.5 {+-} 1.1) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively, for these substances.

  14. An isoperibol micro-bomb calorimeter for measurement of the enthalpy of combustion of organic compounds. Application to the study of succinic acid and acetanilide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Aaron.; Valdes, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    A micro static-bomb combustion calorimeter, developed from a 1107 Parr semi-micro bomb, has been provided with a new micro-bomb and calorimetric bucket. In the best conditions of operation, the energy equivalent of this calorimetric arrangement is just ε(calor)=(731.82 ± 0.22) J · K -1 , which means an uncertainty of 0.03 per cent for the calibration with benzoic acid NIST 39j. This combustion calorimeter has been used in the measurement of the enthalpy of combustion of the succinic acid and acetanilide, giving -(1489.3 ± 1.6) kJ · mol -1 and -(4222.5 ± 1.1) kJ · mol -1 , respectively, for these substances

  15. Succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor 2 is needed for assembly and activity of mitochondrial complex II and for normal root elongation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Ströher, Elke; Fenske, Ricarda; Millar, A Harvey

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondria complex II (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) plays a central role in respiratory metabolism as a component of both the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We report the identification of an SDH assembly factor by analysis of T-DNA insertions in At5g51040, a protein with unknown function that was identified by mass spectrometry analysis as a low abundance mitochondrial protein. This gene is co-expressed with a number of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, including SDH1-1, and has low partial sequence similarity to human SDHAF2, a protein required for flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) insertion into SDH. In contrast to observations of other SDH deficient lines in Arabidopsis, the sdhaf2 line did not affect photosynthetic rate or stomatal conductance, but instead showed inhibition of primary root elongation with early lateral root emergence, presumably due to the low SDH activity caused by the reduced abundance of SDHAF2. Both roots and leaves showed succinate accumulation but different responses in the abundance of other organic acids and amino acids assayed. Isolated mitochondria showed lowered SDH1 protein abundance, lowered maximal SDH activity and less protein-bound flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) at the molecular mass of SDH1 in the gel separation. The short root phenotype and SDH function of sdhaf2 was fully complemented by transformation with SDHAF2. Application of the SDH inhibitor, malonate, phenocopied the sdhaf2 root architecture in WT. Whole root respiratory assays showed no difference between WT and sdhaf2, but micro-respirometry of the tips of roots clearly showed low oxygen consumption in sdhaf2 which could explain a metabolic deficit responsible for root tip growth. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devilee Peter

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes encode the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a component of both the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. SDHA, a flavoprotein and SDHB, an iron-sulfur protein together constitute the catalytic domain, while SDHC and SDHD encode membrane anchors that allow the complex to participate in the respiratory chain as complex II. Germline mutations of SDHD and SDHB are a major cause of the hereditary forms of the tumors paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. The largest subunit, SDHA, is mutated in patients with Leigh syndrome and late-onset optic atrophy, but has not as yet been identified as a factor in hereditary cancer. Description The SDH mutation database is based on the recently described Leiden Open (source Variation Database (LOVD system. The variants currently described in the database were extracted from the published literature and in some cases annotated to conform to current mutation nomenclature. Researchers can also directly submit new sequence variants online. Since the identification of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB as classic tumor suppressor genes in 2000 and 2001, studies from research groups around the world have identified a total of 120 variants. Here we introduce all reported paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma related sequence variations in these genes, in addition to all reported mutations of SDHA. The database is now accessible online. Conclusion The SDH mutation database offers a valuable tool and resource for clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma, clinical geneticists needing an overview of current knowledge, and geneticists and other researchers needing a solid foundation for further exploration of both these tumor syndromes and SDHA-related phenotypes.

  17. Production of succinic acid from sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of corn steep liquor powder and peanut meal as nitrogen sources by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, N; Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Liao, S; Zhu, J; Zhu, Q; Mi, H; Adhikari, B; Wei, Y; Huang, R

    2015-06-01

    The potential of using corn steep liquor powder (CSLP), peanut meal (PM), soybean meal (SM), cotton meal (CM) and urea as the substitute of yeast extract (YE) as the nitrogen source was investigated for producing succinic acid (SA). Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137 was used as the fermenting bacterium and sugarcane molasses was used as the main substrate. None of these materials were able to produce SA as high as YE did. The CSLP could still be considered as a feasible and inexpensive alternate for YE as the yield of SA produced using CSLP was second only to the yield of SA obtained by YE. The use of CSLP-PM mixed formulation (CSLP to PM ratio = 2·6) as nitrogen source produced SA up to 59·2 g l(-1) with a productivity of 1·2 g l(-1) h(-1). A batch fermentation using a stirred bioreactor produced up to 60·7 g l(-1) of SA at the same formulation. Fed-batch fermentation that minimized the substrate inhibition produced 64·7 g l(-1) SA. These results suggest that sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of CSLP and PM as the nitrogen source could be used to produce SA more economically using A. succinogenes. Significance and impact of the study: Succinic acid (SA) is commonly used as a platform chemical to produce a number of high value derivatives. Yeast extract (YE) is used as a nitrogen source to produce SA. The high cost of YE is currently the limiting factor for industrial production of SA. This study reports the use of a mixture of corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) and peanut meal (PM) as an inexpensive nitrogen source to substitute YE. The results showed that this CSLP-PM mixed formulation can be used as an effective and economic nitrogen source for the production of SA. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. An oncolytic adenovirus regulated by a radiation-inducible promoter selectively mediates hSulf-1 gene expression and mutually reinforces antitumor activity of I131-metuximab in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Fang, Lin; Zhang, Quan'an; Zheng, Qin; Tong, Jinlong; Fu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Su, Changqing; Zheng, Junnian

    2013-06-01

    Gene therapy and antibody approaches are crucial auxiliary strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previously, we established a survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus that has inhibitory effect on HCC growth. The human sulfatase-1 (hSulf-1) gene can suppress the growth factor signaling pathways, then inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and enhance cellular sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. I(131)-metuximab (I(131)-mab) is a monoclonal anti-HCC antibody that conjugated to I(131) and specifically recognizes the HAb18G/CD147 antigen on HCC cells. To integrate the oncolytic adenovirus-based gene therapy and the I(131)-mab-based radioimmunotherapy, this study combined the CArG element of early growth response-l (Egr-l) gene with the survivin promoter to construct a radiation-inducible enhanced promoter, which was used to recombine a radiation-inducible oncolytic adenovirus as hSulf-1 gene vector. When I(131)-mab was incorporated into the treatment regimen, not only could the antibody produce radioimmunotherapeutic effect, but the I(131) radiation was able to further boost adenoviral proliferation. We demonstrated that the CArG-enhanced survivin promoter markedly improved the proliferative activity of the oncolytic adenovirus in HCC cells, thereby augmenting hSulf-1 expression and inducing cancer cell apoptosis. This novel strategy that involved multiple, synergistic mechanisms, including oncolytic therapy, gene therapy and radioimmunotherapy, was demonstrated to exert an excellent anti-cancer outcome, which will be a promising approach in HCC treatment. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What Is a Promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamit, Michael R.; Veum, Jonathan R.

    1999-01-01

    For a sample of young workers, "promotion" involved no change in position or duties; promotion was more likely for males than females and Whites than Blacks or Hispanics. Company training and prior promotions were important predictors. Promotion did not appear to have a direct impact on job satisfaction. (SK)

  20. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo; El-Hage, Nazira; Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan; Kashanchi, Fatah; Ochem, Alex; Simon, Gary L.; Karn, Jonathan; Hauser, Kurt F.; Tyagi, Mudit

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR

  1. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); El-Hage, Nazira [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Kashanchi, Fatah [George Mason University, Manassas, VA (United States); Ochem, Alex [ICGEB, Wernher and Beit Building, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); Simon, Gary L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Karn, Jonathan [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hauser, Kurt F. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Tyagi, Mudit, E-mail: tmudit@email.gwu.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR.

  2. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate for tumor-targeted delivery of morin hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbad S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarra Abbad,1,2 Cheng Wang,1 Ayman Yahia Waddad,1 Huixia Lv,1 Jianping Zhou11Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Abou Bekr Belkaid University, Tlemcen, AlgeriaAbstract: Herein, we describe the preparation of a targeted cellular delivery system for morin hydrate (MH, based on a low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate (HA-PBCA block copolymer. In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of MH, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS was mixed with HA-PBCA during the preparation process. The MH-loaded HA-PBCA “plain” nanoparticle (MH-PNs and HA-PBCA/TPGS “mixed” nanoparticles (MH-MNs were concomitantly characterized in terms of loading efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, critical aggregation concentration, and morphology. The obtained MH-PNs and MH-MNs exhibited a spherical morphology with a negative zeta potential and a particle size less than 200 nm, favorable for drug targeting. Remarkably, the addition of TPGS resulted in about 1.6-fold increase in drug-loading. The in vitro cell viability experiment revealed that MH-MNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of MH in A549 cells compared with MH solution and MH-PNs. Furthermore, blank MNs containing TPGS exhibited selective cytotoxic effects against cancer cells without diminishing the viability of normal cells. In addition, the cellular uptake study indicated that MNs resulted in 2.28-fold higher cellular uptake than that of PNs, in A549 cells. The CD44 receptor competitive inhibition and the internalization pathway studies suggested that the internalization mechanism of the nanoparticles was mediated mainly by the CD44 receptors through a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. More importantly, MH-MNs exhibited a higher in vivo antitumor potency and induced more tumor cell apoptosis than did MH-PNs, following intravenous administration to S180 tumor-bearing mice

  3. Liver-targeting Resibufogenin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles for liver cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu QC

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qiuchen Chu,1,* Hong Xu,2,* Meng Gao,1 Xin Guan,1 Hongyan Liu,1 Sa Deng,1 Xiaokui Huo,1 Kexin Liu,1 Yan Tian,1 Xiaochi Ma1 1College of Pharmacy, 2College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Liver cancer remains a major problem around the world. Resibufogenin (RBG is a major bioactive compound that was isolated from Chansu (also called toad venom or toad poison, which is a popular traditional Chinese medicine that is obtained from the skin secretions of giant toads. RBG has strong antitumor effects, but its poor aqueous solubility and its cardiotoxicity have limited its clinical use. The aim of this study was to formulate RBG-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RPTN to enhance the treatment of liver cancer. RPTN, RBG-loaded PLGA nanoparticle (RPN, and RBG/coumarin-6-loaded PLGA-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RCPTN were prepared. The cellular uptake of RCPTN by HepG2 and HCa-F cells was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in HepG2 cells by RPTN, RBG solution (RS, and 5-fluorouracil solution (used as the negative controls, as assayed using flow cytometry. LD50 (median lethal dose values were determined for RS and RPTN, and the liver-targeting properties were determined for RCPTN in intravenously injected mice. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats, and the in vivo therapeutic effects of RPTN, RPN, and RS were examined in a mouse tumor model. The results showed that RCPTN simultaneously delivered both coumarin-6 and RBG into HepG2 and HCa-F cells. The ratio of apoptotic cells was increased in the RPTN group. The LD50 for RPTN was 2.02-fold higher than the value for RS. Compared to RS, RPTN and RPN both showed a significant difference in vivo not only in the pharmacodynamic study but also in

  4. Changes in Activities of Respiratory Enzymes in Lungs of Guinea-pigs Exposed to Silica Dust: II. Comparison of the Effects of Quartz Dust and Lampblack on the Succinate Oxidase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Maria G.; Kilroe-Smith, T. A.; Prinsloo, H.

    1964-01-01

    Kilroe-Smith and Breyer (1963) reported that in the early stages of silicosis in guinea-pigs exposed to the inhalation of quartz dust, before the formation of collagen, there were increases in the specific activities of the complete succinate oxidase system and succinate dehydrogenase. The effects on these enzymes of quartz dust have now been compared with the effects of the fibrogenically `inert' lampblack. Lampblack causes a slight increase in the specific activities of these enzymes but the effects are small compared to those caused by quartz. Lampblack also causes a much smaller increase in lung weight than quartz, thus the enzyme increases are roughly parallel to the rise in lung weight. It appears that the effects observed on the enzymes are part of the general pattern associated with the early stages of the development of silicosis. PMID:14106132

  5. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... regarding a health promotion programme for families with ... to contribute to high rates of not going to school (ibid. ... sector in order, amongst other objectives, to prevent health ... exercise and mental health promotion must be incorporated ..... (2009:141) identified ignorance and misconception about the.

  6. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo; El-Hage, Nazira; Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan; Kashanchi, Fatah; Ochem, Alex; Simon, Gary L.; Karn, Jonathan; Hauser, Kurt F.; Tyagi, Mudit

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-κB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-κB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. PMID:25980739

  7. Development of Native American Culture and Art--Part 3. To Promote the Development of Native American Culture and Art. Hearing Before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on S. 792.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The Select Committee on Indian Affairs met July 29, 1981 to hear testimony concerning S. 792, a bill to provide for the establishment of a national institute to preserve, revitalize, and disseminate Indian art and culture. Bill S. 792 was endorsed by senators from Oregon and Hawaii and, with certain reservations, by representatives of eight Indian…

  8. Importance of methodology on (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphic image quality: imaging pilot study for RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) multicenter investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziessman, Harvey A; Majd, Massoud

    2009-07-01

    We reviewed our experience with (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy obtained during an imaging pilot study for a multicenter investigation (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) of the effectiveness of daily antimicrobial prophylaxis for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection and renal scarring. We analyzed imaging methodology and its relation to diagnostic image quality. (99m)Technetium dimercapto-succinic acid imaging guidelines were provided to participating sites. High-resolution planar imaging with parallel hole or pinhole collimation was required. Two core reviewers evaluated all submitted images. Analysis included appropriate views, presence or lack of patient motion, adequate magnification, sufficient counts and diagnostic image quality. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated. We evaluated 70, (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid studies from 14 institutions. Variability was noted in methodology and image quality. Correlation (r value) between dose administered and patient age was 0.780. For parallel hole collimator imaging good correlation was noted between activity administered and counts (r = 0.800). For pinhole imaging the correlation was poor (r = 0.110). A total of 10 studies (17%) were rejected for quality issues of motion, kidney overlap, inadequate magnification, inadequate counts and poor quality images. The submitting institution was informed and provided with recommendations for improving quality, and resubmission of another study was required. Only 4 studies (6%) were judged differently by the 2 reviewers, and the differences were minor. Methodology and image quality for (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy varied more than expected between institutions. The most common reason for poor image quality was inadequate count acquisition with insufficient attention to the tradeoff between administered dose, length of image acquisition, start time of imaging and resulting image

  9. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...

  10. Analysis of the Sales Promotion in Choice Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    HUMPOLCOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is aimed at sales promotion in a retail outlet. The main aim of this thesis is evaluate the current state of sales promotion in a selected retail outlet and based on the analysis of the current state of sales promotion in the outlet to try to propose some measures of improve.

  11. Biodegradability and biodegradation rate of poly(caprolactone)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) biodegradable polymer under aerobic and anaerobic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H S; Moon, H S; Kim, M; Nam, K; Kim, J Y

    2011-03-01

    The biodegradability and the biodegradation rate of two kinds biodegradable polymers; poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), were investigated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PCL-starch blend was easily degraded, with 88% biodegradability in 44 days under aerobic conditions, and showed a biodegradation rate of 0.07 day(-1), whereas the biodegradability of PBS was only 31% in 80 days under the same conditions, with a biodegradation rate of 0.01 day(-1). Anaerobic bacteria degraded well PCL-starch blend (i.e., 83% biodegradability for 139 days); however, its biodegradation rate was relatively slow (6.1 mL CH(4)/g-VS day) compared to that of cellulose (13.5 mL CH(4)/g-VS day), which was used as a reference material. The PBS was barely degraded under anaerobic conditions, with only 2% biodegradability in 100 days. These results were consistent with the visual changes and FE-SEM images of the two biodegradable polymers after the landfill burial test, showing that only PCL-starch blend had various sized pinholes on the surface due to attack by microorganisms. This result may be use in deciding suitable final disposal approaches of different types of biodegradable polymers in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlling the biodegradability of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) by solvents used in the dried-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hana; Kamitabira, Saya; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    Considering an environmentally friendly material, poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)(PBSA) is one of the attractive biodegradable plastics that can be eventually degraded into H2O and CO2 by neighboring water molecules and microorganisms after the disposal. In order to expand the application of PBSA, the precise control of the biodegradability of PBSA is necessary. In this study, the dried-gel process was introduced to control the biodegradability of PBSA. The dried PBSA gels were prepared by using three different solvents (toluene, cyclohexanone, and o-dichlorobenzene). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the PBSA prepared by toluene had smaller spherocrystals than the other PBSA dried-gels prepared by cyclohexanone or o-dichlorobenzene. The biodegradability testing by immersing the three types of PBSA in NaOH aq. showed that the percentage of the weight loss of the PBSA produced by toluene was the highest. The results indicated that the microstructures of PBSA could be controlled by changing solvents during the gel preparations, and that the biodegradability of PBSA could therefore be efficiently modified by changing solvents. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (No. 15H02298 to A.H.) and a Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (No.15H06586 to T.M.) from JSPS: KAKENHI\\x9D.

  13. Influence of Alkaline-Peroxide Treatment of Fiber on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber/Poly(butylene succinate Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Yee Then

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the surface of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was modified via alkaline-peroxide treatment with hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions. The effect of the treatment on the chemical composition and microstructure of the fiber was examined using chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The treatment resulted in the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and waxy substances from the fiber and increased its surface roughness and crystallinity. The eco-friendly biocomposite was made from poly(butylene succinate (PBS and chemically treated fiber at a weight ratio of 30:70, and was fabricated via a melt-blending technique followed by hot-pressed moulding. The results indicated that alkaline-peroxide treatment of the fiber improved the tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break of the OPMF/PBS biocomposite by 54, 830, and 43%, respectively. The SEM analysis revealed improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the chemically treated fiber and the PBS. This work demonstrates that alkaline-peroxide treatment of fiber is beneficial prior to its use in fabricating biocomposites.

  14. Doxorubicin conjugated to D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS): conjugation chemistry, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Na; Feng, Si-Shen

    2008-10-01

    To develop a polymer-anticancer drug conjugate, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was employed as a carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) to enhance its therapeutic effects and reduce its side effects. Doxorubicin was chemically conjugated to TPGS. The molecular structure, drug loading efficiency, drug release kinetics and stability of the conjugate were characterized. The cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, and cytotoxicity were accessed by using MCF-7 breast cancer cells and C6 glioma cells as in vitro cell model. The conjugate showed higher cellular uptake efficiency and broader distribution within the cells. Judged by IC(50), the conjugate was found 31.8, 69.6, 84.1% more effective with MCF-7 cells and 43.9, 87.7, 42.2% more effective with C6 cells than the parent drug after 24, 48, 72 h culture, respectively. The in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were investigated after an i.v. administration at 5 mg DOX/kg body weight in rats. Promisingly, 4.5-fold increase in the half-life and 24-fold increase in the area-under-the-curve (AUC) of DOX were achieved for the TPGS-DOX conjugate compared with the free DOX. The drug level in heart, gastric and intestine was significantly reduced, which is an indication of reduced side effects. Our TPGS-DOX conjugate showed great potential to be a prodrug of higher therapeutic effects and fewer side effects than DOX itself.

  15. Volumetric, viscometric, spectral studies and viscosity modelling of binary mixtures of esters and alcohols (diethyl succinate, or ethyl octanoate + isobutanol, or isopentanol) at varying temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorović, Divna M.; Živković, Emila M.; Matija, Lidija R.; Kijevčanin, Mirjana Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densitis and viscosities of four ester + alcohol binary mixtures were measured. • Excess and deviation functions were calculated. • Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis was conducted. • Molecular interactions present in the mixture were analyzed. • Viscosity modelling was performed. - Abstract: Density, viscosity and refractive index of four binary mixtures consisting of diethyl succinate or ethyl octanoate + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 3-methyl-1-butanol have been measured at atmospheric pressure and over the temperature range from 288.15 K to 323.15 K. Excess and deviation functions have been calculated from these data and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of excess molar volume and deviation functions, with FT-IR study, were further used in the analysis of molecular interactions present in the mixture as well as the temperature influence on them. Molar excess Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow were additionally calculated from measured density and viscosity data for better understanding of present molecular interactions. Viscosity modelling was done with two approaches, predictive by group contribution models (UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG-VISCO), and correlative by one to three-parameter models (Teja-Rice, Grunberg–Nissan, McAlister, Eyring-UNIQUAC and Eyring-NRTL). The obtained results were compared with experimental data and conclusions about applied approaches and models were made.

  16. Scaffolds of hydroxyl apatite nanoparticles disseminated in 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly(1, 4-butylene succinate)/poly(methyl methacrylate) for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K.J.; Anand, Vikas; Bhatia, Gaurav; Kaur, Raminderjit; Kaur, Manpreet; Nim, Lovedeep; Arora, Daljit Singh

    2017-01-01

    Poly(1, 4-butyl succinate) extended 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (PBSu-DCH) polymers and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds decorated with nano hydroxyl apatite have been prepared and characterized for regeneration of bone in cranio-maxillofacial region. Synthesized scaffolds revealed good response in bone regeneration and excellent cell viability in comparison to commercial available glass plate, which lead to better proliferation of MG-63 cell lines. Additionally, they demonstrate high porosity and excellent water retention ability. Moreover, controlled degradation (in pH = 7.4) and sustained drug release in pH (4.5 and 7.4) are advantages of these scaffolds to serve as delivery vehicles for therapeutic drugs. Samples also provide the protection against Escherichia coli and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms which can be helpful for quick recovery of the patient. In-vitro inflammatory response has been assessed via adsorption of human plasma/serum proteins on the surface of the scaffolds. Results suggest that prepared scaffolds have good bone regeneration ability and provide friendly environment for the cell growth with the additional advantage of protection of the surrounding tissues from microbial infection. With all these features, it is speculated that these scaffolds will have wide utility in the area of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Porous scaffolds have been prepared by solvent casting technique. • Scaffolds have shown good antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative microorganisms. • Synthesized scaffolds may find applications in the area of regenerative medicine.

  17. Green and sustainable succinic acid production from crude glycerol by engineered Yarrowia lipolytica via agricultural residue based in situ fibrous bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Shi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2018-02-01

    In situ fibrous bed bioreactor (isFBB) for efficient succinic acid (SA) production by Yarrowia lipolytica was firstly developed in our former study. In this study, agricultural residues including wheat straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse were investigated for the improvement of isFBB, and sugarcane bagasse was demonstrated to be the best immobilization material. With crude glycerol as the sole carbon source, optimization for isFBB batch fermentation was carried out. Under the optimal conditions of 20g sugarcane bagasse as immobilization material, 120gL -1 crude glycerol as carbon source and 4Lmin -1 of aeration rate, the resultant SA concentration was 53.6gL -1 with an average productivity of 1.45gL -1 h -1 and a SA yield of 0.45gg -1 . By feeding crude glycerol, SA titer up to 209.7gL -1 was obtained from fed batch fermentation, which was the highest value that ever reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is the c.3G>C mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene due to a founder effect in Chinese head and neck paraganglioma patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yang; Chen, Xing-ming; Lam, Ching-wan; Lee, Soo-chin; Tong, Sui-fan; Gao, Zhi-qiang

    2011-08-01

    Three Chinese patients with head and neck paragangliomas have been reported to carry the c.3G>C mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. In addition, in our hospital, two further patients were identified who have the same mutation. It is unclear whether the c.3G>C mutation in Chinese patients is a recurrent mutation or if it is due to a founder effect. We conducted haplotype analysis on these patients to answer this question. Individual case-control study. Germ-line mutations were confirmed in the patients and their families examined in this study using direct sequencing. We also constructed and analyzed haplotypes in four Chinese families. Genotype frequencies were compared to the control group. Three of four families shared the same haplotype, which rarely occurred in the control group. The last family shared a very short area on the physical map with the other three families. There is a founder effect in Chinese head and neck paraganglioma patients carrying the SDHD c.3G>C mutation. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. A randomized, multicenter, controlled study, comparing efficacy and safety of a new complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) versus Solifenacin Succinate in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchioli-Scaldazza, Carlo; Morosetti, Carolina; Maruccia, Serena; Casellato, Stefano; Rociola, Wilma; Illiano, Ester; Garofalo, Francesco

    2017-12-31

    To assess efficacy and tolerability of a new complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) consisting of vitamins (C and D), herbal products (cucurbita maxima, capsicum annum, polygonum capsicatum) and amino acid L-Glutammina, in the treatment of female Overactive Bladder syndrome (OAB). 90 consecutive women with OAB symptoms were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, controlled study. Women were divided randomly into two groups of 45 patients each. In group A, women received Solifenacin Succinate (SS), 5 mg. once a day for 12 weeks. In group B, women received CAM, 930 mg, twice daily for 12 weeks. Women were assessed with 3-day micturition diary, Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS), Overactive Bladder questionnaire Short Form (OAB-q SF) and Patient Global Impression of Improvement questionnaire (PGI-I). 8 patients in group A and 1 patient in group B dropped out from therapy because of side effects. A reduction in the number of daily micturitions, nocturia and episodes of urge incontinence was present with both SS and CAM with statistically highly significant differences, but CAM was significantly more effective than SS. PPIUS and OAB-q SF showed improvements with both SS and CAM with a more significant efficacy of CAM. PGI-I, demonstrated improvements in the two groups of patients with a greater satisfaction expressed by patients treated with CAM. the small number of patients does not permit definitive conclusions; however, the results of the research showed the greater effectiveness and tolerability of CAM.

  20. DACHPt-Loaded Nanoparticles Self-assembled from Biodegradable Dendritic Copolymer Polyglutamic Acid-b-D-α-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate for Multidrug Resistant Lung Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-I Tsai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical applications of platinum-based antitumor agents are still largely limited by severe side effects as well as multidrug resistance (MDR. To solve these problems, we developed an 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-platinum(II (DACHPt-loaded nanoparticle (NP-TPGS-Pt by self-assembly of poly(amidoamine-polyglutamic acid-b-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PAM-PGlu-b-TPGS and DACHPt. NP-TPGS-Pt showed robust stability and pH-responsive DACHPt release profile in vitro similar to the PEG-containing nanoparticle (NP-PEG-Pt. Meanwhile, in contrast with NP-PEG-Pt, NP-TPGS-Pt exhibited efficient nanoparticle-based cellular uptake by the Pt-resistant A549/DDP human lung cancer cells and caused much more cytotoxicity than free Oxaliplatin and NP-PEG-Pt. Finally, this NP-TPGS-Pt was proved to perform outstanding inhibition of Pt-resistant tumor growth, much superior than free Oxaliplatin and NP-PEG-Pt. Thus, this NP-TPGS-Pt provides a novel powerful nanomedicine platform for combatting multidrug resistant cancer.

  1. Growth of copper-treated corn roots as affected by EDTA, IAA, succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide, vitamins and potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R; Welkie, G W

    1977-04-01

    Corn roots were treated for 1 hr in a modified Hoagland's solution containing 8 mg/l Cu/sup 2 +/ and either simultaneously or subsequently with various substances, in order to test theories of copper toxicity to roots. Post treatment with IAA, niacin amide, thiamin, or sucrose had no effect on subsequent growth. Addition of excess KCl and succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide (an inhibitor of ethylene production) to the copper solution doubled average growth and increased recovery from 27 to 87%. A rinse with EDTA resulted in resumption of normal growth rates and 100% recovery if performed 1 hr after Cu treatment, but this effect was gradually lost in the following 6 to 12 hr. Copper toxicity was increasingly severe as pH of the Cu treating medium increased. Results are not consistent with any theory tested, but they do suggest there is an initial phase of copper-stress which lasts 3 to 6 hr, followed by plant reaction that results in irreversible cessation of growth.

  2. Effect of Maleated Compatibiliser (PBS-g-MA) Addition on the Flexural Properties and Water Absorption of Poly(butylene succinate)/ kenaf Bast Fibre Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.Z.T.; Mohd, Z.A.M.; Mat, R.T.; Ahmad, M.Z.T.; Mohd, Z.A.I.; Mat, R.T.; Rahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites with 30 wt.% loading of kenaf bast fibre (KBF) were compatibilised with 5 wt. % maleated PBS (PBS-g-MA). The maleic anhydride (MA) concentration in the compatibiliser was either 3, 5, 7 or 10 phr. In general, the compatibilised composites showed better flexural properties than the un-compatibilised composite. The highest increment in the flexural strength and modulus of 12.7 and 8.9 %, respectively, were obtained with the addition of PBS-g-MA with MA concentration of 5 phr. Compatibilised and un-compatibilised PBS/ KBF composites were immersed in distilled water for 90 days. The absorption of water by all the composites was observed to follow Ficks law. The equilibrium moisture content, M m , of the composites with PBS-g-MA at 3, 5 and 7 phr of MA concentrations was lower than that of the un-compatibilised composite due to improved fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion and reduction of voids content. Both un-compatibilised and compatibilised composites showed dimensional instability after the water absorption. This was probably due to the degradation of the fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion and fibre integrity. The flexural properties of these composites decreased after the water absorption. After re-drying only some of the flexural properties were recovered from plasticizing effect of water. (author)

  3. Scaffolds of hydroxyl apatite nanoparticles disseminated in 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly(1, 4-butylene succinate)/poly(methyl methacrylate) for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Kulwinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, K.J., E-mail: kanwarjitsingh@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Anand, Vikas [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Bhatia, Gaurav; Kaur, Raminderjit [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Kaur, Manpreet [Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Nim, Lovedeep; Arora, Daljit Singh [Department of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Poly(1, 4-butyl succinate) extended 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (PBSu-DCH) polymers and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds decorated with nano hydroxyl apatite have been prepared and characterized for regeneration of bone in cranio-maxillofacial region. Synthesized scaffolds revealed good response in bone regeneration and excellent cell viability in comparison to commercial available glass plate, which lead to better proliferation of MG-63 cell lines. Additionally, they demonstrate high porosity and excellent water retention ability. Moreover, controlled degradation (in pH = 7.4) and sustained drug release in pH (4.5 and 7.4) are advantages of these scaffolds to serve as delivery vehicles for therapeutic drugs. Samples also provide the protection against Escherichia coli and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms which can be helpful for quick recovery of the patient. In-vitro inflammatory response has been assessed via adsorption of human plasma/serum proteins on the surface of the scaffolds. Results suggest that prepared scaffolds have good bone regeneration ability and provide friendly environment for the cell growth with the additional advantage of protection of the surrounding tissues from microbial infection. With all these features, it is speculated that these scaffolds will have wide utility in the area of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Porous scaffolds have been prepared by solvent casting technique. • Scaffolds have shown good antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative microorganisms. • Synthesized scaffolds may find applications in the area of regenerative medicine.

  4. O-Succinyl-L-homoserine-based C4-chemical production: succinic acid, homoserine lactone, γ-butyrolactone, γ-butyrolactone derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Park, Hye-Min; Choi, Su Jin; Song, Gyu Hyeon; Lee, Jea Chun; Yang, Young-Lyeol; Shin, Hyun Kwan; Kim, Ju Nam; Cho, Kyung Ho; Lee, Jung Ho

    2014-10-01

    There has been a significant global interest to produce bulk chemicals from renewable resources using engineered microorganisms. Large research programs have been launched by academia and industry towards this goal. Particularly, C4 chemicals such as succinic acid (SA) and 1,4-butanediol have been leading the path towards the commercialization of biobased technology with the effort of replacing chemical production. Here we present O-Succinyl-L-homoserine (SH) as a new, potentially important platform biochemical and demonstrate its central role as an intermediate in the production of SA, homoserine lactone (HSL), γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and its derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). This technology encompasses (1) the genetic manipulation of Escherichia coli to produce SH with high productivity, (2) hydrolysis into SA and homoserine (HS) or homoserine lactone hydrochloride, and (3) chemical conversion of either HS or homoserine lactone HCL (HSL·HCl) into drop-in chemicals in polymer industry. This production strategy with environmental benefits is discussed in the perspective of targeting of fermented product and a process direction compared to petroleum-based chemical conversion, which may reduce the overall manufacturing cost.

  5. A novel ALDH5A1 mutation is associated with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency and severe intellectual disability in an Iranian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püttmann, Lucia; Stehr, Henning; Garshasbi, Masoud; Hu, Hao; Kahrizi, Kimia; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Jamali, Payman; Tzschach, Andreas; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Musante, Luciana; Kuss, Andreas W

    2013-08-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a disorder of the catabolism of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with a very variable clinical phenotype ranging from mild intellectual disability to severe neurological defects. We report here on a large Iranian family with four affected patients presenting with severe intellectual disability, developmental delay and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation c.901A>G (p.K301E, RefSeq number NM_001080) in ALDH5A1 co-segregating with the disease in the family. The missense mutation affects an amino acid residue that is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Protein modeling showed that p.K301E most likely leads to a loss of NAD(+) binding and a predicted decrease in the free energy by 6.67 kcal/mol furthermore suggests a severe destabilization of the protein. In line with these in silico observations, no SSADH enzyme activity could be detected in patient lymphoblasts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the liver of rats with acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Kopylchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between the redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes and key enzymatic activity of the I and II respiratory chain complexes in the liver cells mitochondria of rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein was studied. It was estimated, that under the conditions of acute acetaminophen-induced hepatitis of rats kept on a low-protein diet during 4 weeks a significant decrease of the NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity with simultaneous increase of the ratio between redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes (NAD+/NADН is observed compared to the same indices in the liver cells of animals with experimental hepatitis kept on the ration balanced by all nutrients. Results of research may become basic ones for the biochemical rationale for the approaches directed to the correction and elimination of the consequences­ of energy exchange in the toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of protein deficiency.

  7. How Stress Treatments Influence the Performance of Biodegradable Poly(Butylene Succinate-Based Copolymers with Thioether Linkages for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Siracusa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate (PBS-based random copolymers containing thioether linkages (P(BSxTDGSy of various compositions have been investigated and characterized from the gas barrier, thermal, and mechanical point of view, after food contact simulants or thermal and photoaging processes. Each stress treatment was performed on thin films and the results obtained have been compared to the same untreated film, used as a standard. Barrier properties with different gases (O2 and CO2 were evaluated, showing that the polymer chemical composition strongly influenced the permeability behavior. The relationships between the diffusion coefficients (D and solubility (S with polymer composition were also investigated. The results highlighted a correlation between polymer chemical structure and treatment. Gas transmission rate (GTR mainly depending on the performed treatment, as GTR increased with the increase of TDGS co-unit amount. Thermal and mechanical tests allowed for the recording of variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the tensile properties. An increase in the crystallinity degree was recorded after contact with simulant liquids and aging treatments, together with a molecular weight decrease, a slight enhancement of the elastic modulus and a decrement of the elongation at break, proportional to the TDGS co-unit content.

  8. How Stress Treatments Influence the Performance of Biodegradable Poly(Butylene Succinate)-Based Copolymers with Thioether Linkages for Food Packaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Valentina; Genovese, Laura; Munari, Andrea; Lotti, Nadia

    2017-08-30

    Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-based random copolymers containing thioether linkages (P(BSxTDGSy)) of various compositions have been investigated and characterized from the gas barrier, thermal, and mechanical point of view, after food contact simulants or thermal and photoaging processes. Each stress treatment was performed on thin films and the results obtained have been compared to the same untreated film, used as a standard. Barrier properties with different gases (O₂ and CO₂) were evaluated, showing that the polymer chemical composition strongly influenced the permeability behavior. The relationships between the diffusion coefficients ( D ) and solubility ( S ) with polymer composition were also investigated. The results highlighted a correlation between polymer chemical structure and treatment. Gas transmission rate ( GTR ) mainly depending on the performed treatment, as GTR increased with the increase of TDGS co-unit amount. Thermal and mechanical tests allowed for the recording of variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the tensile properties. An increase in the crystallinity degree was recorded after contact with simulant liquids and aging treatments, together with a molecular weight decrease, a slight enhancement of the elastic modulus and a decrement of the elongation at break, proportional to the TDGS co-unit content.

  9. Uptake of intact TPGS (d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) a water-miscible form of vitamin E by human cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traber, M.G.; Thellman, C.A.; Rindler, M.J.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which TPGS (alpha-tocopheryl succinate esterified to polyethylene glycol 1000 [PEG 1000]) delivers tocopherol (vitamin E) was studied in human fibroblasts and erythrocytes and a human intestinal cell line, Caco-2. The total cellular tocopherol content of saponified samples of fibroblasts or Caco-2 incubated for 4 h with TPGS (4 mumol/L) increased 10-fold without an increase in the free tocopherol content of nonsaponified samples. A 24-h incubation resulted in a free tocopherol content of approximately 20%, suggesting that intracellular hydrolysis of ester bonds had occurred. The increase in total tocopherol content after a 4-h incubation with TPGS was temperature dependent; no change was measurable at 4 degrees C. Addition of metabolic inhibitors during incubation with TPGS at 37 degrees C did not prevent the increase. [ 14 C]TPGS (synthesized from [ 14 C]PEG 1000) was taken up by Caco-2 cells but [ 14 C]PEG 1000 was not. The intracellular total tocopherol (pmol) equaled the [ 14 C]TPGS (pmol), unequivocally demonstrating uptake of the intact TPGS molecule

  10. Unprecedented access to strong and ductile poly(lactic acid) by introducing In Situ Nanofibrillar Poly(butylene succinate) for green packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Niu, Ben; Ji, Xu; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji

    2014-11-10

    The notion of toughening poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by adding flexible biopolymers has generated enormous interest but has yielded few desirable advances, mainly blocked by the sacrifice of strength and stiffness due to uncontrollable phase morphology and poor interfacial interactions. Here the phase control methodology, that is, intense extrusion compounding followed by "slit die extrusion-hot stretching-quenching" technique, was proposed to construct well-aligned, stiff poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanofibrils in the PLA matrix for the first time. We show that generating nanosized discrete droplets of PBS phase during extrusion compounding is key to enable the development of in situ nanofibrillar PBS assisted by the shearing/stretching field. The size of PBS nanofibrils strongly dependent on the PBS content, showing an increased average diameter from 83 to 116 and 236 nm for the composites containing 10, 20, and 40 wt % nanofibrils, respectively. More importantly, hybrid shish-kebab superstructure anchoring ordered PLA kebabs were induced by the PBS nanofibrils serving as the central shish, conferring the creation of tenacious interfacial crystalline ligaments. The exceptional combination of strength, modulus, and ductility for the composites loaded 40 wt % PBS nanofibrils were demonstrated, outperforming pure PLA with the increments of 31, 51, and 72% in strength, modulus, and elongation at break (56.4 MPa, 1702 MPa, and 92.4%), respectively. The high strength, modulus, and ductility are unprecedented for PLA and are in great potential need for packaging applications.

  11. A Cu-Zn nanoparticle promoter for selective carbon dioxide reduction and its application in visible-light-active Z-scheme systems using water as an electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ge; Sako, Hiroshi; Gubbala, Ramesh V; Ueda, Shigenori; Yamaguchi, Akira; Abe, Hideki; Miyauchi, Masahiro

    2018-04-17

    Selective carbon dioxide photoreduction to produce formic acid was achieved under visible light irradiation using water molecules as electron donors, similar to natural plants, based on the construction of a Z-scheme light harvesting system modified with a Cu-Zn alloy nanoparticle co-catalyst. The faradaic efficiency of our Z-scheme system for HCOOH generation was over 50% under visible light irradiation.

  12. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  13. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    -promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence......Purpose – The editorial aims to provide a brief overview of the individual contributions to the special issue, and a commentary positioning the contributions within research relating to the health-promoting schools initiative in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The members of the Schools...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...

  14. What promotes longevity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kujawska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Scientists try to answer on the need of a long life with a full physical capability Nonagenarians, centenarians and their closest family members are characterized by a survival benefit throughout life. Moreover, twin studies of longevity suggest that around 25% of the variation in lifespan in developed countries may be inherited. It is therefore worth to examine the role of inter-relationship between nature vs nurture in longevity increment. Material and methods Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: longevity, gene, behavior, environment. The available literature was subjectively selected. Then, the newest version of every paper was searched for. Results Restriction of calories as well as intake of desirable nutrients can promote adequate control of metabolic pathways and gene expression. APOE, DRD4, Paraoxonase 1, SIRT 3 and SIRT 5 genes can play an important role in longevity. Conclusions Genetic profile and environmental factors seems to both influence on the longevity. Relationships between genetic profile, behavior pattern, quality of life, years spent free from activity limitations and longevity should be examined, to be able to give a recipe on living a long and happy life.

  15. Radiation promotive concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of radiation promotion was proposed in this study. The proposal of this concept was dependent upon stimulation in growth weight of survived chicks when fertile eggs were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that female chick (Promotive Sex) responded to this proposal concept rather than the male. Moreover, the dose level of 640 rads was found to be the Promotive Dose. It is important before applying ionizing radiation as a growth promotive to take into consideration whether you want increasing egg or meat production, as meat promotion in layers breed is bound to decrease egg production. (orig.) [de

  16. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  17. Promoter scanning of the human COX-2 gene with 8-ring polyamides: unexpected weakening of polyamide-DNA binding and selectivity by replacing an internal N-Me-pyrrole with β-alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkin, James K; Aston, Karl; Ramos, Joseph P; Koeller, Kevin J; Nanjunda, Rupesh; He, Gaofei; Dupureur, Cynthia M; David Wilson, W

    2013-02-01

    Rules for polyamide-DNA recognition have proved invaluable for the design of sequence-selective DNA binding agents in cell-free systems. However, these rules are not fully transferrable to predicting activity in cells, tissues or animals, and additional refinements to our understanding of DNA recognition would help biomedical studies. Similar complexities are encountered when using internal β-alanines as polyamide building blocks in place of N-methylpyrrole; β-alanines were introduced in polyamide designs to maintain good hydrogen bonding registry with the target DNA, especially for long polyamides or those with several GC bp (P.B. Dervan, A.R. Urbach, Essays Contemp. Chem. (2001) 327-339). Thus, to clarify important subtleties of molecular recognition, we studied the effects of replacing a single pyrrole with β-alanine in 8-ring polyamides designed against the Ets-1 transcription factor. Replacement of a single internal N-methylpyrrole with β-alanine to generate a β/Im pairing in two 8-ring polyamides causes a decrease in DNA binding affinity by two orders of magnitude and decreases DNA binding selectivity, contrary to expectations based on the literature. Measurements were made by fluorescence spectroscopy, quantitative DNA footprinting and surface plasmon resonance, with these vastly different techniques showing excellent agreement. Furthermore, results were validated for a range of DNA substrates from small hairpins to long dsDNA sequences. Docking studies helped show that β-alanine does not make efficient hydrophobic contacts with the rest of the polyamide or nearby DNA, in contrast to pyrrole. These results help refine design principles and expectations for polyamide-DNA recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hongzhi Qiao,1,2,* Lihua Chen,3,* Tianqi Rui,1,2 Jingxian Wang,1,2 Ting Chen,1,2 Tingming Fu,1,2 Junsong Li,1,2 Liuqing Di1,2 1College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Efficient Delivery System of TCM, Nanjing, 3Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Andrographolide (ADG is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS, a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in