WorldWideScience

Sample records for subwavelength metal hole

  1. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  2. Extraordinary light transmission through opaque thin metal film with subwavelength holes blocked by metal disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Di; Hu, Jonathan; Chou, Stephen Y

    2011-10-10

    We observed that when subwavelength-sized holes in an optically opaque metal film are completely covered by opaque metal disks larger than the holes, the light transmission through the holes is not reduced, but rather enhanced. Particularly we report (i) the observation of light transmission through the holes blocked by the metal disks up to 70% larger than the unblocked holes; (ii) the observation of tuning the light transmission by varying the coupling strength between the blocking disks and the hole array, or by changing the size of the disks and holes; (iii) the observation and simulation that the metal disk blocker can improve light coupling from free space to a subwavelength hole; and (iv) the simulation that shows the light transmission through subwavelength holes can be enhanced, even though the gap between the disk and the metal film is partially connected with a metal. We believe these finding should have broad and significant impacts and applications to optical systems in many fields.

  3. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. U. Donev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model. The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.

  4. Extracting and focusing of surface plasmon polaritons inside finite asymmetric metal/insulator/metal structure at apex of optical fiber by subwavelength holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikane, Yasushi; Murai, Kensuke; Nakano, Motohiro

    2013-09-01

    We have been studied a finite asymmetric metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure on glass plate for near-future visible light communication (VLC) system with white LED illuminations in the living space (DOI: 10.1117/12.929201). The metal layers are vacuum-evaporated thin silver (Ag) films (around 50 nm and 200 nm, respectively), and the insulator layer (around 150 nm) is composed of magnesium fluoride (MgF2). A characteristic narrow band filtering of the MIM structure at visible region might cause a confinement of intense surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at specific monochromatic frequency inside a subwavelength insulator layer of the MIM structure. Central wavelength and depth of such absorption dip in flat spectral reflectance curve is controlled by changing thicknesses of both insulator and thinner metal layers. On the other hand, we have proposed a twin-hole pass-through wave guide for SPPs in thick Ag film (DOI: 10.1117/12.863587). At that time, the twin-hole converted a incoming plane light wave into a pair of channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs), and united them at rear surface of the Ag film. This research is having an eye to extract, guide, and focus the SPPs through a thicker metal layer of the MIM with FIBed subwavelength pass-through holes. The expected outcome is a creation of noble, monochromatic, and tunable fiber probe for scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs) with intense white light sources. Basic experimental and FEM simulation results will be presented.

  5. Local and dynamic properties of light interacting with subwavelength holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, Jord

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the extraordinary transmission phenomena has initiated an intense study of the interaction of light with subwavelength holes. In this thesis the dynamic and local properties of light interacting with subwavelength holes are investigated. First of all the role of hole shape on the

  6. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul Kalam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hou - Tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of {approx}10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor holes. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stopband to a passband and up to {pi}/2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz plasmonics.

  7. Simulation of polarization-dependent film with subwavelength nano-hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Wei, Dong; Long, Huabao; Xin, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    When lightwave passes through a metal thin film with a periodic subwavelength hole arrays structure, its transmittance is significantly improved in the partial band compared to other wavelength. Changing the size of the hole, the period or metal material, will make the transmission curve different. Here, we add a layer of dielectric material on the surface of the metal film, such as liquid crystal(LC), by controlling voltage on LC to change the refractive index of this layer, then we can change the transmission curve, and achieve using voltage to move the transmission curve. When there is need for polarization, the holes can be made of a rectangle whose length and width are different or other shapes, for different polarization state of the light, and the film will display different transmission characteristics.

  8. Single photon transport by a moving atom through sub-wavelength hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, A.E.; Melentiev, P.N.; Kuzin, A.A.; Kalatskiy, A.Yu.; Balykin, V.I.

    2017-01-01

    The results of investigation of photon transport through the subwavelength hole in the opaque screen by using single neutral atom are represented. The basis of the proposed and implemented method is the absorption of a photon by a neutral atom immediately before the subwavelength aperture, traveling of the atoms through the hole and emission of a photon on the other side of the screen. Realized method is the alternative approach to existing for photon transport through a subwavelength aperture: 1) self-sustained transmittance of a photon through the aperture according to the Bethe’s model; 2) extra ordinary transmission because of surface-plasmon excitation.

  9. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Longqing; Syed, Ahad A.; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  10. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-04-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  11. Fabrication of subwavelength metallic structures by using a metal direct imprinting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, C W; Hsiung, H Y; Lu, Y T; Sung, C K; Wang, W H

    2007-01-01

    This work employs a metal direct imprinting process, which possesses the characteristics of simplicity, low-cost and high resolution, for the fabrication of subwavelength structures on a metallic thin film. Herein, the mould featuring periodic line structures is manufactured by using E-beam lithography and followed by a dry etching process; meanwhile, the thin film is fabricated by sputtering Al on a silicon substrate. AFM section analyses are employed to measure imprinting depths of the subwavelength metallic structures and it is found that the uniformity of the imprinting depths is affected by the designed patterns, the material property of thin film and mould deformation. The process temperature and the mould filling that influence the transferred quality are investigated. In addition, TEM is also utilized to examine defects in the subwavelength metallic structures. Finally, good quality subwavelength metallic structures are fabricated under a pressure of 300 MPa for 60 s at room temperature. In this study, we have demonstrated that subwavelength metallic structures with a minimum linewidth of less than 100 nm on the Al thin film are successfully constructed by the metal direct imprinting process

  12. Functional metasurfaces based on metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Yanqin; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-04-01

    Starting with the early works of extraordinary optical transmission and extraordinary Young’s interference, researchers have been fascinated by the unusual optical properties displayed by metallic holes/slits and subsequently found similar abnormities in dielectric counterparts. Benefiting from the shrinking wavelength of surface plasmon polaritons excited in metallic slits and high refractive index of dielectric stripes, one can realize local phase modulation and approach desired dispersion by engineering the geometries of a slits and stripes array. In this review, we review recent developments in functional metasurfaces composed of various metallic and dielectric subwavelength slits and stripes arrays, with special emphasis on achromatic, ultra-broadband, quasi-continuous, multifunctional and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Particular attention is paid to provide insight into the design strategies for these devices. Finally, we give an outlook of the development in this fascinating area.

  13. Spectral light separator based on deep-subwavelength resonant apertures in a metallic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Büyükalp, Yasin; Catrysse, Peter B., E-mail: pcatryss@stanford.edu; Shin, Wonseok; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [E. L. Ginzton Laboratory and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We propose to funnel, select, and collect light spectrally by exploiting the unique properties of deep-subwavelength resonant apertures in a metallic film. In our approach, each aperture has an electromagnetic cross section that is much larger than its physical size while the frequency of the collected light is controlled by its height through the Fabry-Pérot resonance mechanism. The electromagnetic crosstalk between apertures remains low despite physical separations in the deep-subwavelength range. The resulting device enables an extremely efficient, subwavelength way to decompose light into its spectral components without the loss of photons and spatial coregistration errors. As a specific example, we show a subwavelength-size structure with three deep-subwavelength slits in a metallic film designed to operate in the mid-wave infrared range between 3 and 5.5 μm.

  14. Linear Optical and SERS Study on Metallic Membranes with Subwavelength Complementary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qingzhen; Zeng, Yong; Jensen, Lasse; Werner, Douglas; Crespi, Vincent; Huang, Tony Jun; Interdepartmental Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    An efficient technique is developed to fabricate optically thin metallic films with subwavelength patterns and their complements simultaneously. By comparing the spectra of the complementary films, we show that Babinet's principle nearly holds in the optical domain. A discrete-dipole approximation can qualitatively describe their spectral dependence on the geometry of the constituent particles and the illuminating polarization. Using pyridine as probe molecules, we studied surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) from the complementary structure. Although the complementary structure posses closely related linear spectra, they have quite different near-field behaviors. For hole arrays, their averaged local field gains as well as the SERS enhancements are strongly correlated to their transmission spectra. We therefore can use cos 4 θ to approximately describe the dependence of the Raman intensity on the excitation polarization angle θ , while the complementary particle arrays present maximal local field gains at wavelengths generally much bigger than their localized surface plasmonic resonant wavelengths.

  15. Metallic strip gratings in the sub-subwavelength regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Adriana; Steigmann, Rozina; Bruma, Alina

    2014-07-04

    Metallic strip gratings (MSG) have different applications, ranging from printed circuits to filters in microwave domains. When they are under the influence of an electromagnetic field, evanescent and/or abnormal modes appear in the region between the traces, their utilization leading to the development of new electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation methods. This paper studies the behavior of MSGs in the sub-subwavelength regime when they are excited with TE(z) or TM(z) polarized plane waves and the slits are filled with different dielectrics. The appearance of propagating, evanescent and abnormal modes is emphasized using an electromagnetic sensor with metamaterials lens realized with two conical Swiss rolls, which allows the extraction of the information carried by the guided evanescent waves. The evanescent waves, manipulated by the electromagnetic sensor with metamaterial lenses, improve the electromagnetic images so that a better spatial resolution is obtained, exceeding the limit imposed by diffraction. Their theoretical and experimental confirmation opens the perspective for development of new types of sensors working in radio and microwave frequencies.

  16. Metallic Strip Gratings in the Sub-Subwavelength Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Savin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallic strip gratings (MSG have different applications, ranging from printed circuits to filters in microwave domains. When they are under the influence of an electromagnetic field, evanescent and/or abnormal modes appear in the region between the traces, their utilization leading to the development of new electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation methods. This paper studies the behavior of MSGs in the sub-subwavelength regime when they are excited with TEz or TMz polarized plane waves and the slits are filled with different dielectrics. The appearance of propagating, evanescent and abnormal modes is emphasized using an electromagnetic sensor with metamaterials lens realized with two conical Swiss rolls, which allows the extraction of the information carried by the guided evanescent waves. The evanescent waves, manipulated by the electromagnetic sensor with metamaterial lenses, improve the electromagnetic images so that a better spatial resolution is obtained, exceeding the limit imposed by diffraction. Their theoretical and experimental confirmation opens the perspective for development of new types of sensors working in radio and microwave frequencies.

  17. Light-induced attractive force between two metal bodies separated by a subwavelength slit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, Vladimir; Frumin, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    A novel light-induced attractive force which acts as a force with negative light pressure has been revealed. The force arises by the interaction of plasmon polaritons which are excited at the surface of metal when a transverse magnetic mode propagates through a subwavelength slit between two metal bodies. The estimation of the repulsive force acting on the metal walls of the slit in the case of subwavelength TE mode propagation along the slit is presented. The explicit analytical expressions of light-induced forces between two macroscopic metal bodies or films separated by a subwavelength slit have been derived. These forces could be used to manipulate metallic macro-, micro- and nano-objects in vacuum or in a dielectric medium. Estimations of these light-induced forces show that the forces are sufficient for measurements and practical applications

  18. Anomalous transmission through heavily doped conducting polymer films with periodic subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-08-01

    We observed resonantly enhanced (or anomalous transmission) terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF 6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The anomalous transmission spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the resonantly enhanced transmission peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy(PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, indicating that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy(PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  19. Ab initio analytical model of light transmission through a cylindrical subwavelength hole in an optically thick film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The rigorous analytical theory of light transmission through a cylindrical hole of arbitrary diameter in an optically thick film is developed. The approach is based on the introduction of fictitious surface currents at both hole openings and both film surfaces. The solution of Maxwell’s equations...... the film thickness considerably exceeds the hole diameter. It is emphasized that a specific pole corresponding to excitation of surface plasmon polaritons does not appear in the analysis. The theory is illustrated by the calculation of light transmission through a subwavelength hole in an Ag film....

  20. Acoustic transmission resonance and suppression through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhifeng; Jin Guojun

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of acoustic waves passing through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays. The acoustic transmission resonance and suppression are observed. There are three mechanisms responsible for the transmission resonance: the excitation of geometrically induced acoustic surface waves, the Fabry-Perot resonance in a hole cavity (I-FP resonance) and the Fabry-Perot resonance between two plates (II-FP resonance). We can differentiate these mechanisms via the dispersion relation of acoustic modes supported by the double-layer structure. It is confirmed that the coupling between two single-layer perforated plates, associated with longitudinal interval and lateral displacement, plays a crucial role in modulating the transmission properties. The strong coupling between two plates can induce the splitting of the transmission peak, while the decoupling between plates leads to the appearance of transmission suppression. By analyzing the criterion derived for transmission suppression, we conclude that it is the destructive interference between the diffracted waves and the direct transmission waves assisted by the I-FP resonance of the first plate that leads to the decoupling between plates and then the transmission suppression.

  1. Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...

  2. Surface plasmon polariton Akhmediev Breather in a dielectric-metal-dielectric geometry with subwavelength thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Koijam Monika; Porsezian, K.; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-05-01

    We report Akhmediev Breather solutions in a nonlinear multilayer structure comprising of a metal sandwiched between two semi-infinite dielectric layers with subwavelength thickness. These nonlinear solutions inherit the properties of Surface plasmon polaritons and its dynamics is governed by the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The breather evolution is studied for specific values of nonlinear and dispersion parameters. An experimental scheme to observe these breathers is also proposed.

  3. Light polarization management via reflection from arrays of sub-wavelength metallic twisted bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, M.; Haberko, J.; Zinkiewicz, Ł.; Wasylczyk, P.

    2017-12-01

    With constant progress of nano- and microfabrication technologies, photolithography in particular, a number of sub-wavelength metallic structures have been demonstrated that can be used to manipulate light polarization. Numerical simulations of light propagation hint that helical twisted bands can have interesting polarization properties. We use three-dimensional two-photon photolithography (direct laser writing) to fabricate a few-micrometer-thick arrays of twisted bands and coat them uniformly with metal. We demonstrate that circular polarization can be generated from linear polarization upon reflection from such structures over a broad range of frequencies in the mid infrared.

  4. Experimental demonstration of tunable directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons with a subwavelength metallic double slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tan, Qiaofeng; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metal film by a subwavelength double slit under backside illumination, based on the interference of SPPs generated by the two slits. By varying the incident angle, the SPPs can be tunably directed into two opposite propagating directions with a predetermined splitting ratio. Under certain incident angle, unidirectional SPP excitation can be achieved. This compact directional SPP coupler is potentially useful for many on-chip applications. As an example, we show the integration of the double-slit couplers with SPP Bragg mirrors, which can effectively realize selective coupling of SPPs into different ports in an integrated plasmonic chip.

  5. Polarization control of non-diffractive helical optical beams through subwavelength metallic apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, E; Genet, C; Ebbesen, T W; Drezet, A

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a simple method for preparing non-diffractive vectorial optical beams that can display wave-front helicity. This method is based on space-variant modifications of the polarization of an optical beam transmitted through subwavelength annular rings perforating opaque metal films. We show how the description of the optical properties of such structures must account for the vectorial character of the polarization and how, in turn, these properties can be controlled by straightforward sequences of preparation and analysis of polarization states.

  6. Mechanism of optical unidirectional transmission in subwavelength dual-metal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zheng, Z. Y.; Hao, H. Y.; Dong, A. G.; Fan, Z. J.; Liu, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of optical unidirectional (OUD) transmission in parallel subwavelength dual-metal gratings was investigated. It was found that this kind of OUD phenomenon originates from the coupling of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) between the front grating and a layer of metal film which replaces the rear grating. The higher the intensity of the coupled SPPs at the entrances of the rear grating, the higher the transmittance can be achieved. Basing on this property, an effective OUD example was achieved by exploring the intensity difference at the entrances of the rear gratings between the two incidences of opposite directions. In this kind of OUD, the positive transmittance can exceed 80 % and the difference between the transmittances of the two opposite directions can be as large as 63 %. The detailed design process was also presented.

  7. Anomalous dispersion properties of TM waves in subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghui, E-mail: wanggh@scnu.edu.cn; Lei, Yuandong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-02-20

    Dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) waves in a subwavelength metallic waveguide loaded by uniaxial metamaterials are investigated, based on two kinds of uniaxial metamaterials with different orientations of optical axis. The numerical results show that the existence of fundamental TM{sub 0} mode and high-order TM modes in the waveguide system is dependent on the orientation of optical axis. In addition, their anomalous dispersion properties are clarified. When the orientation of optical axis is selected properly, there are two branches of dispersion curves for each high-order mode—one is normal dispersion and another belongs to anomalous dispersion, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one with the increase of working frequency. Moreover, the group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM{sub 1} mode are also demonstrated. These properties may have potential applications in optical information storage, integrated optics and nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Two kinds of subwavelength uniaxial metamaterial waveguides are constructed. • We demonstrate anomalous dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) guided modes. • There are two branches of dispersion curves for high-order TM modes, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one. • Group velocity can approach to zero, having potential application in optical information storage. • Negative group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM modes are shown.

  8. Waveguide resonance mode response of stacked structures of metallic sub-wavelength slit arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasunori; Takano, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Kato, Kosaku; Nakajima, Makoto; Akiyama, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of the optical properties of two-tier systems composed of metallic plates perforated with periodic sub-wavelength slit patterns were carried out using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the transmission properties observed experimentally for various configurations can be reproduced successfully by simulations based on the finite-differential time-domain method. Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonance mode behaviors specific to this quasi-dielectric system were then investigated. For structures with no lateral displacement between the slit-array plates, mode disappearance phenomena, which are caused by destructive interference between the odd-order mode and the blue- or red-shifted even-order modes, were observed experimentally. The uncommon behavior of the even-order modes was examined precisely to explain the slit-width dependence. For structures with half-pitched displacement between the plates, extraordinarily strong transmission was observed experimentally, even when the optical paths were shut off. This result was interpreted in terms of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons through very thin and labyrinthine spacings that inevitably exist between the metallic plates. Furthermore, the optical mode disappearance phenomena are revealed to be characterized by anticrossing of the two mixing modes formed by even- and odd-order modes. These experimental observations that are supported theoretically are indispensable to the practical use of this type of artificial dielectric and are expected to encourage interest in optical mode behaviors that are not typically observed in conventional dielectric systems.

  9. Polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohne, Andrew J.; Moon, Benjamin; Baumbauer, Carol L.; Gray, Tristan; Dilts, James; Shaw, Joseph A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Nakagawa, Wataru

    2017-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating for use in polarimetric imaging. Gold nanowires were deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) onto a silicon surface relief grating that was patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL) and fabricated using standard silicon processing techniques. Optical characterization with a broad-spectrum tungsten halogen light source and a grating spectrometer showed normalized peak TM transmission of 53% with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 122 nm, which was consistent with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) simulations. Simulation results suggested that device operation relied on suppression of the TM transmission caused by surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation at the gold-silicon interface and an increase in TM transmission caused by a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in the cavity between the gratings. TE rejection occurred at the initial air/gold interface. We also present simulation results of an improved design based on a two-dielectric grating where two different SPP resonances allowed us to improve the shape of the passband by suppressing the side lobes. This newer design resulted in improved side-band performance and increased peak TM transmission.

  10. Investigation of the effects of metal-wire resonators in sub-wavelength array based on time-reversal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Hui-Lin; Xiao, Shao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    The resonant metalens consisting of metal-wire resonators with equally finite length can break the diffraction barrier well suited for super-resolution imaging. In this study, a basic combination constructed by two metal-wire resonators with different lengths is proposed, and its resonant characteristics is analyzed using the method of moments (MoM). Based on the time reversal (TR) technique, this kind of combination can be applied to a sub-wavelength two-element antenna array with a 1/40-wavelength interval to make the elements work simultaneously with little interference in the frequency band of 1.0-1.5 GHz and 1.5-2.0 GHz, respectively. The simulations and experiments show that analysis of MoM and the application of the resonators can be used to design multi-frequency sub-wavelength antenna arrays efficiently. This general design method is convenient and can be used for many applications, such as weakening jamming effectiveness in communication systems, and sub-wavelength imaging in a broad frequency band.

  11. Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: from the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Abad, J; Martín-Moreno, L; García-Vidal, F J

    2004-02-01

    In this work we explore the transmission properties of a single slit in a metallic screen. We analyze the dependence of these properties on both slit width and angle of incident radiation. We study in detail the crossover between the subwavelength regime and the geometrical-optics limit. In the subwavelength regime, resonant transmission linked to the excitation of waveguide resonances is analyzed. Linewidth of these resonances and their associated electric-field intensities are controlled by just the width of the slit. More complex transmission spectra appear when the wavelength of light is comparable to the slit width. Rapid oscillations associated with the emergence of different propagating modes inside the slit are the main features appearing in this regime.

  12. TE-polarized design for metallic slit lenses: a way to deep-subwavelength focusing over a broad wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yechuan; Yuan, Weizheng; Li, Wenli; Sun, Hao; Qi, Kunlun; Yu, Yiting

    2018-01-15

    Slit arrays based on noble metals have been widely proposed as planar transverse-magnetic (TM)-lenses, illuminated by a linearly polarized light with the polarization perpendicular to slits and implementing the focusing capability beyond the diffraction limit. However, due to intrinsic plasmonic losses, these TM-lenses cannot work efficiently in the ultraviolet wavelengths. In this Letter, taking advantage of the unique transmission through metallic slits not involving plasmonic losses, a metallic slit array with transverse-electric (TE)-polarized design is proposed, showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the realization of sub-diffraction-limit focusing for ultraviolet light. Additionally, in contrast to the situations of TM-lenses, a wider slit leads to a greater phase delay and much larger slits can be arranged to construct the TE-lenses, which is quite beneficial for practical fabrication. Furthermore, deep-subwavelength focusing can be achieved by utilizing the immersing technology.

  13. Dielectric-based subwavelength metallic meanders for wide-angle band absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Su; Qiao, Wen; Ye, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Linsen

    2015-01-26

    We propose nano-meanders that can achieve wide-angle band absorption in visible regime. The nano-meander consists of a subwavelength dielectric grating covered by continuous ultra-thin Aluminum film (less than one tenth of the incident wavelength). The excited photonic resonant modes, such as cavity mode, surface plasmonic mode and Rayleigh-Wood anomaly, are discussed in detail. Nearly total resonant absorption due to funneling mechanism in the air nano-groove is almost invariant with large incident angle in transverse magnetic polarization. From both the structural geometry and the nanofabrication point of view, the light absorber has a very simple geometrical structure and it is easy to be integrated into complex photonic devices. The highly efficient angle-robust light absorber can be potential candidate for a range of passive and active photonic applications, including solar-energy harvesting as well as producing artificial colors on a large scale substrate.

  14. Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a method to obtain a subwavelength resolution in terahertz time-domain imaging. In our method, a sharp copper tip is used to locally distort and concentrate the THz electric field. The distorted electric field, present mainly in the near field of the tip, is electro-optically measured

  15. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  16. Enhanced terahertz magnetic dipole response by subwavelength fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghik Atakaramians

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric sub-wavelength particles have opened up a new platform for realization of magnetic light. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dipole emitter by a sub-wavelength fiber leads to an enhanced magnetic response. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an enhanced magnetic dipole source in the terahertz frequency range. By placing the fiber next to the hole in a metal screen, we find that the radiation power can be enhanced more than one order of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the excitation of the Mie-type resonances in the fiber. We demonstrate that such a system is equivalent to a double-fiber system excited by a magnetic source. This coupled magnetic dipole and optical fiber system can be considered a unit cell of metasurfaces for manipulation of terahertz radiation and is a proof-of-concept of a possibility to achieve enhanced radiation of a dipole source in proximity of a sub-wavelength fiber. It can also be scaled down to optical frequencies opening up promising avenues for developing integrated nanophotonic devices such as nanoantennas or lasers on fibers.

  17. Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Ae; Jang, Sung Min; Kim, Sung June [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyung Min [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyujung; Kim, Donghyun [Program of Nanomedical Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Kyungjae; Oh, Youngjin [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Guk [College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Shuler, Michael L, E-mail: kmbyun@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    We demonstrated enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing based on subwavelength gold nanoarrays built on a thin gold film. Arrays of nanogratings (1D) and nanoholes (2D) with a period of 200 nm were fabricated by electron-beam lithography and used for the detection of avian influenza DNA hybridization. Experimental results showed that both nanoarrays provided significant sensitivity improvement and, especially, 1D nanogratings exhibited higher SPR signal amplification compared with 2D nanohole arrays. The sensitivity enhancement is associated with changes in surface-limited reaction area and strong interactions between bound molecules and localized plasmon fields. Our approach is expected to improve both the sensitivity and sensing resolution and can be applicable to label-free detection of DNA without amplification by polymerase chain reaction.

  18. Influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Shude; Yang, Songwang; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Yu; Wei, Qingzhu; Ni, Zhichun; Li, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Interfaces have a significant impact on the performance of perovskite solar cells. This work investigated the influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on photovoltaic behaviours of perovskite solar devices. Different hole material/metal contact interfaces were obtained by depositing the metal under different conditions. High incident kinetic energy metal particles were proved to penetrate and embed into the hole transport material. These isolated metal particles in hole transport materials capture holes and increase the apparent carrier transport resistance of the hole transport layer. Sample temperature was found to be of great significance in metal deposition. Since metal vapour has a high temperature, the deposition process accumulated a large amount of heat. The heat evaporated the additives in the hole transport layer and decreased the hole conductivity. On the other hand, high temperature may cause iodization of the metal contact.

  19. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  20. Dynamics of coupled plasmon polariton wave packets excited at a subwavelength slit in optically thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Lingxiao; Seideman, Tamar; Petek, Hrvoje

    2012-10-01

    We study by numerical simulations the excitation and propagation dynamics of coupled surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave packets (WPs) in optically thin Ag films and a bulk Ag/vacuum interface under the illumination of a subwavelength slit by 400 nm continuous wave (cw) and femtosecond pulsed light. The generated surface fields include contributions from both SPPs and quasicylindrical waves, which dominate in different regimes. We explore aspects of the coupled SPP modes in Ag thin films, including symmetry, propagation, attenuation, and the variation of coupling with incident angle and film thickness. Simulations of the electromagnetic transients initiated with femtosecond pulses reveal new features of coupled SPP WP generation and propagation in thin Ag films. Our results show that, under pulsed excitation, the SPP modes in an Ag thin film break up into two distinct bound surface wave packets characterized by marked differences in symmetries, group velocities, attenuation lengths, and dispersion properties. The nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scale excitation and propagation dynamics of the coupled SPP WPs are revealed in detail by movies recording the evolution of their transient field distributions.

  1. Resolution revival technique for subwavelength imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The method to achieve a high resolution of subwavelength features (to improve the contrast function) for a dark-field hyperlens—hyperbolic metamaterial slab possessing metallic properties at the interface — is developed. The technique requires the introduction of the phase difference between the o...

  2. Subwavelength light confinement with surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.

    2009-01-01

    In free space, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the size to which light can be confined. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and a dielectric, allow the control of light on subwavelength length scales. This opens up a

  3. Simulation of subwavelength metallic gratings using a new implementation of the recursive convolution finite-difference time-domain algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saswatee; Hoshino, Tetsuya; Cole, James B

    2008-08-01

    We introduce a new implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with recursive convolution (RC) for first-order Drude metals. We implemented RC for both Maxwell's equations for light polarized in the plane of incidence (TM mode) and the wave equation for light polarized normal to the plane of incidence (TE mode). We computed the Drude parameters at each wavelength using the measured value of the dielectric constant as a function of the spatial and temporal discretization to ensure both the accuracy of the material model and algorithm stability. For the TE mode, where Maxwell's equations reduce to the wave equation (even in a region of nonuniform permittivity) we introduced a wave equation formulation of RC-FDTD. This greatly reduces the computational cost. We used our methods to compute the diffraction characteristics of metallic gratings in the visible wavelength band and compared our results with frequency-domain calculations.

  4. Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes : from a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Abad, J.; Martin-Moreno, L.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.; Hendry, E.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A complete landscape is presented of the electromagnetic coupling between square holes forming a two-dimensional periodic array in a metallic film. By combining both experimental and theoretical results along with a first-principles Fano model, we study the crossover between the physics of metallic

  5. Far-field detection of sub-wavelength Tetris without extra near-field metal parts based on phase prints of time-reversed fields with intensive background interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingming; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2014-07-14

    Time-reversal (TR) phase prints are first used in far-field (FF) detection of sub-wavelength (SW) deformable scatterers without any extra metal structure positioned in the vicinity of the target. The 2D prints derive from discrete short-time Fourier transform of 1D TR electromagnetic (EM) signals. Because the time-invariant intensive background interference is effectively centralized by TR technique, the time-variant weak indication from FF SW scatterers can be highlighted. This method shows a different use of TR technique in which the focus peak of TR EM waves is unusually removed and the most useful information is conveyed by the other part.

  6. Subwavelength silicon photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)

  7. Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Yankovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the standard Nicolson Ross Weir method of effective permittivity and permeability restoration of photonic structures for the case of subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayers. We show that the direct application of the standard method yields a false zero-epsilon point and an associated...

  8. Enhanced transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of structured subwavelength apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Peng, Liang; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Transmission through sub-wavelength apertures in perfect metals is expected to be strongly suppressed. However, by structural engineering of the apertures, we numerically demonstrate that the transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures in a thin...... metallic film can be significantly enhanced. Based on equivalent circuit theory analysis, periodic arrays of square structured subwavelength apertures are obtained with a 1900-fold transmission enhancement factor when the side length a of the apertures is 10 times smaller than the wavelength (a/λ =0...

  9. Effect of the final-state interaction on the initial core-hole lifetime: the case of the 4s-hole lifetime of Sn metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The first theoretical study of the effect of the final-state interaction on the initial core-hole lifetime is presented. The 4s-hole lifetime width of Sn metal is calculated by an ab-initio atomic many-body theory (Green's function method). When the final-state interaction in the 4p4d two-hole state, created by the 4s -1 -4p -1 4d -1 εf super Coster-Kronig (CK) transition of the initial 4s hole, is explicitly taken into account, the ab-initio atomic many-body calculation of the 4s-hole X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum of Sn atom can provide excellent agreement with experiment in both the 4s-hole energy and the 4s-hole lifetime width. Otherwise, the many-body calculation underestimates considerably the 4s-hole lifetime width. The 4p4d two-hole state interacts strongly with the 4d triple-hole state by the 4p -1 4d -1 -4d -3 εf super CK transition. The interaction affects greatly the initial 4s-hole lifetime width

  10. Core-hole effects in the x-ray-absorption spectra of transition-metal silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEIJS, PJW; CZYZYK, MT; VANACKER, JF; SPEIER, W; GOEDKOOP, JB; VANLEUKEN, H; HENDRIX, HJM; DEGROOT, RA; VANDERLAAN, G; BUSCHOW, KHJ; WIECH, G; FUGGLE, JC

    1990-01-01

    We report systematic differences between the shape of the Si K x-ray-absorption spectra of transition-metal silicides and broadened partial densities of Si p states. We use a variety of calculations to show that the origin of these discrepancies is the core-hole potential appropriate to the final

  11. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V. [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Steyrleuthner, R.; Neher, D. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Str. 24, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ihiawakrim, D. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg, Cedex2 (France); Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M. [Institut Charles Sadron CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Koch, N., E-mail: norbert.koch@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Erneuerbare Energien, Albert-Einstein Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 10{sup 4} due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contrast to the previous speculations, electrical bistability in such devices was not observed.

  12. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V.; Steyrleuthner, R.; Neher, D.; Ihiawakrim, D.; Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M.; Koch, N.

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 10 4 due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contrast to the previous speculations, electrical bistability in such devices was not observed.

  13. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    OpenAIRE

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V.; Steyrleuthner, Robert; Ihiawakrim, D.; Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M.; Neher, D.; Koch, N.

    2017-01-01

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 104 due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contr...

  14. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Chunxiu; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  15. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-12-11

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  16. Phase study of the generated surface plasmon waves in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Xiao, Sanshui; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Interference of surface plasmon (SP) waves plays a key role in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture surrounded by groove structures. In order to characterize interference of the hole and groove-generated SP waves, their phase information was carefully investigated using finite diff...

  17. Subwavelength Hyperlens Resolution With Perfect Contrast Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    , in principle, two sources standing apart at any subwavelength distance can be distinguished. We suggest two feasible designs, the first of which employs the obliquely incident light, while the second one is based on a properly designed metasurface. The concept can be used in high‐contrast subwavelength...

  18. Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kunihiko; Ohashi, Keishi; Ikari, Tomofumi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrate the terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using a bow-tie shaped aperture surrounded by concentric periodic structures in a metal film. A subwavelength aperture with concentric periodic grooves, which are known as a bull's eye structure, shows extremely large enhanced transmission beyond the diffraction limit caused by the resonant excitation of surface waves. Additionally, a bow-tie aperture exhibits extraordinary field enhancement at the sharp tips of the metal, which enhances the transmission and the subwavelength spatial resolution. We introduced a bow-tie aperture to the bull's eye structure and achieved high spatial resolution (˜λ/17) in the near-field region. The terahertz-wave near-field image of the subwavelength metal pattern (pattern width=20μm) was obtained for the wavelength of 207μm.

  19. The effects of electron-hole separation on the photoconductivity of individual metal oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, J D; Hernandez-Ramirez, F; Jimenez-Diaz, R; Manzanares, M; Andreu, T; Cirera, A; Romano-Rodriguez, A; Morante, J R

    2008-01-01

    The responses of individual ZnO nanowires to UV light demonstrate that the persistent photoconductivity (PPC) state is directly related to the electron-hole separation near the surface. Our results demonstrate that the electrical transport in these nanomaterials is influenced by the surface in two different ways. On the one hand, the effective mobility and the density of free carriers are determined by recombination mechanisms assisted by the oxidizing molecules in air. This phenomenon can also be blocked by surface passivation. On the other hand, the surface built-in potential separates the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and accumulates holes at the surface. After illumination, the charge separation makes the electron-hole recombination difficult and originates PPC. This effect is quickly reverted after increasing either the probing current (self-heating by Joule dissipation) or the oxygen content in air (favouring the surface recombination mechanisms). The model for PPC in individual nanowires presented here illustrates the intrinsic potential of metal oxide nanowires to develop optoelectronic devices or optochemical sensors with better and new performances.

  20. Chemical hole doping into large-area transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using boron-based oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Kanahashi, Kaito; Tanaka, Naoki; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Li, Lain-Jong; Pu, Jiang; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohta, Hiromichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-01-01

    Hole carrier doping into single-crystalline transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) films can be achieved with various chemical reagents. However, large-area polycrystalline TMDC monolayers produced by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method have yet to be chemically doped. Here, we report that a salt of a two-coordinate boron cation, Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group), with a chemically stable tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion, [(C6F5)4B]−, can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent for large-area CVD-grown tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films. Upon doping, the sheet resistance of large-area polycrystalline WSe2 monolayers decreased from 90 GΩ/sq to 3.2 kΩ/sq.

  1. Chemical hole doping into large-area transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using boron-based oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi

    2018-01-18

    Hole carrier doping into single-crystalline transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) films can be achieved with various chemical reagents. However, large-area polycrystalline TMDC monolayers produced by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method have yet to be chemically doped. Here, we report that a salt of a two-coordinate boron cation, Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group), with a chemically stable tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion, [(C6F5)4B]−, can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent for large-area CVD-grown tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films. Upon doping, the sheet resistance of large-area polycrystalline WSe2 monolayers decreased from 90 GΩ/sq to 3.2 kΩ/sq.

  2. Terahertz Near-Field Imaging Using Enhanced Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kunihiko; Ikari, Tomofumi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Keishi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2005-07-01

    We demonstrate terahertz (THz) near-field imaging using resonantly enhanced transmission of THz-wave radiation (λ˜ 200 μm) through a bull’s eye structure (a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric periodic grooves in a metal plate). The bull’s eye structure shows extremely large enhanced transmission, which has the advantage for a single subwavelength aperture. The spatial resolution for the bull’s eye structure (with an aperture diameter d=100 μm) is evaluated in the near-field region, and a resolution of 50 μm (corresponding to λ/4) is achieved. We obtain the THz near-field images of the subwavelength metal pattern with a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit.

  3. Metal-support interactions in electrocatalysis: Hydrogen effects on electron and hole transport at metal-support contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of hydrogen on electron and hole transport at metal support contacts during electrocatalysis. When hydrogen dissolves in high work function metals such as Pt, Rh or Ru the contact forms between the semiconductor and the hydrogenated metal, which has a work function that is lower than that of the pure metal. Thus by changing the gaseous atmosphere that envelopes metal-substrate contacts, it is possible to reversibly change their diode characteristics. In some cases, such as Pt on n-TiO/sub 2/, Rh on n-TiO/sub 2/ and Ru on n-TiO/sub 2/, it is even possible to reversibly convert Schottky diodes into ohmic contacts by changing the atmosphere from air to hydrogen. In contacts between hydrogen dissolving group VIII metals and semiconducting substrates, one can test for interfacial reaction of the catalysts and the substrate by examining the electrical characteristics of the contacts in air (oxygen) and in hydrogen. In the absence of interfacial reaction, large hydrogen induced variation in the barrier heights is observed and the hydrogenated contacts, approach ideality (i.e. their non-ideality factor is close to unity). When a group VIII metal and a substrate do react, the reaction often produces a phase that blocks hydrogen transport to the interface between the substrate and the reaction product. In this case the hydrogen effect is reduced or absent. Furthermore, because such reaction often introduces defects into the surface of the semiconductor, the contacts have non-ideal diode characteristics

  4. Hole polaron-polaron interaction in transition metal oxides and its limit to p-type doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyou; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2014-03-01

    Traditionally the origin of the poor p-type conductivity in some transition metal oxides (TMOs) was attributed to the limited hole concentration: the charge-compensating donor defects, such as oxygen vacancies and cation interstitials, can form spontaneously as the Fermi energy shifts down to near the valence band maximum. Besides the thermodynamic limit to the hole concentration, the limit to the hole mobility can be another possible reason, e.g., the hole carrier can form self-trapped polarons with very low carrier mobility. Although isolated hole polarons had been found in some TMOs, the polaron-polaron interaction is not well-studied. Here we show that in TMOs such as TiO2 and V2O5, the hole polarons prefer to bind with each other to form bipolarons, which are more stable than free hole carriers or separated polarons. This pushes the hole states upward into the conduction band and traps the holes. The rise of the Fermi energy suppresses the spontaneous formation of the charge-compensating donor defects, so the conventional mechanism becomes ineffective. Since it can happen in the impurity-free TMO lattices, independent of any extrinsic dopant, it acts as an intrinsic and general limit to the p-type conductivity in these TMOs. This material is based upon work performed by the JCAP, a US DOE Energy Innovation Hub, the NSFC (No. 61106087 and 91233121) and special funds for major state basic research (No. 2012CB921401).

  5. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-05-14

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  6. Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yun Gui [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Sahebdivan, Sahar; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Ong, C K, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    The resolution of lenses is normally limited by the wave nature of light. Imaging with perfect resolution was believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we present experimental evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction.

  7. Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yun Gui; Sahebdivan, Sahar; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf; Ong, C K

    2011-01-01

    The resolution of lenses is normally limited by the wave nature of light. Imaging with perfect resolution was believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we present experimental evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction.

  8. Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yun Gui; Sahebdivan, Sahar; Ong, C. K.; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The resolution of lenses is normally limited by the wave nature of light. Imaging with perfect resolution was believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we present experimental evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  9. Localization noise in deep subwavelength plasmonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreyshi, Ali; Victora, R. H.

    2018-05-01

    The grain shape dependence of absorption has been investigated in metal-insulator thin films. We demonstrate that randomness in the size and shape of plasmonic particles can lead to Anderson localization of polarization modes in the deep subwavelength regime. These localized modes can contribute to significant variation in the local field. In the case of plasmonic nanodevices, the effects of the localized modes have been investigated by mapping an electrostatic Hamiltonian onto the Anderson Hamiltonian in the presence of a random vector potential. We show that local behavior of the optical beam can be understood in terms of the weighted local density of the localized modes of the depolarization field. Optical nanodevices that operate on a length scale with high variation in the density of states of localized modes will experience a previously unidentified localized noise. This localization noise contributes uncertainty to the output of plasmonic nanodevices and limits their scalability. In particular, the resulting impact on heat-assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  10. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    KAUST Repository

    D’ Apuzzo, Fausto; Candeloro, Patrizio; Domenici, Fabio; Autore, M.; Di Pietro, Paola; Perucchi, Andrea; Roy, P.; Sennato, Simona; Bordi, Federico; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Lupi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  11. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    KAUST Repository

    D’Apuzzo, Fausto

    2014-10-11

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  12. Fabrication of sub-wavelength photonic structures by nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontio, J.

    2013-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a novel but already a mature lithography technique. In this thesis it is applied to the fabrication of nanophotonic devices using its main advantage: the fast production of sub-micron features in high volume in a cost-effective way. In this thesis, fabrication methods for conical metal structures for plasmonic applications and sub-wavelength grating based broad-band mirrors are presented. Conical metal structures, nanocones, with plasmonic properties are interesting because they enable concentrating the energy of light in very tight spots resulting in very high local intensities of electromagnetic energy. The nanocone formation process is studied with several metals. Enhanced second harmonic generation using gold nanocones is presented. Bridged-nanocones are used to enhance Raman scattering from a dye solution. The sub-wavelength grating mirror is an interesting structure for photonics because it is very simple to fabricate and its reflectivity can be extended to the far infrared wavelength range. It also has polarization dependent properties which are used in this thesis to stabilize the output beam of infrared semiconductor disk laser. NIL is shown to be useful a technique in the fabrication of nanophotonic devices in the novel and rapidly growing field of plasmonics and also in more traditional, but still developing, semiconductor laser applications (orig.)

  13. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7x10 20 cm -3 , leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5x10 18 cm -3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a resistivity of 1.3 Ω cm. At 580 K, the corresponding values were 2.6x10 19 cm -3 , 1.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and 0.21 Ω cm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters

  14. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2008-07-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7×1020cm-3, leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5×1018cm-3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1cm2V-1s-1 and a resistivity of 1.3Ωcm. At 580K, the corresponding values were 2.6×1019cm-3, 1.2cm2V-1s-1, and 0.21Ωcm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters.

  15. Ground state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in rare earth nickelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Thorsten; Bisogni, Valentina; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir [Research Department Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Catalano, Sara; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Zubko, Pavlo; Triscone, Jean-Marc [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Green, Robert J.; Balandeh, Shadi; Sawatzky, George [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Perovskite rare-earth (Re) nickelates ReNiO{sub 3} continue to attract a lot of interest owing to their intriguing properties like a sharp metal to insulator transition (MIT), unusual magnetic order and expected superconductivity in specifically tuned super-lattices. Full understanding of these materials, however, is hampered by the difficulties in describing their electronic ground state (GS). From X-ray absorption (XAS) at the Ni 2p{sub 3/2} edge of thin films of NdNiO{sub 3} and corresponding RIXS maps vs. incident and transferred photon energies we reveal that the electronic GS configuration of NdNiO{sub 3} is composed of delocalized and localized components. Our study conveys that a Ni 3d{sup 8}-like configuration with holes at oxygen takes on the leading role in the GS and the MIT of ReNiO{sub 3} as proposed by recent model theories.

  16. Bond Formation in Diatomic Transition Metal Hydrides: Insights from the Analysis of Domain-Averaged Fermi Holes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cooper, D.L.; Ponec, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2013), s. 102-111 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0118 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : transition metal hydrides * bond formation * analysis of domain averaged Fermi holes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.166, year: 2013

  17. A study of angle dependent surface plasmon polaritons in nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-07-21

    We report that the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures possess a subwavelength hole radius and periodicity. The transmission coefficient for nano-hole array structures was measured for different angles of incidence of light. Each measured transmission spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. A theory of the transmission coefficient was developed based on the quantum density matrix method. It was found that the location of the surface plasmon polariton and the heights of the spectral peaks were dependent on the angle of incidence of light. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. This property of these structures has opened up new possibilities for sensing applications.

  18. Metal modulation epitaxy growth for extremely high hole concentrations above 1019 cm-3 in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Gon; Trybus, Elaissa; Lee, Kyung Keun; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan; Look, David C.

    2008-10-01

    The free hole carriers in GaN have been limited to concentrations in the low 1018cm-3 range due to the deep activation energy, lower solubility, and compensation from defects, therefore, limiting doping efficiency to about 1%. Herein, we report an enhanced doping efficiency up to ˜10% in GaN by a periodic doping, metal modulation epitaxy growth technique. The hole concentrations grown by periodically modulating Ga atoms and Mg dopants were over ˜1.5×1019cm-3.

  19. Metal modulation epitaxy growth for extremely high hole concentrations above 1019 cm-3 in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Trybus, Elaissa; Lee, Kyung Keun; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan; Look, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The free hole carriers in GaN have been limited to concentrations in the low 10 18 cm -3 range due to the deep activation energy, lower solubility, and compensation from defects, therefore, limiting doping efficiency to about 1%. Herein, we report an enhanced doping efficiency up to ∼10% in GaN by a periodic doping, metal modulation epitaxy growth technique. The hole concentrations grown by periodically modulating Ga atoms and Mg dopants were over ∼1.5x10 19 cm -3

  20. Topology Optimization of Sub-Wavelength Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We propose a topology optimization strategy for the systematic design of a three-dimensional (3D), conductor-based sub-wavelength antenna. The post-processed finite-element (FE) models of the optimized structure are shown to be self-resonant, efficient and exhibit distorted omnidirectional...

  1. Progress in surface plasmon subwavelength optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Douguo; Wang Pei; Jiao Xiaojin; Tang Lin; Lu Yonghua; Ming Hai

    2005-01-01

    Now great attention is being paid to the potential applications of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in data storage, light generation, microscopy and bio-photonics. The authors review the properties of SPPs and topics of recent interest in surface plasmon subwavelength optics. (author)

  2. Subwavelength nanopatterning of photochromic diarylethene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, Precious; Brimhall, Nicole; Menon, Rajesh [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Andrew, Trisha L. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Castagna, Rossella; Bertarelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' ' Giulio Natta' ' , Politecnico di Milano, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology - PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-04-30

    The resolution of optical patterning is constrained by the far-field diffraction limit. In this letter, we describe an approach that exploits the unique photo- and electro-chemistry of diarylethene photochromic molecules to overcome this diffraction limit and achieve sub-wavelength nanopatterning.

  3. Disorder effects in subwavelength grating metamaterial waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortega-Moñux, A.; Čtyroký, Jiří; Cheben, P.; Schmid, J. H.; Wang, S.; Molina-Fernández, I.; Halíř, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 11 (2017), s. 12222-12236 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00329S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Subwavelength grating * Integrated photonics * Diffraction effects Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  4. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A

    2007-07-10

    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  5. Hybrid Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes of Subwavelength Nanowire Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    -localized gap plasmon mode are studied depending on the vacuum wavelength. In order to directly compare resonators, where metal and semiconductor nanowires are employed, we consider the two resonators, both including silver slab and magnesium fluoride gap region, as is shown in figure. The two compared......We perform Comsol simulations of two types of hybrid plasmonic resonator configurations, similar to those proposed for nanowire plasmonic laser in [1] and [2]. In both references the nanowire - based plasmonic resonators are studied, which overall sizes are larger than the wavelength in vacuum....... However, it is advantageous for the nanolaser to have subwavelength sizes at least in two dimensions. Therefore, we study the two configurations and the hybrid mode behavior in the case, where resonator sizes are smaller than the half of the wavelength in vacuum. First, we assume finite dimensions...

  6. Optical spatial differentiator based on subwavelength high-contrast gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhewei; Si, Jiangnan; Yu, Xuanyi; Deng, Xiaoxu

    2018-04-01

    An optical spatial differentiator based on subwavelength high-contrast gratings (HCGs) is proposed experimentally. The spatial differentiation property of the subwavelength HCG is analyzed by calculating its spatial spectral transfer function based on the periodic waveguide theory. By employing the FDTD solutions, the performance of the subwavelength HCG spatial differentiator was investigated numerically. The subwavelength HCG differentiator with the thickness at the nanoscale was fabricated on the quartz substrate by electron beam lithography and Bosch deep silicon etching. Observed under an optical microscope with a CCD camera, the spatial differentiation of the incident field profile was obtained by the subwavelength HCG differentiator in transmission without Fourier lens. By projecting the images of slits, letter "X," and a cross on the subwavelength HCG differentiator, edge detections of images were obtained in transmission. With the nanoscale HCG structure and simple optical implementation, the proposed optical spatial differentiator provides the prospects for applications in optical computing systems and parallel data processing.

  7. New approach for extraordinary transmission through an array of subwavelength apertures using thin ENNZ metamaterial liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Elham; Pollock, Justin G; Iyer, Ashwin K

    2015-08-10

    Extraordinary transmission (ET) through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures on a perfect metallic screen has been studied extensively in recent years, and has largely been attributed to diffraction effects, for which the periodicity of the apertures, rather than their dimensions, dominates the response. The transmission properties of the apertures at resonance, on the other hand, are not typically considered 'extraordinary' because they may be explained using more conventional aperture-theoretical mechanisms. This work describes a novel approach for achieving ET in which subwavelength apertures are made to resonate by lining them using thin, epsilon-negative and near-zero (ENNZ) metamaterials. The use of ENNZ metamaterials has recently proven successful in miniaturizing circular waveguides by strongly reducing their natural cutoff frequencies, and the theory is adapted here for the design of subwavelength apertures in a metallic screen. We present simulations and proof-of-concept measurements at microwave frequencies that demonstrate ET for apertures measuring one-quarter of a wavelength in diameter and suggest the potential for even more dramatic miniaturization simply by engineering the ENNZ metamaterial dispersion. The results exhibit a fano-like profile whose frequency varies with the properties of the metamaterial liner, but is independent of period. It is suggested that similar behaviour can be obtained at optical frequencies, where ENNZ metamaterials may be realized using appropriately arranged chains of plasmonic nanoparticles.

  8. In situ measurement of plasma and shock wave properties inside laser-drilled metal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajdic, Mihael; Hermans, Martin; Horn, Alexander; Kelbassa, Ingomar

    2008-10-01

    High-speed imaging of shock wave and plasma dynamics is a commonly used diagnostic method for monitoring processes during laser material treatment. It is used for processes such as laser ablation, cutting, keyhole welding and drilling. Diagnosis of laser drilling is typically adopted above the material surface because lateral process monitoring with optical diagnostic methods inside the laser-drilled hole is not possible due to the hole walls. A novel method is presented to investigate plasma and shock wave properties during the laser drilling inside a confined environment such as a laser-drilled hole. With a novel sample preparation and the use of high-speed imaging combined with spectroscopy, a time and spatial resolved monitoring of plasma and shock wave dynamics is realized. Optical emission of plasma and shock waves during drilling of stainless steel with ns-pulsed laser radiation is monitored and analysed. Spatial distributions and velocities of shock waves and of plasma are determined inside the holes. Spectroscopy is accomplished during the expansion of the plasma inside the drilled hole allowing for the determination of electron densities.

  9. Sub-wavelength resonances in polygonal metamaterial cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of circular MTM cylinders also occur for polygonal MTM cylinders. This is the case for lossless and non-dispersive cylinders as well as lossy and dispersive cylinders. The sub-wavelength resonances are thus not limited to structures of canonical...

  10. Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Hajnal, J V

    2006-01-01

    A slab of material with a negative permeability can act as a super-lens for magnetic fields and generate images with a sub-wavelength resolution. We have constructed an effective medium using a metamaterial with negative permeability in the region of 24 MHz, and used this to form images in free space of radio frequency magnetic sources. Measurements of these images show that a resolution of approximately λ/64 has been achieved, consistent with both analytical and numerical predictions. (letter to the editor)

  11. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  12. States and properties of metallic systems at a threshold breakdown of the through holes under power laser action (part 2. Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Threshold breakdown of the through holes by power laser radiation of metallic foils is considered as response of metallic system to laser radiation. Binding experimentally determined response to the absolute temperature scale allows to determine the value of the imaginary part of the generalized susceptibility depending on temperature, the critical temperature of the transition “liquid metal - gas”, states of the electronic subsystems at this temperature, and the reflectance coefficient values.

  13. Optical pumping of a single hole spin in a p-doped quantum dot coupled to a metallic nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M. A.; Carreño, F.; Melle, Sonia; Calderón, Oscar G.; Cabrera-Granado, E.; Singh, Mahi R.

    2013-05-01

    The preparation of quantum states with a defined spin is analyzed in a hybrid system consisting of a p-doped semiconductor quantum dot (QD) coupled to a metallic nanoparticle. The quantum dot is described as a four-level atom-like system using the density matrix formalism. The lower levels are Zeeman-split hole spin states and the upper levels correspond to positively charged excitons containing a spin-up, spin-down hole pair and a spin electron. A metallic nanoparticle with spheroidal geometry is placed in close proximity to the quantum dot, and its effects are considered in the quasistatic approximation. A linearly polarized laser field drives two of the optical transitions of the QD and produces localized surface plasmons in the nanoparticle which act back upon the QD. The frequencies of these localized plasmons are very different along the two principal axes of the nanoparticle, thus producing an anisotropic modification of the spontaneous emission rates of the allowed optical transitions which is accompanied by local-field corrections. This effect translates into a preferential acceleration of some of the optical pathways and therefore into a fast initialization of the QD by excitation with a short optical pulse. The population transfer between the lower levels of the QD and the fidelity is analyzed as a function of the nanoparticle's aspect ratio, the external magnetic field, and the Rabi frequency of the driving field. It is also shown that the main effect of the local-field corrections is a lengthening of the time elapsed to reach the steady-state. The hole spin is predicted to be successfully cooled from 5 to 0.04 K at a magnetic field of 4.6 T applied in the Voigt geometry.

  14. Oxygen hole mechanism of superconductivity in cuprates and other metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.

    1989-01-01

    Several theoretical models have been proposed to explain high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates. An issue that is central to any model is the nature of copper and oxygen species in the cuprates since superconductivity clearly owes its origin to the Cu-O sheets universally present in all the cuprate families. Thus, the five families of cuprate superconductors, La 2 - x M x CuO 4 (M = Ca, Sr or Ba) of the K 2 NiF 4 structure, LnBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ (Ln = Y or rare earth), Bi 2 (Ca, Sr) n + 1 Cu n O 2n + 4 , Tl 2 (Ca, Ba) n + 1 Cu n O 2n + 4 and Tl (Ca, Ba) n + 1 Cu n O 2n + 3 , all contain two-dimensional Cu-O sheets. The Cu-O chains additionally present in the 123 compounds do not seem to play any crucial role. It has been generally believed that magnetic, superconducting and related properties of cuprates have some thing to do with the mixed valency of copper. For example, the resonating valence bond (RVB) model requires the presence of holes on Cu sites (Cu 3 + species). There are also a few models, however, based on the presence of holes on oxygen sites (O - species); dimerization of oxygen holes has also been suggested to occur by a few workers. It is the purpose of this article to briefly present the available experimental evidence for the presence of oxygen holes and to discuss their role in high-temperature conductivity. It will be shown that these holes play a role in other oxide materials as well as including the Cu-free Ba 1 - x K x BiO 3 superconductor

  15. Subwavelength terahertz imaging with graphene hyperlens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    ) [2]. Direct scaling of optical designs to the THz range is not possible, since metal’s negative permittivity becomes too large in absolute value. This is why the employment of new materials is required. In this contribution we report for the first time the graphene wire medium based hyperlens....... Stacking multiple structured graphene layers provides the hyperbolic dispersion. To restore the graphene wire medium dispersion diagrams and isofrequency contours we developed a rigorous numerical method. It also gives the possibility to calculate the permittivity tensor and to check the applicability...... of the homogeneous medium approach. Our numerical simulations in COMSOL and CST Microwave Studio confirm the subwavelength imaging properties of the graphene hyperlens. An example of magnification of two point sources separated by λ/5 to the size of few wavelength, which then can be detected with conventional optics...

  16. Subwavelength atom localization via coherent population trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, G S; Kapale, K T

    2006-01-01

    We present an atom localization scheme based on coherent population trapping. We consider atomic transitions in a Lambda configuration where the control field is a standing-wave field. The probe field and the control field produce coherence between the two ground states and prepare the atom in a pure state. We show that the population in one of the ground states has the same fringe pattern as produced by a Fabry-Perot interferometer and thus measurement of this population would localize the atom. Interestingly enough the role of the cavity finesse is played by the ratio of the intensities of the pump and probe. This is in fact the reason for obtaining extreme subwavelength localization

  17. Extreme localization of light with femtosecond subwavelength rogue waves

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    By using theory and experiments, we investigate a new mechanism based on spontaneous synchronization of random waves which generates ultrafast subwavelength rare events in integrated photonic chips. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  18. Antenna-assisted enhanced transmission through subwavelength nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Peng, Liang; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    By structural engineering of sub-wavelength apertures, we numerically demonstrate that transmission through apertures can be significantly enhanced. Based on equivalent circuit theory analysis, structured apertures are obtained with a 1900-fold transmission enhancement factor. We show that the en......By structural engineering of sub-wavelength apertures, we numerically demonstrate that transmission through apertures can be significantly enhanced. Based on equivalent circuit theory analysis, structured apertures are obtained with a 1900-fold transmission enhancement factor. We show...

  19. Graphene based metamaterials for terahertz cloaking and subwavelength imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzmand, Seyedali

    wires to graphene. The principle of the operation of the proposed lens depends on the enhancement of evanescent waves, wherein the excited surface plasmons at the lower and upper graphene interfaces are coupled by an array of metallic wires. The resolution and the operating frequency of the subwavelength imaging device are mainly determined by the tunability of graphene and the structural parameters of the WM slab. The proposed structure has a resolution better than lambda/10 with the advantages of broad bandwidth, low sensitivity to losses, and tunability with respect to the chemical potential even if the distance between two graphene sheets is a significant fraction of wavelength. As a supplementary study, the performance of WM slab loaded with nanostructured graphene metasurfaces as a novel sub-diffraction imaging lens is studied. It is observed that the dual nature (capacitive/inductive) of the nanostructured graphene metasurface can be utilized to design a dual-band lens in which the subwavelength imaging simultaneously at two tunable distinct frequencies is possible. The analytical results which are presented throughout this thesis, are validated with the full-wave electromagnetic simulator, CST Microwave Studio.

  20. The electric field at hole injecting metal/organic interfaces as a cause for manifestation of exponential bias-dependent mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvikl, B.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the well-known empirical exponential bias-dependent mobility is an approximation function of the relevant term emerging in the Mott–Gurney space charge limited current model when the constant non-zero electric field at the hole injecting metal/organic interface E int is taken into account. The term in question is the product of the bias-independent (but organic layer thickness-dependent) effective mobility coefficient and the algebraic function, f(λ), of the argument λ = E int /E a , where E a is the externally applied electric field. On account of the non-zero interfacial field, E int , the singularity of the spatial dependence of the hole current density, p(x), is removed. The resulting hole drift current density, j, is tested as a function of E a against a number of published room temperature hole current j–E a data sets, all characterized by good ohmic contact at the hole injecting interface. It is shown that the calculated current density provides a very good fit to the measurements within a high range of E a intervals. Low values of E a , are investigated analytically under the assumption of hole drift-diffusion. The extremely large internal electric fields at the anode/organic junction indicate drift-diffusion to be an improbable process for the structures investigated. However, a description of hole transport throughout the whole interval of experimental E a values may be obtained at low values of E a by an extended Mark–Helfrich drift model with traps occupying the exponentially distributed energy levels, followed by the extended Mott–Gurney model description within the remaining part of the E a interval. In both models the same (bias-independent) effective mobility coefficient is incorporated into the calculations. The results present evidence that within the framework of the extended Mott–Gurney expression the properly derived term should replace the empirical exponential bias-dependent mobility, making it redundant in the

  1. Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-02-01

    We observed resonantly-enhanced terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The "anomalous transmission" spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the `anomalous transmission' peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy (PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, showing that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy (PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  2. Subwavelength resolution from multilayered structure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo Han; Jen, Yi-Jun; Liu, Wei-Chih; Lin, Shan-wen; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-10-01

    Breaking optical diffraction limit is one of the most important issues needed to be overcome for the demand of high-density optoelectronic components. Here, a multilayered structure which consists of alternating semiconductor and dielectric layers for breaking optical diffraction limitation at THz frequency region are proposed and analyzed. We numerically demonstrate that such multilayered structure not only can act as a hyperbolic metamaterial but also a birefringence material via the control of the external temperature (or magnetic field). A practical approach is provided to control all the diffraction signals toward a specific direction by using transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. Numerical calculations and computer simulation (based on finite element method, FEM) are carried out, which agree well with each other. The temperature (or magnetic field) parameter can be tuned to create an effective material with nearly flat isofrequency feature to transfer (project) all the k-space signals excited from the object to be resolved to the image plane. Furthermore, this multilayered structure can resolve subwavelength structures at various incident THz light sources simultaneously. In addition, the resolution power for a fixed operating frequency also can be tuned by only changing the magnitude of external magnetic field. Such a device provides a practical route for multi-functional material, photolithography and real-time super-resolution image.

  3. THE RESPONSE OF METAL-RICH GAS TO X-RAY IRRADIATION FROM A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aykutalp, A.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wise, J. H., E-mail: aycin.aykutalp@sns.it, E-mail: meijerink@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: spaans@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: jwise@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region ({<=}20 pc) is high due to the high opacity of the metals. Hence, the central temperatures are on the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column densities of 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas ({approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to {approx}100 km s{sup -1}. At later times, {approx}23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by {approx}17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.

  4. Bloch-Surface-Polariton-Based Hybrid Nanowire Structure for Subwavelength, Low-Loss Waveguiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs have been thoroughly studied in the past decades for not only sensing but also waveguiding applications. Various plasmonic device structures have been explored due to their ability to confine their optical mode to the subwavelength level. However, with the existence of metal, the large ohmic loss limits the propagation distance of the SPP and thus the scalability of such devices. Therefore, different hybrid waveguides have been proposed to overcome this shortcoming. Through fine tuning of the coupling between the SPP and a conventional waveguide mode, a hybrid mode could be excited with decent mode confinement and extended propagation distance. As an effective alternative of SPP, Bloch surface waves have been re-investigated more recently for their unique advantages. As is supported in all-dielectric structures, the optical loss for the Bloch surface wave is much lower, which stands for a much longer propagating distance. Yet, the confinement of the Bloch surface wave due to the reflections and refractions in the multilayer structure is not as tight as that of the SPP. In this work, by integrating a periodic multilayer structure that supports the Bloch surface wave with a metallic nanowire structure, a hybrid Bloch surface wave polariton could be excited. With the proposed hybrid nanowire structure, a hybrid mode is demonstrated with the deep subwavelength mode confinement and a propagation distance of tens of microns.

  5. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  6. A tale of two metals: contrasting criticalities in the pnictides and hole-doped cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, N. E.; Buhot, J.; Licciardello, S.

    2018-05-01

    The iron-based high temperature superconductors share a number of similarities with their copper-based counterparts, such as reduced dimensionality, proximity to states of competing order, and a critical role for 3d electron orbitals. Their respective temperature-doping phase diagrams also contain certain commonalities that have led to claims that the metallic and superconducting (SC) properties of both families are governed by their proximity to a quantum critical point (QCP) located inside the SC dome. In this review, we critically examine these claims and highlight significant differences in the bulk physical properties of both systems. While there is now a large body of evidence supporting the presence of a (magnetic) QCP in the iron pnictides, the situation in the cuprates is much less apparent, at least for the end point of the pseudogap phase. We argue that the opening of the normal state pseudogap in cuprates, so often tied to a putative QCP, arises from a momentum-dependent breakdown of quasiparticle coherence that sets in at much higher doping levels but which is driven by the proximity to the Mott insulating state at half filling. Finally, we present a new scenario for the cuprates in which this loss of quasiparticle integrity and its evolution with momentum, temperature and doping plays a key role in shaping the resultant phase diagram. This key issues review is dedicated to the memory of Dr John Loram whose pioneering measurements, analysis and ideas inspired much of its content.

  7. Subwavelength Gold Grating as Polarizers Integrated with InP-Based InGaAs Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Tao; Shao, Xiumei; Li, Xue; Huang, Xiaqi; Shao, Jinhai; Chen, Yifang; Gong, Haimei

    2015-07-08

    There are currently growing needs for polarimetric imaging in infrared wavelengths for broad applications in bioscience, communications and agriculture, etc. Subwavelength metallic gratings are capable of separating transverse magnetic (TM) mode from transverse electric (TE) mode to form polarized light, offering a reliable approach for the detection in polarization way. This work aims to design and fabricate subwavelength gold gratings as polarizers for InP-based InGaAs sensors in 1.0-1.6 μm. The polarization capability of gold gratings on InP substrate with pitches in the range of 200-1200 nm (fixed duty cycle of 0.5) has been systematically studied by both theoretical modeling with a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulator and spectral measurements. Gratings with 200 nm lines/space in 100-nm-thick gold have been fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL). It was found that subwavelength gold gratings directly integrated on InP cannot be applied as good polarizers, because of the existence of SPP modes in the detection wavelengths. An effective solution has been found by sandwiching the Au/InP bilayer using a 200 nm SiO2 layer, leading to significant improvement in both TM transmission and extinction ratio. At 1.35 μm, the improvement factors are 8 and 10, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that the Au/SiO2/InP trilayer should be a promising candidate of near-infrared polarizers for the InP-based InGaAs sensors.

  8. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-ε isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel...... without being cut off, as if it has just passed through the original empty waveguide. Both the magnitude and phase information of the EM fields can be effectively restored after passing this channel, regardless of the polarization of the incoming wave. The performance of this subwavelength channel, which...

  9. Enhanced terahertz magnetic dipole response by subwavelength fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.

    2018-01-01

    Dielectric sub-wavelength particles have opened up a new platform for realization of magnetic light. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dipole emitter by a sub-wavelength fiber leads to an enhanced magnetic response. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an enhanced magnetic dipole source......-fiber system excited by a magnetic source. This coupled magnetic dipole and optical fiber system can be considered a unit cell of metasurfaces for manipulation of terahertz radiation and is a proof-of-concept of a possibility to achieve enhanced radiation of a dipole source in proximity of a sub...

  10. Subwavelength image manipulation through oblique and herringbone layered acoustic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunhui; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Li, Yixiang; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an oblique and a herringbone layered acoustic structure are experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to manipulate acoustic subwavelength images. An imaging resolution of less than one tenth of a wavelength is achieved with both optimized systems, and lateral image shift has been realized by an oblique layered system. The thicknesses of both the oblique and the herringbone layered acoustic systems are largely reduced through utilizing the oblique or herringbone wave propagation path instead of the vertical wave propagation path in the rectangular layered planar acoustic system. With smaller size and subwavelength image manipulation, the acoustic systems are more favourable for practical application. (paper)

  11. Hole-Collection Mechanism in Passivating Metal-Oxide Contacts on Si Solar Cells: Insights From Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayan, Ramachandran Ammapet

    2018-02-14

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells enable high conversion efficiencies, thanks to their passivating contacts which consist of layered stacks of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon. However, such contacts may reduce the photo current, when present on the illuminated side of the cell. This motivates the search for wider bandgap contacting materials, such as metal oxides. In this paper, we elucidate the precise impact of the material parameters of MoO$_{x}$ on device characteristics, based on numerical simulations. The simulation results allow us to propose design principles for hole-collecting induced junctions. We find that if MoO$_{x}$ has a sufficiently high electron affinity ($\\\\ge\\\\! \\\\text{{5.7 eV}}$), direct band-to-band tunneling is the dominant transport mechanism; whereas if it has a lower electron affinity ($ <\\\\! \\\\text{{5.7 eV}}$), trap-assisted tunneling dominates, which might introduce additional series resistance. At even lower electron affinity, S-shaped J–V curves may appear for these solar cells, which are found to be due to an insufficient trap state density in the MoO$_{x}$ film in contrast to the expectation of better performance at low trap density. These traps may assist carrier transport when present near the conduction band edge of the MoO$_{x}$ film. Our simulations predict that performance optimization for the MoO$_{x}$ film has to target either 1) a high electron affinity and a moderate doping density film or, 2) if the electron affinity is lower than the optimum value, a high defect density not exceeding the doping density inside the film.

  12. Tunable dual-band subwavelength imaging with a wire medium slab loaded with nanostructured graphene metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Forouzmand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate that a wire medium slab loaded with graphene-nanopatch metasurfaces (GNMs enables the enhancement of evanescent waves for the subwavelength imaging at terahertz (THz frequencies. The analysis is based on the nonlocal homogenization model for wire medium with the additional boundary condition at the connection of wires to graphene. The physical mechanism behind this lens can be described as the surface plasmons excitement at the lower and upper GNMs which are coupled by an array of metallic wires. The dual nature (capacitive/inductive of the GNM is utilized in order to design a dual-band lens in which the unique controllable properties of graphene and the structural parameters of wire medium (WM slab provide more degrees of freedom in controlling two operating frequency bands. The lens can support the subwavelength imaging simultaneously at two tunable distinct frequencies with the resolution better than λ/6 even if the distance between GNMs is a significant fraction of wavelength (>λ/5.5. The major future challenges in the fabrication of the lens have been demonstrated and a promising approach for the practical configuration of the lens has been proposed.

  13. Inhibited emission of electromagnetic modes confined in subwavelength cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thomas, N.; Houdre, R.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the active inhibition of subwavelength confined cavity modes emission and quality factor enhancement by controlling the cavity optical surrounding. The intrinsic radiation angular spectrum of modes confined in planar photonics crystal cavities as well as its modifications depending on the environment are inferred via a transfer matrix modeling and k-space imaging.

  14. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...

  15. Sub-wavelength metamaterial cylinders with multiple dipole resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of the individual MTM cylinders also occur for electrically small configurations combining 2 or 4 cylinders. For the 2-and 4-cylinder configurations the overall size is 1/20 and 1/12.5 of the smallest wavelength, respectively. These MTM...... configuration thus offer the possibility for multi-resonant electrically small configurations....

  16. Magnonic black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, A.S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the interaction between spin-polarized current and magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons - the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the imp...

  17. Injection of holes at indium tin oxide/dendrimer interface: An explanation with new theory of thermionic emission at metal/organic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yingquan; Lu Feiping

    2006-01-01

    The traditional theory of thermionic emission at metal/inorganic crystalline semiconductor interfaces is no longer applicable for the interface between a metal and an organic semiconductor. Under the assumption of thermalization of hot carriers in the organic semiconductor near the interface, a theory for thermionic emission of charge carriers at metal/organic semiconductor interfaces is developed. This theory is used to explain the experimental result from Samuel group [J.P.J. Markham, D.W. Samuel, S.-C. Lo, P.L. Burn, M. Weiter, H. Baessler, J. Appl. Phys. 95 (2004) 438] for the injection of holes from indium tin oxide into the dendrimer based on fac-tris(2-phenylpyridyl) iridium(III)

  18. Surface modes at metallic an photonic crystal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Weitao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A surface mode is an electromagnetic field distribution bounded at a surface. It decays exponentially with the distance from the surface on both sides of the surface and propagates at the surface. The surface mode exists at a metal-dielectric interface as surface plasmon (1) or at a photonic crystal surface terminated properly (34; 35; 36). Besides its prominent near-filed properties, it can connect structures at its propagation surface and results in far-field effects. Extraordinary transmission (EOT) and beaming are two examples and they are the subjects I am studying in this thesis. EOT means the transmission through holes in an opaque screen can be much larger than the geometrical optics limitation. Based on our everyday experience about shadows, the transmission equals the filling ratio of the holes in geometrical optics. The conventional diffraction theory also proved that the transmission through a subwavelength circular hole in an infinitely thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) film converges to zero when the hole's dimension is much smaller than the wavelength (40). Recently it is discovered that the transmission can be much larger than the the filling ratio of the holes at some special wavelengths (41). This cannot be explained by conventional theories, so it is called extraordinary transmission. It is generally believed that surface plasmons play an important role (43; 44) in the EOT through a periodic subwavelength hole array in a metallic film. The common theories in literatures are based on these arguments. The surface plasmons cannot be excited by incident plane waves directly because of momentum mismatch. The periodicity of the hole arrays will provide addition momentum. When the momentum-matching condition of surface plasmons is satisfied, the surface plasmons will be excited. Then these surface plasmons will collect the energy along the input surface and carry them to the holes. So the transmission can be bigger than the filling ratio. Based

  19. Simple fabrication of antireflective silicon subwavelength structure with self-cleaning properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Soon; Ju, Won-Ki; Lee, Min-Woo; Lee, Cheon; Lee, Seung-Gol; Beom-Hoan, O

    2013-05-01

    A subwavelength structure (SWS) was formed via a simple chemical wet etching using a gold (Au) catalyst. Single nano-sized Au particles were fabricated by metallic self-aggregation. The deposition and thermal annealing of the thin metallic film were carried out. Thermal annealing of a thin metallic film enables the creation of metal nano particles by isolating them from each other by means of the self-aggregation of the metal. After annealing, the samples were soaked in an aqueous etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. When silicon (Si) was etched for 2 minutes using the Au nano particles, the reflectance was decreased almost 0% over the entire wavelength range from 300 to 1300 nm due to its deep and steeply double tapered structure. When given varying incident angle degrees from 30 degrees to 60 degrees, the reflectance was also maintained at less than 3%. Following this, the etched silicon was treated with a plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC) film of about 5 nm using an ICP reactor for surface modification. The result of this surface treatment, the contact angle increased significantly from 27.5 degrees to 139.3 degrees. The surface modification was successful and maintained almost 0% reflectance because of the thin film deposition.

  20. Comparison of junctionless and inversion-mode p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in presence of hole-phonon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, E., E-mail: elias.dib@for.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Pisa, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Carrillo-Nuñez, H. [Integrated Systems Laboratory ETH Zürich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Bât. IRPHE, Technopôle de Château-Gombert, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-01-28

    Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations.

  1. Comparison of junctionless and inversion-mode p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in presence of hole-phonon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, E.; Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M.

    2016-01-01

    Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations

  2. Optically resonant subwavelength films for tamper-indicating tags and seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    2015-05-01

    We present the design, modeling and performance of a proof-of-concept tamper indicating approach that exploits newlydeveloped subwavelength-patterned films. These films have a nanostructure-dependent resonant optical reflection that is wavelength, angle, and polarization dependent. As such, they can be tailored to fabricate overlay transparent films for tamper indication and authentication of sensitive or controlled materials not possible with currently-known technologies. An additional advantage is that the unique optical signature is dictated by the geometry and fabrication process of the nanostructures in the film, rather than on the material used. The essential structure unit in the subwavelength resonant coating is a nanoscale Open-Ring Resonator (ORR). This building block is fabricated by coating a dielectric nanoscale template with metal to form a hemispherical shell-like structure. This curved metallic shell structure has a cross-section with an intrinsic capacitance and inductance and is thus the optical equivalent to the well-known "LC" circuit where the capacitance and inductance are determined by the nanoshell dimensions. For structures with sub 100 nm scale, this resonance occurs in the visible electromagnetic spectrum, and in the IR for larger shells. Tampering of the film would be visible though misalignment of the angle-sensitive features in the film. It is additionally possible to add in intrinsic oxidation and strain sensitive matrix materials to further complicate tamper repair and counterfeiting. Cursory standoff readout would be relatively simple using a combination of a near-infrared (or visible) LED flashlight and polarizer or passively using room lighting illumination and a dispersive detector.

  3. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  4. Topological acoustic polaritons: robust sound manipulation at the subwavelength scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yves, Simon; Fleury, Romain; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2017-07-01

    Topological insulators, a hallmark of condensed matter physics, have recently reached the classical realm of acoustic waves. A remarkable property of time-reversal invariant topological insulators is the presence of unidirectional spin-polarized propagation along their edges, a property that could lead to a wealth of new opportunities in the ability to guide and manipulate sound. Here, we demonstrate and study the possibility to induce topologically non-trivial acoustic states at the deep subwavelength scale, in a structured two-dimensional metamaterial composed of Helmholtz resonators. Radically different from previous designs based on non-resonant sonic crystals, our proposal enables robust sound manipulation on a surface along predefined, subwavelength pathways of arbitrary shapes.

  5. [INVITED] Coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic wave in subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Jun; Huang, Yijia; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) absorption is a common process by which the EM energy is transformed into other kinds of energy in the absorber, for example heat. Perfect absorption of EM with structures at subwavelength scale is important for many practical applications, such as stealth technology, thermal control and sensing. Coherent perfect absorption arises from the interplay of interference and absorption, which can be interpreted as a time-reversed process of lasing or EM emitting. It provides a promising way for complete absorption in both nanophotonics and electromagnetics. In this review, we discuss basic principles and properties of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). Various subwavelength structures including thin films, metamaterials and waveguide-based structures to realize CPAs are compared. We also discuss the potential applications of CPAs.

  6. Topological acoustic polaritons: robust sound manipulation at the subwavelength scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yves, Simon; Fleury, Romain; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2017-01-01

    Topological insulators, a hallmark of condensed matter physics, have recently reached the classical realm of acoustic waves. A remarkable property of time-reversal invariant topological insulators is the presence of unidirectional spin-polarized propagation along their edges, a property that could lead to a wealth of new opportunities in the ability to guide and manipulate sound. Here, we demonstrate and study the possibility to induce topologically non-trivial acoustic states at the deep subwavelength scale, in a structured two-dimensional metamaterial composed of Helmholtz resonators. Radically different from previous designs based on non-resonant sonic crystals, our proposal enables robust sound manipulation on a surface along predefined, subwavelength pathways of arbitrary shapes. (paper)

  7. The effect of holes in the dispersion relation of propagative surface plasmon modes of nanoperforated semitransparent metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekesi, R., E-mail: renata.kekesi@csic.es; Meneses-Rodríguez, D.; García-Pérez, F.; González, M. U.; García-Martín, A.; Cebollada, A.; Armelles, G., E-mail: gaspar@imm.cnm.csic.es [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    We have analysed the effect that holes have on the properties of propagative surface plasmon modes in semitransparent nanoperforated Au films. The modes have been excited in Kretschmann configuration. Contrary to continuous films, where only one mode is excited, two modes are observed in Au nanohole array. The origin of this different behavior is discussed using effective optical properties for the nanoperforated films. The presence of the holes affects the effective optical constants of the membranes in two ways: it changes the contribution of the free electrons, and it gives rise to a localized transition due to a hole induced plasmon resonance. This localized transition interacts with the propagative surface plasmon modes, originating the two detected modes.

  8. The effect of holes in the dispersion relation of propagative surface plasmon modes of nanoperforated semitransparent metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekesi, R.; Meneses-Rodríguez, D.; García-Pérez, F.; González, M. U.; García-Martín, A.; Cebollada, A.; Armelles, G.

    2014-01-01

    We have analysed the effect that holes have on the properties of propagative surface plasmon modes in semitransparent nanoperforated Au films. The modes have been excited in Kretschmann configuration. Contrary to continuous films, where only one mode is excited, two modes are observed in Au nanohole array. The origin of this different behavior is discussed using effective optical properties for the nanoperforated films. The presence of the holes affects the effective optical constants of the membranes in two ways: it changes the contribution of the free electrons, and it gives rise to a localized transition due to a hole induced plasmon resonance. This localized transition interacts with the propagative surface plasmon modes, originating the two detected modes.

  9. The sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered wire media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, David A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered thin wire media is undertaken, in order to understand how its performance may be affected by manufacturing errors. The structure is found to be extremely robust to disorder which keeps the wires parallel. Variation in the orientation of the wires and their longitudinal position causes more significant degradation in the image quality, which is quantified numerically

  10. Properties of Sub-wavelength Resonances in Metamaterial Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Clausen, N.C.J.; Pedersen, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    The analytical solution for the canonical configuration with electric line source illumination of concentric metamaterial cylinders is employed to study the properties of the observed sub-wavelength resonances. The near- and far-field distributions, the frequency and geometry bandwidths, and the ......, and the line source impedance are investigated for varying electromagnetic and geometrical parameters. The results of this study are of importance for metamaterial-based miniaturization of antennas....

  11. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu

    2013-05-01

    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  12. Tuning subwavelength-structured focus in the hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Tang, Zhixiang; Pan, Jin; Peng, Runwu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we have systematically investigated light propagating in the hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) covered by a subwavelength grating. Based on the equal-frequency contour analyses, light in the HMM is predicted to propagate along a defined direction because of its hyperbolic dispersion, which is similar to the self-collimating effects in photonic crystals. By using the finite-difference time-domain, numerical simulations demonstrate a subwavelength bright spot at the intersection of the adjacent directional beams. Different from the images in homogeneous media, the magnetic fields and electric fields at the spot are layered, especially for the electric fields Ez that is polarized to the propagating direction, i.e., the layer normal direction. Moreover, the Ez is hollow in the layer plane and is stronger than the other electric field component Ex. Therefore, the whole electric field is structured and its pattern can be tuned by the HMM's effective anisotropic electromagnetic parameters. Our results may be useful for generating subwavelength structured light.

  13. Frontier molecular orbitals of a single molecule adsorbed on thin insulating films supported by a metal substrate: electron and hole attachment energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivetti, Iván; Persson, Mats

    2017-09-06

    We present calculations of vertical electron and hole attachment energies to the frontier orbitals of a pentacene molecule absorbed on multi-layer sodium chloride films supported by a copper substrate using a simplified density functional theory (DFT) method. The adsorbate and the film are treated fully within DFT, whereas the metal is treated implicitly by a perfect conductor model. We find that the computed energy gap between the highest and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals-HOMO and LUMO -from the vertical attachment energies increases with the thickness of the insulating film, in agreement with experiments. This increase of the gap can be rationalised in a simple dielectric model with parameters determined from DFT calculations and is found to be dominated by the image interaction with the metal. We find, however, that this simplified model overestimates the downward shift of the energy gap in the limit of an infinitely thick film.

  14. Restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and subwavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawhary, Omar; Schilder, Nick J; Costa Assafrao, Alberto da; Pereira, Silvania F; Paul Urbach, H

    2012-01-01

    It was predicted a few years ago that a medium with negative index of refraction would allow for perfect imaging. Although no material has been found so far that behaves as a perfect lens, some experiments confirmed the theoretical predictions in the near-field, or quasi-static, regime where the behaviour of a negative index medium can be mimicked by a thin layer of noble metal, such as silver. These results are normally attributed to the excitation of surface plasmons in the metal, which only leads to the restoration of p-polarized evanescent waves. In this work, we show that the restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and, correspondingly, sub-wavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab are possible. Specifically, we show that at λ = 632 nm a thin layer of GaAs behaves as a superlens for s-polarized waves. Replacing the single-metal slab by a dielectric is not only convenient from a technical point of view, it being much easier to deposit and control the thickness and flatness of dielectric films than metal ones, but also invites us to re-think the connection between surface plasmon excitation and the theory of negative refraction. (paper)

  15. Charge-compensation in 3d-transition-metal-oxide intercalation cathodes through the generation of localized electron holes on oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Roberts, Matthew R; Hao, Rong; Guerrini, Niccoló; Pickup, David M; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Edström, Kristina; Guo, Jinghua; Chadwick, Alan V; Duda, Laurent C; Bruce, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    During the charging and discharging of lithium-ion-battery cathodes through the de- and reintercalation of lithium ions, electroneutrality is maintained by transition-metal redox chemistry, which limits the charge that can be stored. However, for some transition-metal oxides this limit can be broken and oxygen loss and/or oxygen redox reactions have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. We present operando mass spectrometry of (18)O-labelled Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2, which demonstrates that oxygen is extracted from the lattice on charging a Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2 cathode, although we detected no O2 evolution. Combined soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that, in addition to oxygen loss, Li(+) removal is charge compensated by the formation of localized electron holes on O atoms coordinated by Mn(4+) and Li(+) ions, which serve to promote the localization, and not the formation, of true O2(2-) (peroxide, O-O ~1.45 Å) species. The quantity of charge compensated by oxygen removal and by the formation of electron holes on the O atoms is estimated, and for the case described here the latter dominates.

  16. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  17. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  18. Subwavelength position measurements with running-wave driving fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evers, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Qamar, Sajid [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-08-15

    Subwavelength position measurement of quantum particles is discussed. Our setup is based on a closed-loop driving-field configuration, which enforces a sensitivity of the particle dynamics to the phases of the applied fields. Thus, running wave fields are sufficient, avoiding limitations associated with standing-wave-based localization schemes. Reversing the directions of the driving laser fields switches between different magnification levels for the position determination. This allows us to optimize the localization, and at the same time eliminates the need for additional classical measurements common to all previous localization schemes based on spatial periodicity.

  19. Residual stress measurements in a ferritic steel/In625 superalloy dissimilar metal weldment using neutron diffraction and deep-hole drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouras, A.; Paradowska, A.; Peel, M.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Pavier, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the use of non-invasive and semi-invasive techniques to measure the residual stresses in a large dissimilar weldment. This took the form of a butt weld between two sections of a P92 steel pipe, joined using an In625 welding consumable. Residual stress measurements have been carried out on the 30 mm thick welded pipe using the deep-hole drilling technique to characterise the through wall section residual stress distribution for the weld metal, HAZ and parent material. In addition, neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out within the weld zone. Diffraction patterns presented a high intensity and sharp peaks for the base P92 steel material. However measurements in the weld superalloy material were proven problematic as very weak diffraction patterns were observed. A thorough examination of the weld material suggested that the likely cause of this phenomenon was texture in the weld material created during the solidification phase of the welding procedure. This paper discusses the challenges in the execution and interpretation of the neutron diffraction results and demonstrates that realistic measurements of residual stresses can be achieved, in complex dissimilar metal weldments. Highlights: ► One of the few papers to measure residual stresses on dissimilar metal welds. ► Paper managed to provide realistic measurements of residual stresses using the DHD and ND technique. ► Results of this study have demonstrated the effect of texture during the ND measurements.

  20. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  1. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  2. Surface-plasmon-induced modification on the spontaneous emission spectrum via subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying; Wang, Luojia; Ren, Pan; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhang, Tiancai; Martin, Olivier J F; Gong, Qihuang

    2012-05-09

    The mechanism of using the anisotropic Purcell factor to control the spontaneous emission linewidths in a four-level atom is theoretically demonstrated; if the polarization angle bisector of the two dipole moments lies along the axis of large/small Purcell factor, destructive/constructive interference narrows/widens the fluorescence center spectral lines. Large anisotropy of the Purcell factor, confined in the subwavelength optical mode volume, leads to rapid spectral line narrowing of atom approaching a metallic nanowire, nanoscale line width pulsing following periodically varying decay rates near a periodic metallic nanostructure, and dramatic modification on the spontaneous emission spectrum near a custom-designed resonant plasmon nanostructure. The combined system opens a good perspective for applications in ultracompact active quantum devices.

  3. A super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Edward T F; Lindberg, Jari; Roy, Tapashree; Savo, Salvatore; Chad, John E; Dennis, Mark R; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-03-25

    The past decade has seen an intensive effort to achieve optical imaging resolution beyond the diffraction limit. Apart from the Pendry-Veselago negative index superlens, implementation of which in optics faces challenges of losses and as yet unattainable fabrication finesse, other super-resolution approaches necessitate the lens either to be in the near proximity of the object or manufactured on it, or work only for a narrow class of samples, such as intensely luminescent or sparse objects. Here we report a new super-resolution microscope for optical imaging that beats the diffraction limit of conventional instruments and the recently demonstrated near-field optical superlens and hyperlens. This non-invasive subwavelength imaging paradigm uses a binary amplitude mask for direct focusing of laser light into a subwavelength spot in the post-evanescent field by precisely tailoring the interference of a large number of beams diffracted from a nanostructured mask. The new technology, which--in principle--has no physical limits on resolution, could be universally used for imaging at any wavelength and does not depend on the luminescence of the object, which can be tens of micrometres away from the mask. It has been implemented as a straightforward modification of a conventional microscope showing resolution better than λ/6.

  4. Enhanced transmission through arrays of subwavelength holes in gold films coated by a finite dielectric layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    resonances attributing to the enhanced transmission: the localized waveguide resonance and periodic surface plasmon resonances. For the film coated with dielectric layers, calculated results show that in the wavelength region of interest the localized waveguide resonant mode attributes to sensing rather than...

  5. Terahertz near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures and a quantum cascade laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragwanath, Adam J; Freeman, Joshua R; Gallant, Andrew J; Zeitler, J Axel; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Chamberlain, J Martyn

    2011-07-01

    The first demonstration, to our knowledge, of near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures with a terahertz quantum cascade laser source is presented. "Bull's-eye" apertures, featuring subwavelength circular apertures flanked by periodic annular corrugations were created using a novel fabrication method. A fivefold increase in intensity was observed for plasmonic apertures over plain apertures of the same diameter. Detailed studies of the transmitted beam profiles were undertaken for apertures with both planarized and corrugated exit facets, with the former producing spatially uniform intensity profiles and subwavelength spatial resolution. Finally, a proof-of-concept imaging experiment is presented, where an inhomogeneous pharmaceutical drug coating is investigated.

  6. Longitudinal Lorentz force on a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huakang; Fang Wei; Gu Fuxing; Yang Zongyin; Tong Limin; Qiu Min

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the longitudinal Lorentz forces that a propagating continuous-wave light exerts on a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber. Our theoretical results show that, during the propagating process, the guided light exerts no net time-averaged force on the fiber. Via numerical simulation, we find a significant overall pull force of 0.4 pN/mW acting on a 450-nm-diam fiber tip at a wavelength of 980 nm due to the scattering of the end face and a calculated force distribution reveals the feature of a near-field accumulation. Our results may be helpful to the configuration of optomechanical components or devices based on these fibers.

  7. Subwavelength Plasmonic Color Printing Protected for Ambient Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Albrektsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic color printing with subwavelength resolution using circular gap-plasmon resonators (GPRs) arranged in 340 nm period arrays of square unit cells and fabricated with single-step electron-beam lithography. We develop a printing procedure resulting in correct single-pixel color...... reproduction, high color uniformity of colored areas, and high reproduction fidelity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, due to inherent stability of GPRs with respect to surfactants, the fabricated color print can be protected with a transparent dielectric overlay for ambient use without destroying its...... coloring. Using finite-element simulations, we uncover the physical mechanisms responsible for color printing with GPR arrays and suggest the appropriate design procedure minimizing the influence of the protection layer....

  8. Subwavelength Localization of Atomic Excitation Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Miles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment in which an atomic excitation is localized to a spatial width that is a factor of 8 smaller than the wavelength of the incident light. The experiment utilizes the sensitivity of the dark state of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT to the intensity of the coupling laser beam. A standing-wave coupling laser with a sinusoidally varying intensity yields tightly confined Raman excitations during the EIT process. The excitations, located near the nodes of the intensity profile, have a width of 100 nm. The experiment is performed using ultracold ^{87}Rb atoms trapped in an optical dipole trap, and atomic localization is achieved with EIT pulses that are approximately 100 ns long. To probe subwavelength atom localization, we have developed a technique that can measure the width of the atomic excitations with nanometer spatial resolution.

  9. Coherent patterning of matter waves with subwavelength localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.; Birkl, G.

    2009-01-01

    We propose the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage (SLAP) technique to coherently achieve state-selective patterning of matter waves well beyond the diffraction limit. The SLAP technique consists in coupling two partially overlapping and spatially structured laser fields to three internal levels of the matter wave yielding state-selective localization at those positions where the adiabatic passage process does not occur. We show that by means of this technique matter wave localization down to the single nanometer scale can be achieved. We analyze in detail the potential implementation of the SLAP technique for nanolithography with an atomic beam of metastable Ne* and for coherent patterning of a two-component 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate.

  10. All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janke, C.; Gómez Rivas, J.; Haring Bolivar, P.; Kurz, H.

    2005-01-01

    Unprecedented optical control of the surface plasmon polariton assisted transmission of terahertz radiation through subwavelength apertures is rendered possible by carrier-induced changes to the dielectric properties of a semiconductor grating. Although the study presented is static, the extension

  11. Shaping of few-cycle laser pulses via a subwavelength structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liang; Xie Xiao-Tao; Zhan Zhi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of few-cycle laser pulses in resonant two-level dense media with a subwavelength structure, which is described by the full Maxwell—Bloch equations without the frame of slowly varying envelope and rotating wave approximations. The input pulses can be shaped into shorter ones with a single or less than one optical cycle. The effect of the parameters of the subwavelength structure and laser pulses is studied. Our study shows that the media with a subwavelength structure can significantly shape the few-cycle pulses into a subcycle pulse, even for the case of chirp pulses as input fields. This suggests that such subwavelength structures have potential application in the shaping of few-cycle laser pulses. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Deep-subwavelength Decoupling for MIMO Antennas in Mobile Handsets with Singular Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su; Zhang, Ming; Wen, Huailin; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-22

    Decreasing the mutual coupling between Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) antenna elements in a mobile handset and achieving a high data rate is a challenging topic as the 5 th -generation (5G) communication age is coming. Conventional decoupling components for MIMO antennas have to be re-designed when the geometries or frequencies of antennas have any adjustment. In this paper, we report a novel metamaterial-based decoupling strategy for MIMO antennas in mobile handsets with wide applicability. The decoupling component is made of subwavelength metal/air layers, which can be treated as singular medium over a broad frequency band. The flexible applicable property of the decoupling strategy is verified with different antennas over different frequency bands with the same metamaterial decoupling element. Finally, 1/100-wavelength 10-dB isolation is demonstrated for a 24-element MIMO antenna in mobile handsets over the frequency band from 4.55 to 4.75 GHz.

  13. Sub-wavelength plasmonic readout for direct linear analysis of optically tagged DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsanik, Jonathan; Teynor, William; LeBlanc, John; Clark, Heather; Krogmeier, Jeffrey; Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This work describes the development and fabrication of a novel nanofluidic flow-through sensing chip that utilizes a plasmonic resonator to excite fluorescent tags with sub-wavelength resolution. We cover the design of the microfluidic chip and simulation of the plasmonic resonator using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) software. The fabrication methods are presented, with testing procedures and preliminary results. This research is aimed at improving the resolution limits of the Direct Linear Analysis (DLA) technique developed by US Genomics [1]. In DLA, intercalating dyes which tag a specific 8 base-pair sequence are inserted in a DNA sample. This sample is pumped though a nano-fluidic channel, where it is stretched into a linear geometry and interrogated with light which excites the fluorescent tags. The resulting sequence of optical pulses produces a characteristic "fingerprint" of the sample which uniquely identifies any sample of DNA. Plasmonic confinement of light to a 100 nm wide metallic nano-stripe enables resolution of a higher tag density compared to free space optics. Prototype devices have been fabricated and are being tested with fluorophore solutions and tagged DNA. Preliminary results show evanescent coupling to the plasmonic resonator is occurring with 0.1 micron resolution, however light scattering limits the S/N of the detector. Two methods to reduce scattered light are presented: index matching and curved waveguides.

  14. Electro-optical study of nanoscale Al-Si-truncated conical photodetector with subwavelength aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelits, Matityahu; Mandelbaum, Yaakov; Chelly, Avraham; Karsenty, Avi

    2017-10-01

    A type of silicon photodiode has been designed and simulated to probe the optical near field and detect evanescent waves. These waves convey subwavelength resolution. This photodiode consists of a truncated conical shaped, silicon Schottky diode having a subwavelength aperture of 150 nm. Electrical and electro-optical simulations have been conducted. These results are promising toward the fabrication of a new generation of photodetector devices.

  15. Deep-subwavelength light routing in nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: an alternative to the hybrid guiding scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide is an extremely simple structure that can be naturally formed by directly dropping a dielectric cylinder onto a metallic substrate. However, despite the substantial emphasis devoted to its hybrid plasmonic counterparts, this waveguiding structure has been paid little attention to so far. Here in this paper, through comprehensive numerical analysis, we reveal that such a configuration can be leveraged to achieve deep-subwavelength field confinement with mode area more than one order of magnitude smaller than that of the conventional hybrid waveguide, while maintaining a moderate attenuation with propagation distance over tens of microns. Two-dimensional parameter mapping concerning physical dimension, shape and material of the nanowire as well as the refractive index of the cladding has disclosed the wide-range existence nature of this plasmonic mode and the feasibility to further balance its confinement and loss. (paper)

  16. Steel, hard metal and diamonds. The history of drilling blast holes in mining and tunneling; Stahl, Hartmetall und Diamanten. Zur Geschichte des Sprenglochbohrens im Berg- und Tunnelbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistkorn, E. [Inst. fuer Vortrieb und Gewinnung, DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning of the blasting technique in mining and tunneling during the 17th century required drilling holes to take the explosive. Following the use of hammer and wedge, drilling was done over a long period of time by hand with mallet and drillsteel. Continuously, during the 19th century the handwork was replaced by drilling machines. Technically, the evolution of drilling equipment is marked by electrohydraulic control and automatization with the assistance of microelectronics. Regarding the material, the introduction of hard metal and - in addition for rotary drilling - the development of synthetic diamond material are the main features. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Einfuehrung der Sprengtechnik im Bergbau und Tunnelbau im 17. Jahrhundert mussten verfahrensbedingt Bohrloecher zur Aufnahme des Sprengstoffes hergestellt werden. In Anlehnung an die Arbeit mit Schlaegel und Eisen erfolgte dies lange Zeit manuell mit dem Bohrfaeustel und Stahlbohrern. Die Handarbeit wurde waehrend der 2. Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts kontinuierlich durch Bohrmaschinen verdraengt. Maschinentechnisch ist die weitere Entwicklung durch elektrohydraulische Steuerungen und die Automatisierung der Bohrgeraete mit Hilfe der Mikroelektronik gekennzeichnet. Materialtechnisch stellen die Einfuehrung des Hartmetalls und beim drehenden Bohren zusaetzlich die Entwicklung synthetischer Diamantwerkstoffe die herausragenden Marksteine dar. (orig.)

  17. I. Hole-transporting dendrimers and their use in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and II. Novel layered catalysts containing bipyridinium and zero-valent metal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Shannon Carol

    A series of polyaromatic ether/ester dendrimers containing a hole transporting naphthylphenylbenzyl amine at the periphery and a variety of fluorescent dyes at the core has been studied in an effort to observe energy transfer in these species. The dyes incorporated in these dendrimers include 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (quinizarin), Coumarin 343, and a benzopentathiophene. These dendrimers have been incorporated into both single layer and heterostructure organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). In the case of first generation dendrimer OLEDs, excimer/exciplex formation was predominant. In third generation dendrimers, complete energy transfer from the periphery to the dye at the core was observed both in photoluminescence spectra and electroluminescence in OLEDs. Dendrimers containing different dye cores can be combined to achieve color mixing/tuning. In addition, layered catalysts were prepared via both covalent and electrostatic means to achieve the catalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen. Covalent catalysts were prepared by first growing layers of zirconium and a bipyridinium containing bisphosphonate onto silica particles. Palladium and/or platinum was ion-exchanged into the structure and reduced to the zero valent metal by hydrogen gas. A second set of catalysts was prepared by electrostatically depositing polycations/polyanions onto carboxylate or amine functionalized polystyrene microspheres. Anionic colloidal particles were adsorbed to the polycationic surface. An octacationic viologen oligomer was used in an attempt to increase the affinity of adsorption of the Pd particles to the surface of the microspheres. Catalytic studies of both types of catalysts are herein reported.

  18. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Bender, Timothy P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X){sub n}-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N′-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) or (X){sub n}-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m{sup 2} at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl{sub 2}-SiPc, Cl{sub 2}-GePc, and Cl{sub 2}-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m{sup 2} (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m{sup 2} (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m{sup 2} (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl{sub 2}-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F{sub 10}-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m{sup 2} (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  19. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X)n-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) or (X)n-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m2 at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl2-SiPc, Cl2-GePc, and Cl2-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m2 (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m2 (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m2 (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl2-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F10-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m2 (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  20. Studies on omnidirectional enhancement of giga-hertz radiation by sub-wavelength plasma modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanrong, KONG; Qiuyue, NIE; Shu, LIN; Zhibin, WANG; Bowen, LI; Shulei, ZHENG; Binhao, JIANG

    2018-01-01

    The technology of radio frequency (RF) radiation intensification for radio compact antennas based on modulation and enhancement effects of sub-wavelength plasma structures represents an innovative developing strategy. It exhibits important scientific significance and promising potential of broad applications in various areas of national strategic demands, such as electrical information network and microwave communication, detection and control technology. In this paper, laboratory experiments and corresponding analyses have been carried out to investigate the modulation and enhancement technology of sub-wavelength plasma structure on the RF electromagnetic radiation. An application focused sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification up to ∼7 dB higher than the free-space radiation is observed experimentally in giga-hertz (GHz) RF band. The effective radiation enhancement bandwidth covers from 0.85 to 1.17 GHz, while the enhanced electromagnetic signals transmitted by sub-wavelength plasma structures maintain good communication quality. Particularly, differing from the traditional RF electromagnetic radiation enhancement method characterized by focusing the radiation field of antenna in a specific direction, the sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification of the antenna radiation presents an omnidirectional enhancement, which is reported experimentally for the first time. Corresponding performance characteristics and enhancement mechanism analyses are also conducted in this paper. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and promising potential of sub-wavelength plasma modulation in application focused RF communication, and provided the scientific basis for further research and development of sub-wavelength plasma enhanced compact antennas with wide-range requests and good quality for communication.

  1. Anti-Hermitian photodetector facilitating efficient subwavelength photon sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Mutlu, Mehmet; Park, Joonsuk; Park, Woosung; Goodson, Kenneth E; Sinclair, Robert; Fan, Shanhui; Kik, Pieter G; Brongersma, Mark L

    2018-01-22

    The ability to split an incident light beam into separate wavelength bands is central to a diverse set of optical applications, including imaging, biosensing, communication, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics. Entirely new opportunities are currently emerging with the recently demonstrated possibility to spectrally split light at a subwavelength scale with optical antennas. Unfortunately, such small structures offer limited spectral control and are hard to exploit in optoelectronic devices. Here, we overcome both challenges and demonstrate how within a single-layer metafilm one can laterally sort photons of different wavelengths below the free-space diffraction limit and extract a useful photocurrent. This chipscale demonstration of anti-Hermitian coupling between resonant photodetector elements also facilitates near-unity photon-sorting efficiencies, near-unity absorption, and a narrow spectral response (∼ 30 nm) for the different wavelength channels. This work opens up entirely new design paradigms for image sensors and energy harvesting systems in which the active elements both sort and detect photons.

  2. Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Przemek J; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Delâge, André; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Hall, Trevor J

    2009-10-12

    We report on several new types of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) gradient index structures for efficient mode coupling in high index contrast slab waveguides. Using a SWG, an adiabatic transition is achieved at the interface between silicon-on-insulator waveguides of different geometries. The SWG transition region minimizes both fundamental mode mismatch loss and coupling to higher order modes. By creating the gradient effective index region in the direction of propagation, we demonstrate that efficient vertical mode transformation can be achieved between slab waveguides of different core thickness. The structures which we propose can be fabricated by a single etch step. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations we study the loss, polarization dependence and the higher order mode excitation for two types (triangular and triangular-transverse) of SWG transition regions between silicon-on-insulator slab waveguides of different core thicknesses. We demonstrate two solutions to reduce the polarization dependent loss of these structures. Finally, we propose an implementation of SWG structures to reduce loss and higher order mode excitation between a slab waveguide and a phase array of an array waveguide grating (AWG). Compared to a conventional AWG, the loss is reduced from -1.4 dB to < -0.2 dB at the slab-array interface.

  3. Remote sub-wavelength focusing of ultrasonically activated Lorentz current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Angad S.; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-04-01

    We propose the use of a combination of ultrasonic and magnetic fields in conductive media for the creation of RF electrical current via the Lorentz force, in order to achieve current generation with extreme sub-wavelength resolution at large depth. We demonstrate the modeling, generation, and measurement of Lorentz current in a conductive solution and show that this current can be localized at a distance of 13 cm from the ultrasonic source to a region about three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding wavelength of electromagnetic waves at the same operation frequency. Our results exhibit greater depth, tighter localization, and closer agreement with prediction than previous work on the measurement of Lorentz current in a solution of homogeneous conductivity. The proposed method of RF current excitation overcomes the trade-off between focusing and propagation that is fundamental in the use of RF electromagnetic excitation alone and has the potential to improve localization and depth of operation for RF current-based biomedical applications.

  4. Green's tensor calculations of plasmon resonances of single holes and hole pairs in thin gold films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegret, Joan; Kaell, Mikael; Johansson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present numerical calculations of the plasmon properties of single-hole and hole-pair structures in optically thin gold films obtained with the Green's tensor formalism for stratified media. The method can be used to obtain the optical properties of a given hole system, without problems associated with the truncation of the infinite metal film. The calculations are compared with previously published experimental data and an excellent agreement is found. In particular, the calculations are shown to reproduce the evolution of the hole plasmon resonance spectrum as a function of hole diameter, film thickness and hole separation.

  5. Brane holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher-dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that, at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string or brane, the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. When the test brane moves with a constant velocity V with respect to the bulk black object, it also has a brane hole, but its gravitational radius r e is greater than the size of the bulk black string or brane r 0 by the factor (1-V 2 ) -1 . We show that bulk ''photon'' emitted in the region between r 0 and r e can meet the test brane again at a point outside r e . From the point of view of observers on the test brane, the events of emission and capture of the bulk photon are connected by a spacelike curve in the induced geometry. This shows an example in which extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the interior of a lower-dimensional black object. Instead of the bulk black string or brane, one can also consider a bulk geometry without a horizon. We show that nevertheless the induced geometry on the moving test brane can include a brane hole. In such a case the extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the complete region of the brane-hole interior. We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra-dimensional channel for the information mining exists.

  6. X-ray M4,5 Resonant Raman Scattering from La metal with final 4p hole: Calculations with 4p-4d-4f configuration interaction in the final state and comparison with the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, M.; Braicovich, L.; Tagliaferri, A.; Dallera, C.; Giarda, K.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Brookes, N.B.; Borgatti, F.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the X-Ray Resonant Raman Scattering (RRS) in La in the whole M 4,5 region ending with a state with a 4p hole, along the sequence 3d 10 4f 0 →3d 9 4f 1 →3d 10 4p 5 4f 1 . The final state configuration mixes with that with two 4d holes i.e. 3d 10 4d 8 4f n+2 having almost the same energy. Thus RRS must be described by introducing final state Configuration Interaction (CI) between states with one 4p hole and with two 4d holes. This approach allows detailed experimental data on La-metal to be interpreted on the basis of a purely ionic approach. It is shown that the inclusion of CI is crucial and has very clear effects. The calculations with the Kramers-Heisenberg formula describe all measured spectral features appearing in the strict Raman regime i.e. dispersing with the incident photon energy. In the experiment also a nondispersive component is present when the excitation energy is greater than about 2 eV above the M 5 peak. The shape and position of this component is well accounted for by a model based on all possible partitions of the excitation energy between localised and extended states. However, the intensity of the nondispersive component is greater in the measurements, suggesting a rearrangement in the intermediate excited state. The comparison of ionic calculations with the metal measurements is legitimate, as shown by the comparison between the measurements on La-metal and on LaF 3 with M 5 excitation, giving the same spectrum within the experimental accuracy. Moreover, the experiment shows that the final lifetime broadening is much greater in the final states corresponding to lower outgoing photon energies than in the states corresponding to higher outgoing photon energies. (author)

  7. Direct writing of sub-wavelength ripples on silicon using femtosecond laser at high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Changxin; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Kaijun; Zhu, Min; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NSRs and DSRs are obtained on silicon surface. • With increasing direct writing speed, the NSRs suddenly changes and becomes the DSRs. • We develop a Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation. - Abstract: The near sub-wavelength and deep sub-wavelength ripples on monocrystalline silicon were formed in air by using linearly polarized and high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses (f = 76 MHz, λ = 800 nm, τ = 50 fs). The effects of laser pulse energy, direct writing speed and laser polarization on silicon surface morphology are studied. When the laser pulse energy is 2 nJ/pulse and the direct writing speed varies from 10 to 25 mm/s, the near sub-wavelength ripples (NSRs) with orientation perpendicular to the laser polarization are generated. While the direct writing speed reaches 30 mm/s, the direction of the obtained deep sub-wavelength ripples (DSRs) suddenly changes and becomes parallel to the laser polarization, rarely reported so far for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon. Meanwhile, we extend the Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation, and numerically calculate the efficacy factor for silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The revised Sipe–Drude interference theoretical results show good agreement with the periods and orientations of sub-wavelength ripples.

  8. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  9. Three-dimensional concentration of light in deeply sub-wavelength, laterally tapered gap-plasmon nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliabue, Giulia [Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Thomas J. Watson, Sr. Laboratories of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Poulikakos, Dimos; Eghlidi, Hadi, E-mail: eghlidim@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland)

    2016-05-30

    Gap-plasmons (GP) in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures have shown exceptional performance in guiding and concentrating light within deep subwavelength layers. Reported designs to date exploit tapered thicknesses of the insulating layer in order to confine and focus the GP mode. Here, we propose a mechanism for the three dimensional concentration of light in planar MIM structures which exploits exclusively the lateral tapering of the front metallic layer while keeping a constant thickness of the insulating layer. We demonstrate that an array of tapered planar GP nanocavities can efficiently concentrate light in all three dimensions. A semi-analytical, one-dimensional model provides understanding of the underlying physics and approximately predicts the behavior of the structure. Three-dimensional simulations are then used to precisely calculate the optical behavior. Cavities with effective volumes as small as 10{sup −5} λ{sup 3} are achieved in an ultrathin MIM configuration. Our design is inherently capable of efficiently coupling with free-space radiation. In addition, being composed of two electrically continuous layers separated by an ultrathin dielectric spacer, it could find interesting applications in the area of active metamaterials or plasmonic photocatalysis where both electrical access and light concentration are required.

  10. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-09

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  11. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  12. Modifying infrared scattering effects of single yeast cells with plasmonic metal mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marvin A.; Prakash, Suraj; Heer, Joseph M.; Corwin, Lloyd D.; Cilwa, Katherine E.; Coe, James V.

    2010-11-01

    The scattering effects in the infrared (IR) spectra of single, isolated bread yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on a ZnSe substrate and in metal microchannels have been probed by Fourier transform infrared imaging microspectroscopy. Absolute extinction [(3.4±0.6)×10-7 cm2 at 3178 cm-1], scattering, and absorption cross sections for a single yeast cell and a vibrational absorption spectrum have been determined by comparing it to the scattering properties of single, isolated, latex microspheres (polystyrene, 5.0 μm in diameter) on ZnSe, which are well modeled by the Mie scattering theory. Single yeast cells were then placed into the holes of the IR plasmonic mesh, i.e., metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes, yielding "scatter-free" IR absorption spectra, which have undistorted vibrational lineshapes and a rising generic IR absorption baseline. Absolute extinction, scattering, and absorption spectral profiles were determined for a single, ellipsoidal yeast cell to characterize the interplay of these effects.

  13. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  14. Subwavelength resolution Fourier ptychography with hemispherical digital condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; Zhang, Yan; Li, Maosen; Zhou, Meiling; Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli

    2018-02-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a promising computational imaging technique that overcomes the physical space-bandwidth product (SBP) limit of a conventional microscope by applying angular diversity illuminations. However, to date, the effective imaging numerical aperture (NA) achievable with a commercial LED board is still limited to the range of 0.3-0.7 with a 4×/0.1NA objective due to the constraint of planar geometry with weak illumination brightness and attenuated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus the highest achievable half-pitch resolution is usually constrained between 500-1000 nm, which cannot fulfill some needs of high-resolution biomedical imaging applications. Although it is possible to improve the resolution by using a higher magnification objective with larger NA instead of enlarging the illumination NA, the SBP is suppressed to some extent, making the FP technique less appealing, since the reduction of field-of-view (FOV) is much larger than the improvement of resolution in this FP platform. Herein, in this paper, we initially present a subwavelength resolution Fourier ptychography (SRFP) platform with a hemispherical digital condenser to provide high-angle programmable plane-wave illuminations of 0.95NA, attaining a 4×/0.1NA objective with the final effective imaging performance of 1.05NA at a half-pitch resolution of 244 nm with a wavelength of 465 nm across a wide FOV of 14.60 mm2 , corresponding to an SBP of 245 megapixels. Our work provides an essential step of FP towards high-NA imaging applications without scarfing the FOV, making it more practical and appealing.

  15. Deep sub-wavelength metrology for advanced defect classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walle, P.; Kramer, E.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Mulckhuyse, W.; Nijsten, L.; Bernal Arango, F. A.; de Jong, A.; van Zeijl, E.; Spruit, H. E. T.; van den Berg, J. H.; Nanda, G.; van Langen-Suurling, A. K.; Alkemade, P. F. A.; Pereira, S. F.; Maas, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particle defects are important contributors to yield loss in semi-conductor manufacturing. Particles need to be detected and characterized in order to determine and eliminate their root cause. We have conceived a process flow for advanced defect classification (ADC) that distinguishes three consecutive steps; detection, review and classification. For defect detection, TNO has developed the Rapid Nano (RN3) particle scanner, which illuminates the sample from nine azimuth angles. The RN3 is capable of detecting 42 nm Latex Sphere Equivalent (LSE) particles on XXX-flat Silicon wafers. For each sample, the lower detection limit (LDL) can be verified by an analysis of the speckle signal, which originates from the surface roughness of the substrate. In detection-mode (RN3.1), the signal from all illumination angles is added. In review-mode (RN3.9), the signals from all nine arms are recorded individually and analyzed in order to retrieve additional information on the shape and size of deep sub-wavelength defects. This paper presents experimental and modelling results on the extraction of shape information from the RN3.9 multi-azimuth signal such as aspect ratio, skewness, and orientation of test defects. Both modeling and experimental work confirm that the RN3.9 signal contains detailed defect shape information. After review by RN3.9, defects are coarsely classified, yielding a purified Defect-of-Interest (DoI) list for further analysis on slower metrology tools, such as SEM, AFM or HIM, that provide more detailed review data and further classification. Purifying the DoI list via optical metrology with RN3.9 will make inspection time on slower review tools more efficient.

  16. A numerical investigation of sub-wavelength resonances in polygonal metamaterial cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    The sub-wavelength resonances, known to exist in metamaterial radiators and scatterers of circular cylindrical shape, are investigated with the aim of determining if these resonances also exist for polygonal cylinders and, if so, how they are affected by the shape of the polygon. To this end, a set...... of polygonal cylinders excited by a nearby electric line current is analyzed numerically and it is shown, through detailed analysis of the near-field distribution and radiation resistance, that these polygonal cylinders do indeed support sub-wavelength resonances similar to those of the circular cylinders...

  17. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  18. High speed low power optical detection of sub-wavelength scatterer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S.; Bouwens, M.A.J.; Wei, L.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Walle, P. van der

    2015-01-01

    Optical detection of scatterers on a flat substrate, generally done using dark field microscopy technique, is challenging since it requires high power illumination to obtain sufficient SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) to be able to detect sub-wavelength particles. We developed a bright field technique,

  19. Ultradense, Deep Subwavelength Nanowire Array Photovoltaics As Engineered Optical Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Tham, Douglas; Heath, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A photovoltaic device comprised of an array of 20 nm wide, 32 nm pitch array of silicon nanowires is modeled as an optical material. The nanowire array (NWA) has characteristic device features that are deep in the subwavelength regime for light

  20. Terahertz imaging of sub-wavelength particles with Zenneck surface waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navarro-Cia, M.; Natrella, M.; Dominec, Filip; Delagnes, J.C.; Kužel, Petr; Mounaix, P.; Graham, C.; Renaud, C.C.; Seeds, A.J.; Mitrofanov, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 22 (2013), "221103-1"-"221103-5" ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz * near-field * Zenneck plasmon * sub-wavelength * imaging Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.515, year: 2013

  1. Effective medium approximation for deeply subwavelength all-dielectric multilayers: when does it break down?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    with different layers ordering and different but still deeply subwavelength thicknesses. Such big reflectance difference values resulted from the special geometrical configuration with an additional resonator layer underneath the multilayers employed for the enhancement of the effect. Our results are important...

  2. Reflectionless tunneling of infrared radiation through subwavelength slit in a waveguide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2010), s. 2766-2773 ISSN 0740-3224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : wave propagation * tunneling * subwavelength transport Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2010

  3. Omnidirectional luminescence enhancement of fluorescent SiC via pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Yakimova, Rositza

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, an approach of fabricating pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures (ARS) on fluorescent SiC by using self-assembled etch mask is demonstrated. By applying the pseudoperiodic (ARS), the average surface reflectance at 6° incidence over the spectral range of 390...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 56.7013 Section 56.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 57.7013 Section 57.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes...

  6. Amplitude-phase characteristics of electromagnetic fields diffracted by a hole in a thin film with realistic optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeyev, Illarion

    2009-03-01

    Characteristics of a quasi-spherical wave front of an electromagnetic field diffracted by a subwavelength hole in a thin film with real optical properties are studied. Related diffraction problem is solved in general by use of the scalar and vector Green's theorems and related Green's function of a boundary-value problem. Local phase deviations of a diffracted wave front from an ideal spherical front are calculated. Diffracted patterns are calculated for the coherent incident fields in case of holes array in a screen of perfect conductivity.

  7. Light Manipulation in Metallic Nanowire Networks with Functional Connectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Galinski, Henning

    2016-12-27

    Guided by ideas from complex systems, a new class of network metamaterials is introduced for light manipulation, which are based on the functional connectivity among heterogeneous subwavelength components arranged in complex networks. The model system is a nanonetwork formed by dealloying a metallic thin film. The connectivity of the network is deterministically controlled, enabling the formation of tunable absorbing states.

  8. Observation of topological edge states of acoustic metamaterials at subwavelength scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongqing; Jiao, Junrui; Xia, Baizhan; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Shengjie; Yu, Dejie

    2018-05-01

    Topological states are of key importance for acoustic wave systems owing to their unique transport properties. In this study, we develop a hexagonal array of hexagonal columns with Helmholtz resonators to obtain subwavelength Dirac cones. Rotation operations are performed to open the Dirac cones and obtain acoustic valley vortex states. In addition, we calculate the angular-dependent frequencies for the band edges at the K-point. Through a topological phase transition, the topological phase of pattern A can change into that of pattern B. The calculations for the bulk dispersion curves show that the acoustic metamaterials exhibit BA-type and AB-type topological edge states. Experimental results demonstrate that a sound wave can transmit well along the topological path. This study could reveal a simple approach to create acoustic topological edge states at the subwavelength scale.

  9. A tunable acoustic barrier based on periodic arrays of subwavelength slits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Rubio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The most usual method to reduce undesirable enviromental noise levels during its transmission is the use of acoustic barriers. A novel type of acoustic barrier based on sound transmission through subwavelength slits is presented. This system consists of two rows of periodic repetition of vertical rigid pickets separated by a slit of subwavelength width and with a misalignment between them. Here, both the experimental and the numerical analyses are presented. The acoustic barrier proposed can be easily built and is frequency tunable. The results demonstrated that the proposed barrier can be tuned to mitigate a band noise without excesive barrier thickness. The use of this system as an environmental acoustic barrier has certain advantages with regard to the ones currently used both from the constructive and the acoustical point of view.

  10. Evolutionary optimization of compact dielectric lens for farfield sub-wavelength imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    The resolution of conventional optical lenses is limited by diffraction. For decades researchers have made various attempts to beat the diffraction limit and realize subwavelength imaging. Here we present the approach to design modified solid immersion lenses that deliver the subwavelength...... information of objects into the far field, yielding magnified images. The lens is composed of an isotropic dielectric core and anisotropic or isotropic dielectric matching layers. It is designed by combining a transformation optics forward design with an inverse design scheme, where an evolutionary...... optimization procedure is applied to find the material parameters for the matching layers. Notably, the total radius of the lens is only 2.5 wavelengths and the resolution can reach lambda/6. Compared to previous approaches based on the simple discretized approximation of a coordinate transformation design...

  11. Subwavelength wave manipulation in a thin surface-wave bandgap crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Wang, Zhuoyuan; Zhang, Baile

    2018-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the unit cell of wire media metamaterials can be tailored locally to shape the flow of electromagnetic waves at deep-subwavelength scales [Nat. Phys.9, 55 (2013)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys2480]. However, such bulk structures have a thickness of at least the order of wavelength, thus hindering their applications in the on-chip compact plasmonic integrated circuits. Here, based upon a Sievenpiper "mushroom" array [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 2059 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010.1109/22.798001], which is compatible with standard printed circuit board technology, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the subwavelength manipulation of surface waves on a thin surface-wave bandgap crystal with a thickness much smaller than the wavelength (1/30th of the operating wavelength). Functional devices including a T-shaped splitter and sharp bend are constructed with good performance.

  12. A tunable acoustic barrier based on periodic arrays of subwavelength slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Constanza; Uris, Antonio; Candelas, Pilar; Belmar, Francisco; Gomez-Lozano, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    The most usual method to reduce undesirable enviromental noise levels during its transmission is the use of acoustic barriers. A novel type of acoustic barrier based on sound transmission through subwavelength slits is presented. This system consists of two rows of periodic repetition of vertical rigid pickets separated by a slit of subwavelength width and with a misalignment between them. Here, both the experimental and the numerical analyses are presented. The acoustic barrier proposed can be easily built and is frequency tunable. The results demonstrated that the proposed barrier can be tuned to mitigate a band noise without excesive barrier thickness. The use of this system as an environmental acoustic barrier has certain advantages with regard to the ones currently used both from the constructive and the acoustical point of view.

  13. Sub-wavelength surface gratings for light redirection in transparent substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate sub-wavelength grating couplers patterned on glass surfaces which are designed to convert incident free-space radiation into guided modes along the glass material. The devices are fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and the measured optical performance is compared to a simple mod...... panes and display applications with minimal influence on vision quality. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4738777]...

  14. Deep-Subwavelength Resolving and Manipulating of Hidden Chirality in Achiral Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shuai; Han, Tianyang; Jiang, Meiling; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu

    2018-04-24

    The chiral state of light plays a vital role in light-matter interactions and the consequent revolution of nanophotonic devices and advanced modern chiroptics. As the light-matter interaction goes into the nano- and quantum world, numerous chiroptical technologies and quantum devices require precise knowledge of chiral electromagnetic modes and chiral radiative local density of states (LDOS) distributions in detail, which directly determine the chiral light-matter interaction for applications such as chiral light detection and emission. With classical optical techniques failing to directly measure the chiral radiative LDOS, deep-subwavelength imaging and control of circular polarization (CP) light associated phenomena are introduced into the agenda. Here, we simultaneously reveal the hidden chiral electromagnetic mode and acquire its chiral radiative LDOS distribution of a single symmetric nanostructure at the deep-subwavelength scale by using CP-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy. The chirality of the symmetric nanostructure under normally incident light excitation, resulting from the interference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the V-shaped nanoantenna, is hidden in the near field with a giant chiral distribution (∼99%) at the arm-ends, which enables the circularly polarized CL emission from the radiative LDOS hot-spot and the following active helicity control at the deep-subwavelength scale. The proposed V-shaped nanostructure as a functional unit is further applied to the helicity-dependent binary encoding and the two-dimensional display applications. The proposed physical principle and experimental configuration can promote the future chiral characterization and manipulation at the deep-subwavelength scale and provide direct guidelines for the optimization of chiral light-matter interactions for future quantum studies.

  15. Design and analysis of all-dielectric subwavelength focusing flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we numerically designed and experimentally demonstrated a compact photonic structure for the subwavelength focusing of light using all-dielectric absorption-free and nonmagnetic scattering objects distributed in an air medium. In order to design the subwavelength focusing flat lens, an evolutionary algorithm is combined with the finite-difference time-domain method for determining the locations of cylindrical scatterers. During the multi-objective optimization process, a specific objective function is defined to reduce the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and diminish side lobe level (SLL) values of light at the focal point. The time-domain response of the optimized flat lens exhibits subwavelength light focusing with an FWHM value of 0.19λ and an SLL value of 0.23, where λ denotes the operating wavelength of light. Experimental analysis of the proposed flat lens is conducted in a microwave regime and findings exactly verify the numerical results with an FWHM of 0.192λ and an SLL value of 0.311 at the operating frequency of 5.42 GHz. Moreover, the designed flat lens provides a broadband subwavelength focusing effect with a 9% bandwidth covering frequency range of 5.10 GHz-5.58 GHz, where corresponding FWHM values remain under 0.21λ. Also, it is important to note that the designed flat lens structure performs a line focusing effect. Possible applications of the designed structure in telecom wavelengths are speculated upon for future perspectives. Namely, the designed structure can perform well in photonic integrated circuits for different fields of applications such as high efficiency light coupling, imaging and optical microscopy, with its compact size and ability for strong focusing.

  16. Subwavelength atom localization via amplitude and phase control of the absorption spectrum-II

    OpenAIRE

    Kapale, Kishore T.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01

    Interaction of the internal states of an atom with spatially dependent standing-wave cavity field can impart position information of the atom passing through it leading to subwavelength atom localization. We recently demonstrated a new regime of atom localization [Sahrai {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 72}, 013820 (2005)], namely sub-half-wavelength localization through phase control of electromagnetically induced transparency. This regime corresponds to extreme localization of atoms within a...

  17. Tunable plasmonic enhancement of light scattering and absorption in graphene-coated subwavelength wires

    OpenAIRE

    Riso, Máximo; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of subwavelength wires coated with a graphene monolayer illuminated by a linearly polarized plane waves is investigated. The results show that the scattering and extintion cross-sections of the coated wire can be dramatically enhanced when the incident radiation resonantly excites localized surface plasmons. The enhancements occur for p--polarized incident waves and for excitation frequencies that correspond to complex poles in the coefficients of the multipole ex...

  18. Direct transfer of subwavelength plasmonic nanostructures on bioactive silk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dianmin; Tao, Hu; Trevino, Jacob; Mondia, Jessica P; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Dal Negro, Luca

    2012-11-27

    By a reusable transfer fabrication technique, we demonstrate high-fidelity fabrication of metal nanoparticles, optical nanoantennas, and nanohole arrays directly on a functional silk biopolymer. The ability to reproducibly pattern silk biopolymers with arbitrarily complex plasmonic arrays is of importance for a variety of applications in optical biosensing, tissue engineering, cell biology, and the development of novel bio-optoelectronic medical devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: The mechanism of the drilling of holes in vertical metallic plates by cw CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, V. V.; Loboiko, A. I.; Antonova, G. F.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Sayapin, V. P.

    1999-02-01

    The possibility of making a hole in a vertical plate with the aid of laser radiation at a surface temperature not exceeding the boiling point is analysed neglecting the vapour pressure. The mechanism of the degradation of the liquid layer involving a reduction of its thickness, as a result of the redistribution of the molten mass owing to the operation of the force of gravity and of thermocapillary convection, is examined. The theoretical dependence of the critical size of the molten zone on the plate thickness is obtained and a comparison is made with experimental data.

  20. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavičius, Rimantas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Refractive index sensor based on DLC holographic sub-wavelength period grating. ► Spectroscopic analysis of polarized white light reflected from the grating. ► Control of critical wavelength shift and reflectivity changes. ► Testing of model liquid analyte materials. ► Evaluation of interaction between B. subtilis cells and lysozyme. - Abstract: In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiO x doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 °C, 50 °C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than Δn = 10 −4 .

  1. Subwavelength elastic joints connecting torsional waveguides to maximize the power transmission coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Seok; Lee, Il Kyu; Seung, Hong Min; Lee, Jun Kyu; Kim, Yoon Young

    2017-03-01

    Joints with slowly varying tapered shapes, such as linear or exponential profiles, are known to transmit incident wave power efficiently between two waveguides with dissimilar impedances. This statement is valid only when the considered joint length is longer than the wavelengths of the incident waves. When the joint length is shorter than the wavelengths, however, appropriate shapes of such subwavelength joints for efficient power transmission have not been explored much. In this work, considering one-dimensional torsional wave motion in a cylindrical elastic waveguide system, optimal shapes or radial profiles of a subwavelength joint maximizing the power transmission coefficient are designed by a gradient-based optimization formulation. The joint is divided into a number of thin disk elements using the transfer matrix approach and optimal radii of the disks are determined by iterative shape optimization processes for several single or bands of wavenumbers. Due to the subwavelength constraint, the optimized joint profiles were found to be considerably different from the slowly varying tapered shapes. Specifically, for bands of wavenumbers, peculiar gourd-like shapes were obtained as optimal shapes to maximize the power transmission coefficient. Numerical results from the proposed optimization formulation were also experimentally realized to verify the validity of the present designs.

  2. Molecular electrostatic potential and "atoms-in-molecules" analyses of the interplay between π-hole and lone pair···π/X-H···π/metal···π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Antonio; Seth, Saikat Kumar; Frontera, Antonio

    2018-04-05

    Using ab initio calculations, we analyze the interplay between π-hole interactions involving the nitro group of 1,4-dinitrobenzene and lone pair···π (lp···π), C-H···π or metal(M)···π noncovalent interactions. Moreover, we have also used 1,4-phenylenebis(phosphine dioxide) for comparison purposes. Interesting cooperativity effects are found when π-hole (F···N,P) and lp···π/C-H···π/M···π interactions coexist in the same supramolecular assembly. These effects are studied theoretically in terms of energetic and geometric features of the complexes, which are computed by ab initio methods (RI-MP2/def2-TZVP). A charge density analysis using the Bader's theory of "atoms in molecules" is carried out to characterize the interactions and to analyze their strengthening or weakening depending on the variation of charge density at critical points. The importance of electrostatic effects on the mutual influence of the interaction is studied by means of molecular electrostatic potential calculations. By taking advantage of these computational tools, the present study examines interplay of these interactions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Polarization-driven self-organization of silver nanoparticles in 1D and 2D subwavelength gratings for plasmonic photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, G.; Bakhti, S.; Liu, Z.; Reynaud, S.; Lefkir, Y.; Vocanson, F.; Destouches, N.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main challenges in plasmonics is to conceive large-scale, low-cost techniques suitable for the fabrication of metal nanoparticle patterns showing precise spatial organization. Here, we introduce a simple method based on continuous-wave laser illumination to induce the self-organization of silver nanoparticles within high-index thin films. We show that highly regular and homogeneous nanoparticle gratings can be produced on large areas using laser-controlled self-organization processes. This very versatile technique can provide 1D and 2D patterns at a subwavelength scale with tunable features. It does not need any stabilization or expensive devices, such as those required by optical or electron lithography, and is rapid to implement. Accurate in-plane and in-depth characterizations provide valuable information to explain the mechanisms that lead to pattern formation and especially how 2D self-organization can fall into place with successive laser scans. The regular and homogeneous 2D self-organization of metallic NPs with a single laser scan is also reported for the first time in this article. As the reported nanostructures are embedded in porous TiO2, we also theoretically explore the interesting potential of organization on the photocatalytic activity of Ag-NP-containing TiO2 porous films, which is one of the most promising materials for self-cleaning or remediation applications. Realistic electromagnetic simulations demonstrate that the periodic organization of silver nanoparticles can increase the light intensity within the film more than ten times that produced with randomly distributed nanoparticles, leading as expected to enhanced photocatalytic efficiency.

  4. Electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) from conjugated polymers for color and intensity modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvana, Thiruvelu; Kim, Byeonggwan; Yang, Xu; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2012-05-01

    Subwavelength gratings with electroactive polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-phenylene) (P(ProDOT-Ph)) controlled the color intensity for various visible colors of diffracted light in a single device. Under the illumination of a white light, at a fixed angle of incidence, the color intensity of the diffracted light was reversibly switched from the maximum value down to 15% (85% decrease) by applying -2 to 2 V due to electrochemical (EC) reaction. All spectral colors including red, green, and blue were generated by changing the angle of incidence, and the intensity of each color was modulated electrochemically at a single EC device. With electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) of P3HT, the maximum modulation of the color intensity was observed in the red-yellow quadrant in the CIE color plot, whereas for the ESWGs of P(ProDOT-Ph), the maximum modulation of the color intensity was observed in the yellow-green and green-blue quadrants. Both ESWGs showed a memory effect, keeping their color and intensity even after power was turned off for longer than 40 hours.Subwavelength gratings with electroactive polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-phenylene) (P(ProDOT-Ph)) controlled the color intensity for various visible colors of diffracted light in a single device. Under the illumination of a white light, at a fixed angle of incidence, the color intensity of the diffracted light was reversibly switched from the maximum value down to 15% (85% decrease) by applying -2 to 2 V due to electrochemical (EC) reaction. All spectral colors including red, green, and blue were generated by changing the angle of incidence, and the intensity of each color was modulated electrochemically at a single EC device. With electroactive subwavelength gratings (ESWGs) of P3HT, the maximum modulation of the color intensity was observed in the red-yellow quadrant in the CIE color plot, whereas for the

  5. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. Nano-focusing effect simulation of metal film with subwavelength pattern structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Yu, Yue; Li, Dapeng; Wu, Yong; Xin, Zhaowei; Xie, Xingwang; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    Surface plasmon polarizations (SPP) is a nano-scale photon control technology which can converge the spread of oscillation electron driven by incident light. In recent years, SPP has become an advanced research hotspot and has been studied more and more widely. The convergence effect of SPP has extensive applications, such as Schottky barrier detector in which the higher power hotspot, the lower signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, studies have been done about the interaction of light and matter. Different geometric shapes have been simulated, which were obtained by graphic clipping. Via comparing the power of the hot spot and the minimum location on the transmittance line, we concluded the relationship of the interaction and the structure. It's found that every absorption peak corresponds a mode of LSPP spread. Therefore, we can design figure to control the spread of the SPP, and achieve fantastic goal. Finally, a typical figure with high power hotspot was given.

  8. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  9. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  10. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulevicius, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Seperys, Rimas; Andrulevicius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meskinis, Sarunas; Tamulevicius, Sigitas [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavicius, Rimantas [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnologies of Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos St. 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refractive index sensor based on DLC holographic sub-wavelength period grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic analysis of polarized white light reflected from the grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Control of critical wavelength shift and reflectivity changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Testing of model liquid analyte materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of interaction between B. subtilis cells and lysozyme. - Abstract: In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiO{sub x} doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 Degree-Sign C, 50 Degree-Sign C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than {Delta}n = 10{sup -4}.

  11. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  12. Pseudo-Rhombus-Shaped Subwavelength Crossed Gratings of GaAs for Broadband Antireflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Zhang Jing; Song Guo-Feng; Chen Liang-Hui; Fan Zhong-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Holographic lithography coupled with the nonlinear response of photoresist to the exposure is adopted to fabricate porous photoresist (PR) mask. Conventional dot PR mask is also generated, and both patterns are transferred into a underlying GaAs substrate by the optimal dry etching process to obtain tapered subwavelength crossed gratings (SWCGs) to mimic the moth-eye structure. In comparison of the experiment and simulation, the closely-packed pseudo-rhombus-shaped GaAs SWCGs resulting from the porous mask outperforms the conical counterpart which comes from the dot mask, and achieves a reported lowest mean spectral reflectance of 1.1%. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. Experimental Demonstration of Effective Medium Approximation Breakdown in Deeply Subwavelength All-Dielectric Multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Takayama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximation in all-dielectric deeply subwavelength thickness (d∼λ/160-λ/30) multilayers, as recently predicted theoretically [H. H. Sheinfux et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243901 (2014)]. Multilayer...... stacks are composed of alternating alumina and titania layers fabricated using atomic layer deposition. For light incident on such multilayers at angles near the total internal reflection, we observe pronounced differences in the reflectance spectra for structures with 10- vs 20-nm thick layers, as well...

  14. Enhancing monochromatic multipole emission by a subwavelength enclosure of degenerate Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2017-07-06

    Sound emission is inefficient at low frequencies as limited by source size. This letter presents enhancing emission of monochromatic monopole and multipole sources by enclosing the source with a subwavelength circular enclosure filled of an anisotropic material of a low radial sound speed. The anisotropy is associated with an infinite tangential density along the azimuth. Numerical simulations show that emission gain is produced at frequencies surrounding degenerate Mie resonant frequencies of the enclosure, and meanwhile the radiation directivity pattern is well preserved. The degeneracy is theoretically analyzed. A realization of the material is suggested by using a space-coiling structure.

  15. Controlling material birefringence in sapphire via self-assembled, sub-wavelength defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Astha; Sharma, Geeta; Ranjan, Neeraj; Mittholiya, Kshitij; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Singh, B. P.; Mathur, Deepak; Vasa, Parinda

    2018-02-01

    Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. Generally, this is an intrinsic optical property of a material and cannot be altered. Here, we report a novel technique—direct laser writing—that enables us to control the natural, material birefringence of sapphire over a broad range of wavelengths. The broadband form birefringence originating from self-assembled, periodic array of sub-wavelength (˜ 50-200 nm) defects created by laser writing, can enhance, suppress or maintain the material birefringence of sapphire without affecting its transparency range in visible or its surface quality.

  16. Design of a Binary Grating with Subwavelength Features that Acts as a Polarizing Beam Splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, L; Borghi, R; Schettini, G; Frezza, F; Santarsiero, M

    2001-11-10

    A binary diffractive optical element, acting as a polarizing beam splitter, is proposed and analyzed. It behaves like a transmissive blazed grating, working on the first or the second diffraction order, depending on the polarization state of the incident radiation. The grating-phase profile required for both polarization states is obtained by means of suitably sized subwavelength groups etched in an isotropic dielectric medium. A rigorous electromagnetic analysis of the grating is presented, and numerical results concerning its performances in terms of diffraction efficiency as well as frequency and angular bandwidths are provided.

  17. Converting a Monopole Emission into a Dipole Using a Subwavelength Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-chun; Zhang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    High-efficiency emission of multipoles is unachievable by a source much smaller than the wavelength, preventing compact acoustic devices for generating directional sound beams. Here, we present a primary scheme towards solving this problem by numerically and experimentally enclosing a monopole sound source in a structure with a dimension of around 1 /10 sound wavelength to emit a dipolar field. The radiated sound power is found to be more than twice that of a bare dipole. Our study of efficient emission of directional low-frequency sound from a monopole source in a subwavelength space may have applications such as focused ultrasound for imaging, directional underwater sound beams, miniaturized sonar, etc.

  18. The Subwavelength Optical Field Confinement in a Multilayered Microsphere with Quasiperiodic Spherical Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy N. Burlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the frequency spectrum of nanoemitters placed in a microsphere with a quasiperiodic subwavelength spherical stack. The spectral evolution of transmittancy at the change of thickness of two-layer blocks, constructed following the Fibonacci sequence, is investigated. When the number of layers (Fibonacci order increases, the structure of spectrum acquires a fractal form. Our calculations show the radiation confinement and gigantic field enhancement, when the ratio of layers’ widths in twolayer blocks of the stack is close to the golden mean value.

  19. Visible Wavelength Color Filters Using Dielectric Subwavelength Gratings for Backside-Illuminated CMOS Image Sensor Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yu; Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Jeong-Yub; Kim, Jaekwan; Kim, Yongsung; Arbabi, Amir; Shin, Changgyun; Shi, Lilong; Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Lee, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Sungwoo; Faraon, Andrei

    2017-05-10

    We report transmissive color filters based on subwavelength dielectric gratings that can replace conventional dye-based color filters used in backside-illuminated CMOS image sensor (BSI CIS) technologies. The filters are patterned in an 80 nm-thick poly silicon film on a 115 nm-thick SiO 2 spacer layer. They are optimized for operating at the primary RGB colors, exhibit peak transmittance of 60-80%, and have an almost insensitive response over a ± 20° angular range. This technology enables shrinking of the pixel sizes down to near a micrometer.

  20. Subwavelength atom localization via amplitude and phase control of the absorption spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Sahrai, Mostafa; Tajalli, Habib; Kapale, Kishore T.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme for subwavelength localization of an atom conditioned upon the absorption of a weak probe field at a particular frequency. Manipulating atom-field interaction on a certain transition by applying drive fields on nearby coupled transitions leads to interesting effects in the absorption spectrum of the weak probe field. We exploit this fact and employ a four-level system with three driving fields and a weak probe field, where one of the drive fields is a standing-wave field o...

  1. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  2. Design and optimization of a high-efficiency array generator in the mid-IR with binary subwavelength grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Guillaume; Larat, Christian; Lallier, Eric; Lee-Bouhours, Mane-Si Laure; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Huignard, Jean-Pierre

    2011-02-10

    We have designed a high-efficiency array generator composed of subwavelength grooves etched in a GaAs substrate for operation at 4.5 μm. The method used combines rigorous coupled wave analysis with an optimization algorithm. The optimized beam splitter has both a high efficiency (∼96%) and a good intensity uniformity (∼0.2%). The fabrication error tolerances are numerically calculated, and it is shown that this subwavelength array generator could be fabricated with current electron beam writers and inductively coupled plasma etching. Finally, we studied the effect of a simple and realistic antireflection coating on the performance of the beam splitter.

  3. Spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain analysis of sub-wavelength imaging by the wire medium slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Belov, Pavel A.; Hao, Yang

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, a spatially dispersive finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to model wire media is developed and validated. Sub-wavelength imaging properties of the finite wire medium slabs are examined. It is demonstrated that the slab with its thickness equal to an integer number of half-wavelengths is capable of transporting images with sub-wavelength resolution from one interface of the slab to another. It is also shown that the operation of such transmission devices is not sensitive to their transverse dimensions, which can be made even comparable to the wavelength. In this case, the edge diffractions are negligible and do not disturb the image formation.

  4. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  5. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  6. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  7. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  8. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  9. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  10. Enhancement of the spontaneous emission in subwavelength quasi-two-dimensional waveguides and resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokman, Mikhail; Long, Zhongqu; AlMutairi, Sultan; Wang, Yongrui; Belkin, Mikhail; Belyanin, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    We consider a quantum-electrodynamic problem of the spontaneous emission from a two-dimensional (2D) emitter, such as a quantum well or a 2D semiconductor, placed in a quasi-2D waveguide or cavity with subwavelength confinement in one direction. We apply the Heisenberg-Langevin approach, which includes dissipation and fluctuations in the electron ensemble and in the electromagnetic field of a cavity on equal footing. The Langevin noise operators that we introduce do not depend on any particular model of dissipative reservoir and can be applied to any dissipation mechanism. Moreover, our approach is applicable to nonequilibrium electron systems, e.g., in the presence of pumping, beyond the applicability of the standard fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We derive analytic results for simple but practically important geometries: strip lines and rectangular cavities. Our results show that a significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission, by a factor of order 100 or higher, is possible for quantum wells and other 2D emitters in a subwavelength cavity.

  11. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavičius, Rimantas

    2012-09-01

    In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiOx doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 °C, 50 °C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than Δn = 10-4.

  12. Research on radiation characteristics of dipole antenna modulation by sub-wavelength inhomogeneous plasma layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanrong Kong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The modulation and enhancement effect of sub-wavelength plasma structures on compact antennas exhibits obvious technological advantage and considerable progress. In order to extend the availability of this technology under complex and actual environment with inhomogeneous plasma structure, a numerical simulation analysis based on finite element method has been conducted in this paper. The modulation function of the antenna radiation with sub-wavelength plasma layer located at different positions was investigated, and the inhomogeneous plasma layer with multiple electron density distribution profiles were employed to explore the effect of plasma density distribution on the antenna radiation. It has been revealed that the optical near-field modulated distance and reduced plasma distribution are more beneficial to enhance the radiation. On the basis above, an application-focused research about communication through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle has been carried out aiming at exploring an effective communication window. The relevant results devote guiding significance in the field of antenna radiation modulation and enhancement, as well as the development of communication technology in hypersonic flight.

  13. Subwavelength atom localization via amplitude and phase control of the absorption spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrai, Mostafa; Tajalli, Habib; Kapale, Kishore T.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme for subwavelength localization of an atom conditioned upon the absorption of a weak probe field at a particular frequency. Manipulating atom-field interaction on a certain transition by applying drive fields on nearby coupled transitions leads to interesting effects in the absorption spectrum of the weak probe field. We exploit this fact and employ a four-level system with three driving fields and a weak probe field, where one of the drive fields is a standing-wave field of a cavity. We show that the position of an atom along this standing wave is determined when probe-field absorption is measured. We find that absorption of the weak probe field at a certain frequency leads to subwavelength localization of the atom in either of the two half-wavelength regions of the cavity field by appropriate choice of the system parameters. We term this result as sub-half-wavelength localization to contrast it with the usual atom localization result of four peaks spread over one wavelength of the standing wave. We observe two localization peaks in either of the two half-wavelength regions along the cavity axis

  14. Research on radiation characteristics of dipole antenna modulation by sub-wavelength inhomogeneous plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Peiqi; Nie, Qiuyue; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Binhao

    2018-02-01

    The modulation and enhancement effect of sub-wavelength plasma structures on compact antennas exhibits obvious technological advantage and considerable progress. In order to extend the availability of this technology under complex and actual environment with inhomogeneous plasma structure, a numerical simulation analysis based on finite element method has been conducted in this paper. The modulation function of the antenna radiation with sub-wavelength plasma layer located at different positions was investigated, and the inhomogeneous plasma layer with multiple electron density distribution profiles were employed to explore the effect of plasma density distribution on the antenna radiation. It has been revealed that the optical near-field modulated distance and reduced plasma distribution are more beneficial to enhance the radiation. On the basis above, an application-focused research about communication through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle has been carried out aiming at exploring an effective communication window. The relevant results devote guiding significance in the field of antenna radiation modulation and enhancement, as well as the development of communication technology in hypersonic flight.

  15. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  16. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  17. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  18. Hole history, rotary hole DC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Purpose of hole DC-3 was to drill into the Umtanum basalt flow using both conventional rotary and core drilling methods. The borehole is to be utilized for geophysical logging, future hydrological testing, and the future installation of a borehole laboratory for long-term pressure, seismic, and moisture migration or accumulation recording in the Umtanum basalt flow in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Hole DC-3 is located east of the 200 West barricaded area on the Hanford reservation

  19. 80-nm-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL: Proposal and numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper; Sirbu, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    A widely-tunable single-mode long wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a MEMStunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) is suggested and numerically investigated. A very large 80- nm linear tuning range was obtained as the HCG was actuated by -220 to ...

  20. Dark-field hyperlens for high-contrast sub-wavelength imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    By now superresolution imaging using hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) structures – hyperlenses – has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The hyperlens operation relies on the fact that HMM allows propagation of waves with very large transverse wavevectors, which would be evanesc......By now superresolution imaging using hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) structures – hyperlenses – has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The hyperlens operation relies on the fact that HMM allows propagation of waves with very large transverse wavevectors, which would...... be evanescent in common isotropic media (thus giving rise to the diffraction limit). However, nearly all hyperlenses proposed so far have been suitable only for very strong scatterers – such as holes in a metal film. When weaker scatterers, dielectric objects for example, are imaged then incident light forms...... a very strong background, and weak scatterers are not visible due to a poor contrast. We propose a so-called dark-field hyperlens, which would be suitable for imaging of weakly scattering objects. By designing parameters of the HMM, we managed to obtain its response in such way that the hyperlens...

  1. The effect of particle-hole interaction on the XPS core-hole spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide; Sjoegren, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    How the effective particle-hole interaction energy, U, or the polarization effect on a secondary electron in a final two-hole one-particle (2h1p) state created by the Coster-Kronig (CK) transition can solely affect the density of the CK particle states and consequently the core-hole spectral function, is discussed. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-hole spectrum is predominantly governed by the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. At the latter energy, the real part of the initial core-hole self-energy becomes zero (no relaxation energy shift) and the imaginary part (the lifetime broadening) approximately maximizes. The zero-point energy relative to the double-ionization threshold energy is governed by the ratio of U relative to the bandwidth of the CK continuum. As an example, we study the 5p XPS spectra of atomic Ra (Z=88), Th (Z=90) and U (Z=92). The spectra are interpreted in terms of the change in the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. We explain why in general an ab initio atomic many-body calculation can provide an overall good description of solid-state spectra predominantly governed by the atomic-like localized core-hole dynamics. We explain this in terms of the change from free atom to metal in both U and the zero-point energy (self-energy)

  2. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  3. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  4. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  5. Andreev reflections and the quantum physics of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Sreenath K.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2017-12-01

    We establish an analogy between superconductor-metal interfaces and the quantum physics of a black hole, using the proximity effect. We show that the metal-superconductor interface can be thought of as an event horizon and Andreev reflection from the interface is analogous to the Hawking radiation in black holes. We describe quantum information transfer in Andreev reflection with a final state projection model similar to the Horowitz-Maldacena model for black hole evaporation. We also propose the Andreev reflection analogue of Hayden and Preskill's description of a black hole final state, where the black hole is described as an information mirror. The analogy between crossed Andreev reflections and Einstein-Rosen bridges is discussed: our proposal gives a precise mechanism for the apparent loss of quantum information in a black hole by the process of nonlocal Andreev reflection, transferring the quantum information through a wormhole and into another universe. Given these established connections, we conjecture that the final quantum state of a black hole is exactly the same as the ground state wave function of the superconductor/superfluid in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity; in particular, the infalling matter and the infalling Hawking quanta, described in the Horowitz-Maldacena model, forms a Cooper pairlike singlet state inside the black hole. A black hole evaporating and shrinking in size can be thought of as the analogue of Andreev reflection by a hole where the superconductor loses a Cooper pair. Our model does not suffer from the black hole information problem since Andreev reflection is unitary. We also relate the thermodynamic properties of a black hole to that of a superconductor, and propose an experiment which can demonstrate the negative specific heat feature of black holes in a growing/evaporating condensate.

  6. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  7. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  8. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Graphene coated subwavelength wires: a theoretical investigation of emission and radiation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Decay rate in a dielectric graphene coated wire. • Localized surface plasmons. • Excitation of multipolar resonances. - Abstract: This work analyzes the emission and radiation properties of a single optical emitter embedded in a graphene–coated subwavelength wire. We discuss the modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and the radiation efficiency as a function of the position and orientation of the dipole inside the wire. Our results show that these quantities can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the emission frequency coincides with one of the resonance frequencies of the graphene–coated wire. In particular, high–order plasmon resonances are excited when the emitter is moved from the wire center. Modifications resulting from varying the orientation of the dipole in the near field distribution and in the far field intensities are shown.

  11. Theoretical Investigation of Subwavelength Gratings and Vertical Cavity Lasers Employing Grating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza

    This thesis deals with theoretical investigations of a newly proposed grating structure, referred to as hybrid grating (HG) as well as vertical cavity lasers based on the grating reflectors. The HG consists of a near-subwavelength grating layer and an unpatterned high-refractive-index cap layer...... directions, which is analogous to electronic quantum wells in conduction or valence bands. Several interesting configurations of heterostructures have been investigated and their potential in fundamental physics study and applications are discussed. For numerical and theoretical studies, a three...... feasibility than the HCG-based ones. Furthermore, the concept of cavity dispersion in vertical cavities is introduced and its importance in the modal properties is numerically investigated. The dispersion curvature of a cavity mode is interpreted as the effective photon mass of the cavity mode. In a vertical...

  12. Exploiting evanescent-wave amplification for subwavelength low-contrast particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.; Wei, Xukang; El Gawhary, O.

    2017-07-01

    The classical problem of subwavelength particle detection on a flat surface is especially challenging when the refractive index of the particle is close to that of the substrate. We demonstrate a method to improve the detection ability several times for such a situation, by enhancing the "forbidden" evanescent waves in the substrate using the principle of super-resolution with evanescent waves amplification. The working mechanism of the system and experimental validation from a design with a thin single dielectric layer is presented. The resulting system is a simple but complete example of evanescent-wave generation, amplification, and the consequent modulation of the far field. This principle can have far reaching impact in the field of particle detection in several applications ranging from contamination control to interferometric scattering microscopy for biological samples.

  13. Ultradense, Deep Subwavelength Nanowire Array Photovoltaics As Engineered Optical Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Tham, Douglas

    2010-11-10

    A photovoltaic device comprised of an array of 20 nm wide, 32 nm pitch array of silicon nanowires is modeled as an optical material. The nanowire array (NWA) has characteristic device features that are deep in the subwavelength regime for light, which permits a number of simplifying approximations. Using photocurrent measurements as a probe of the absorptance, we show that the NWA optical properties can be accurately modeled with rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The densely structured NWAs behave as homogeneous birefringent materials into the ultraviolet with effective optical properties that are accurately modeled using the dielectric functions of bulk Si and SiO 2, coupled with a physical model for the NWA derived from ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Controllable synthesis of periodic flower-like ZnO nanostructures on Si subwavelength grating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-01-01

    We report on the periodic well-defined flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs) self-assembled through a simple hydrothermal method using silicon (Si) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures. The Si SWGs serve as building blocks for constructing a two-dimensional (2D) periodic architecture to integrate the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NSs. Various controlled morphologies of ZnO NSs with high crystallinity are obtained by changing the growth conditions. For 1D ZnO NSs integrated on periodic hexagonal Si SWG structures, the reflection characteristics are investigated in comparison with the conventional ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays. For a three-dimensional (3D) flower-like ZnO NS on Si SWGs, a relatively low total reflectance of < 8% at wavelengths of 300-1050 nm is achieved compared to the ZnO NRs on Si substrate.

  15. Self-assembly of subwavelength nanostructures with symmetry breaking in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiang-Dong; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Yue-Jiao; Dong, Jin-Chao; Panneerselvam, Rajapandiyan; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Li, Jian-Feng; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures with symmetry breaking can allow the coupling between dark and bright plasmon modes to induce strong Fano resonance. However, it is still a daunting challenge to prepare bottom-up self-assembled subwavelength asymmetric nanostructures with appropriate gaps between the nanostructures especially below 5 nm in solution. Here we present a viable self-assembly method to prepare symmetry-breaking nanostructures consisting of Ag nanocubes and Au nanospheres both with tunable size (90-250 nm for Au nanospheres; 100-160 nm for Ag nanocubes) and meanwhile control the nanogaps through ultrathin silica shells of 1-5 nm thickness. The Raman tag of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) assists the self-assembly process and endows the subwavelength asymmetric nanostructures with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. Moreover, thick silica shells (above 50 nm thickness) can be coated on the self-assembled nanostructures in situ to stabilize the whole nanostructures, paving the way toward bioapplications. Single particle scattering spectroscopy with a 360° polarization resolution is performed on individual Ag nanocube and Au nanosphere dimers, correlated with high-resolution TEM characterization. The asymmetric dimers exhibit strong configuration and polarization dependence Fano resonance properties. Overall, the solution-based self-assembly method reported here is opening up new opportunities to prepare diverse multicomponent nanomaterials with optimal performance.Nanostructures with symmetry breaking can allow the coupling between dark and bright plasmon modes to induce strong Fano resonance. However, it is still a daunting challenge to prepare bottom-up self-assembled subwavelength asymmetric nanostructures with appropriate gaps between the nanostructures especially below 5 nm in solution. Here we present a viable self-assembly method to prepare symmetry-breaking nanostructures consisting of Ag nanocubes and Au nanospheres both with tunable size (90-250 nm

  16. Achieving selective interrogation and sub-wavelength resolution in thin plates with embedded metamaterial acoustic lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semperlotti, F., E-mail: fsemperl@nd.edu; Zhu, H. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    In this study, we present an approach to ultrasonic beam-forming and high resolution identification of acoustic sources having critical implications for applications such as structural health monitoring. The proposed concept is based on the design of dynamically tailored structural elements via embedded acoustic metamaterial lenses. This approach provides a completely new alternative to conventional phased-array technology enabling the formation of steerable and collimated (or focused) ultrasonic beams by exploiting a single transducer. Numerical results show that the ultrasonic beam can be steered by simply tuning the frequency of the excitation. Also, the embedded lens can be designed to achieve sub-wavelength resolution to clustered acoustic sources, which is a typical scenario encountered in incipient structural damage.

  17. Dual-function beam splitter of a subwavelength fused-silica grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Zheng, Jiangjun; Cao, Hongchao; Lv, Peng

    2009-05-10

    We present the design and fabrication of a novel dual-function subwavelength fused-silica grating that can be used as a polarization-selective beam splitter. For TM polarization, the grating can be used as a two-port beam splitter at a wavelength of 1550 nm with a total diffraction efficiency of 98%. For TE polarization, the grating can function as a high-efficiency grating, and the diffraction efficiency of the -1st order is 95% under Littrow mounting. This dual-function grating design is based on a simplified modal method. By using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis, the optimum grating parameters can be determined. Holographic recording technology and inductively coupled plasma etching are used to manufacture the fused-silica grating. Experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical values.

  18. All-Si photodetector for telecommunication wavelength based on subwavelength grating structure and critical coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Taghizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient planar all-Si internal photoemission photodetector operating at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and numerically investigate its optical and electrical properties. The proposed polarization-sensitive detector is composed of an appropriately engineered subwavelength grating structure topped with a silicide layer of nanometers thickness as an absorbing material. It is shown that a nearly-perfect light absorption is possible for the thin silicide layer by its integration to the grating resonator. The absorption is shown to be maximized when the critical coupling condition is satisfied. Simulations show that the external quantum efficiency of the proposed photodetector with a 2-nm-thick PtSi absorbing layer at the center wavelength of 1550 nm can reach up to ∼60%.

  19. Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjia; Ashrafi, Reza; Adams, Rhys; Glesk, Ivan; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Chen, Lawrence R

    2016-07-26

    An optical true time delay line (OTTDL) is a basic photonic building block that enables many microwave photonic and optical processing operations. The conventional design for an integrated OTTDL that is based on spatial diversity uses a length-variable waveguide array to create the optical time delays, which can introduce complexities in the integrated circuit design. Here we report the first ever demonstration of an integrated index-variable OTTDL that exploits spatial diversity in an equal length waveguide array. The approach uses subwavelength grating waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), which enables the realization of OTTDLs having a simple geometry and that occupy a compact chip area. Moreover, compared to conventional wavelength-variable delay lines with a few THz operation bandwidth, our index-variable OTTDL has an extremely broad operation bandwidth practically exceeding several tens of THz, which supports operation for various input optical signals with broad ranges of central wavelength and bandwidth.

  20. Subwavelength Microstructures Fabrication by Self-Organization Processes in Photopolymerizable Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Denisyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes our research results on nanometers sizes subwavelength nanostructure fabrication by UV curing of special nanocomposite material with self-organization and light self-focusing effects. For this purpose, special UV curable nanocomposite material with a set of effects was developing: light self-focusing in the photopolymer with positive refractive index change, self-organization based on photo-induced nanoparticles transportation, and oxygen-based polymerization threshold. Both holographic and projection lithography writing methods application for microstructure making shows geometrical optical laws perturbation as result of nanocomposite self-organization effects with formation of nanometers-sized high-aspect-ratio structures. Obtained results will be useful for diffraction limit overcoming in projection lithography as well as for deep lithography technique.

  1. Theoretical and numerical investigations of sub-wavelength diffractive optical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    The work in this thesis concerns theoretical and numerical investigations of sub-wavelength diffractive optical structures, relying on advanced two-dimensional vectorial numerical models that have applications in Optics and Electromagnetics. Integrated Optics is predicted to play a major role......, such as in dielectric waveguides with gratings and periodic media or photonic crystal structures. The vectorial electromagnetic nature of light is therefore taken into account in the modeling of these diffractive structures. An electromagnetic vector-field model for optical components design based on the classical...... finite-difference time domain method and exact radiation integrals is implemented for the polarization where the electric field vector is perpendicular to the two dimentional plane of symmetry. The computational model solves the full vectorial time domain Maxwell equations with general sources...

  2. Enhanced Circular Dichroism of Gold Bilayered Slit Arrays Embedded with Rectangular Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yongkai; Luo, Lina; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2017-01-01

    Gold bilayered slit arrays with rectangular holes embedded into the metal surface are designed to enhance the circular dichroism (CD) effect of gold bilayered slit arrays. The rectangular holes in these arrays block electric currents and generate localized surface plasmons around these holes, thereby strengthening the CD effect. The CD enhancement factor depends strongly on the rotational angle and the structural parameters of the rectangular holes; this factor can be enhanced further by drilling two additional rectangular holes into the metal surfaces of the arrays. These results help facilitate the design of chiral structures to produce a strong CD effect and large electric fields.

  3. Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-07-30

    The coherent amplified spontaneous emission and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite have led to research interest in this material for use in photonic devices. In this paper, the authors present a focused-ion beam patterning strategy for methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite crystal for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications. The essential parameters for milling, such as the number of scan passes, dwell time, ion dose, ion current, ion incident angle, and gas-assisted etching, were experimentally evaluated to determine the sputtering yield of the perovskite. Based on our patterning conditions, the authors observed that the sputtering yield ranged from 0.0302 to 0.0719 μm3/pC for the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal. Using XeF2 for the focused-ion beam gas-assisted etching, the authors determined that the etching rate was reduced to between 0.40 and 0.97, depending on the ion dose, compared with milling with ions only. Using the optimized patterning parameters, the authors patterned binary and circular subwavelength grating reflectors on the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal using the focused-ion beam technique. Based on the computed grating structure with around 97% reflectivity, all of the grating dimensions (period, duty cycle, and grating thickness) were patterned with nanoscale precision (>±3 nm), high contrast, and excellent uniformity. Our results provide a platform for utilizing the focused-ion beam technique for fast prototyping of photonic nanostructures or nanodevices on organolead trihalide perovskite.

  4. Manipulation of plasmonic wavefront and light–matter interaction in metallic nanostructures: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia-Fang; Li Zhi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The control and application of surface plasmons (SPs), is introduced with particular emphasis on the manipulation of the plasmonic wavefront and light–matter interaction in metallic nanostructures. We introduce a direct design methodology called the surface wave holography method and show that it can be readily employed for wave-front shaping of near-infrared light through a subwavelength hole, it can also be used for designing holographic plasmonic lenses for SPs with complex wavefronts in the visible band. We also discuss several issues of light–matter interaction in plasmonic nanostructures. We show theoretically that amplification of SPs can be achieved in metal nanoparticles incorporated with gain media, leading to a giant reduction of surface plasmon resonance linewidth and enhancement of local electric field intensity. We present an all-analytical semiclassical theory to evaluate spaser performance in a plasmonic nanocavity incorporated with gain media described by the four-level atomic model. We experimentally demonstrate amplified spontaneous emission of SP polaritons and their amplification at the interface between a silver film and a polymer film doped with dye molecules. We discuss various aspects of microscopic and macroscopic manipulation of fluorescent radiation from gold nanorod hybrid structures in a system of either a single nanoparticle or an aligned group of nanoparticles. The findings reported and reviewed here could help others explore various approaches and schemes to manipulate plasmonic wavefront and light–matter interaction in metallic nanostructures for potential applications, such as optical displays, information integration, and energy harvesting technologies. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  5. Depth of array micro-holes with large aspect ratio in Al based cast alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meiling; Qu, Yingdong; Li, Rongde

    2018-03-01

    In order to study on the depth of array micro-holes on Al base cast alloy, micro-hole with depth of 50 mm and diameter of 0.55 mm are successfully prepared by using poor wetting between carbon and Al. Accordingly, the mold of depth is established, the results show that calculated depth of micro-hole is 53.22 mm, relative error is 6% compare with the actual measured depth, and the depth of hole exponentially increases with the increasing of distance between two micro-holes. Surface tension and metallostatic pressure of metal molten are mainly affecting factors for depth of micro-holes.

  6. Far field photoluminescence imaging of single AlGaN nanowire in the sub-wavelength scale using confinement of polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivadasan, A.K.; Dhara, Sandip [Nanomaterials and Sensors Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Sardar, Manas [Theoretical Studies Section, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-03-15

    Till now the nanoscale focusing and imaging in the sub-diffraction limit is achieved mainly with the help of plasmonic field enhancement by confining the light assisted with noble metal nanostructures. Using far field imaging technique, we have recorded polarized spectroscopic photoluminescence (PL) imaging of a single AlGaN nanowire (NW) of diameter ∝100 nm using confinement of polarized light. It is found that the PL from a single NW is influenced by the proximity to other NWs. The PL intensity is proportional to 1/(l x d), where l and d are the average NW length and separation between the NWs, respectively. We suggest that the proximity induced PL intensity enhancement can be understood by assuming the existence of reasonably long lived photons in the intervening space between the NWs. A nonzero non-equilibrium population of such photons may cause stimulated emission leading to the enhancement of PL emission with the intensity proportional to 1/(l x d). The enhancement of PL emission facilitates far field spectroscopic imaging of a single semiconductor AlGaN NW of sub-wavelength dimension. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  8. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  9. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  10. Quantum black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).

  11. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  12. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  13. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  14. Holographic duality: Stealing dimensions from metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaanen, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Although electrically charged black holes seem remote from superconductors and strange metals in the laboratory, they might be intimately related by the holographic dualities discovered in string theory.

  15. Nearly zero transmission through periodically modulated ultrathin metal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Peng, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Transmission of light through an optically ultrathin metal film with a thickness comparable to its skin depth is significant. We demonstrate experimentally nearly-zero transmission of light through a film periodically modulated by a one-dimensional array of subwavelength slits. The suppressed...... optical transmission is due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons and the zero-transmission phenomenon is strongly dependent on the polarization of the incident wave....

  16. Terahertz wave manipulation with metamaterials based on metal and graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    response. In this presentation we overview our results on theory, fabrication and characterization of metal and graphene based metamaterials for the THz range. We show that the multiple layers of structured graphene can form a hyperbolic dispersion medium lens able to resolve the subwavelength features [2......]. We analyze the limitations and demonstrate numerically and experimentally the chiral and nonchiral thin-film metamaterial based polarization converters [3–5] and graphene total absorbers for THz radiation [6]....

  17. Materials and mechanisms of hole superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We study the applicability of the model of hole superconductivity to materials. Both conventional and unconventional materials are considered. Many different classes of materials are discussed. The theory is found suitable to describe all of them. No other theory of superconductivity can describe all these classes of materials. The theory of hole superconductivity proposes that there is a single mechanism of superconductivity that applies to all superconducting materials. This paper discusses several material families where superconductivity occurs and how they can be understood within this theory. Materials discussed include the elements, transition metal alloys, high T{sub c} cuprates both hole-doped and electron-doped, MgB{sub 2}, iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides, doped semiconductors, and elements under high pressure.

  18. Entropy of quasiblack holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2010-01-01

    We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.

  19. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  20. Reflecting metallic metasurfaces designed with stochastic optimization as waveplates for manipulating light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberko, Jakub; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate that a stochastic optimization algorithm with a properly chosen, weighted fitness function, following a global variation of parameters upon each step can be used to effectively design reflective polarizing optical elements. Two sub-wavelength metallic metasurfaces, corresponding to broadband half- and quarter-waveplates are demonstrated with simple structure topology, a uniform metallic coating and with the design suited for the currently available microfabrication techniques, such as ion milling or 3D printing.

  1. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  2. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  3. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  4. Uniquely identifiable tamper-evident device using coupling between subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievre, Ange Marie Patricia

    Reliability and sensitive information protection are critical aspects of integrated circuits. A novel technique using near-field evanescent wave coupling from two subwavelength gratings (SWGs), with the input laser source delivered through an optical fiber is presented for tamper evidence of electronic components. The first grating of the pair of coupled subwavelength gratings (CSWGs) was milled directly on the output facet of the silica fiber using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The second grating was patterned using e-beam lithography and etched into a glass substrate using reactive ion etching (RIE). The slightest intrusion attempt would separate the CSWGs and eliminate near-field coupling between the gratings. Tampering, therefore, would become evident. Computer simulations guided the design for optimal operation of the security solution. The physical dimensions of the SWGs, i.e. period and thickness, were optimized, for a 650 nm illuminating wavelength. The optimal dimensions resulted in a 560 nm grating period for the first grating etched in the silica optical fiber and 420 nm for the second grating etched in borosilicate glass. The incident light beam had a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of at least 7 microm to allow discernible higher transmission orders, and a HWHM of 28 microm for minimum noise. The minimum number of individual grating lines present on the optical fiber facet was identified as 15 lines. Grating rotation due to the cylindrical geometry of the fiber resulted in a rotation of the far-field pattern, corresponding to the rotation angle of moire fringes. With the goal of later adding authentication to tamper evidence, the concept of CSWGs signature was also modeled by introducing random and planned variations in the glass grating. The fiber was placed on a stage supported by a nanomanipulator, which permitted three-dimensional displacement while maintaining the fiber tip normal to the surface of the glass substrate. A 650 nm diode laser was

  5. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  6. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  7. Do Hypervolumes Have Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Hypervolumes are used widely to conceptualize niches and trait distributions for both species and communities. Some hypervolumes are expected to be convex, with boundaries defined by only upper and lower limits (e.g., fundamental niches), while others are expected to be maximal, with boundaries defined by the limits of available space (e.g., potential niches). However, observed hypervolumes (e.g., realized niches) could also have holes, defined as unoccupied hyperspace representing deviations from these expectations that may indicate unconsidered ecological or evolutionary processes. Detecting holes in more than two dimensions has to date not been possible. I develop a mathematical approach, implemented in the hypervolume R package, to infer holes in large and high-dimensional data sets. As a demonstration analysis, I assess evidence for vacant niches in a Galapagos finch community on Isabela Island. These mathematical concepts and software tools for detecting holes provide approaches for addressing contemporary research questions across ecology and evolutionary biology.

  8. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  9. Black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics

  10. White dwarfs - black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexl, R.; Sexl, H.

    1975-01-01

    The physical arguments and problems of relativistic astrophysics are presented in a correct way, but without any higher mathematics. The book is addressed to teachers, experimental physicists, and others with a basic knowledge covering an introductory lecture in physics. The issues dealt with are: fundamentals of general relativity, classical tests of general relativity, curved space-time, stars and planets, pulsars, gravitational collapse and black holes, the search for black holes, gravitational waves, cosmology, cosmogony, and the early universe. (BJ/AK) [de

  11. Supersymmetric black holes

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The effective action of $N=2$, $d=4$ supergravity is shown to acquire no quantum corrections in background metrics admitting super-covariantly constant spinors. In particular, these metrics include the Robinson-Bertotti metric (product of two 2-dimensional spaces of constant curvature) with all 8 supersymmetries unbroken. Another example is a set of arbitrary number of extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. These black holes break 4 of 8 supersymmetries, leaving the other 4 unbroken. We ha...

  12. Black Holes and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...

  13. Energy of ground state of laminar electron-hole liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of a possible existence of metal electron-hole liquid in semiconductors is considered. The calculation has been carried out for the following model: two parallel planes are separated with the distance on one of the planes electrons moving, on the other holes doing. Transitions between the planes are forbidden. The density of particles for both planes is the same. The energy of the ground state and correlation functions for such electron-and hole system are calculated. It is shown that the state of a metal liquid is more advantageous against the exciton gas. For the mass ratio of electrons and holes, msub(e)/msub(h) → 0 a smooth rearrangement of the system into a state with ordered heavy particles is observed

  14. Methodology for balancing design and process tradeoffs for deep-subwavelength technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, Ioana; Wagner, Tina; Ryan, Deborah; Chidambarrao, Dureseti; Kumaraswamy, Anand; Bickford, Jeanne; Styduhar, Mark; Wang, Lee

    2011-04-01

    For process development of deep-subwavelength technologies, it has become accepted practice to use model-based simulation to predict systematic and parametric failures. Increasingly, these techniques are being used by designers to ensure layout manufacturability, as an alternative to, or complement to, restrictive design rules. The benefit of model-based simulation tools in the design environment is that manufacturability problems are addressed in a design-aware way by making appropriate trade-offs, e.g., between overall chip density and manufacturing cost and yield. The paper shows how library elements and the full ASIC design flow benefit from eliminating hot spots and improving design robustness early in the design cycle. It demonstrates a path to yield optimization and first time right designs implemented in leading edge technologies. The approach described herein identifies those areas in the design that could benefit from being fixed early, leading to design updates and avoiding later design churn by careful selection of design sensitivities. This paper shows how to achieve this goal by using simulation tools incorporating various models from sparse to rigorously physical, pattern detection and pattern matching, checking and validating failure thresholds.

  15. Sub-wavelength patterning of organic monolayers via nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Mareike; Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); CeNIDE-Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); NETZ-NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers has been demonstrated to be a facile means of rapid nanopatterning of organic monolayers down to the sub-100 nm range. In this study, we report on laser patterning of thiol-based organic monolayers with sub-wavelength resolution. Au-coated silicon substrates are functionalized with 1-hexadecanethiol. Irradiation with a focused beam of an Ar{sup +} laser operating at {lambda}=514 nm allows one to locally remove the monolayer. Subsequently, the patterns are transferred into the Au film via selective etching in a ferri-/ferrocyanide solution. Despite a 1/e{sup 2} spot diameter of about 2.8 {mu}m, structures with lateral dimensions down to 250 nm are fabricated. The underlying nonlinear dependence of the patterning process on laser intensity is traced back to the interplay between the laser-induced transient local temperature rise and the thermally activated desorption of the thiol molecules. A simple thermokinetic analysis of the data allows us to determine the effective kinetic parameters. These results complement our previous work on photothermal laser patterning of ultrathin organic coatings, such as silane-based organic monolayers, organo/silicon interfaces and supported membranes. A general introduction to nonlinear laser processing of organic monolayers is presented.

  16. Design of a Fused-Silica Subwavelength Polarizing Beam Splitter Grating Based on the Modal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua-Jun, Zhao; Dai-Rong, Yuan; Pei, Wang; Yong-Hua, Lu; Hai, Ming

    2010-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) design based on a fused-silica lamellar subwavelength transmission grating is demonstrated with the modal method, where TE- and TM-polarized waves are mainly diffracted in the −1 st and 0 th orders, respectively. The physical explanation of the grating diffraction is illustrated by the interference of the corresponding parts of the two propagating modes, which is very similar to a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. It is shown that diffraction efficients over 99% for a TM-polarized wave in the −1 st order and 90% for a TE-polarized wave in the 0 th order are obtained at the wavelength of 1.053 μm. The polarization transmission extinction ratios are better than 33 dB and 51 dB for the order 0 th and the −1 st order, respectively. The splitting properties of the PBS grating designed by the modal method are in good agreement with the results simulated by the rigorous coupled wave analysis method. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  17. Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, Donglei; Wang, Yaguo; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2016-05-05

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to the extra degree of freedom it offers in tuning a few important waveguide properties, such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguides have demonstrated impressive performances compared to conventional waveguides. However, the high loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonic circuits. In this work, we propose a geometrical tuning art, which realizes a pre-distorted refractive index profile in SWG waveguide bends. The pre-distorted refractive index profile can effectively reduce the mode mismatch and radiation loss simultaneously, thus significantly reduce the bend loss. This geometry tuning art has been numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated in present study. Through such tuning, the average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend is reduced drastically from 5.43 dB to 1.10 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed scheme will be utilized to enhance performance of a wide range of SWG waveguide based photonics devices.

  18. Low-loss curved subwavelength grating waveguide based on index engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Yaoguo; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to its freedom to tune a few important waveguide properties such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguide have demonstrated impressive performances compared to those of conventional waveguides. However, the large loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonics circuits. In this work, we propose that a predistorted refractive index distribution in SWG waveguide bends can effectively decrease the mode mismatch noise and radiation loss simultaneously, and thus significantly reduce the bend loss. Here, we achieved the pre-distortion refractive index distribution by using trapezoidal silicon pillars. This geometry tuning approach is numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated. The average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend can be reduced drastically from 5.58 dB to 1.37 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed approach can be readily adopted to enhance performance of an array of SWG waveguide-based photonics devices.

  19. Space-coiling fractal metamaterial with multi-bandgaps on subwavelength scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Xianfeng; Liu, Tingting; Xia, Baizhan; Luo, Zhen; Xie, Longxiang; Liu, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Acoustic metamaterials are remarkably different from conventional materials, as they can flexibly manipulate and control the propagation of sound waves. Unlike the locally resonant metamaterials introduced in earlier studies, we designed an ultraslow artificial structure with a sound speed much lower than that in air. In this paper, the space-coiling approach is proposed for achieving artificial metamaterial for extremely low-frequency airborne sound. In addition, the self-similar fractal technique is utilized for designing space-coiling Mie-resonance-based metamaterials (MRMMs) to obtain a band-dispersive spectrum. The band structures of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterials with different fractal levels are illustrated using the finite element method. The low-frequency bandgap can easily be formed, and multi-bandgap properties are observed in high-level fractals. Furthermore, the designed MRMMs with higher order fractal space coiling shows a good robustness against irregular arrangement. Besides, the proposed artificial structure was found to modify and control the radiation field arbitrarily. Thus, this work provides useful guidelines for the design of acoustic filtering devices and acoustic wavefront shaping applications on the subwavelength scale.

  20. Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-12-02

    We report the total and diffuse transmission enhancement of sapphires with the ultraviolet curable SU8 polymer surface structures consisting of conical subwavelength gratings (SWGs) at one- and both-side surfaces for different periods. The SWGs patterns on the silicon templates were transferred into the SU8 polymer film surface on sapphires by a simple and cost-effective soft lithography technique. For the fabricated samples, the surface morphologies, wetting behaviors, and optical characteristics were investigated. For theoretical optical analysis, a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method was used. At a period of 350 nm, the sample with SWGs on SU8 film/sapphire exhibited a hydrophobic surface and higher total transmittance compared to the bare sapphire over a wide wavelength of 450-1000 nm. As the period of SWGs was increased, the low total transmittance region of < 85% was shifted towards the longer wavelengths and became broader while the diffuse transmittance was increased (i.e., larger haze ratio). For the samples with SWGs at both-side surfaces, the total and diffuse transmittance spectra were further enhanced compared to the samples with SWGs at one-side surface. The theoretical optical calculation results showed a similar trend to the experimentally measured data.

  1. Approaching total absorption of graphene strips using a c-Si subwavelength periodic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Tian; Wang, Rui; Li, Junlang; Zhou, Jianyu; Wang, Yueke

    2018-04-01

    Approaching total absorption of graphene strips at near infrared using a crystalline-silicon (c-Si) subwavelength periodic membrane (SPM) is presented. The absorption in graphene strips in a c-Si SPM is enhanced by a resonant tip, which is resulted from the coupling between the guided mode and the radiation mode through symmetry breaking of the structure at near-normal incidence. The enhancement of the electric field intensity is increased 1939 times and the group velocity of light is decreased to 3.55 ×10-4c at resonance, and 99.3% absorption in graphene strips can be achieved by critical coupling at the incident angle of 2°. High absorption of the graphene strips can be maintained as the etching thickness, the strip width, and the period are altered. When this type of c-Si SPM with graphene strips is used in refractive index sensors, it shows excellent sensing properties due to its stable near-unity absorption.

  2. A self-adaptive metamaterial beam with digitally controlled resonators for subwavelength broadband flexural wave attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Chen, Yangyang; Hu, Gengkai; Huang, Guoliang

    2018-04-01

    Designing lightweight materials and/or structures for broadband low-frequency noise/vibration mitigation is an issue of fundamental importance both practically and theoretically. In this paper, by leveraging the concept of frequency-dependent effective stiffness control, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a self-adaptive metamaterial beam with digital circuit controlled mechanical resonators for strong and broadband flexural wave attenuation at subwavelength scales. The digital controllers that are capable of feedback control of piezoelectric shunts are integrated into mechanical resonators in the metamaterial, and the transfer function is semi-analytically determined to realize an effective bending stiffness in a quadratic function of the wave frequency for adaptive band gaps. The digital as well as analog control circuits as the backbone of the system are experimentally realized with the guarantee stability of the whole electromechanical system in whole frequency regions, which is the most challenging problem so far. Our experimental results are in good agreement with numerical predictions and demonstrate the strong wave attenuation in almost a three times larger frequency region over the bandwidth of a passive metamaterial. The proposed metamaterial could be applied in a range of applications in the design of elastic wave control devices.

  3. Micro-hole drilling and cutting using femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Micro-hole drilling and cutting in ambient air are presented by using a femtosecond fiber laser. At first, the micro-hole drilling was investigated in both transparent (glasses) and nontransparent (metals and tissues) materials. The shape and morphology of the holes were characterized and evaluated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Debris-free micro-holes with good roundness and no thermal damage were demonstrated with the aspect ratio of 8∶1. Micro-hole drilling in hard and soft tissues with no crack or collateral thermal damage is also demonstrated. Then, trench micromachining and cutting were studied for different materials and the effect of the laser parameters on the trench properties was investigated. Straight and clean trench edges were obtained with no thermal damage.

  4. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  5. σ-holes and π-holes: Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2018-04-05

    σ-Holes and π-holes are regions of molecules with electronic densities lower than their surroundings. There are often positive electrostatic potentials associated with them. Through these potentials, the molecule can interact attractively with negative sites, such as lone pairs, π electrons, and anions. Such noncovalent interactions, "σ-hole bonding" and "π-hole bonding," are increasingly recognized as being important in a number of different areas. In this article, we discuss and compare the natures and characteristics of σ-holes and π-holes, and factors that influence the strengths and locations of the resulting electrostatic potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optics of multiple ultrasharp grooves in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjølstrup, Enok Johannes Haahr; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    . When the multiple-groove array is illuminated by a plane wave the out-of-plane scattering is found to be extraordinarily large compared with the expected maximum from a geometric-optics estimate even for array widths of many wavelengths. The out-of-plane scattering is even higher per groove compared......The optics of multiple ultrasharp sub-wavelength grooves in metal is studied theoretically. Focus is on the transition from a single groove, where the scattering cross section is significant and can exceed the groove width, to infinitely many grooves in a periodic array with very low reflectance...

  7. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  8. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  9. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  10. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  11. Anyon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Abchouyeh, Maryam; Mirza, Behrouz; Karimi Takrami, Moein; Younesizadeh, Younes

    2018-05-01

    We propose a correspondence between an Anyon Van der Waals fluid and a (2 + 1) dimensional AdS black hole. Anyons are particles with intermediate statistics that interpolates between a Fermi-Dirac statistics and a Bose-Einstein one. A parameter α (0 quasi Fermi-Dirac statistics for α >αc, but a quasi Bose-Einstein statistics for α quasi Bose-Einstein statistics. For α >αc and a range of values of the cosmological constant, there is, however, no event horizon so there is no black hole solution. Thus, for these values of cosmological constants, the AdS Anyon Van der Waals black holes have only quasi Bose-Einstein statistics.

  12. Black holes go supersonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In modern physics, the unification of gravity and quantum mechanics remains a mystery. Gravity rules the macroscopic world of planets, stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics governs the micro-cosmos of atoms, light quanta and elementary particles. However, cosmologists believe that these two disparate worlds may meet at the edges of black holes. Now Luis Garay, James Anglin, Ignacio Cirac and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck in Austria have proposed a realistic way to make an artificial 'sonic' black hole in a tabletop experiment (L J Garay et al. 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4643). In the February issue of Physics World, Ulf Leonhardt of the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, UK, explains how the simulated black holes work. (U.K.)

  13. Black Hole Paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals. (paper)

  14. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  15. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  16. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  17. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  18. Moulting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that ...

  19. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  20. Dancing with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, S. J.

    2008-05-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  1. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  2. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  3. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  4. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  5. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  6. Sub-wavelength grating structure on the planar waveguide (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-Song, Zhu; Sheng-Hui, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Making progress in recent years, with the technology of the grating, the grating period can be reduced to shrink the size of the light coupler on a waveguide. The working wavelength of the light coupler can be in the range from the near-infrared to visible. In this study , we used E-gun evaporation system with ion-beam-assisted deposition system to fabricate bottom cladding (SiO2), guiding layer (Ta2O5) and Distributed Bragg Reflector(DBR) of the waveguide on the silicon substrate. Electron-beam lithography is used to make sub-wavelength gratings and reflector grating on the planar waveguide which is a coupling device on the guiding layer. The best fabrication parameters were analyzed to deposit the film. The exposure and development times also influenced to fabricate the grating quality. The purpose is to reduce the device size and enhance coupling efficiency which maintain normal incidence of the light . We designed and developed the device using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. The grating period, depth, fill factor, film thickness, Distributed Bragg Reflector(DBR) numbers and reflector grating period have been discussed to enhance coupling efficiency and maintained normal incidence of the light. According to the simulation results, when the wavelength is 1300 nm, the coupling grating period is 720 nm and the Ta2O5 film is 460 nm with 360 nm of reflector grating period and 2 layers of Distributed Bragg Reflector, which had the optimum coupling efficiency and normal incidence angle. In the measurement, We successfully measured the TE wave coupling efficiency of the photoresist grating coupling device.

  7. Collision effects on propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in a sub-wavelength plasma slab of partially ionized dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, LI; Zhibin, WANG; Qiuyue, NIE; Xiaogang, WANG; Fanrong, KONG; Zhenyu, WANG

    2018-01-01

    Intensive collisions between electrons and neutral particles in partially ionized plasmas generated in atmospheric/sub-atmospheric pressure environments can sufficiently affect the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves, particularly in the sub-wavelength regime. To investigate the collisional effect in such plasmas, we introduce a simplified plasma slab model with a thickness on the order of the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattering matrix method (SMM) is applied to solve the wave equation in the plasma slab with significant nonuniformity. Results show that the collisions between the electrons and the neutral particles, as well as the incident angle and the plasma thickness, can disturb the transmission and reduce reflection significantly.

  8. SPP-assisted sub-wavelength reflection-type THz imaging with THz time-domain spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senfeng; Wu, Yanghui; Wu, Wen; Gu, Wenhua

    2017-08-01

    THz imaging has become a hot research topic in recent years, thanks to its merits of non-contact, strong penetration, immunity to hostile environments, and nondestructive detection. However, its spatial resolution is limited by the relatively long wavelength, so the location and measurement precision can only reach the level of the imaging wavelength, which has become a severe limitation of THz imaging. A simple way using surface plasmonic polartons (SPPs) to improve the location and measurement precision of THz by one order of magnitude was proposed in this manuscript, which can realize subwavelength THz imaging.

  9. Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, Benjamin; Schmitt, Klemens M.; Neu, Jens; Wollrab, Viktoria; Beigang, Rene; Rahm, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We present a metamaterial-based terahertz (THz) sensor for thickness measurements of subwavelength-thin materials and refractometry of liquids and liquid mixtures. The sensor operates in reflection geometry and exploits the frequency shift of a sharp Fano resonance minimum in the presence of dielectric materials. We obtained a minimum thickness resolution of 12.5 nm (1/16 000 times the wavelength of the THz radiation) and a refractive index sensitivity of 0.43 THz per refractive index unit. We support the experimental results by an analytical model that describes the dependence of the resonance frequency on the sample material thickness and the refractive index.

  10. Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, Benjamin; Schmitt, Klemens M.; Neu, Jens [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Wollrab, Viktoria; Beigang, Rene; Rahm, Marco [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-28

    We present a metamaterial-based terahertz (THz) sensor for thickness measurements of subwavelength-thin materials and refractometry of liquids and liquid mixtures. The sensor operates in reflection geometry and exploits the frequency shift of a sharp Fano resonance minimum in the presence of dielectric materials. We obtained a minimum thickness resolution of 12.5 nm (1/16 000 times the wavelength of the THz radiation) and a refractive index sensitivity of 0.43 THz per refractive index unit. We support the experimental results by an analytical model that describes the dependence of the resonance frequency on the sample material thickness and the refractive index.

  11. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  12. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  13. Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haofei; Wang, Changtao; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang; Dong, Xiaochun; Gao, Hongtao

    2005-09-05

    A novel method is proposed to manipulate beam by modulating light phase through a metallic film with arrayed nano-slits, which have constant depth but variant widths. The slits transport electro-magnetic energy in the form of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in nanometric waveguides and provide desired phase retardations of beam manipulating with variant phase propagation constant. Numerical simulation of an illustrative lens design example is performed through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and shows agreement with theory analysis result. In addition, extraordinary optical transmission of SPPs through sub-wavelength metallic slits is observed in the simulation and helps to improve elements' energy using factor.

  14. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    1995-01-01

    1. Qualitative introduction to black holes : classical, quantum2. Model black holes and model collapse process: The Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom metrics, The Oppenheimer-Volkov collapse scenario3. Mode mixing4. From mode mixing to radiance.

  15. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    These lectures give a pedagogical review of dilaton gravity, Hawking radiation, the black hole information problem, and black hole pair creation. (Lectures presented at the 1994 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology)

  16. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  17. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  18. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our...... simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index...

  19. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  20. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)

  2. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    prominences, have a significantly higher rate of occurrence in the vicinity of coronal .... coronal holes due to the birth of new holes or the growth of existing holes. .... Statistics of newly formed coronal hole areas (NFOCHA) associated with ...

  3. From binary black hole simulation to triple black hole simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Shan; Cao Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang; Yu, Jui-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Black hole systems are among the most promising sources for a gravitational wave detection project. Now, China is planning to construct a space-based laser interferometric detector as a follow-on mission of LISA in the near future. Aiming to provide some theoretical support to this detection project on the numerical relativity side, we focus on black hole systems simulation in this work. Considering the globular galaxy, multiple black hole systems also likely to exist in our universe and play a role as a source for the gravitational wave detector we are considering. We will give a progress report in this paper on our black hole system simulation. More specifically, we will present triple black hole simulation together with binary black hole simulation. On triple black hole simulations, one novel perturbational method is proposed.

  4. Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    billion times as much as the Sun. So far, around 20 stellar-mass black holes have been found. [2] In astronomy, heavy chemical elements, or "metals", are any chemical elements heavier than helium. [3] Predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity, gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of space and time. Significant gravitational waves are generated whenever there are extreme variations of strong gravitational fields with time, such as during the merger of two black holes. The detection of gravitational waves, never directly observed to date, is one of the major challenges for the next few decades. [4] The LIGO and Virgo experiments have the goal of detecting gravitational waves using sensitive interferometers in Italy and the United States. More information This research was presented in a letter to appear in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (NGC 300 X-1 is a Wolf-Rayet/Black Hole binary, P.A. Crowther et al.). The team is composed of Paul Crowther and Vik Dhillon (University of Sheffield, UK), Robin Barnard and Simon Clark (The Open University, UK), and Stefania Carpano and Andy Pollock (ESAC, Madrid, Spain). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible

  5. Role of shape of hole in transmission and negative refractive index of sandwiched metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Min; Ye Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Transmission and negative refractive index (NRI) of metal—dielectric—metal (MDM) sandwiched metamaterial perforated with four kinds of shapes of holes are numerically studied. Results indicate that positions of all transmission peaks of these kinds of holes are sensitive to the shape of the hole. Under the same conditions, the circular hole can obtain the maximum NRI and the rectangular hole can obtain the maximum frequency bandwidth of NRI. Moreover, the figure of merit (FOM) of the circular hole is the maximum too. As a result, we can obtain a higher NRI and FOM metamaterial by drilling circular hole arrays on MDM metamaterial. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Injection and waveguiding properties in SU8 nanotubes for sub-wavelength regime propagation and nanophotonics integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeon, John; Huby, Nolwenn; Duvail, Jean-Luc; Bêche, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    We report photonic concepts related to injection and sub-wavelength propagation in nanotubes, an unusual but promising geometry for highly integrated photonic devices. Theoretical simulation by the finite domain time-dependent (FDTD) method was first used to determine the features of the direct light injection and sub-wavelength propagation regime within nanotubes. Then, the injection into nanotubes of SU8, a photoresist used for integrated photonics, was successfully achieved by using polymer microlensed fibers with a sub-micronic radius of curvature, as theoretically expected from FDTD simulations. The propagation losses in a single SU8 nanotube were determined by using a comprehensive set-up and a protocol for optical characterization. The attenuation coefficient has been evaluated at 1.25 dB mm-1 by a cut-back method transposed to such nanostructures. The mechanisms responsible for losses in nanotubes were identified with FDTD theoretical support. Both injection and cut-back methods developed here are compatible with any sub-micronic structures. This work on SU8 nanotubes suggests broader perspectives for future nanophotonics.

  7. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  8. Resonant photon tunneling via surface plasmon polaritons through one-dimensional metal-dielectric metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yanagi, Hisao; Wood, Ben; Pendry, John B.; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    We report resonant photon tunneling (RPT) through onedimensional metamaterials consisting of alternating layers of metal and dielectric. RPT via a surface plasmon polariton state permits evanescent light waves with large wavenumbers to be conveyed through the metamaterial. This is the mechanism for sub-wavelength imaging recently demonstrated with a super-lens. Furthermore, we find that the RPT peak is shifted from the reflectance dip with increasing the number of Al layers, indicating that t...

  9. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  10. Phenomenological modeling of nonlinear holograms based on metallic geometric metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Li, Xin; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-10-31

    Benefiting from efficient local phase and amplitude control at the subwavelength scale, metasurfaces offer a new platform for computer generated holography with high spatial resolution. Three-dimensional and high efficient holograms have been realized by metasurfaces constituted by subwavelength meta-atoms with spatially varying geometries or orientations. Metasurfaces have been recently extended to the nonlinear optical regime to generate holographic images in harmonic generation waves. Thus far, there has been no vector field simulation of nonlinear metasurface holograms because of the tremendous computational challenge in numerically calculating the collective nonlinear responses of the large number of different subwavelength meta-atoms in a hologram. Here, we propose a general phenomenological method to model nonlinear metasurface holograms based on the assumption that every meta-atom could be described by a localized nonlinear polarizability tensor. Applied to geometric nonlinear metasurfaces, we numerically model the holographic images formed by the second-harmonic waves of different spins. We show that, in contrast to the metasurface holograms operating in the linear optical regime, the wavelength of incident fundamental light should be slightly detuned from the fundamental resonant wavelength to optimize the efficiency and quality of nonlinear holographic images. The proposed modeling provides a general method to simulate nonlinear optical devices based on metallic metasurfaces.

  11. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  12. Bumpy black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martinez, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary non-monotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black ring...

  13. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  14. Black holes and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.

  15. Statistical black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole

  16. Reconstructing the massive black hole cosmic history through gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, Alberto; Gair, Jonathan; Berti, Emanuele; Volonteri, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The massive black holes we observe in galaxies today are the natural end-product of a complex evolutionary path, in which black holes seeded in proto-galaxies at high redshift grow through cosmic history via a sequence of mergers and accretion episodes. Electromagnetic observations probe a small subset of the population of massive black holes (namely, those that are active or those that are very close to us), but planned space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can measure the parameters of 'electromagnetically invisible' massive black holes out to high redshift. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian framework to analyze the information that can be gathered from a set of such measurements. Our goal is to connect a set of massive black hole binary merger observations to the underlying model of massive black hole formation. In other words, given a set of observed massive black hole coalescences, we assess what information can be extracted about the underlying massive black hole population model. For concreteness we consider ten specific models of massive black hole formation, chosen to probe four important (and largely unconstrained) aspects of the input physics used in structure formation simulations: seed formation, metallicity ''feedback'', accretion efficiency and accretion geometry. For the first time we allow for the possibility of 'model mixing', by drawing the observed population from some combination of the 'pure' models that have been simulated. A Bayesian analysis allows us to recover a posterior probability distribution for the ''mixing parameters'' that characterize the fractions of each model represented in the observed distribution. Our work shows that LISA has enormous potential to probe the underlying physics of structure formation.

  17. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  18. Subwavelength engineered fiber-to-chip silicon-on-sapphire interconnects for mid-infrared applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Han, Zhaohong; Le Roux, Xavier; Lin, Hongtao; Singh, Vivek; Lin, Pao Tai; Tan, Dawn; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vivien, Laurent; Wada, Kazumi; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2016-05-01

    The mid-Infrared wavelength range (2-20 µm), so-called fingerprint region, contains the very sharp vibrational and rotational resonances of many chemical and biological substances. Thereby, on-chip absorption-spectrometry-based sensors operating in the mid-Infrared (mid-IR) have the potential to perform high-precision, label-free, real-time detection of multiple target molecules within a single sensor, which makes them an ideal technology for the implementation of lab-on-a-chip devices. Benefiting from the great development realized in the telecom field, silicon photonics is poised to deliver ultra-compact efficient and cost-effective devices fabricated at mass scale. In addition, Si is transparent up to 8 µm wavelength, making it an ideal material for the implementation of high-performance mid-IR photonic circuits. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, typically used in telecom applications, relies on silicon dioxide as bottom insulator. Unfortunately, silicon dioxide absorbs light beyond 3.6 µm, limiting the usability range of the SOI platform for the mid-IR. Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) has been proposed as an alternative solution that extends the operability region up to 6 µm (sapphire absorption), while providing a high-index contrast. In this context, surface grating couplers have been proved as an efficient means of injecting and extracting light from mid-IR SOS circuits that obviate the need of cleaving sapphire. However, grating couplers typically have a reduced bandwidth, compared with facet coupling solutions such as inverse or sub-wavelength tapers. This feature limits their feasibility for absorption spectroscopy applications that may require monitoring wide wavelength ranges. Interestingly, sub-wavelength engineering can be used to substantially improve grating coupler bandwidth, as demonstrated in devices operating at telecom wavelengths. Here, we report on the development of fiber-to-chip interconnects to ZrF4 optical fibers and integrated SOS

  19. Black hole feedback on the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Myoungwon; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-09-01

    We study how the first galaxies were assembled under feedback from the accretion onto a central black hole (BH) that is left behind by the first generation of metal-free stars through selfconsistent, cosmological simulations. X-ray radiation fromthe accretion of gas onto BH remnants of Population III (Pop III) stars, or from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), again involving Pop III stars, influences the mode of second generation star formation. We track the evolution of the black hole accretion rate and the associated X-ray feedback startingwith the death of the Pop III progenitor star inside a minihalo and following the subsequent evolution of the black hole as the minihalo grows to become an atomically cooling galaxy. We find that X-ray photoionization heating from a stellar-mass BH is able to quench further star formation in the host halo at all times before the halo enters the atomic cooling phase. X-ray radiation from a HMXB, assuming a luminosity close to the Eddington value, exerts an even stronger, and more diverse, feedback on star formation. It photoheats the gas inside the host halo, but also promotes the formation of molecular hydrogen and cooling of gas in the intergalactic medium and in nearby minihalos, leading to a net increase in the number of stars formed at early times. Our simulations further show that the radiative feedback from the first BHs may strongly suppress early BH growth, thus constraining models for the formation of supermassive BHs.

  20. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  1. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  2. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  3. Quantum effects in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered

  4. Particle creation by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de

  5. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  6. Subwavelength optics with hyperbolic metamaterials: Waveguides, scattering, and optical topological transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials possess unique optical properties owing to their hyperbolic dispersion. As hyperbolic metamaterials can be constructed just from periodic multilayers of metals and dielectrics, they have attracted considerable attention in the nanophotonics community. Here, we review some...

  7. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed; Sheikh, Arif D.; Guan, Xinwei; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    . In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment

  8. What is a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    A definition of a black hole is proposed that should work in any stably causal space-time. This is that a black hole is the closure of the smaller future set that contains all noncosmological trapped surfaces and which has its boundary generated by null geodesic segments that are boundary generators of TIPs. This allows precise definitions of cosmic censorship and white holes. (UK)

  9. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  10. Acceleration of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  11. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  12. Black holes and the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse

  13. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  14. Black-hole driven winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the physical mechanism that allows a large scale magnetic field to torque a rapidly rotating, supermassive black hole. This is an interesting problem as it has been conjectured that rapidly rotating black holes are the central engines that power the observed extragalactic double radio sources. Axisymmetric solutions of the curved space-time version of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum do not torque black holes. Plasma must be introduced for the hole to mechanically couple to the field. The dynamical aspect of rotating black holes that couples the magnetic field to the hole is the following. A rotating black hole forces the external geometry of space-time to rotate (the dragging of inertial frames). Inside of the stationary limit surface, the ergosphere, all physical particle trajectories must appear to rotate in the same direction as the black hole as viewed by the stationary observers at asymptotic infinity. In the text, it is demonstrated how plasma that is created on field lines that thread both the ergosphere and the equatorial plane will be pulled by gravity toward the equator. By the aforementioned properties of the ergosphere, the disk must rotate. Consequently, the disk acts like a unipolar generator. It drives a global current system that supports the toroidal magnetic field in an outgoing, magnetically dominated wind. This wind carries energy (mainly in the form of Poynting flux) and angular momentum towards infinity. The spin down of the black hole is the ultimate source of this energy and angular momentum flux

  15. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  17. Reflection color filters of the three primary colors with wide viewing angles using common-thickness silicon subwavelength gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Toshikazu; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2014-10-20

    We fabricated reflection color filters of the three primary colors with wide viewing angles using silicon two-dimensional subwavelength gratings on the same quartz substrate. The grating periods were 400, 340, and 300 nm for red, green, and blue filters, respectively. All of the color filters had the same grating thickness of 100 nm, which enabled simple fabrication of a color filter array. Reflected colors from the red, green, and blue filters under s-polarized white-light irradiation appeared in the respective colors at incident angles from 0 to 50°. By rigorous coupled-wave analysis, the dimensions of each color filter were designed, and the calculated reflectivity was compared with the measured reflectivity.

  18. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Christopher L., E-mail: holloway@boulder.nist.gov; Gordon, Joshua A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  19. General mechanism involved in subwavelength optics of conducting microstructures: charge-oscillation-induced light emission and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian-Rong; Peng, Ru-Wen

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between light and conducting microstructures or nanostructures can result in a variety of novel phenomena, but their underlying mechanisms have not been completely understood. From calculations of surface charge density waves on conducting gratings and by comparing them with classical surface plasmons, we revealed a general yet concrete picture regarding the coupling of light to free electron oscillation on structured conducting surfaces that can lead to oscillating subwavelength charge patterns (i.e., structured surface plasmons). New wavelets emitted from these light sources then destructively interfere to form evanescent waves. This principle, usually combined with other mechanisms, is mainly a geometrical effect that can be universally involved in light scattering from all periodic and non-periodic structures containing free electrons. This picture may provide clear guidelines for developing conductor-based nano-optical devices.

  20. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.

    2013-01-01

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  1. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  2. 30 CFR 57.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 57.7055 Section 57.7055... Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives, blasting agents...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 56.7055 Section 56.7055... Piercing Drilling § 56.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives blasting agents, or detonators. [56 FR 46508, Sept...

  4. Geometrical scaling and modal decay rates in periodic arrays of deeply subwavelength Terahertz resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isić, Goran; Gajić, Radoš

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that due to the high conductivity of noble metals at terahertz frequencies and scalability of macroscopic Maxwell equations, a geometrical downscaling of a terahertz resonator results in the linear upscaling of its resonance frequency. However, the scaling laws of modal decay rates, important for the resonator excitation efficiency, are much less known. Here, we investigate the extent to which the scale-invariance of decay rates is violated due to the finite conductivity of the metal. We find that the resonance quality factor or the excitation efficiency may be substantially affected by scaling and show that this happens as a result of the scale-dependence of the metal absorption rate, while the radiative decay and the dielectric cavity absorption rates are approximately scale-invariant. In particular, we find that by downscaling overcoupled resonators, their excitation efficiency increases, while the opposite happens with undercoupled resonators

  5. Near-field imaging of interacting nano objects with metal and metamaterial superlenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkarainen, T; Setälä, T; Friberg, A T

    2012-01-01

    Employing rigorous electromagnetic theory we investigate optical the near-field imaging of two interacting dipole-like objects with metal and slightly lossy metamaterial nanoslab superlenses. Our analysis indicates that the dipole emission is suppressed by near-field interactions when the objects are close to the lens or each other. This strongly influences the image quality, in particular with objects of small size and high polarizability. The interference from two nearby objects also affects the resolution and subwavelength definition can only be obtained for objects with dipole moments predominantly orthogonal to the slab. Such an optimal imaging condition is achieved with excitation by total internal reflection. With simulations we show that in these circumstances, subwavelength resolutions of about λ/5 for silver superlens and λ/10 for metamaterial slab are reached. (paper)

  6. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  7. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    CERN Multimedia

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  8. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  9. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  10. Black holes and everyday physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Black holes have piqued much curiosity. But thus far they have been important only in ''remote'' subjects like astrophysics and quantum gravity. It is shown that the situation can be improved. By a judicious application of black hole physics, one can obtain new results in ''everyday physics''. For example, black holes yield a quantum universal upper bound on the entropy-to-energy ratio for ordinary thermodynamical systems which was unknown earlier. It can be checked, albeit with much labor, by ordinary statistical methods. Black holes set a limitation on the number of species of elementary particles-quarks, leptons, neutrinos - which may exist. And black holes lead to a fundamental limitation on the rate at which information can be transferred for given message energy by any communication system. (author)

  11. The search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torn, K.

    1976-01-01

    Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications

  12. Black hole final state conspiracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of 'conspiracies' between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required 'conspiracies' if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy

  13. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  14. Compressibility of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).

  15. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D., E-mail: dclausen@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Mailcode 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  16. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH (M ZAMS ). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH (M ZAMS ) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH (M ZAMS ) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH (M ZAMS ) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment

  17. The Black Hole Formation Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  18. Liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, I.I.; Filonov, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.I.; Artemiev, L.N.; Rakhimov, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled reactor is described comprising two rotatable plugs, one of them, having at least one hole, being arranged internally of the other, a recharging mechanism with a guide tube adapted to be moved through the hole of the first plug by means of a drive, and a device for detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements, the recharging mechanism tube serving as a sampler

  19. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  20. Development of Highly Ordered Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays for Sub-Wavelength Optical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    properties of nanowires" J. Appl. Phys 98, 094306 (2005) 9. Harry E. Ruda and Alexander Shik, "Polarization-sensitive optical properties of metallic and...34Biexcitons in parabolic quantum dots", Phys. Rev. B. 73, 125321 (2006). 11. M. Blumin, H.E. Ruda, I. Savelyev , A Shik and H. Wang, "Self-assembled InAs

  1. When Supermassive Black Holes Wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    Are supermassive black holes found only at the centers of galaxies? Definitely not, according to a new study in fact, galaxies like the Milky Way may harbor several such monsters wandering through their midst.Collecting Black Holes Through MergersIts generally believed that galaxies are built up hierarchically, growing in size through repeated mergers over time. Each galaxy in a major merger likely hosts a supermassive black hole a black hole of millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun at its center. When a pair of galaxies merges, their supermassive black holes will often sink to the center of the merger via a process known as dynamical friction. There the supermassive black holes themselves will eventually merge in a burst of gravitational waves.Spatial distribution and velocities of wandering supermassive black holes in three of the authors simulated galaxies, shown in edge-on (left) and face-on (right) views of the galaxy disks. Click for a closer look. [Tremmel et al. 2018]But if a galaxy the size of the Milky Way was built through a history of many major galactic mergers, are we sure that all its accumulated supermassive black holes eventually merged at the galactic center? A new study suggests that some of these giants might have escaped such a fate and they now wander unseen on wide orbits through their galaxies.Black Holes in an Evolving UniverseLed by Michael Tremmel (Yale Center for Astronomy Astrophysics), a team of scientists has used data from a large-scale cosmological simulation, Romulus25, to explore the possibility of wandering supermassive black holes. The Romulus simulations are uniquely suited to track the formation and subsequent orbital motion of supermassive black holes as galactic halos are built up through mergers over the history of the universe.From these simulations, Tremmel and collaborators find an end total of 316 supermassive black holes residing within the bounds of 26 Milky-Way-mass halos. Of these, roughly a third are

  2. Black holes and quantum processes in them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them

  3. Black hole decay as geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes

  4. Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip; Ameri, Ali; Culley, Dennis; Raghu, Surya; Shyam, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and Square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the non-diffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing rations of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ration of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS.

  5. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-01-01

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  6. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  7. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  8. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  9. Thermodynamic theory of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The thermodynamic theory underlying black hole processes is developed in detail and applied to model systems. It is found that Kerr-Newman black holes undergo a phase transition at a = 0.68M or Q = 0.86M, where the heat capacity has an infinite discontinuity. Above the transition values the specific heat is positive, permitting isothermal equilibrium with a surrounding heat bath. Simple processes and stability criteria for various black hole situations are investigated. The limits for entropically favoured black hole formation are found. The Nernst conditions for the third law of thermodynamics are not satisfied fully for black holes. There is no obvious thermodynamic reason why a black hole may not be cooled down below absolute zero and converted into a naked singularity. Quantum energy-momentum tensor calculations for uncharged black holes are extended to the Reissner-Nordstrom case, and found to be fully consistent with the thermodynamic picture for Q < M. For Q < M the model predicts that 'naked' collapse also produces radiation, with such intensity that the collapsing matter is entirely evaporated away before a naked singularity can form.

  10. 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissbühler, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.geissbuehler@epfl.ch; Werner, Jérémie; Martin de Nicolas, Silvia; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Tomasi, Andrea; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Barraud, Loris; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain [CSEM PV-Center, Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Ballif, Christophe [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); CSEM PV-Center, Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-08-24

    Substituting the doped amorphous silicon films at the front of silicon heterojunction solar cells with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides can mitigate parasitic light absorption losses. This was recently proven by replacing p-type amorphous silicon with molybdenum oxide films. In this article, we evidence that annealing above 130 °C—often needed for the curing of printed metal contacts—detrimentally impacts hole collection of such devices. We circumvent this issue by using electrodeposited copper front metallization and demonstrate a silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, featuring a fill factor value higher than 80% and certified energy conversion efficiency of 22.5%.

  11. Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1992-01-01

    Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.

  12. Black holes and Higgs stability

    CERN Document Server

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-09-20

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  13. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  14. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  15. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  16. Tunnelling from Goedel black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons

  17. Quantum mechanics of black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2012-08-03

    The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.

  18. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  19. Characterization of complementary patterned metallic membranes produced simultaneously by a dual fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qingzhen; Zeng, Yong; Wang, Xiande; Zhao, Yanhui; Wang, Bei; Chiang, I.-Kao; Werner, Douglas H.; Crespi, Vincent; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-11-01

    An efficient technique is developed to fabricate optically thin metallic films with subwavelength patterns and their complements simultaneously. By comparing the spectra of the complementary films, we show that Babinet's principle nearly holds for these structures in the optical domain. Rigorous full-wave simulations are employed to verify the experimental observations. It is further demonstrated that a discrete-dipole approximation can qualitatively describe the spectral dependence of the metallic membranes on the geometry of the constituent particles as well as the illuminating polarization.

  20. Black hole meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.

  1. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  2. Hydrogen incorporation in high hole density GaN:Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvanut, M. E.; Uprety, Y.; Dashdorj, J.; Moseley, M.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2011-03-01

    We investigate hydrogen passivation in heavily doped p-type GaN using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Samples include both conventionally grown GaN (1019 cm-3 Mg, 1017 cm-3 holes) and films grown by metal modulation epitaxy (MME), which yielded higher Mg (1- 4 x 1020 cm-3) and hole (1- 40 x 1018 cm-3) densities than found in conventionally grown GaN. The Mg acceptor signal is monitored throughout 30 minute annealing steps in N2 :H2 (92%:7%)) and subsequently pure N2 . N2 :H2 heat treatments of the lower hole density films begin to reduce the Mg EPR intensity at 750 o C, but quench the signal in high hole density films at 600 o C. Revival of the signal by subsequent N2 annealing occurs at 800 o C for the low hole density material and 600 o C in MME GaN. The present work highlights chemical differences between heavily Mg doped and lower doped films; however, it is unclear whether the difference is due to changes in hydrogen-Mg complex formation or hydrogen diffusion. The work at UAB is supported by the NSF.

  3. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  4. Axion-dilation black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this talk some essential features of stringy black holes are described. The author considers charged U(1) and U(1) x U(1) four-dimensional axion-dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperature and the entropy of all solutions are shown to be simple functions of the squares of supercharges, defining the positivity bounds. Spherically symmetric and multi black hole solutions are presented. The extreme solutions with zero entropy (holons) represent a ground state of the theory and are characterized by elementary dilaton, axion, electric, and magnetic charges. The attractive gravitational and axion-dilaton force is balanced by the repulsive electromagnetic force. The author discusses the possibility of splitting of nearly extreme black holes. 11 refs

  5. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  6. Black holes by analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1997-01-01

    In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.

  7. Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-11-01

    We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.

  8. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  9. Black holes from extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  10. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M 2 greater than or equal to Q 2 + P 2 , where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M 2 = a 2 + Q 2 + P 2 ) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  11. Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.

  12. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  13. Casimir Repulsion between Metallic Objects in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Michael; McCauley, Alexander P.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Reid, M. T. Homer; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    We give an example of a geometry in which two metallic objects in vacuum experience a repulsive Casimir force. The geometry consists of an elongated metal particle centered above a metal plate with a hole. We prove that this geometry has a repulsive regime using a symmetry argument and confirm it with numerical calculations for both perfect and realistic metals. The system does not support stable levitation, as the particle is unstable to displacements away from the symmetry axis.

  14. Black holes in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, M.

    2005-01-01

    While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)

  15. Stationary black holes as holographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2007-11-21

    Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.

  16. Atomic structure in black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2006-01-01

    We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)

  17. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  18. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  19. The formation of stellar black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel, Félix

    2017-08-01

    It is believed that stellar black holes (BHs) can be formed in two different ways: Either a massive star collapses directly into a BH without a supernova (SN) explosion, or an explosion occurs in a proto-neutron star, but the energy is too low to completely unbind the stellar envelope, and a large fraction of it falls back onto the short-lived neutron star (NS), leading to the delayed formation of a BH. Theoretical models set progenitor masses for BH formation by implosion, namely, by complete or almost complete collapse, but observational evidences have been elusive. Here are reviewed the observational insights on BHs formed by implosion without large natal kicks from: (1) the kinematics in three dimensions of space of five Galactic BH X-ray binaries (BH-XRBs), (2) the diversity of optical and infrared observations of massive stars that collapse in the dark, with no luminous SN explosions, possibly leading to the formation of BHs, and (3) the sources of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by mergers of stellar BHs so far detected with LIGO. Multiple indications of BH formation without ejection of a significant amount of matter and with no natal kicks obtained from these different areas of observational astrophysics, and the recent observational confirmation of the expected dependence of BH formation on metallicity and redshift, are qualitatively consistent with the high merger rates of binary black holes (BBHs) inferred from the first detections with LIGO.

  20. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Prato (Italy); Istituto Universitario di Ricerca ' ' Santa Rita' ' , Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), Hyderabad (India)

    2013-12-15

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)

  1. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.

  2. Desorption by Femtosecond Laser Pulses : An Electron-Hole Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    D. M., NEWNS; T. F., HEINZ; J. A., MISEWICH; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center

    1992-01-01

    Desorption of molecules from metal surfaces induced by femtosecond visible laser pulses has been reported. Since the lattice temperature rise is insufficient to explain desorption, an electronic mechanism is clearly responsible. It is shown that a theory based on direct coupling between the center-of-mass degree of freedom of the adsorbate and the electron-hole excitations of the substrate provides a satisfactory explanation of the various experimental findings.

  3. Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ren

    2006-01-01

    In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.

  4. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a 40-inch...

  5. Formation and Coalescence of Electron Solitary Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeki, K.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Electron solitary holes were observed in a magnetized collisionless plasma. These holes were identified as Bernstein-Green-Kruskal equilibria, thus being purely kinetic phenomena. The electron hole does not damp even though its velocity is close to the electron thermal velocity. Two holes attract...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with hand-held drills. (b) Men shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or...

  7. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  8. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-xian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and investigate a type of hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove. A high-permittivity nanowire was placed in the metal channel covered with a dielectric film of lower permittivity. Deeper sub-wavelength confinement and much longer propagation distance were achieved in comparison with conventional channel plasmonic waveguides. The overall performance was improved as compared with the conventional hybrid plasmonic structure based on a flat metal surface. Finite element analysis showed that both the mode propagation and field profile can be adjusted by changing the nanowire radius and film thickness. Some benefits, such as a reduced scattering loss caused by the surface roughness, are also expected owing to the unique mode profile. The proposed approach has potential for application in high-level photonic integration.

  9. Experimental demonstration of subwavelength domino plasmon devices for compact high-frequency circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y G; Lan, L; Zhong, S M; Ong, C K

    2011-10-24

    In optical frequency, surface plasmons of metal provide us a prominent way to build compact photonic devices or circuits with non-diffraction limit. It is attributed by their extraordinary electromagnetic confining effect. But in the counterpart of lower frequencies, plasmonics behavior of metal is screened by eddy current induced in a certain skin depth. To amend this, spoof plasmons engineered by artificial structures have been introduced to mimic surface plasmons in these frequencies. But it is less useful for practical application due to their weak field confinement as manifested by large field decaying length in the upper dielectric space. Recently, a new type of engineered plasmons, domino plasmon was theoretically proposed to produce unusual field confinement and waveguiding capabilities that make them very attractive for ultra-compact device applications [Opt. Exp. 18, 754-764 (2010)]. In this work, we implemented these ideas and built three waveguiding devices based on domino plasmons. Their strong capabilities to produce versatile and ultra-compact devices with multiple electromagnetic functions have been experimentally verified in microwaves. And that can be extended to THz regime to pave the way for a new class of integrated wave circuits. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikovic, Daniel; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Wang, Shurui; Xu, Dan-Xia; Lapointe, Jean; Janz, Siegfried; Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, J Gonzalo; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Vivien, Laurent; Dado, Milan

    2015-09-15

    We present the first experimental demonstration of a new fiber-chip grating coupler concept that exploits the blazing effect by interleaving the standard full (220 nm) and shallow etch (70 nm) trenches in a 220 nm thick silicon layer. The high directionality is obtained by controlling the separation between the deep and shallow trenches to achieve constructive interference in the upward direction and destructive interference toward the silicon substrate. Utilizing this concept, the grating directionality can be maximized independent of the bottom oxide thickness. The coupler also includes a subwavelength-engineered index-matching region, designed to reduce the reflectivity at the interface between the injection waveguide and the grating. We report a measured fiber-chip coupling efficiency of -1.3  dB, the highest coupling efficiency achieved to date for a surface grating coupler in a 220 nm silicon-on-insulator platform fabricated in a conventional dual-etch process without high-index overlays or bottom mirrors.

  11. Lithography-Free Fabrication of Large Area Subwavelength Antireflection Structures Using Thermally Dewetted Pt/Pd Alloy Etch Mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jeong-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have demonstrated lithography-free, simple, and large area fabrication method for subwavelength antireflection structures (SAS to achieve low reflectance of silicon (Si surface. Thin film of Pt/Pd alloy on a Si substrate is melted and agglomerated into hemispheric nanodots by thermal dewetting process, and the array of the nanodots is used as etch mask for reactive ion etching (RIE to form SAS on the Si surface. Two critical parameters, the temperature of thermal dewetting processes and the duration of RIE, have been experimentally studied to achieve very low reflectance from SAS. All the SAS have well-tapered shapes that the refractive index may be changed continuously and monotonously in the direction of incident light. In the wavelength range from 350 to 1800 nm, the measured reflectance of the fabricated SAS averages out to 5%. Especially in the wavelength range from 550 to 650 nm, which falls within visible light, the measured reflectance is under 0.01%.

  12. Roll-to-roll fabrication of a low-reflectance transparent conducting oxide film with subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ta-Hsin; Cheng, Kuei-Yuan; Hsieh, Chih-Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro

    2012-04-01

    The transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film is a significant component in flat panel display, e-paper and touch panel. The tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) material is one of the most popular TCOs. However, ITO has high refractive index, so the phenomenon of high-reflectance limits the wide use of ITO. In this study, the structure and mass production process of new low-reflectance TCO film is verified. Laser interference lithography and the roll-to-roll UV embossing process are used to fabricate subwavelength structures on PET film; then ITO was deposited on structures by roll-to-roll sputtering. When the dimension of structures reaches 300 nm pitch, the optical reflectance and electrical performance of film are reduced to 8.1% at wavelength 550 nm and its transmittance rate is 84.3% at the same wavelength, and the sheet resistance of this film is 50.44 Ω/□. This result indicates that the new TCO proposed in this study is suitable for touch panel and other display applications.

  13. A high-coverage nanoparticle monolayer for the fabrication of a subwavelength structure on InP substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Park, Min-Su; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2011-08-01

    Subwavelength structures (SWSs) were fabricated on the Indium Phosphide (InP) substrate by utilizing the confined convective self-assembly (CCSA) method followed by reactive ion etching (RIE). The surface condition of the InP substrate was changed by depositing a 30-nm-thick SiO2 layer and subsequently treating the surface with O2 plasma to achieve better surface coverage. The surface coverage of nanoparticle monolayer reached 90% by using O2 plasma-treated SiO2/InP substrate among three kinds of starting substrates such as the bare InP, SiO2/InP and O2 plasma-treated SiO2/InP substrate. A nanoparticle monolayer consisting of polystyrene spheres with diameter of 300 nm was used as an etch mask for transferring a two-dimensional periodic pattern onto the InP substrate. The fabricated conical SWS with an aspect ratio of 1.25 on the O2 plasma-treated SiO2/InP substrate exhibited the lowest reflectance. The average reflectance of the conical SWS was 5.84% in a spectral range between 200 and 900 nm under the normal incident angle.

  14. Charging suppression in focused-ion beam fabrication of visible subwavelength dielectric grating reflector using electron conducting polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liao, Hsien-Yu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale periodic patterning on insulating materials using focused-ion beam (FIB) is challenging because of charging effect, which causes pattern distortion and resolution degradation. In this paper, the authors used a charging suppression scheme using electron conducting polymer for the implementation of FIB patterned dielectric subwavelength grating (SWG) reflector. Prior to the FIB patterning, the authors numerically designed the optimal structure and the fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters (period, grating thickness, fill-factor, and low refractive index layer thickness) using the rigorous-coupled wave analysis computation. Then, the authors performed the FIB patterning on the dielectric SWG reflector spin-coated with electron conducting polymer for the anticharging purpose. They also performed similar patterning using thin conductive film anticharging scheme (30 nm Cr coating) for comparison. Their results show that the electron conducting polymer anticharging scheme effectively suppressing the charging effect during the FIB patterning of dielectric SWG reflector. The fabricated grating exhibited nanoscale precision, high uniformity and contrast, constant patterning, and complied with fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters across the entire patterned area. Utilization of electron conducting polymer leads to a simpler anticharging scheme with high precision and uniformity for FIB patterning on insulator materials.

  15. Charging suppression in focused-ion beam fabrication of visible subwavelength dielectric grating reflector using electron conducting polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-08-19

    Nanoscale periodic patterning on insulating materials using focused-ion beam (FIB) is challenging because of charging effect, which causes pattern distortion and resolution degradation. In this paper, the authors used a charging suppression scheme using electron conducting polymer for the implementation of FIB patterned dielectric subwavelength grating (SWG) reflector. Prior to the FIB patterning, the authors numerically designed the optimal structure and the fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters (period, grating thickness, fill-factor, and low refractive index layer thickness) using the rigorous-coupled wave analysis computation. Then, the authors performed the FIB patterning on the dielectric SWG reflector spin-coated with electron conducting polymer for the anticharging purpose. They also performed similar patterning using thin conductive film anticharging scheme (30 nm Cr coating) for comparison. Their results show that the electron conducting polymer anticharging scheme effectively suppressing the charging effect during the FIB patterning of dielectric SWG reflector. The fabricated grating exhibited nanoscale precision, high uniformity and contrast, constant patterning, and complied with fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters across the entire patterned area. Utilization of electron conducting polymer leads to a simpler anticharging scheme with high precision and uniformity for FIB patterning on insulator materials.

  16. Creation of a longitudinally polarized subwavelength hotspot with an ultra-thin planar lens: vectorial Rayleigh–Sommerfeld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Huapeng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Kun; Yeo, Swee Ping; Teng, Jinghua; Luk’yanchuk, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This letter shows how a longitudinally polarized hotspot can be created by a planar ultra-thin lens that beats the diffraction limit. On the imaging plane, a subwavelength optical resolution 0.39λ with almost purely longitudinal electric component has been demonstrated in air ambient. This novel paradigm addresses simultaneously both longitudinal polarization and deep sub-diffraction imaging, by a planar lens composed of ultra-thin opaque concentric annuli. The vectorial Rayleigh–Sommerfeld (VRS) approach, offering the advantage of significant reduction in computation, has been developed for a particular optimization of a flat lens with full control of polarization. Empowered by the robustness of VRS in dealing with polarization states, the proposed roadmap may be universally and efficiently integrated with other optimization algorithms to design super-resolution imaging with controlled polarization states at any wavelength without luminescence of the object. The lens, which is empowered by the proposed method, opens an avenue for the first time toward a highly integrated imaging system with advanced functionalities in far-field super-imaging, tailored polarization states and flat ultra-thin geometry simultaneously. (letter)

  17. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S., E-mail: vvsssse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  18. Nanoscale Imaging of Light-Matter Coupling Inside Metal-Coated Cavities with a Pulsed Electron Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerland, Robert J; Weppelman, I Gerward C; Scotuzzi, Marijke; Hoogenboom, Jacob P

    2018-05-02

    Many applications in (quantum) nanophotonics rely on controlling light-matter interaction through strong, nanoscale modification of the local density of states (LDOS). All-optical techniques probing emission dynamics in active media are commonly used to measure the LDOS and benchmark experimental performance against theoretical predictions. However, metal coatings needed to obtain strong LDOS modifications in, for instance, nanocavities, are incompatible with all-optical characterization. So far, no reliable method exists to validate theoretical predictions. Here, we use subnanosecond pulses of focused electrons to penetrate the metal and excite a buried active medium at precisely defined locations inside subwavelength resonant nanocavities. We reveal the spatial layout of the spontaneous-emission decay dynamics inside the cavities with deep-subwavelength detail, directly mapping the LDOS. We show that emission enhancement converts to inhibition despite an increased number of modes, emphasizing the critical role of optimal emitter location. Our approach yields fundamental insight in dynamics at deep-subwavelength scales for a wide range of nano-optical systems.

  19. Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Graber, James S.

    1999-01-01

    A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.

  20. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  1. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbasli, M. Cengiz; Okyay, Ali K.

    2010-08-01

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement and high integration density are key features that make metal-insulator-metal waveguides (MIM) utilizing plasmonic modes attractive for applications in on-chip optical signal processing. Size-mismatch between two fundamental components (micron-size fibers and a few hundred nanometers wide waveguides) demands compact coupling methods for implementation of large scale on-chip optoelectronic device integration. Existing solutions use waveguide tapering, which requires more than 4λ-long taper distances. We demonstrate that nanoantennas can be integrated with MIM for enhancing coupling into MIM plasmonic modes. Two-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulations of antennawaveguide structures for TE and TM incident plane waves ranging from λ = 1300 to 1600 nm were done. The same MIM (100-nm-wide Ag/100-nm-wide SiO2/100-nm-wide Ag) was used for each case, while antenna dimensions were systematically varied. For nanoantennas disconnected from the MIM; field is strongly confined inside MIM-antenna gap region due to Fabry-Perot resonances. Major fraction of incident energy was not transferred into plasmonic modes. When the nanoantennas are connected to the MIM, stronger coupling is observed and E-field intensity at outer end of core is enhanced more than 70 times.

  2. Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S

    2010-08-26

    Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk.

  3. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems

  4. Cosmology with primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1981-09-01

    Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)

  5. Black holes: a slanted overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishveshwara, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)

  6. Lee–Wick black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Bambi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee–Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M>Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M=Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  7. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  8. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramit Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  9. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  10. Nonrotating and slowly rotating holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.A.; Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Suen, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The 3+1 formalism is applied to model Schwarzschild spacetime around a black hole. Particular note is taken of the 3+1 split of the laws of electrodynamics, and of the tendency of the approach to freeze motion at the event horizon. The null horizon is replaced with a timelike physical membrane which exhibits mechanical, thermodynamic and electrical properties, and which stretches the horizon. The usefulness of the stretching approach is illustrated by considering a black hole penetrated by vibrating magnetic field lines anchored in a perfectly conducting surrounding sphere. The necessity of modeling the field structure near the actual horizon is avoided by having the field end at the membrane. The surface charge, current, resistivity and ohmic heating of the stretched horizon are also considered, and the Lorentz force imparted to the stretched horizon surface by the field lines is investigated by examining a nearly Schwarzschild hole behaving as the rotor of an electric motor

  11. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  12. Microstructure, Morphology, and Nanomechanical Properties Near Fine Holes Produced by Electro-Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, P. J.; Howe, J. Y.; Coffey, D. W.; Trejo, R. M.; Kenik, E. D.; Jolly, B. C.; Yang, N.

    2012-08-01

    Fine holes in metal alloys are employed for many important technological purposes, including cooling and the precise atomization of liquids. For example, they play an important role in the metering and delivery of fuel to the combustion chambers in energy-efficient, low-emission diesel engines. Electro-discharge machining (EDM) is one process employed to produce such holes. Since the hole shape and bore morphology can affect fluid flow, and holes also represent structural discontinuities in the tips of the spray nozzles, it is important to understand the microstructures adjacent to these holes, the features of the hole walls, and the nanomechanical properties of the material that was in some manner altered by the EDM hole-making process. Several techniques were used to characterize the structure and properties of spray-holes in a commercial injector nozzle. These include scanning electron microscopy, cross sectioning and metallographic etching, bore surface roughness measurements by optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of recast EDM layers extracted with the help of a focused ion beam.

  13. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  14. Falling into a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  15. Control of black hole evaporation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Doyeol

    2007-01-01

    Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and the string theory on the evaporation of a black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that the original Hawking effect can also be regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of the Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during the evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly

  16. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  17. Time dependent black holes and scalar hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadburn, Sarah; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)

  18. Black holes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.

  19. LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    confirmation. This detection is a huge deal for astrophysics because its the first direct evidence weve had that:Heavy stellar-mass black holes exist.Weve reliably measured black holes of masses up to 1020 solar masses in X-ray binaries (binary systems in which a single neutron star or black hole accretes matter from a donor star). But this is the first proof weve found that stellar-mass black holes of 25 solar masses can form in nature.Binaries consisting of two black holes can form in nature.As well discuss shortly, there are two theorized mechanisms for the formation of these black-hole binaries. Until now, however, there was no guarantee that either of those mechanisms worked!These black-hole binaries can inspiral and merge within the age of the universe.The formation of a black-hole binary is no guarantee that it will merge on a reasonable timescale: if the binary forms with enough separation, it could take longer than the age of the universe to merge. This detection proves that black-hole binaries can form with small enough separation to merge on observable timescales.What can we learn from GW150914?Expected increase in sensitivity for LIGO/Virgo detectors is shown as a function of total system mass (x-axis) and surveyed volume (y-axis). The red star indicates the mass of GW150914. [Abbott et al. 2016]For starters, we can throw out the lower estimates we had on merger rates. This event provides a new inferred binary-black-hole merger rate for the low-redshift universe of 2400 Gpc-3 yr-1.Another interesting conclusion about this binary system is that it probably formed in a low-metallicity environment (~ 1/2 solar metallicity). We infer this based on our current understanding of massive-star winds (which drive mass loss) and their dependence on metallicity: had the environment been high-metallicity, it is unlikely that such large black holes would have been able to form.What can we learn from future gravitational-wave detections?One of the key questions wed like to answer

  20. Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.

  1. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  2. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are humanity's high-technology windows onto the universe. For reasons that will ... instrument ever built; and it was the first direct ... gravity will drive it to collapse into a black hole. Indeed, in 2007, ... Given their large X-ray power, it has been ...

  3. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wyper, P. F. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.

  4. Black holes in brane worlds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A Kerr metric describing a rotating black hole is obtained on the three brane in a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world by considering a rotating five-dimensional black string in the bulk. We examine the causal structure of this space-time through the geodesic equations.

  5. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  6. Paths toward understanding black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayerson, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    This work can be summarized as trying to understand aspects of black holes, gravity, and geometry, in the context of supergravity and string theory in high-energy theoretical physics. The two parts of this thesis have been written with entirely different audiences in mind. The first part consists of

  7. Black holes and trapped points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Black holes are defined and their properties investigated without use of any global causality restriction. Also the boundary at infinity of space-time is not needed. When the causal conditions are brought in, the equivalence with the usual approach is established. (author)

  8. Black Holes and Exotic Spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoff da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.

  9. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  10. Erratum: Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In my paper [Qing-Quan Jiang, Yan Han, Xu Cai, Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy, JHEP 08 (2010) 049], there was an error in deriving the black hole spectroscopy. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  11. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and “quintessence horizon” for the black holes surrounded by quintessence. Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  12. Black hole entropy, curved space and monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Reeb, David

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, in particular the gap between the maximum entropy of ordinary matter and that of black holes. Using curved space, we construct configurations with entropy greater than the area A of a black hole of equal mass. These configurations have pathological properties and we refer to them as monsters. When monsters are excluded we recover the entropy bound on ordinary matter S 3/4 . This bound implies that essentially all of the microstates of a semiclassical black hole are associated with the growth of a slightly smaller black hole which absorbs some additional energy. Our results suggest that the area entropy of black holes is the logarithm of the number of distinct ways in which one can form the black hole from ordinary matter and smaller black holes, but only after the exclusion of monster states

  13. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-01

    We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  14. Metallic witness packs for behind-armour debris characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verolme, J.L.; Szymczak, M.; Broos, J.P.F.

    1999-01-01

    For the experimental characterization of behind-armour debris so-called metallic witness packs can be used. A metallic witness pack consists of an array of metallic plates interspaced by polystyrene foam sheets. To quantify the fragment mass and velocity from the corresponding hole area and position

  15. Charge Fluctuations of an Uncharged Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we calculate charge fluctuations of a Schwarzschild black-hole of mass $M$ confined within a perfectly reflecting cavity of radius R in thermal equilibrium with various species of radiation and fermions . Charge conservation is constrained by a Lagrange multiplier (the chemical potential). Black hole charge fluctuations are expected owing to continuous absorption and emission of particles by the black hole. For black holes much more massive than $10^{16} g$ , these fluctuations ...

  16. Bosonic instability of charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole

  17. Will black holes eventually engulf the Universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Jimenez Madrid, Jose A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological models

  18. Event horizon image within black hole shadow

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Nazarova, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    The external border of the black hole shadow is washed out by radiation from matter plunging into black hole and approaching the event horizon. This effect will crucially influence the results of future observations by the Event Horizon Telescope. We show that gravitational lensing of the luminous matter plunging into black hole provides the event horizon visualization within black hole shadow. The lensed image of the event horizon is formed by the last highly red-shifted photons emitted by t...

  19. Electromagnetic ``black holes'' in hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that spatial variations of the dielectric tensor components in a hyperbolic metamaterial may lead to formation of electromagnetic ``black holes'' inside this metamaterial. Similar to real black holes, horizon area of the electromagnetic ``black holes'' is quantized in units of the effective ``Planck scale'' squared. Potential experimental realizations of such electromagnetic ``black holes'' will be considered. For example, this situation may be realized in a hyperbolic metamaterial in which the dielectric component exhibits critical opalescence.

  20. Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2008-01-01

    Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmi...