WorldWideScience

Sample records for suburban health

  1. Sprawl and your health : what is the suburban dream costing you

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenniak, T.

    2002-03-01

    This paper described the link between environmental decline and suburban sprawl and cautioned that Edmontonians should pay particular attention to the definite health costs associated with this burdened lifestyle. This paper suggested that although the suburban dream seemed to be a solution to a high-pressure, technology-driven culture, suburban sprawl is actually contributing to both social and environmental problems. Sprawl has caused us to lose many of the benefits of city life such as places of employment, medical services, meeting places, shops and restaurants, which created cities in the first place. Sprawl contributes to increased dependency on the automobile. The impact that sprawl has on traffic patterns, toxic emissions, and traffic psychology was discussed, as well as the impact that a sedentary lifestyle has on the health of both adults and children. 30 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs., 1 append.

  2. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  3. Suburban socialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene Hjorth

    2009-01-01

    Suburban and residential areas have often been associated with everyday, routine and family relations, and this article explores how everyday life and sociality are changing in suburban areas in the context of what is variously called the post-industrial and borderless city. The article suggests...... that such areas can be seen as under-appreciated in our evaluation of what constitutes the quality of city life. The article develops a social practice perspective drawing on Goffman, and is based on empirical work carried out in two newly-built suburban areas in greater Copenhagen. Approximately twenty residents...... from young families were interviewed and asked to take photos. These residents all had middleclass, but different educational backgrounds. The analysis shows that residents want to maintain a sense of the city, seeking different ways of doing so, and hence continuing to being cosmopolitan. At the same...

  4. A comparative study of health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban and suburban road dust in the most populated city of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guitao; Chen, Zhenlou; Bi, Chunjuan; Wang, Li; Teng, Jiyan; Li, Yuansheng; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-01-01

    Urban and suburban road dust samples were collected in the most populated city of China, Shanghai. Size fractions of dust particles were analyzed; metal levels of the dust were also measured. Human exposure to individual toxic metals through road dust was assessed for both children and adults. The results showed that dust particles from urban and suburban road were presented similar size distribution pattern, with most particles in the range of 100-400 μm. Urban road dust consisted of higher proportions of inhalable, thoracic and respirable particles with increased risk of adverse effects to human. In general, mean grain sizes of urban road dust were smaller than suburban dust. Total organic carbon contents and levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr in urban dust were higher than those of suburban dust. But the concentrations of As and Hg from suburban dust were higher, indicting a different main source. The exposure pathway which resulted in the highest level of risk for human exposed to road dust was ingestion of this material, which was followed by dermal contact. Except for some locations, risk values of both cancer and non-cancer obtained in this study were in the receivable range on the whole. Children had greater health risks than adults. The overall risks of non-cancer in urban area were higher than those in suburban area, but the values of cancer in the two areas were comparable. As for the aggregate noncarcinogenic risk, Pb was of most concern regarding the potential occurrence of health impacts. Of the three carcinogenic metals As, Cr and Cd, the only mean risk higher than 10 -6 was Cr, accounting for a great percentage (95%) of the overall risk of cancer. Hence, potentially adverse health effects arising from Pb and Cr in road dust should arouse wide concern.

  5. The Effects of Health Education through Face To Face Teaching and Educational Movies, on Suburban Women in Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of 'face-to-face education' and 'educational movies' on 'knowledge' and 'practice' of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups.

  6. Equity of access to reproductive health services among youths in resource-limited suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thin Zaw Phyu Phyu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity of accessibility to and utilization of reproductive health (RH services among youths is a global concern, especially in resource-limited areas. The level of inequity also varies by cultural and socio-economic contexts. To tailor RH services to the needs of youths, relevant solutions are required. This study aimed to assess baseline information on access to and utilization of RH services and unmet needs among youths living in resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in all resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. A total of 444 randomly selected youths aged between 15 and 24 years were interviewed for three main outcomes, namely accessibility to and utilization of RH services and youth's unmet needs for these services. Factors associated with these outcomes were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results Although geographical accessibility was high (79.3%, financial accessibility was low (19.1% resulting in a low overall accessibility (34.5% to RH services. Two-thirds of youths used some kind of RH services at least once in the past. Levels of unmet needs for sexual RH information, family planning, maternal care and HIV testing were 62.6%, 31.9%, 38.7% and 56.2%, respectively. Youths living in the south or south-western suburbs, having a deceased parent, never being married or never exposed to mass media were less likely to access RH services. Being a young adult, current student, working as a waste recycler, having ever experienced a sexual relationship, ever being married, ever exposed to mass media, having a high knowledge of RH services and providers or a high level of accessibility to RH services significantly increased the likelihood of utilization of those services. In addition to youths’ socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to mass media, norm of peer exposure and knowledge

  7. Eating attitudes, health-risk behaviors, self-esteem, and anxiety among adolescent females in a suburban high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M; Schneider, M; Pegler, C; Napolitano, B

    1991-07-01

    In order to determine whether adolescent females with abnormal eating attitudes display lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety than their peers, and whether these adolescents participate in health-risk behaviors to a greater or lesser degree than their peers, we administered a series of questionnaires to the females attending a suburban high school in New York State. The questionnaires, completed by 268 students (mean age, 16.2 years), included data on health-risk behaviors and weight attitudes, an Eating Attitudes Test, a self-esteem scale, and an anxiety inventory. Results indicated that almost two-thirds of the students described themselves as overweight, almost three-quarters felt they were above the healthiest weight for their age and height, and almost four-fifths were above the weight at which they would be most happy; 18% of the students scored 30 or more on the Eating Attitudes Test, a score suggestive of an eating disorder. Use of Spearman-rank correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis revealed that those with more unhappiness with their weight and higher scores on the eating attitudes test were more likely to have lower self-esteem and higher anxiety and to participate more in health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and sexual activity with more total partners. The data from this study further corroborate the growing belief that health-risk behaviors tend to cluster together in vulnerable adolescents and demonstrate that abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors may be part of this cluster, especially in females with low self-esteem and high levels of anxiety.

  8. Association between knowledge of caries preventive practices, preventive oral health habits of parents and children and caries experience in children resident in sub-urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oyedele, Titus; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Chukumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka; Agbaje, Hakeem; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oshomoji, Olusegun V; Osho, Olusegun V

    2014-12-16

    The objectives of this study were to assess the association between children and parents' knowledge of caries preventive practices, the parents' caries preventive oral health behaviours and children's caries preventive oral health behaviour and caries experience. Three hundred and twenty four participants aged 8-12 years, 308 fathers and 318 mothers were recruited through a household survey conducted in Suburban Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to generate information on fathers, mothers and children's knowledge of caries prevention measures and their oral health behaviour. Clinical examination was conducted on the children to determine their dmft/DMFT. Analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of the children's good oral health behaviour. The mothers' oral health behaviours were significant predictors of the children's oral health behaviours. Children who had good knowledge of caries prevention measures had significant increased odds of brushing their teeth twice daily or more. The children's caries prevalence was 13.9%, the mean dmft was 0.2 and the mean DMFT was 0.09. None of the dependent variables could predict the presence of caries in children. The study highlights the effect of maternal oral health behaviour on the oral health behaviour of children aged 8 years to 12 years in suburban Nigeria. A pilot study is needed to evaluate how enhanced maternal preventive oral health practices can improve the oral health preventive practices of children.

  9. Suburban Black Lives Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the range of experiences and meanings of Black life in suburban space. Drawing from educational, historical, and sociological literatures, I argue that an underconsideration of suburban space has left many portraits of educational inequality incomplete. The article outlines the emergence of American suburbs and the formation…

  10. Suburban development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I focus on current projects and activities aiming at renewal and revitalisation of Danish suburban areas. In the last five years several activities have been initiated in order to discuss possibilities and strategies for the future development of the suburban areas in Denmark. A Thi...... original developed. On this background the paper raise the question, if ‘dynamic change’ is in fact the primary goal.......In this paper I focus on current projects and activities aiming at renewal and revitalisation of Danish suburban areas. In the last five years several activities have been initiated in order to discuss possibilities and strategies for the future development of the suburban areas in Denmark. A Think...... Tank has published a report, books and political statements have pointing to the suburban areas as important focal points for future developments, and a number of architectural competitions have been launched. The paper is based on review of these acitivities. It is pointed out, that ‘cultural heritage...

  11. New Suburban Stories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dines, M.; Vermeulen, T.J.V.

    2013-01-01

    Exploring fiction, film and art from across the USA, South America, Asia, Europe and Australia, New Suburban Stories brings together new research from leading international scholars to examine cultural representations of the suburbs, home to a rapidly increasing proportion of the world's population.

  12. Quality comparisons between privately and publicly managed health care centres in a suburban area of Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansagi, H; Calltorp, J; Andréasson, S

    1993-03-01

    As in many other countries, the health care system in Sweden is currently undergoing rapid changes. Within a framework of public financing, the delivery of health care is to an increasing extent being transferred to various entrepreneurs; private, public or cooperatives. A privately run, but publicly financed, health care centre was evaluated with regard to quality and costs. Quality was defined in terms of the central guidelines for Swedish primary health care: first level responsibility, accessibility, a holistic view of the patient, and continuity of care and safety. The services offered by the private health care centre were evaluated by different methods--questionnaires, health care utilization data and economic analyses--and found to be of similar quality but produced at a lower cost than by three publicly managed health care centres.

  13. [Relationship between fruit and vegetable gardening and health-related factors: male community gardeners aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Daisuke; Yoshida, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to investigate the relationship between community fruit and vegetable (FV) gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors by utilizing community gardens and 2) to determine the relationship of community FV gardening and other types of gardening on health-related factors among men aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan.Methods In this cross-sectional study, we targeted men aged 50-74 years living in a city in Gunma Prefecture. A survey solicited demographic characteristics, FV gardening information, and health-related factors [BMI, self-rated health status, FV intake, physical activity (PA), and perceived neighborhood social cohesion (PNSC)]. The participants were divided into three groups: community gardeners, other types of gardeners, and non-gardeners. Items related to community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were presented only to community gardeners. The relationship between community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were analyzed by computing correlation coefficients. The relationships between FV gardening and specific health-related factors were analyzed by logistic regression modeling.Results Significant positive correlations were observed between community FV gardening (the frequency of community gardening, the product of community gardening time and frequency of community gardening) and perceived changes in health-related factors (frequency of FV intake, amount of FV intake, and PA). The logistic regression models showed that 1) the number of participants with ≥23 METs h/week of PA was significantly greater among community gardeners than among non-gardeners; 2) the number of participants whose frequency of total vegetable intake, total vegetable intake (excluding juice), and total FV intake (excluding juice) was ≥5 times/day was significantly greater among other types of gardeners than non-gardeners; 3) participants

  14. Perceived green qualities were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, and general health : Results from a cross-sectional study in suburban and rural Scania, southern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Albin, Maria; Skarback, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Bjork, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In this study using cross-sectional survey data from suburban and rural Scania, Sweden (N=24,847), we assessed how the recently validated index score of area-aggregated perceived green neighborhood qualities (Scania Green Score; SGS), and the five distinct qualities within this index were associated

  15. Characteristics of health problems in returned overseas travelers at a tertiary teaching hospital in a suburban area in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kazuki; Ogawa, Taku; Fujikura, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Nakagawa-Onishi, Tomoko; Uno, Kenji; Takeyama, Masahiro; Kasahara, Kei; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Konishi, Mitsuru; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-03-01

    Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19). There were eight malaria cases, including one patient who was infected after travel. Additionally, 61 of 71 cases of travelers' diarrhea and 15 of 21 cases of dengue fever occurred after travel. 26 cases of vaccine preventable diseases, such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and influenza, were observed. Consequently, healthcare providers should notify Japanese overseas travelers that there is a non-negligible health risk inherent to short-term travel, while stressing on the importance of pre-travel medical consultation. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is sprawl associated with a widening urban-suburban mortality gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; Song, Yan

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines whether sprawl, featured by low development density, segregated land uses, lack of significant centers, and poor street connectivity, contributes to a widening mortality gap between urban and suburban residents. We employ two mortality datasets, including a national cross-sectional dataset examining the impact of metropolitan-level sprawl on urban-suburban mortality gaps and a longitudinal dataset from Portland examining changes in urban-suburban mortality gaps over time. The national and Portland studies provide the only evidence to date that (1) across metropolitan areas, the size of urban-suburban mortality gaps varies by the extent of sprawl: in sprawling metropolitan areas, urban residents have significant excess mortality risks than suburban residents, while in compact metropolitan areas, urbanicity-related excess mortality becomes insignificant; (2) the Portland metropolitan area not only experienced net decreases in mortality rates but also a narrowing urban-suburban mortality gap since its adoption of smart growth regime in the past decade; and (3) the existence of excess mortality among urban residents in US sprawling metropolitan areas, as well as the net mortality decreases and narrowing urban-suburban mortality gap in the Portland metropolitan area, is not attributable to sociodemographic variations. These findings suggest that health threats imposed by sprawl affect urban residents disproportionately compared to suburban residents and that efforts curbing sprawl may mitigate urban-suburban health disparities.

  17. Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kalen; McDonald, Catherine C; D'Alonzo, Bernadette A; Tam, Vicky; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-01-01

    School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school violence is not solely an urban problem. Schools in all county types and across grade levels deal with violence to varying degrees, and the majority of schools across county types experience low levels of violence. Types of violence experienced by PA schools loaded onto three factors, suggesting that targeted interventions may be better suited to addressing school violence.

  18. [Experiences in the training of health human resources for the integral care of the victims of violence in a suburban area of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Fausto; Perales, Alberto; Miranda, Eva; Mendoza, Pedro; Calderón, Walter; Miano, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In the year 2003, in the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, the Permanent Program of Training for the Integral Attention of the Victims of Violence was created, has been training human resources for the comprehensive health care to victims of violence. In this sense, we was considered necessary to develop a methodology for health professionals, identifying their training needs and the conditions under how they work. It is in this context, that the year 2004, a base line study was delineated in the Microrred de Salud Huaycán, in the east of Lima city; that included diverse stages with a multisectorial approach with the aim to identify the training needs of the health professionals, as well as the evaluation of the logistic and administrative support for the development of training activities to diverse levels. In this paper, the procedures and principal results are exposed, in a succinct way. There was demonstrated that the population of Huaycán were affected by the sequels of the political violence; nevertheless, the health services have severe limited resources to give appropriate health care to victims of violence. The health professionals require an intensive training on this issue. An adequate logistic and administrative conditions allowed to carry out an appropriate training program. We suggest that this methodology will facilitate to construct products and instruments for a suitable and specific training for the integral health care to the victims of the violence.

  19. Patient satisfaction with community pharmacy: comparing urban and suburban chain-pharmacy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived Risk of Developing Cancer in a Suburban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Hafizah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Azhar Shah, Shamsul

    2018-02-26

    Objective: To determine the perceived risk of developing cancer in a suburban community in Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study using a simple random sampling was conducted among residents aged 18 years old and above (n=520) who had never been diagnosed with cancer, in selected households in a suburban area of Pahang state in Malaysia. The study instruments were a validated questionnaire on risk perception, an automatic blood pressure monitor, a weighing scale and a measuring tape. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0 and the p value was taken at p history of cancer (adjusted OR of 4.80; 95% CI = 1.45-15.82) (p=0.010) among this population. Conclusion: The perceived risk of developing cancer in the selected suburban community of Pahang state in Malaysia is low as compared to that for other non-communicable diseases in this country, whilst the perceived severity was higher than for other diseases. Thus, considering the importance of correct perceptions for behavioral changes, more health education and promotion is needed to make the community better aware of the actual threat of cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  1. Levels, sources and probabilistic health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the agricultural soils from sites neighboring suburban industries in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ruipeng; Yang, Xiaoyi; Su, Hanrui; Pan, Yue; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Juan; Long, Mingce

    2018-03-01

    The levels, sources and quantitative probabilistic health risks for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils in the vicinity of power, steel and petrochemical plants in the suburbs of Shanghai are discussed. The total concentration of 16 PAHs in the soils ranges from 223 to 8214ng g -1 . The sources of PAHs were analyzed by both isomeric ratios and a principal component analysis-multiple linear regression method. The results indicate that PAHs mainly originated from the incomplete combustion of coal and oil. The probabilistic risk assessments for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks posed by PAHs in soils with adult farmers as concerned receptors were quantitatively calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The estimated total carcinogenic risks (TCR) for the agricultural soils has a 45% possibility of exceeding the acceptable threshold value (10 -6 ), indicating potential adverse health effects. However, all non-carcinogenic risks are below the threshold value. Oral intake is the dominant exposure pathway, accounting for 77.7% of TCR, while inhalation intake is negligible. The three PAHs with the highest contribution for TCR are BaP (64.35%), DBA (17.56%) and InP (9.06%). Sensitivity analyses indicate that exposure frequency has the greatest impact on the total risk uncertainty, followed by the exposure dose through oral intake and exposure duration. These results indicate that it is essential to manage the health risks of PAH-contaminated agricultural soils in the vicinity of typical industries in megacities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The specifics of suburban architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr WINSKOWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental differences between the suburbs and the city centre that I would like to point out concern the pace of life and the intensity of urban development. Certainly, these differences are not absolute but are rather relative, as they are defined in relation to the surrounding neighbourhood that serves as a reference for self‑determination. A suburb has some small‑town traits, but its close location to the city prevents it from becoming a local centre. The same concerns the architecture whose intensity is, after all, a consequence of the increasing intensity in other aspects of life, the differentiation of sources of people’s income, the demand for services, trade contacts, etc. Its incompleteness, imperfection, slower pace and focus on an unattained and unattainable ideal can make one see in the suburb as a theoretically extremely promising area. Indeed, its promise lies in this aspect of failure, incompleteness and fragmentation — which is long lasting and relatively permanent. Many traits of suburban architecture are conservative; whereas others, such as its impermanence and improvisational qualities, are experimental and are characterised by an almost guerrilla‑like aspect. However, present‑day advanced postmodern thinking at times achieves an ability to take contradictory spatial, visual, artistic and functional characteristics and, through a theoretical analysis, make them into a complex ‘difficult whole’. Here, the combination itself is probably not so much harmonious but rather contains certain internal tensions, imbalances and longings of one opposite towards another. Anyway, this combination does take place and — in line with the direction of many diagnoses of contemporaneity — instead of creating abstract constructs, we must register the facts and try to conceptualise them.

  3. Home Features and Assistive Technology for the Home-Bound Elderly in a Thai Suburban Community by Applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Putthinoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ageing population is having an impact worldwide and has created a serious challenge in Thailand’s healthcare systems, whereby healthcare practitioners play a major role in promoting independent interaction of their client’s abilities, as well as environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to survey features of the home and assistive technology (AT for the home-bound elderly in the community of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Home evaluation included features inside and outside the home, and AT was based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF concept. Methods included observation and an interview that were used by the researcher for evaluation. The study found that every home had at least one hazardous home feature such as inappropriate width of the door, high door threshold, tall stair steps, no bedside rail, and inappropriate height of the toilet pan. AT was found in houses as general products and technology for personal use in daily living and for personal indoor and outdoor mobility as well as transportation. Therefore, home features and AT can afford the home-bound elderly independent living within the community. Perspective AT according to the ICF concept could provide a common language for ageing in place benefits.

  4. Computer access and Internet use by urban and suburban emergency department customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Michael C; Klemt, Ryan; Merlis, Jennifer; Kopinski, Judith E; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2012-07-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet (43% in 2000 vs. 70% in 2006) to obtain health information, but is there a difference in the ability of urban and suburban emergency department (ED) customers to access the Internet? To assess computer and Internet resources available to and used by people waiting to be seen in an urban ED and a suburban ED. Individuals waiting in the ED were asked survey questions covering demographics, type of insurance, access to a primary care provider, reason for their ED visit, computer access, and ability to access the Internet for health-related matters. There were 304 individuals who participated, 185 in the urban ED and 119 in the suburban ED. Urban subjects were more likely than suburban to be women, black, have low household income, and were less likely to have insurance. The groups were similar in regard to average age, education, and having a primary care physician. Suburban respondents were more likely to own a computer, but the majority in both groups had access to computers and the Internet. Their frequency of accessing the Internet was similar, as were their reasons for using it. Individuals from the urban ED were less willing to schedule appointments via the Internet but more willing to contact their health care provider via e-mail. The groups were equally willing to use the Internet to fill prescriptions and view laboratory results. Urban and suburban ED customers had similar access to the Internet. Both groups were willing to use the Internet to access personal health information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Landscape Architecture in Contemporary Danish Suburban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roden, Tina Maria

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate and re-think the both loved and criticised suburbia and its incompatibility in relation to the current environmental and climate prospects, these projects suggest that a landscape orientated approach to (sub)urban development can provide more adaptive and flexible frameworks to meet...

  6. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  7. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Guo

    Full Text Available Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (P<0.001. In addition, among the seven principal components, four principal component scores were better in urban areas than in suburban areas (P = <0.001, 0.004, 0.036, and 0.022. The urban comprehensive score also exceeded that of the suburbs (P<0.001. In summary, over the 6-year period, there was a rapidly increasing trend in basic medical service utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this

  8. Determiantion of elasticity coefficient of demand for suburban passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regularity of changes in demand for suburban passenger road transport, depending on the value, is investigated. The results of the survey of passengers about changes of fare on the chosen route are given. It is built the curve of elasticity of demand for suburban bus transport use in labor and cultural and social movements. The equilibrium tariff for suburban road transport is defined

  9. Teenage experiments contaminate suburban property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lall, P.; Jensen, L.; Mitchell, J.; Sass, W.; Skowronek, R.; Minnaar, D.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1994, 18-year-old David Hahn (David) was detained by police in Clinton Township, Michigan. When the police searched his car, they discovered a locked tool box and other containers that David said contained radioactive materials resulting from experiments he had conducted with the radioactive materials from, primarily, consumer products. From the ages 14 to 18, David spent his spare time at his Union Lake, Michigan, home attempting to concentrate, bum, chemically alter, and experiment with: the thorium from hundreds of lantern mantles, radium from various luminescent sources and clock dials, americium from smoke detector sources, and radioactive materials from natural ores. In the process, he had contaminated a wooden shed in his backyard and his bedroom, and exposed himself. In 1995, EPA, their emergency response contractor, and the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) performed an emergency assessment and removal at the property. The response and removal were conducted cost-effectively and generated approximately 10 cubic yards of radioactive waste. (author)

  10. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Li, Shujun; Cai, Yuyang; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (Pservice utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this imbalance between urban and suburban institutions and to provide the required support to underdeveloped areas to improve resident satisfaction. PMID:29791470

  11. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Bao, Yong; Ma, Jun; Li, Shujun; Cai, Yuyang; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (Pservice utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this imbalance between urban and suburban institutions and to provide the required support to underdeveloped areas to improve resident satisfaction.

  12. Promoting and developing a trail network across suburban, rural, and urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schasberger, Michele G; Hussa, Carol S; Polgar, Michael F; McMonagle, Julie A; Burke, Sharon J; Gegaris, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Valley Wellness Trails Partnership received an Active Living by Design grant late in 2003 for a project centered on a growing trail network linking urban, suburban, and rural communities in northeast Pennsylvania, a former coal region, in order to increase physical activity among residents. The partnership conducted research, collected information, created promotional documents, worked with partners on events and programs, and participated in trail planning. Local trail organizations continued planning and construction toward developing a trail network. Other partners spearheaded policy change in schools and worksites and worked toward downtown revitalization. The partnership assisted these efforts by providing a forum in which organizations could meet. The partnership became a central resource for information about local parks, trails, and outdoor recreational activities. The partnership increased awareness and use of recreational facilities. Trail partners constructed 22 miles of walking and biking trails. The partnership took advantage of an allied effort that created organizational capacity for wellness in schools and worksites. Messages promoting social and entertainment benefits of physical activity were more successful than those promoting health benefits. The existence of multiple small, independent trail organizations can help advance trail development through concurrent development efforts. Urban, suburban, and rural residents' conceptions of walkability may differ. Trails provide options for recreational and transportation-related physical activity across urban, suburban, and rural landscapes that are supported by all constituents. Trail builders can be strong allies in bringing active living to suburban and rural places.

  13. Dynamics of Race, Culture and Key Indicators of Health In the Nations 100 Largest Cities and Their Suburbs. The Social and Health Landscape of Urban and Suburban America Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrulis, Dennis P.; Duchon, Lisa M.; Reidj, Hailey M.

    This report profiles the 2000 status of and changes (since 1990) in rates of health and health-related measures for racially and culturally diverse populations living in the 100 largest U.S. cities and their suburbs. Data came from the U.S. Census Bureau and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to identify patterns in race/ethnicity, foreign…

  14. School Climate and Academic Achievement in Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.

    2016-01-01

    School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…

  15. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  16. Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi'an, China: The effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Cao, Junji; Dong, Zhibao; Guinot, Benjamin; Gao, Meiling; Huang, Rujin; Han, Yongming; Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Shen, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM 2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at urban residential, commercial area, university, suburban region, and industry in Xi'an, during summer and winter time at 2013. Much higher levels of total PAHs were obtained in winter. Spatial distributions by kriging interpolations principle showed that relative high PAHs were detected in western Xi'an in both summer and winter, with decreasing trends in winter from the old city wall to the 2 nd -3rd ring road except for the suburban region and industry. Coefficients of diversity and statistics by SPSS method demonstrated that PAHs in suburban have significant differences (t winter and summer in urban, which different with the suburban. The coal combustion was the main source for PAHs in suburban region, which accounted for 46.6% in winter and sharp decreased to 19.2% in summer. Scattered emissions from uncontrolled coal combustion represent an important source of PAHs in suburban in winter and there were about 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for lifetime exposure at winter levels. Further studies are needed to specify the effluence of the scattered emission in suburban to the city and to develop a strategy for controlling those emissions and lighten possible health effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  18. Health Benefits of Daily Walking on Mortality Among Younger-Elderly Men With or Without Major Critical Diseases in the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity contributes to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. However, the frequency of physical activity often declines with age, particularly among the elderly. Thus, we investigated the effects of daily walking on mortality among younger-elderly men (65–74 years with or without major critical diseases (heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancer. Methods: We assessed 1239 community-dwelling men aged 64/65 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs of all-cause mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs according to daily walking duration and adjusted for potential confounders, including survey year, marital status, work status, education, smoking and drinking status, BMI, regular exercise, regular sports, sleeping time, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Results: For men without critical diseases, mortality risk declined linearly with increased walking time after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0.018. Walking ≥2 hours/day was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27–0.90. For men with critical diseases, walking 1–2 hours/day showed a protective effect on mortality compared with walking <0.5 hours/day after adjustment for confounders (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.06–1.20. Walking ≥2 hours/day showed no benefit on mortality in men with critical diseases, even after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Different duration of daily walking was associated with decreased mortality for younger-elderly men with or without critical diseases, independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, BMI, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Incorporating regular walking into daily lives of younger-elderly men may improve longevity and successful aging.

  19. Health Benefits of Daily Walking on Mortality Among Younger-Elderly Men With or Without Major Critical Diseases in the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjing; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Kawamura, Takashi; Wakai, Kenji; Ando, Masahiko; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. However, the frequency of physical activity often declines with age, particularly among the elderly. Thus, we investigated the effects of daily walking on mortality among younger-elderly men (65-74 years) with or without major critical diseases (heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancer). We assessed 1239 community-dwelling men aged 64/65 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to daily walking duration and adjusted for potential confounders, including survey year, marital status, work status, education, smoking and drinking status, BMI, regular exercise, regular sports, sleeping time, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. For men without critical diseases, mortality risk declined linearly with increased walking time after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0.018). Walking ≥2 hours/day was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.90). For men with critical diseases, walking 1-2 hours/day showed a protective effect on mortality compared with walking Walking ≥2 hours/day showed no benefit on mortality in men with critical diseases, even after adjustment for confounders. Different duration of daily walking was associated with decreased mortality for younger-elderly men with or without critical diseases, independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, BMI, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Incorporating regular walking into daily lives of younger-elderly men may improve longevity and successful aging.

  20. Suburban sprawl in the developing world: duplicating past mistakes? The case of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Lawrence C; Brieger, William B

    Newly affluent developing world cities increasingly adopt the same unfortunate low-density suburban paradigm that shaped cities in the industrialized world. Identified by a World Bank report as a "mini-Los Angeles," Kuala Lumpur is a sentinel example of the results of unrestrained sprawl in the developing world. Factors driving sprawl included government policies favoring foreign investment, "mega-projects," and domestic automobile production; fragmented governance structures allowing federal and state government influence on local planning; increasing middle-class affluence; an oligopoly of local developers; and haphazard municipal zoning and transport planning. The city's present form contributes to Malaysia's dual burden of disease, with inner-city shantytown dwellers facing communicable disease and malnutrition while suburban citizens experience increasing chronic disease, injury, and mental health issues. Despite growing awareness in city plans targeted toward higher density development, Kuala Lumpur presents a warning to other emerging economies of the financial, societal, and population health costs imposed by quickly-built suburban sprawl.

  1. Ecology of Malaria Vectors in a Rainforest Suburban Community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Key words: Malaria, Mosquito, Vectors, Ecology, Suburban, Community. ... including host bloodmeal preferences, time and place of biting and resting .... Five species of mosquitoes namely Aedes albopictus, Culex tigripes,.

  2. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AADD) in South Africa are based on residential plot size. This paper presents a novel, robust method for estimating suburban water demand as a function of the suburb area. Seventy suburbs, identified as being predominantly residential, were ...

  3. Salud mental en médicos que realizan el servicio rural, urbano-marginal en salud en el Perú: Un estudio de línea base Mental health in physicians doing the rural and suburban health service in Peru: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Galán-Rodas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones poco favorables que el médico joven encara durante el Servicio Rural, Urbano Marginal en Salud (SERUMS pueden incrementar el riesgo de enfermedades mentales. El objetivo del estudio es establecer la línea base sobre niveles de depresión y uso problemático de alcohol en aquellos médicos que realizarán dicho servicio durante el periodo 2011-2012. Se aplicó como herramientas de tamizaje la escala del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos para depresión y el Test para la Identificación de Trastornos por Uso de Alcohol, a 493 médicos. Se encontró que 26% de las mujeres y 14,5% de los varones puntuaron en el rango de depresión; 22% de mujeres y 26% de varones lo hicieron para uso problemático de alcohol. 39% puntuó para cualquiera de ambas entidades. Los problemas de salud mental son comunes entre los médicos que se disponen a migrar para realizar el SERUMS, lo cual debe ser atendido para evitar mayores riesgos.The disadvantageous conditions in which young physicians have to do their rural and sub-urban health service (SERUMS may put them in a high risk for mental disorders. This study aims to establish the baseline levels of depression and alcohol use problems among those physicians scheduled to complete their SERUMS during the period 2011-2012. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT were administered as screening tests to 493 physicians. Depression scores were met by 26% females and 14.5% males, and alcohol use problem scores were met by 22% females and 26% males. Overall, 39% persons scored for either of both mental health entities. Mental health problems seem to be common among young physicians scheduled to migrate to their SERUMS. These problems must be addressed to avoid greater risks.

  4. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban, suburban, exurban and rural primary school children in Indonesian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Tri Mahayana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uncorrected refractive error (URE is a major health problem among school children. This study was aimed to determine the frequency and patterns of URE across 4 gradients of residential densities (urban, exurban, suburban and rural. This was a cross-sectional study of school children from 3 districts in Yogyakarta and 1 district near Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The information regarding age, sex, school and school grader were recorded. The Snellen’s chart was used to measure the visual acuity and to perform the subjective refraction. The district was then divided into urban, suburban, exurban and rural area based on their location and population. In total, 410 school children were included in the analyses (urban=79, exurban=73, suburban=160 and rural=98 school children. Urban school children revealed the worst visual acuity (P<0.001 and it was significant when compared with exurban and rural. The proportion of URE among urban, suburban, exurban and rural area were 10.1%, 12.3%, 3.8%, and 1%, respectively, and it was significant when compared to the proportion of ametropia and corrected refractive error across residential densities (P=0.003. The risk of URE development in urban, suburban, exurban, and rural were 2.218 (95%CI: 0.914-5.385, 3.019 (95%CI: 1.266-7.197, 0.502 (95%CI: 0.195-1.293, and 0.130 (95%CI:0.017-0.972, respectively. Urban school children showed the worst visual acuity. The school children in urban and suburban residential area had 2 and 3 times higher risk of developing the URE.

  5. Concussion Knowledge and Reporting Behavior Differences Between High School Athletes at Urban and Suburban High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated knowledge of concussion survey consisting of 83 questions. The independent variable was school type (urban/suburban). We examined the proportion of athletes who correctly identified signs and symptoms of concussion, knowledge of concussion and reasons why high school athletes would not disclose a potential concussive injury across school classification. Data were analyzed using descriptive, non-parametric, and inferential statistics. Athletes attending urban schools have less concussion knowledge than athletes attending suburban schools (p urban schools without an athletic trainer have less knowledge than urban athletes at schools with an athletic trainer (p urban schools and 10 reasons for not reporting. Concussion education efforts cannot be homogeneous in all communities. Education interventions must reflect the needs of each community. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. Suburban Families' Experience With Food Insecurity Screening in Primary Care Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Doupnik, Stephanie; Vasan, Aditi; Khan, Saba; Seifu, Leah; Feudtner, Chris; Fiks, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity (FI) remains a major public health problem. With the rise in suburban poverty, a greater understanding of parents' experiences of FI in suburban settings is needed to effectively screen and address FI in suburban practices. We conducted 23 semistructured interviews with parents of children practices and screened positive for FI. In the interviews, we elicited parents' perceptions of screening for FI, how FI impacted the family, and recommendations for how practices could more effectively address FI. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. We used a modified grounded theory approach to code the interviews inductively and identified emerging themes through an iterative process. Interviews continued until thematic saturation was achieved. Of the 23 parents interviewed, all were women, with 39% white and 39% African American. Three primary themes emerged: Parents expressed initial surprise at screening followed by comfort discussing their unmet food needs; parents experience shame, frustration, and helplessness regarding FI, but discussing FI with their clinician helped alleviate these feelings; parents suggested practices could help them more directly access food resources, which, depending on income, may not be available to them through government programs. Although most parents were comfortable discussing FI, they felt it was important for clinicians to acknowledge their frustrations with FI and facilitate access to a range of food resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Associations between injection risk and community disadvantage among suburban injection drug users in southwestern Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Robert; Barbour, Russell; Palacios, Wilson R; Nichols, Lisa G; Grau, Lauretta E

    2014-03-01

    Increases in drug abuse, injection, and opioid overdoses in suburban communities led us to study injectors residing in suburban communities in southwestern Connecticut, US. We sought to understand the influence of residence on risk and injection-associated diseases. Injectors were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and interviewed about sociodemographics, somatic and mental health, injection risk, and interactions with healthcare, harm reduction, substance abuse treatment, and criminal justice systems. HIV, hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) serological testing was also conducted. Our sample was consistent in geographic distribution and age to the general population and to the patterns of heroin-associated overdose deaths in the suburban towns. High rates of interaction with drug abuse treatment and criminal justice systems contrasted with scant use of harm reduction services. The only factors associated with both dependent variables-residence in less disadvantaged census tracts and more injection risk-were younger age and injecting in one's own residence. This contrasts with the common association among urban injectors of injection-associated risk behaviors and residence in disadvantaged communities. Poor social support and moderate/severe depression were associated with risky injection practices (but not residence in specific classes of census tracts), suggesting that a region-wide dual diagnosis approach to the expansion of harm reduction services could be effective at reducing the negative consequences of injection drug use.

  8. The Role of Satisfaction and Emotional Response in the Choice Mechanisms of Suburban Natural-Areas Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mosquera, Natalia; Sanchez, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The unique observations and experiences of users of suburban natural areas lead them to perceive their surroundings in a manner associated with their personal values. It follows that every individual has a unique cognitive decision-making structure. This paper examines users' affective and cognitive evaluation of a particular suburban natural area by applying the means-end chain method to reveal the cognitive mechanism by which users link the attributes and benefits of an environmental public good with their own personal values. Analysis of a survey conducted of visitors to a Spanish suburban natural area (park) reveals the main attributes to be the opportunity to practice sports and proximity of the park and the main potential benefits to be the improvement of physical and psychological well-being. The desired personal values include fun, quality of life and self-fulfillment at the individual level and improved social relationships at the collective level. The paper also tests for cross-group, cognitive-structure differences in visitor groups, segmented by level of satisfaction and reported range of emotions, and finds that perceived physical and psychological health improvements and individual and social awareness increase with higher levels of satisfaction and emotional response. Therefore, the recommendations for natural area management suggested by these findings include enhancing the scenic beauty and peacefulness of suburban natural areas in order to improve the affective state of visitors because this could contribute to reducing social costs (including health care) within the area of influence of the natural area.

  9. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  10. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  11. Comparing sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur'aini Nur'aini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children's physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children's sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. Howevet; there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in both

  12. Basic conditions of innovative development of Volgograd suburban zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljaev Mihail Konstantinovich

    2015-03-01

    The article identified and described the factors in the development of modern suburban zones at the macro level (international conditions, changing the types and sources of economic growth, changing the types of socio-economic systems; at the meso level (state socio-economic policy, regional socio-economic policy, the policy of local self-government; at the micro level (natural, production, research, educational, investment, infrastructure, administrative, labor, cultural-historical and information potentials. The main competitive advantages of Volgograd suburban zone are the natural and cultural-historical conditions, the main problems are organizational management, investment, research factors of development.

  13. EVALUATION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT INFLUENCE ON SUBURBAN TRAFFIC FLOW DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horbachov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Study results of the human settlement influence on the traffic flow density in suburban service of international, national and regional roads of Ukraine are presented. The possibility of an adequate description of suburban traffic flows in the vicinity of large cities is established, depending on the city population and link remoteness from the city center. The possibility is determined on the basis of obtained models to define the prognosis value of the intensity and specific maintenance of freight and passenger transport flows.

  14. Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi'an, China: The effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Cao, Junji; Dong, Zhibao; Guinot, Benjamin; Gao, Meiling; Huang, Rujin; Han, Yongming; Huang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM 2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at urban residential, commercial area, university, suburban region, and industry in Xi'an, during summer and winter time at 2013. Much higher levels of total PAHs were obtained in winter. Spatial distributions by kriging interpolations principle showed that relative high PAHs were detected in western Xi'an in both summer and winter, with decreasing trends in winter from the old city wall to the 2 nd -3rd ring road except for the suburban region and industry. Coefficients of diversity and statistics by SPSS method demonstrated that PAHs in suburban have significant differences (t < 0.05) with those in urban residential in both seasons. The positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling indicated that biomass burning (31.1%) and vehicle emissions (35.9%) were main sources for PAHs in winter and summer in urban, which different with the suburban. The coal combustion was the main source for PAHs in suburban region, which accounted for 46.6% in winter and sharp decreased to 19.2% in summer. Scattered emissions from uncontrolled coal combustion represent an important source of PAHs in suburban in winter and there were about 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for lifetime exposure at winter levels. Further studies are needed to specify the effluence of the scattered emission in suburban to the city and to develop a strategy for controlling those emissions and lighten possible health effects. - Highlights: • PM 2.5 bound PAHs were investigated in nineteen communities of Xi'an at 2013. • High amount of uncontrolled coal combustion were happened in suburban at winter. • About 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for exposure at winter. - The high contribution of coal combustion for PAHs in suburban region demonstrated the high amount of scattered emissions in winter.

  15. Determination of Habitat Requirements For Birds in Suburban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Richard M. DeGraaf; Joseph C. Mawson

    1977-01-01

    Songbird populations can be related to habitat components by a method that allows the simultaneous determination of habitat requirements for a variety of species . Through correlation and multiple-regression analyses, 10 bird species were studied in a suburban habitat, which was stratified according to human density. Variables used to account for bird distribution...

  16. Mapping the Postcolonial across Urban and Suburban College Access Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dache-Gerbino, Amalia

    2017-01-01

    In US cities, a domino effect of concentrating poverty and suburbanizing wealth shapes discourses of local higher education access for residents of color. How the racialization of space mirrors colonial binaries of Good/Evil, Black/White and Civilized/Uncivilized is part and parcel to understanding city and county geographies surrounding college…

  17. A Qualitative Exploration of Trajectories among Suburban Users of Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Harbry, Liam; Gibson, David

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to gain a better understanding of methamphetamine use among suburban users. We know very little about the mechanisms of initiation and trajectory patterns of methamphetamine use among this under-researched and hidden population. This study employed qualitative methods to examine the drug career of suburban…

  18. Suburban Development - in Search of the Language of the Suburbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    Several Danish suburbs are facing major challenges that endeavour to cope with (among other factors) counteracting the segregation of suburbs into socially sharply separated residential areas. Therefore, these years see the post-war era’s suburban areas being revitalized and urban life, urban qua...... up the discussion and the cultural mind- set related to the development of the Danish suburb....

  19. Urban and Suburban Geographies of Ageing : session 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lager, Debbie; Negrini, Chiara; van Hoven, Bettina; Schwanen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We seek to organise two sessions to explore the relationships of older people and ageing with place, with a particular focus on urban and suburban environments. Up till now, research in the field of ageing and place has been dominated by social and environmental gerontologists. Recently, Schwanen et

  20. Social and economic behavior shift in the suburban society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harianto, S.; Imron, A.; Setiawan, K. G.; Sadewo, F. X. S.

    2018-01-01

    One of the changes in the suburban area is marked by changes in land conversion, from agriculture pattern to non-farming pattern, which also affects changes in people’s livelihoods and occupation such as a craftsman and shoe trader. Using a qualitative approach, this study focuses to examine how changes in social and economic behavior of suburban communities as a result of urban development. This study founded that there was a change of livelihood in village people occupation from farmers to craftsmen and slippers traders. These changes have an impact on changing patterns of social relationships such as social interaction, social awareness, and social solidarity. In addition, the increase in income of village residents also impact on lifestyle changes such as diet and entertainment. Thus it can be concluded that urban development has an impact on suburban societies in social relations and income generation. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the city government and district governments in arranging the layout and build prosperity of the community suburban.

  1. Sustainable School Improvement: Suburban Elementary Principals' Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of intense pressures to ensure long-term education reforms have created a challenge for school leaders as they direct and nurture the abilities of others. The purpose of this research was to understand and describe suburban elementary principals' practices and perceptions as change leaders related to capacity building through the…

  2. Analysis of pellets from a suburban Common Kestrel Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of a Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in a suburban area of Algiers at El Harrach was determined by pellet analysis over two years. In both years, the hybrid sparrow (Passer domesticus x P. hispaniolensis) was the main prey item, based on relative frequency (22.3% and 58.7% in 1999 and 2000, respectively).

  3. Is there a suburban sleeping sickness in Libreville? | Kohagne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The transmission of sleeping sickness occurs primarily in rural areas, and exposed populations are those living from rural activities such as agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry or hunting. However, urban and suburban foci are more and more reported in T. b. gambiense areas. In Libreville town, sleeping ...

  4. Suburban fragmentation versus mobilities : is suburbanism opposed to urbanism ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Charmes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The suburban way of life is tending towards a rejection of tangible confrontation with otherness so that other people – should they be different – become politically invisible. This is at any rate what the critical literature surmises about the growing desire of suburbanites to live amongst their own and sometimes even behind the safe and reassuring walls of gated communities. However appealing this analysis might be, it seems nonetheless rather partial. Suburban populations are increasingly mobile and their everyday horizon is less and less reduced to the immediate perimeter of the neighbourhood. Indeed, how can one interpret the social specialization of residential areas as a sign of “enclavism” when all the statistics available indicate that mobility has become a constitutive factor of people’s way of life and the neighbourhood has all but lost its existential weight?Based on exploratory work, this paper aims to deconstruct the criticism articulated around the opposition of “suburbanism” and “urbanism” by emphasising the effects of the various forms of mobility and showing that they complement the proliferation of homogeneous neighbourhoods. In order to achieve this goal, the paper analyses the culture of people living at the periphery of two large French cities (Paris and Lyon. The arguments given are based both on the existing literature and on research the author carried out in France (Charmes, 2005.As a result of the analysis conducted, it becomes apparent that the increase in mobilities and the social homogenisation of neighbourhoods can be linked in other ways than the one suggested by the critical literature. On the one hand, contemporary residential areas are not as neutral and sterile as they appear to be. Relationships between neighbours and interactions with people from the surroundings constitute at least an embryonic experience of otherness. Residential areas can therefore be conceived as “transition spaces

  5. The Suburban Press; First Steps toward an Annotated Bibliography. Suburban Press Research Series No. 16 and 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Suburban Press Research Center.

    This bibliography lists journal articles concerning various aspects of the suburban press. Annotated selections, arranged alphabetically according to journal title, are gathered from the following periodicals: "Advertising Age,""Business Week,""Columbia Journalism Review,""Editor and Publisher,""Grassroots Editor,""Journalism…

  6. Pig Farmers' Homes Harbor More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Stables or Suburban Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Ditte V; Holst, Gitte J; Basinas, Ioannis; Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Linneberg, Allan; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Sigsgaard, Torben; Marshall, Ian P G

    2018-01-01

    Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building's occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect. However, the composition of this beneficial microbial community has still not been identified. We sampled settled airborne dust using a passive dust sampler from Danish pig stables, associated farmers' homes, and from suburban homes (267 samples in total) and carried out quantitative PCR measurements of bacterial abundance and MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes found in these samples. Airborne bacteria had a greater diversity and were significantly more abundant in pig stables and farmers' homes than suburban homes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P < 0.05). Moreover, bacterial taxa previously suggested to contribute to a protective effect had significantly higher relative and absolute abundance in pig stables and farmers' homes than in suburban homes (ALDEx2 with P < 0.05), including Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium , and Lactobacillus . Pig stables had significantly lower airborne bacterial diversity than farmers' homes, and there was no discernable direct transfer of airborne bacteria from stable to home. This study identifies differences in indoor airborne bacterial communities that may be an important component of this putative protective effect, while showing that pig stables themselves do not appear to

  7. Biomonitoring of pollen grains of a river bank suburban city, Konnagar, Calcutta, India, and its link and impact on local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-05-01

    Bio-monitoring, together with statistical and biochemical results, leave no doubt about the role of pollen as a bio-pollutant. General knowledge about pollen allergy and specific allergenic pollen grains of a particular locality could be a good step towards better health for the cosmopolitan suburban city.

  8. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marique, Anne-Francoise, E-mail: afmarique@ulg.ac.be; Reiter, Sigrid, E-mail: Sigrid.Reiter@ulg.ac.be

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  9. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marique, Anne-Françoise; Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: ► The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. ► Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. ► Energy savings can be achieved by reducing distances to travel through a good mix between activities at the

  10. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoans among Schoolchildren in Suburban Areas near Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Song, Hyemi; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Cho, Seon; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-06-01

    Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.

  12. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  13. Nutrient fluxes from coastal California catchments with suburban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Leydecker, A.; Beighley, E.; Robinson, T.; Coombs, S.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous streams originate in the mountains fringing California's coast and transport nutrients into coastal waters. In central California, these streams traverse catchments with land covers including chaparral, grazed grasslands, orchards, industrial agriculture and suburban and urban development. Fluvial nutrient concentrations and fluxes vary as a function of these land covers and as a function of considerable fluctuations in rainfall. As part of a long-term investigation of mobilization and fluvial transport of nutrients in catchments bordering the Santa Barbara Channel we have intensively sampled nutrient concentrations and measured discharge during storm and base flows in multiple catchments and subcatchments. Volume-weighted mean concentrations of nitrate generally ranged from 5 to 25 micromolar in undeveloped areas, increased to about 100 micromolar for suburban and most agricultural catchments, and were in excess of 1000 micromolar in catchments with greenhouse-based agriculture. Phosphate concentrations ranged from 2 to 20 micromolar among the catchments. These data are used to examine the premise that the suburbanized portion of the catchments is the primary source of nutrients to the streams.

  14. Russian Specifics of Dacha Suburbanization Process: Case Study of the Moscow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Valer’evich Rusanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Topical issues related to the planning of urban agglomerations development include registration and analysis of changes in suburban areas in the process of socio-economic development. It is manifest, among other things, in urbanization, which in relation to larger cities is replaced by suburbanization. Suburbanization process has been developing to the greatest extent in North America and Western Europe. Scientific research confirms that the majority of large urban agglomerations are in the stage of suburbanization. The pace of suburbanization in the world is different – the authorities of individual countries, regions or cities often take measures to limit or simplify it: they reconstruct central cities, set limits to the construction in peripheral areas, etc. In Russia, the process of suburbanization started to develop rapidly only after the socio-economic transformation of the 1990s that led to the emergence of the free market of housing and land. The aim of the present work is to determine the specifics of suburbanization in Russia on the example of the Moscow Region. Suburbanization in Russia is mainly seasonal; therefore, the paper examines suburbanization specific for Russia and related to the distribution of population and its economic activities in the organized summer house settlements in suburban areas, i.e. in dachas. A kind of this activity popular in Russia is gardening and vegetable and fruit farming in the settlements located on specially designated lands. The paper examines the factors determining suburbanization in the Moscow Region, and demonstrates the influence of these factors taking two key areas as examples. Scientific novelty of the work consists in the fact that it clarifies the content of suburbanization factors as applied to the Moscow Region; in addition, it considers the development of dacha-related suburbanization, highlights its characteristics on the example of the Moscow Region, examines current distribution

  15. Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: A study based on GIS and multivariate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Celine Siu-lan; Li Xiangdong; Shi Wenzhong; Cheung, Sharon Ching-nga; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    The urban environment quality is of vital importance as the majority of people now live in cities. Due to the continuous urbanisation and industrialisation in many parts of the world, metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat on human health. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanised and commercialised Hong Kong Island area (80.3 km 2 ) of Hong Kong using a systematic sampling strategy of five soil samples per km 2 in urban areas and two samples per km 2 in the suburban and country park sites (0-15 cm). The analytical results indicated that the surface soils in urban and suburban areas are enriched with metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Pb concentration in the urban soils was found to exceed the Dutch target value. The statistical analyses using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed distinctly different associations among trace metals and the major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the urban, suburban, and country park soils. Soil pollution maps of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. The hot-spot areas of metal contamination were mainly concentrated in the northern and western parts of Hong Kong Island, and closely related to high traffic conditions. The Pb isotopic composition of the urban, suburban, and country park soils showed that vehicular emissions were the major anthropogenic sources for Pb. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in soils decreased as Pb concentrations increased in a polynomial line (degree = 2)

  16. Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases: Urban-Suburban Differences in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the relationships between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 and hospital emergency room visits (ERVs for respiratory diseases from 2013 to 2014 was performed in both urban and suburban areas of Jinan, a heavily air-polluted city in Eastern China. This research was analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM with Poisson regression, which controls for long-time trends, the “day of the week” effect and meteorological parameters. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.7%, 2.1%, 1.2% (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.9%, and 2.5% (95%: 0.8%, 4.2% growth in ERVs for the urban population, respectively, and a 1.5% (95%: 0.4%, 2.6%, 0.8% (95%: −0.7%, 2.3%, and 3.1% (95%: 0.5%, 5.7% rise in ERVs for the suburban population, respectively. It was found that females were more susceptible than males to air pollution in the urban area when the analysis was stratified by gender, and the reverse result was seen in the suburban area. Our results suggest that the increase in ERVs for respiratory illnesses is linked to the levels of air pollutants in Jinan, and there may be some urban-suburban discrepancies in health outcomes from air pollutant exposure.

  17. A population based survey on knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in the suburban females of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza Rafi Baig; Vikneswari Subramaniam; Annaliza Anusha Chandrasegar; Tahir Mehmood Khan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Globally breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and a major public health challenge to women health. Malaysia is also one of the Asian nations that is facing the dilemma breast cancer with an Age Standardised Rate (ASR) of female breast cancer among Malaysian women was 47.4 per 100,000 populations. Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge and awareness of Breast Cancer among the women of different age groups and various races in the sub-urban town of Sungai Petani, Malaysia...

  18. The Housing Pattern and Entrepreneurship in Polish Suburban Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk-Peczek, Justyna; Peczek, Grzegorz; Martyniuk, Olga

    2017-10-01

    Housing stimulates the development of SMEs (small and medium enterprises) in the suburbs. The multidisciplinary research in fields of urban planning and economics, carried out by the Authors, confirms this trend. The purpose of this paper is to present the multidisciplinary results of the research on the determinants of SME localization in the suburban areas of Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot (the Metropolitan Area Gdansk-Gdynia-Sopot - MAGGS). Many of researchers attach great significance to the term of urban sprawl. Most authors agree that this phenomenon is multidimensional. It also varies in the global perspective. The conducted research showed that urban sprawl in Poland had a positive impact on the development of entrepreneurship, leading to a situation when the SME location quotient (LQ) in some suburban areas is higher, in comparison to the core city itself. The communities characterized by an LQ significantly higher than in the core city have been identified by Authors as ‘entrepreneurship nests’. To identify the research problem, a two-pronged research in the fields of urban and architectural design as well as economics was adopted. The charter of suburban landscape was determined by site analysis and through a study of the architectural form. The results confirmed that more than 80% of the parcels, which encompass economic activity, also exhibit a residential function. Our study confirms that urban sprawl, with its characteristic housing patterns, stimulates business activity in the suburbs. According to our results, this phenomenon is not only determined by financial factors, but also results from social and spatial reasons.

  19. Integrated Rolling Stock Planning for Suburban Passenger Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    used, the result being the loss of optimality. The talk will present a new, integrated rolling stock planning model in which the many requirements are handled all at the same time. Preliminary results from DSB S-tog, the suburban train operator of the City of Copenhagen will also be presented.......A central issue for operators of passenger trains is providing sufficient number of seats while minimising operating costs. This process must be conducted taking a large number of practical, railway oriented requirements into account. Because of this complexity, a stepwise solution was previously...

  20. Is there a risk of suburban transmission of malaria in Selangor, Malaysia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil A Braima

    Full Text Available The suburban transmission of malaria in Selangor, Malaysia's most developed and populous state still remains a concern for public health in this region. Despite much successful control efforts directed at its reduction, sporadic cases, mostly brought in by foreigners have continued to occur. In addition, cases of simian malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, some with fatal outcome have caused grave concern to health workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of local malaria transmission in suburban regions of Selangor, which are adjacent to secondary rainforests.A malaria survey spanning 7 years (2006 - 2012 was conducted in Selangor. A total of 1623 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported from Selangor's nine districts. While 72.6% of these cases (1178/1623 were attributed to imported malaria (cases originating from other countries, 25.5% (414/1623 were local cases and 1.9% (31/1623 were considered as relapse and unclassified cases combined. In this study, the most prevalent infection was P. vivax (1239 cases, prevalence 76.3% followed by P. falciparum (211, 13.0%, P. knowlesi (75, 4.6%, P. malariae (71, 4.4% and P. ovale (1, 0.06%. Mixed infections comprising of P. vivax and P. falciparum were confirmed (26, 1.6%. Entomological surveys targeting the residences of malaria patients' showed that the most commonly trapped Anopheles species was An. maculatus. No oocysts or sporozoites were found in the An. maculatus collected. Nevertheless, the possibility of An. maculatus being the malaria vector in the investigated locations was high due to its persistent occurrence in these areas.Malaria cases reported in this study were mostly imported cases. However the co-existence of local cases and potential Plasmodium spp. vectors should be cause for concern. The results of this survey reflect the need of maintaining closely monitored malaria control programs and continuous extensive malaria surveillance in Peninsula

  1. Is there a risk of suburban transmission of malaria in Selangor, Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braima, Kamil A; Sum, Jia-Siang; Ghazali, Amir-Ridhwan M; Muslimin, Mustakiza; Jeffery, John; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Shaker, Mohammed R; Elamin, Alaa-Eldeen M; Jamaiah, Ibrahim; Lau, Yee-Ling; Rohela, Mahmud; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Sitam, Frankie; Mohd-Noh, Rosnida; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2013-01-01

    The suburban transmission of malaria in Selangor, Malaysia's most developed and populous state still remains a concern for public health in this region. Despite much successful control efforts directed at its reduction, sporadic cases, mostly brought in by foreigners have continued to occur. In addition, cases of simian malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, some with fatal outcome have caused grave concern to health workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of local malaria transmission in suburban regions of Selangor, which are adjacent to secondary rainforests. A malaria survey spanning 7 years (2006 - 2012) was conducted in Selangor. A total of 1623 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported from Selangor's nine districts. While 72.6% of these cases (1178/1623) were attributed to imported malaria (cases originating from other countries), 25.5% (414/1623) were local cases and 1.9% (31/1623) were considered as relapse and unclassified cases combined. In this study, the most prevalent infection was P. vivax (1239 cases, prevalence 76.3%) followed by P. falciparum (211, 13.0%), P. knowlesi (75, 4.6%), P. malariae (71, 4.4%) and P. ovale (1, 0.06%). Mixed infections comprising of P. vivax and P. falciparum were confirmed (26, 1.6%). Entomological surveys targeting the residences of malaria patients' showed that the most commonly trapped Anopheles species was An. maculatus. No oocysts or sporozoites were found in the An. maculatus collected. Nevertheless, the possibility of An. maculatus being the malaria vector in the investigated locations was high due to its persistent occurrence in these areas. Malaria cases reported in this study were mostly imported cases. However the co-existence of local cases and potential Plasmodium spp. vectors should be cause for concern. The results of this survey reflect the need of maintaining closely monitored malaria control programs and continuous extensive malaria surveillance in Peninsula Malaysia.

  2. Suburban Poverty: Barriers to Services and Injury Prevention among Marginalized Women Who Use Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeri, Miriam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to identify the needed healthcare and social services barriers for women living in suburban communities who are using or have used methamphetamine. Drug users are vulnerable to injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases, and having access to healthcare has been shown to positively influence prevention and intervention among this population. Yet little is known regarding the social context of suburban drug users, their risks behaviors, and their access to healthcare.Methods: The data collection involved participant observation in the field, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Audio-recorded in-depth life histories, drug use histories, and resource needs were collected from 31 suburban women who were former or current users of methamphetamine. The majority was drawn from marginalized communities and highly vulnerable to risk for injury and violence. We provided these women with healthcare and social service information and conducted follow-up interviews to identify barriers to these services.Results: Barriers included (1 restrictions imposed by the services and (2 limitations inherent in the women’s social, economic, or legal situations. We found that the barriers increased the women’s risk for further injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases. Women who could not access needed healthcare and social resources typically used street drugs that were accessible and affordable to self-medicate their untreated emotional and physical pain.Conclusion: Our findings add to the literatureon how healthcare and social services are related to injury prevention. Social service providers in the suburbs were often indifferent to the needs of drug-using women. For these women, health services were accessed primarily at emergency departments (ED. To break the cycle of continued drug use, violence and injury, we suggest that ED staff be trained to perform substance abuse assessments and provide

  3. Pig Farmers’ Homes Harbor More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Stables or Suburban Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte V. Vestergaard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building’s occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect. However, the composition of this beneficial microbial community has still not been identified. We sampled settled airborne dust using a passive dust sampler from Danish pig stables, associated farmers’ homes, and from suburban homes (267 samples in total and carried out quantitative PCR measurements of bacterial abundance and MiSeq sequencing of the V3–V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes found in these samples. Airborne bacteria had a greater diversity and were significantly more abundant in pig stables and farmers’ homes than suburban homes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P < 0.05. Moreover, bacterial taxa previously suggested to contribute to a protective effect had significantly higher relative and absolute abundance in pig stables and farmers’ homes than in suburban homes (ALDEx2 with P < 0.05, including Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium, and Lactobacillus. Pig stables had significantly lower airborne bacterial diversity than farmers’ homes, and there was no discernable direct transfer of airborne bacteria from stable to home. This study identifies differences in indoor airborne bacterial communities that may be an important component of this putative protective effect, while showing that pig stables

  4. Pig Farmers’ Homes Harbor More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Stables or Suburban Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Ditte V.; Holst, Gitte J.; Basinas, Ioannis; Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Linneberg, Allan; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Sigsgaard, Torben; Marshall, Ian P. G.

    2018-01-01

    Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building’s occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect. However, the composition of this beneficial microbial community has still not been identified. We sampled settled airborne dust using a passive dust sampler from Danish pig stables, associated farmers’ homes, and from suburban homes (267 samples in total) and carried out quantitative PCR measurements of bacterial abundance and MiSeq sequencing of the V3–V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes found in these samples. Airborne bacteria had a greater diversity and were significantly more abundant in pig stables and farmers’ homes than suburban homes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P < 0.05). Moreover, bacterial taxa previously suggested to contribute to a protective effect had significantly higher relative and absolute abundance in pig stables and farmers’ homes than in suburban homes (ALDEx2 with P < 0.05), including Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium, and Lactobacillus. Pig stables had significantly lower airborne bacterial diversity than farmers’ homes, and there was no discernable direct transfer of airborne bacteria from stable to home. This study identifies differences in indoor airborne bacterial communities that may be an important component of this putative protective effect, while showing that pig stables themselves do not appear

  5. Influence patterns of transportation parameters in suburban traffic on fatigue of passengers during bus waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of transport fatigue of suburban traffic passengers during waiting transport waiting is investigated. The results of the processing site examinations allow defining the regularities of the influence of parameters of transportation process of passengers to change index activity of regulatory systems in passenger waiting at stopping points of suburban traffic. The discovered patterns were mathematically formalized

  6. Education of Non-European Ancestry Immigrant Students in Suburban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodavaram, Mary P.; Jones, Lisa A.; Weaver, Laurie R.; Marquez, Judith A.; Ensle, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine suburban high school teachers' beliefs about non-European ancestry immigrant students; more specifically, suburban teachers' beliefs regarding the impact of students' cultural backgrounds on academic performance were examined. Non-European ancestry immigrant students are those students whose ancestral…

  7. HOME RANGE AND HABITAT USE OF SUBURBAN RED-SHOULDERED HAWKS IN SOUTHWESTERN OHIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suburban habitats may provide different resources and different challenges to raptors than do more traditional, rural habitats. Suburban red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) of the eastern subspecies have been little studied. We measured the home ranges and habitat use of 11 su...

  8. Moving on Up: Urban to Suburban Translocation Experiences of High-Achieving Black American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Seeberg, Vilma; Malone, Larissa

    2017-01-01

    Minority suburbanization has been a fast growing demographic shift in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century. This article examines the tapestry of the suburbanization experience of a group of high-achieving Black American students and their families as told by them. Departing from the all too common, deficit orientation…

  9. UNDERSTANDING VISITOR EXPERIENCES AND MOTIVATIONS IN SUBURBAN TAIPEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Tzu Lucetta TSAI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to cultivate higher-qualified human resources within the tourism field and provide plaining and developing direction based on the understanding of tourism features in San-ying area. There is a growing research interest in understanding the individual consumer's preferences, as well as management approaches of experiences and therefore, it has explored the understanding of the many different facets of experiences in tourism and hispitality business in suburban Taipei in particular the impact of the Sanxia and Yingge area. There is an attempt to examine the service quality of tourist attractions, moreover, the perceptions and travel experiences of tourists who visit Sanxia and Yingge area. Tourism and hospitality business in Sanxia and Yingge area present culture images and this study has discussed how this has influenced tourists' experiences, motivation and consumer behavior during their visit.

  10. Pseudo natural colour aerial imagery for urban and suburban mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Due to their near-infrared data channel, digital airborne four-channel imagers provide a potentially good discrimination between vegetation and human-made materials, which is very useful in automated mapping. Due to their red, green and blue data channels, they also provide natural colour images......, which are very useful in traditional (manual) mapping. In this paper, an algorithm is described which provides an approximation to the spectral capabilities of the four-channel imagers by using a colour-infrared aerial photo as input. The algorithm is tailored to urban/suburban surroundings, where...... the quality of the generated (pseudo) natural colour images are fully acceptable for manual mapping. This brings the combined availability of near-infrared and (pseudo) natural colours within reach for mapping projects based on traditional photogrammetry, which is valuable since traditional analytical cameras...

  11. Suburbanization, Intra-Urban Mobility and Homeownership Aspirations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe

    construction of housing, financed, built and inhabited by individual residents, who are predominantly long-term urban residents moving from central parts of the city and who are engaging in urban-based livelihood activities, which are often critically reliant on daily or regular mobility and access to central...... parts of the city. The findings highlight residents’ search for affordable urban housing as well as intra-urban residential mobility as central dynamics in urban expansion. The thesis also highlights how the on-going transformation processes differ from common conceptions of suburbanization in important......Urban expansion is a significant trend in cities of Africa, but the processes and dynamics of urban expansion are still understudied and poorly understood. This PhD thesis presents an explorative study of the processes and dynamics of urban expansion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The research...

  12. Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

    2005-01-01

    We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  13. Urban Sprawl Impact on Farmland Conversion in Suburban Area of Wroclaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecka, Iga; Sylla, Marta; Świąder, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    The developments in suburban areas are changing the peri-urban landscape, by transforming the agricultural land into discontinuous urban fabric. Tracking these changes requires different approaches. The aim of the research is to identify the spatial development of suburban zone with the use of the spatial information-based approach of estimating the location of suburban plots. The authors introduced parameters describing the building plots for single family housing in the suburban areas on the example of the surrounding municipalities of the city of Wrocław, Poland. Landscape metrics tools were used to delineate the suburban plots not identified by Corine Land Cover 2012. The results were verified with the use of the prices and values register for real estates. The results show that there is an increasing pressure on farmland conversion into suburban areas expressed by the number of transactions and the total areas of sold housing plots. The plots that have been purchased for the single-family housing between 2004 and 2016 constitute about 10 % of all existing plots. About 42 % of suburban properties are designed in the distance not exceeding 3 km from the existing settlements; they are, however, not connected by infrastructure with other build-up areas.

  14. The Regulation and Improvement of Suburban Landless Peasants’ Community in the Charge of the Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suburban landless peasants’ communities are both the transfiguration in the passive urbanization and transformation in the leading of governments. The specificity of suburban landless peasants community-generated determines the specificity in governing. The deficiency of well governance mechanisms, the scarcity of citizen spirit, the low level of self-organization and the deficiency of social capital in suburban landless peasants’ community in the charge of the government bring about a serious of developing dilemma. The regulation and improvement of government should embark on reconstructive governance mechanisms, straighten out organizational system; Cultivating citizen spirit, promoting public participation; Remodeling social capital, tamping autonomy foundation.

  15. An assessment of transit ridership: increased suburban to urban public transportation options in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Suburban development is occurring near urban areas across America. Often these communities are : separated by large masses of land with no linkage to the urban core. Referred to as urban sprawl, this type : of development causes a challenge for trans...

  16. Suburban poverty, public transit, economic opportunities, and social mobility : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Recent demographic trends suggest an increasing suburbanization of poor populations. Given that poor : households are often unable to afford increasing housing prices in many urban areas they are increasingly : moving to the suburbs. At the same time...

  17. Urban and suburban lifestyles and residential preferences in a highly urbanized society

    OpenAIRE

    Pisman, Ann; Allaert, Georges; Lombaerde, Piet

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognized that cities nowadays are confronted with (new) challenges like segregation and suburbanisation. This paper explores the idea that these processes are related with residential choices (or preferences) made by residents with divergent lifestyles and value patterns. The paper focuses on differences between urban and suburban lifestyles and residential preferences. Firstly the concept of lifestyles in general, and urban and suburban lifestyles more specifically, are approa...

  18. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Shaofei; Ji Yaqin; Liu Lingling; Chen Li; Zhao Xueyan; Wang Jiajun; Bai Zhipeng; Sun Zengrong

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in suburban farmland, vegetable, orchard and wasteland soils of Tianjin were obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis in 2009. Results showed that total PAEs varied from 0.05 to 10.4 μg g −1 , with the median value as 0.32 μg g −1 . Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate are most abundant species. PAEs concentrations for the four types of soils exhibited decreasing order as vegetable soil > wasteland soil > farmland soil > orchard soil. PAEs exhibited elevated levels in more developed regions when compared with other studies. The agricultural plastic film could elevate the PAEs contents in soils. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products and plasticizers were important sources for PAEs in suburban soils in Tianjin. The higher PAEs contents in wasteland soils from suburban area should be paid more attention owing to large amounts of solid wastes appeared with the ongoing urbanization. - Highlights: ► PAEs levels in four types of soils in suburban area of Tianjin were studied. ► Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations. ► PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention. - (1) Vegetable soil and wasteland soil exhibited higher PAEs concentrations; (2) PAEs in wasteland soils from suburban area of cities in China should be paid attention.

  19. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  20. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  1. Critical Chemistry Education in a Private, Suburban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Patrick; Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2018-01-01

    This critical ethnography documents how a group of 25 students and their teacher/researcher in a suburban, private school setting, the vast majority from the dominant cultural background, engaged with and enacted a critical chemistry education together. Critical chemistry education contextualizes chemistry in socially relevant issues and problematizes participants' conceptual frameworks for understanding the intersections between chemistry and our capitalist society by identifying the shortcomings of traditional scientific language to sufficiently interrogate privilege and oppression. Qualitative data from teacher/researcher field notes and journal, classroom video transcripts, questionnaires, focus group interviews, and student artifacts document that while it is difficult for the teacher/researcher and the students of this setting to reflect upon their own positions of privilege, together they interpreted and made meaning of their experience by (1) developing the ability to critically analyze the products of science for the potential of oppression, (2) developing an understanding of inequity in science, and (3) evaluating and respecting diverse knowledge bases. Based on the findings, we suggest students should be encouraged to problematize socially situated science issues related to settings close to their own communities, students should participate in structured and purposeful journaling to improve their metacognition and critical reflexivity, and critical pedagogues must be explicit with students in their Marxist-based interpretation of the global capitalist super structure.

  2. Management effect on bird and arthropod interaction in suburban woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Experiments from a range of ecosystems have shown that insectivorous birds are important in controlling the populations of their invertebrate prey. Here, we report on a large field experiment testing the hypothesis that management for enhancing recreational values in suburban woodlands affects the intensity of bird predation on canopy-living arthropods. Bird exclosures were used in two types of management (understory clearance and dense understory) at two foraging heights in oak Quercus robur canopies and the experiment was replicated at two sites. Results The biomass and abundance of arthropods were high on net-enclosed branches but strongly reduced on control branches in both types of management. In woods with dense understory, the effect of bird predation on arthropod abundance was about twice as high as in woods with understory clearance. The effect of bird predation on arthropod biomass was not significantly affected by management. Conclusions Our data provide experimental evidence to support the idea that bird predation on arthropods can be affected by forest management. We suggest that the mechanism is twofold: reduction of bird abundance and shift of foraging behaviour. In urban woodlands, there may be a management trade-off between enhancing recreational values and promoting bird predation rates on arthropods. PMID:21362174

  3. Suburban creativity: The geography of creative industriesin Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory James J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is an increasing scholarly focus for urban and economic geographers. The aim in this paper is to contribute to what is so far mainly a Northern literature around the locational characteristics of creative industries. The results are analysed from a comprehensive audit undertaken of creative industries in Johannesburg, South Africa’s leading economic hub. In common with certain other investigations of creative industries the largest component of enterprises in Johannesburg is creative services involving the production of goods or services for functional purposes. An aggregate picture emerges of the geography of creative industries in Johannesburg as strongly focused in suburban areas rather than the inner-city and its fringe areas. Nevertheless, certain differences are observed across the eight categories of creative industries. The evidence concerning the spatial distribution of creative industries in Johannesburg provides a further case for re-positioning the suburbs in post-Fordist debates around creative city economies and for re-examining neo-liberal cultural policies that preference inner-city areas.

  4. Serum uric acid is associated with dietary and lifestyle factors in elderly women in suburban Guangzhou in Guangdong province of south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z; Zhu, C; Qian, X; Zhu, J; Wu, Z; Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and lifestyle risk factors for hyperuricemia in elderly women. Cross-sectional study. The suburban area of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China. The study included 856 Chinese women aged 60 to 102 years who received their annual health examinations in the suburban area of Guangzhou, south China in 2002. Information on anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors were obtained via a questionnaire processed by the attending physicians or nurses. Blood biochemistry was performed after subjects fasted for 8-14 h. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between hyperuricemia, meat intake quintiles, physical activity quintiles, and alcohol intake quintiles. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the studied population was 12.01%. Alcohol, meat and seafood consumption; being overweight or obese; hypertension; and abnormal triglyceride levels were strongly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia. Physical activity was inversely related to the prevalence of hyperuricemia. The odds ratios for hyperuricemia for quintiles of physical activity were 1.00, 0.74, 0.72, 0.63, and 0.55 (P<0.01). Our data suggest that the prevalence of hyperuricemia is high in elderly women in suburban Guangzhou in Guangdong province of South China. Obesity, meat and seafood intake and alcohol consumption are associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia, whereas daily physical activity is inversely related to the prevalence of hyperuricemia.

  5. Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baby John

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups. Design and methods. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal, Tiruchengode (suburban and Erode (urban, Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT, decayed and filled teeth (dft and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results. The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001 between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001 in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018 in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational

  6. Suburban immigrants to wildlands disrupt honest signaling in ultra-violet plumage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tringali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes habitat in a multitude of ways, including altering food availability. Access to human-provided food can change the relationship between body condition and honest advertisements of fitness, which may result in changes to behavior, demography, and metapopulation dynamics. We compared plumage color, its relationship with body condition and feather growth, and use as signal of dominance between a suburban and a wildland population of Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens. Although plumage color was not related to body condition at either site, suburban birds had plumage with a greater proportion of total reflectance in the ultra-violet (UV and peak reflectance at shorter wavelengths. Despite the use of plumage reflectance as a signal of dominance among individuals in the wildlands, we found no evidence of status signaling at the suburban site. However, birds emigrating from the suburban site to the wildland site tended to be more successful at acquiring breeder status but less successful at reproducing than were immigrants from an adjacent wildland site, suggesting that signaled and realized quality differ. These differences in signaling content among populations could have demographic effects at metapopulation scales and may represent an evolutionary trap whereby suburban immigrants are preferred as mates even though their reproductive success relative to effort is lower.

  7. Social competence promotion with inner-city and suburban young adolescents: effects on social adjustment and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M; Weissberg, R P; Grober, J S; Sivo, P J; Grady, K; Jacoby, C

    1992-02-01

    This study assessed the impact of school-based social competence training on skills, social adjustment, and self-reported substance use of 282 sixth and seventh graders. Training emphasized broad-based competence promotion in conjunction with domain-specific application to substance abuse prevention. The 20-session program comprised six units: stress management, self-esteem, problem solving, substances and health information, assertiveness, and social networks. Findings indicated positive training effects on Ss' skills in handling interpersonal problems and coping with anxiety. Teacher ratings revealed improvements in Ss' constructive conflict resolution with peers, impulse control, and popularity. Self-report ratings indicated gains in problem-solving efficacy. Results suggest some preventive impact on self-reported substance use intentions and excessive alcohol use. In general, the program was found to be beneficial for both inner-city and suburban students.

  8. Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, K P; Priya, P R Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A K

    2015-02-20

    The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent's education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents' income. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents' educational status and mass media influenced the oral health of these children but

  9. Critical Science Education in a Suburban High School Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Patrick

    To improve students' scientific literacy and their general perceptions of chemistry, I enacted critical chemistry education (CCE) in two "regular level" chemistry classes with a group of 25 students in a suburban, private high school as part of this study. CCE combined the efforts of critical science educators (Fusco & Calabrese Barton, 2001; Gilbert 2013) with the performance expectations of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2013a) to critically transform the traditional chemistry curriculum at this setting. Essentially, CCE engages students in the critical exploration of socially situated chemistry content knowledge and requires them to demonstrate this knowledge through the practices of science. The purpose of this study was to gauge these students development of chemistry content knowledge, chemistry interest, and critical scientific literacy (CSL) as they engaged in CCE. CSL was a construct developed for this study that necessarily combined the National Research Center's (2012) definition of scientific literacy with a critical component. As such, CSL entailed demonstrating content knowledge through the practices of science as well as the ability to critically analyze the intersections between science content and socially relevant issues. A mixed methods, critical ethnographic approach framed the collection of data from open-ended questionnaires, focus group interviews, Likert surveys, pre- and post unit tests, and student artifacts. These data revealed three main findings: (1) students began to develop CSL in specific, significant ways working through the activities of CCE, (2) student participants of CCE developed a comparable level of chemistry content understanding to students who participated in a traditional chemistry curriculum, and (3) CCE developed a group of students' perceptions of interest in chemistry. In addition to being able to teach students discipline specific content knowledge, the implications of this study are

  10. BREAKFAST HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SUBURBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Widyanti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Academic performance is affected by a numbers of factors. Age, gender, nutritional status, and breakfast habits are some factors that have relation with academic performance. Nutritional statues among school children still to be concerned. Breakfast habit is important thing to do before school to maintain enough calories to study and work well. The aim of this study was to determine the association of breakfast habits and academic performance especially in suburban elementary school children. An analytic cross sectional study conducted in children aged 6-12 years who studied at SD 1 Taro, Gianyar regency, Bali. There were 178 students participated in this study. We found 3 factors associated with academic performance i.e. breakfast, gender, and age with OR=2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.66, P=0.02; OR=0.32 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.70, P=0.04; OR=6.52 (95% CI 2.73 to 15.53, P<0.0001, respectively. We conclude there was an association between breakfast habits and academic performance. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. Identification of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand and their potential for ozone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Tajima, Yosuke; Khunchornyakong, Alisa; Kato, Shungo; Sharp, Alice; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) was carried out in suburban Bangkok during July 2-8, 2008. Analysis was performed using GC-FID and GC-MS. High mixing ratios of VOCs detected during the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emissions. Averaged VOC mixing ratios revealed distinct difference between mixing ratios of weekdays and weekend, which the latter were found to be lower. The most abundance species were propane and toluene. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggested that additional toluene mixing ratios was owing to industrial emission, which was particularly larger during weekdays. Comparison between C2Cl4 and CH3Cl mixing ratios obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal a relatively lower influence of biomass burning than suburban Bangkok. Elucidating by Ozone Formation Potential, toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m-,p-xylene, and propylene.

  12. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  13. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-03-01

    The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04-9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.35, respectively), unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09-6.09), living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.19), are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71-11.82), were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66-21.67), and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46-19.89) and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51-91.99). Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment, have a history of previous

  14. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrugresistant tuberculosis among Malaysians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorsuzana Mohd Shariff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04–9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24–17.35, respectively, unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09–6.09, living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08–6.19, are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71–11.82, were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66–21.67, and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46–19.89 and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51–91.99. Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment

  15. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand: characteristics and influence from combustion related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, J.; Tajima, Y.; Kato, S.; Khunchornyakong, A.; Sharp, A.; Kajii, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Elucidation of air quality in the suburban area of Bangkok, Thailand is essential in order to achieve effective regulations and mitigation strategies. VOCs plays important role in formation of tropospheric urban ozone. Without overkill NO concentration, transport of O3 precursors into suburban area which add surplus to local O3 formation as well as direct transport of O3 itself results in relatively higher total O3 observed in suburban area rather than urban. Whole air canister sampling was carried out in the suburban Bangkok during 2008, July 2-7. 4 samples per day were collected at 30 min passes 6, 12, 17, 21 hours with sampling time of 1 min. Analysis was achieved by using GC-FID and GC-MS. High concentrations of VOCs detected during the peak periods in the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emission. Averaged VOCs concentrations, reveal distinct different between data measured for weekday and weekend which the latter were found with lower concentrations. No difference was found for CFCs which the levels are also comparable to global background level reported by World Meteorological Organization. The most abundance species have found to be propane and toluene with averaged concentration of 3100 and 2891 pptv, respectively. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggest additional concentration owing to industrial emission, of which particularly larger during the weekday. Comparison with C2Cl4 and CH3Cl concentrations obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal relatively higher influence of biomass burning at suburban Bangkok. In order to estimate the role of the different VOCs towards tropospheric ozone formation, ozone formation potential was calculated using maximum incremental reactivity. Toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m,p-xylene, and propylene.

  16. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  17. Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: urban, suburban, and rural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.

  18. Contested Cowboys: Ethnic Mexican Charros and the Struggle for Suburban Public Space in 1970s Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    While most studies of Mexican American suburbanization since the 1970s focus on the transformation of residential (private) space, it is in suburban public space that some of the most important struggles over belonging and rights have occurred. This article builds a theoretical framework to analyze the relationships between public space,…

  19. Racial Diversity in the Suburbs: How Race-Neutral Responses to Demographic Change Perpetuate Inequity in Suburban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Welton, Anjalé D.; Frankenberg, Erica; Jellison Holme, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Suburbs across the US are experiencing dramatic demographic shifts, yet there is little research available on how suburban school districts are dealing with these changes. In this article, we examine the discourses surrounding race and demographic change in three suburban school districts that have been undergoing rapid demographic changes and…

  20. Prevalence, and early childhood caries risk indicators in preschool children in suburban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus; Oshomoji, Olusegun V; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka

    2015-06-30

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is defined as the presence of caries lesion in an primary tooth in children below the age of 71 months. It is a significant public health problem with consequences for the growth and development of affected children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and ECC risk indicators in a suburban population in Nigeria. The data of 497 children aged 6 months to 71 months who were recruited through a household survey conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria was analysed for prevalence of ECC and risk indicators. Information on children's ages, sex, socioeconomic status, tooth brushing habits, sugary snacks consumption, use of fluoridated toothpaste, birth rank, infant-feeding practices, breastfeeding practices, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal knowledge of oral health was obtained. Children's oral hygiene and caries status was also determined. Risk factors associated with ECC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-three (6.6%) children had ECC. Four (0.8%) had severe ECC. The four risk indicators for ECC were the child's gender, mothers' knowledge of oral health, consumption of sugary snacks in between meals more than three times a day, and the child's oral hygiene status. Females (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.01- -0.01; p = 0.02), and children with mothers who had good knowledge of oral health (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11--0.008; p = 0.02) were less likely to have ECC. Children who consumed sugary snacks in between meals three times a day or more (PR: 0.05; CI: 0.003 - 0.01; P = 0.04) and children with fair oral hygiene (PR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.005-0.10; p = 0.03) were more likely to have ECC. The prevalence of ECC in the study population was low. Promoting good oral hygiene practices and enhancing mothers' knowledge of oral health may help reduce further, the risk for ECC in the study population.

  1. Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a Suburban Site in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xianlei

    2017-04-01

    A great amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been generated by industrial production, waste incineration and landfill, traffic and road dust etc. They are emitted into atmosphere and afterwards enter into water body and soil through deposition, resulting in wide distribution of PAHs in environment. However, the dry deposition of PAHs from atmosphere has not been well studied, especially in the aspects of its characteristics, environmental and health effects, sources and mechanism. This study measured PAHs dry deposition in the northwest suburban area of Beijing. Dry deposition samples (i.e. dustfall samples) were collected at the sampling site located in China University of Petroleum - Beijing in 2012-2016. And PAHs in the samples were determined by GC/MS. The dry deposition flux of 16 US EPA priority PAHs (ΣPAH16) was 2.58 μg/(m^2·d), which was lower than those in other regions of North China. Its seasonal variability was more significant than annual variability (p spring > autumn > summer. The amount of ΣPAH16 removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition process accounted for only 1.2% of their emissions, indicating that the atmosphere self-purification capacity was quite limited and emission reduction measures would play a key role in controlling PAHs air pollution. However, PAHs dry deposition would deteriorate soil quality since the content of ΣPAH16 in dustfall was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in soil in the same area. Dermal exposure resulting from PAHs dry deposition was not the major route. The sources of PAHs dry deposition varied with seasons. The profile and specific ratios of PAHs showed that in winter, domestic coal combustion was the main source of PAHs with the contribution up to 77%; in spring and summer, the impact of coal combustion decreased and the contribution of vehicle exhaust increased to 30% - 45%; in fall, in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, the impact of biomass burning was observed

  2. Low prevalence of asthma in sub Saharan Africa: a cross sectional community survey in a suburban Nigerian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaseki, Daniel O; Awoniyi, Francis O; Awopeju, Olayemi F; Erhabor, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Asthma remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries but the prevalence in Nigeria is not well described. Using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) standard screening questionnaire and asthma criteria, we recruited a representative sample of adults resident in a suburban community in Nigeria through a stratified three-stage cluster sampling technique. Out of a total of 3590 individuals contacted, 2310 responded and provided completed data (62.8% female). The prevalence of respiratory symptoms ranged from 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1-0.6) to 9.1% (95% CI: 7.6-10.6). Apart from nasal allergies, the most frequently reported symptoms were 'woken up by an attack of breathlessness at any time in the last 12 months' (2.4%, 95% CI: 1.8-3.0) and 'woken up by an attack of cough at any time in the last 12 months' (2.9%, 95% CI: 2.0-3.7). The combined proportion of respondents reporting previous asthma attack or currently taking asthma medication within the preceding 12 months (diagnosed asthma) was 1.5%, 95% CI: 1.0-2.0. The proportion with 'probable asthma' based on ECRHS criteria of any three symptoms of asthma (woken up by an attack of breathlessness or previous asthma attack or currently taking asthma medication within the preceding 12 months) was 3.1%, 95% CI: 2.0-4.3 for men and 3.3%, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2 for women. The prevalence of asthma in this suburban Nigerian population is low. Determinants of adult asthma distribution in low-income setting need further clarification. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of peripheral blood parasitaemia, anaemia and low birthweight among pregnant women in a suburban area in coastal Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Judith Koryo; Ofori, Michael F; Quakyi, Isabella Akyinbah; Wilson, Mark Lee; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and anaemia have adverse effects in pregnant women and on the birth weight of infants in malaria endemic areas. P. falciparum malaria, the most virulent species continues to be a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out to establish the prevalence of pregnancy-associated malaria and its associated consequences including maternal anaemia and low birthweight (LBW) deliveries and placental malaria among pregnant women in a sub-urban area in coastal Ghana. A facility-based investigation was carried out among 320 pregnant women seeking antenatal care in a hospital in suburban coastal Ghana. Information on the use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) were collected using a structured questionnaire at enrollment. Venous blood was collected for microscopy and screening for Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Haemoglobin concentration was obtained from an automatic blood analyzer. Placental smears and birth weight measurements were taken at delivery. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia was 5%. The mean haemoglobin (Hb) level at registration was 11.44 g/dL (95% CI 11.29 - 11.80). Placental blood parasitaemia and low birthweight were 2.5% and 3% respectively. ITN possession was 31.6% with 5.4% usage. The IPTp coverage was 55%. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia among the pregnant women were low at enrollment. Placental blood parasitaemia and LBW at delivery were also low. These are clear indications of the high coverage of the IPTp. Increase in ITN use will further improve birthweight outcomes and reduce placental malaria.

  4. Evaluating Chemical Tracers in Suburban Groundwater as Indicators of Nitrate-Nitrogen Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, A.; DeVita, W. M.; McGinley, P.

    2015-12-01

    The CDC reports that over 15 million US households use private wells. These wells are vulnerable to contamination. One of the most common contaminants in private wells is nitrate. Nitrate has a health standard of 10 mg/L. This standard is set to prevent methemaglobinemia, or "blue baby" syndrome, in infants. In extreme cases it can affect breathing and heart function, and even lead to death. Elevated nitrate concentrations have also been associated with increased risk of thyroid disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Unlike municipal wells, there is no mandatory testing of private wells. It is the responsibility of users to have their well water tested. The objective of this research was to identify the most useful chemical tracers for determining sources of nitrate in private water supplies. Chemical characteristics, such as mobility in groundwater and water solubility, as well as frequency of use, were considered when choosing source indicators. Fourteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products unique to human use were chosen to identify wells impacted by septic waste. A bovine antibiotic and five pesticide metabolites were used to identify contamination from agricultural sources. Eighteen private wells were selected in a suburban area with septic systems and adjacent agricultural land. The wells were sampled five times and analyzed to provide a temporal profile of nitrate and the tracers. The artificial sweetener sucralose was found in >70% of private wells. Wells with sucralose detected had nitrate concentrations between 5-15 mg/L. The herbicide metabolite metolachlor ESA was detected in 50% of the wells. These wells typically had the highest nitrate concentrations, often >10 mg/L. The common use and frequent detection of these two compounds made them the most reliable indicators of nitrate sources evaluated in this study. This information will help well owners determine appropriate treatment and remediation options and could direct future

  5. Diabetic retinopathy awareness and practices in a low-income suburban population in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study presents observations about knowledge, attitude and practices of people with diabetes living in Chanesar Goth, which is a suburban area of Karachi. Methodology: Data were collected by trained lady health workers during their home visits of the families. The responses in most cases were open ended and later categorised according to themes and purpose for asking specific questions. Results: The sample consisted of 59 (31.6% males and 128 (68.4% females. The mean age of males and females was 56 years and 49 years, respectively. The mean duration of diabetes for females and males was 6.8 years and 8.34 years, respectively. Frequency of correct answers to question about treatment of diabetes-related eye disease was relatively low (24% male, 20% female. Proportion of patients having good awareness was significantly higher among those who had diabetes for 10 or more years (60% as compared to those who had diabetes for shorter duration (42%, P < 0.026. Only half of the patients had a firm belief that diabetes is preventable and about one-third had belief that diabetes is treatable. Patients'' eye testing practices were associated strongly with their attitude towards eye testing and their knowledge about the relation of eye problems to diabetes. Proportion of patients who had got their eyes checked more than twice since the diagnosis of diabetes was highest among patients with both knowledge and belief about eye testing (35.3%, followed by those who only had a firm belief (19.7% and was lowest than among those who neither had belief nor knowledge (9.1% (P = 0.008. The level of awareness was higher among females and those who had diabetes for a longer duration. Conclusion: Educational interventions should focus on inculcating positive attitudes and firm belief in the importance of self-care.

  6. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  7. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  8. Ethno-Political effects of suburbanization in the Vilnius urban region : An analysis of voting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubareviciene, R.; Burneika, D.; Van Ham, M.

    2015-01-01

    We use electoral data to analyze the ethno-political consequences that may arise from the fact that the region surrounding the city of Vilnius is dominated by residents with a Polish identity, while those who move to the suburbs are mainly ethnic Lithuanians. In the suburban ring we found increasing

  9. The middle classes and the remaking of the suburban family community: evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Lupi, T.; de Stigter-Speksnijder, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data on everyday life in three recently built Dutch suburban areas constructed under the Vinex national urban planning policy. Its focus is on family households and today’s division of work and care, social life and neighbourhood activism. The results show that suburbs are no

  10. Career Advancement Experiences of Hispanic Secondary Principals in Suburban School Districts: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and experiences of Hispanic secondary school principals who work in suburban school districts regarding their career advancement. Moreover, the objective of this research was to understand these Hispanic principals' motivational drivers and barriers regarding their career choices,…

  11. Parent Involvement: Perceptions of Recent Immigrant Parents in a Suburban School District, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bu-Hyun; Park, Duk-Byeong

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the perceptions of immigrant parents regarding their school's efforts to encourage three types of parent involvement: Parenting, Communicating, and Learning at Home. The sample includes 106 immigrant parents with children who were enrolled in English Language Learners programmes at 10 schools in a suburban school…

  12. Analysis and Comparison of 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation in Urban and Suburban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Abreu, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based comparison of cm-wave propagation in urban and suburban scenarios at 24 GHz with transmitter antennas located above rooftop level. Different sets of directional measurements, exploring the full azimuth and the range from -30 to +30 degrees in elevation, were...

  13. Effects of Optometry School Recruitment Efforts on Urban and Suburban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew D.; Shepard, Jodi; Orleans, Elizabeth; Chae, Eunmi; Ng-Sarver, Joy

    1999-01-01

    In two Oakland (California) high schools, one urban and one suburban, an audiovisual presentation designed to enhance student interest in optometry as a career was given. Results of the presentation, measured by a questionnaire, suggest that few high school students are considering pursuing an optometry doctoral degree, but an on-site presentation…

  14. Suburbanization in small towns - case study Modřice near Brno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2007), s. 112-116 ISSN 1224-4112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Suburbanization * small towns Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  15. An Analysis of Oppositional Culture Theory Applied to One Suburban Midwestern High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Tricia; Puchner, Laurel; Reeves, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether and to what extent Ogbu and Fordham's Oppositional Culture Theory applied to African American high school students at one Midwestern suburban high school. Based on multiple interviews with six African American students, the study found support for some aspects of the theory but not for others.

  16. LAND USE CHANGE IN SUBURBAN AREA: A CASE OF MALANG CITY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuurlaily Rukmana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of suburban areas of Malang City has developed an expansion of built-up areas between urban and suburban areas. There has been a great phenomenon that mostly occurs along the suburban areas where industrial activities took place. This study aims to determine what factors have influenced the land use change in the suburban areas of Malang City by employing “GeoDa” application. It is one of the Geographical Information System applications that particularly deals with statistical analysis. To achieve this purpose, the objectives are: delineating the study area, analyzing the characteristics of land use change, assessing and analyzing the variable influencing the land use change. The results have shown that the characteristics of land use change, such as population, distance, migration, and occupation transformation are directly proportional to the land use change. It has also been identified that the high level of density is only located in the surrounding areas of industries. From the assessed variables through the statistical model, population (X1, density (X2 and migration (X3 are found as the influencing factors of land use change.

  17. Development and implementation of ultra-thin concrete road technology for suburban streets in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, MR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Louw, FC Rust, AO Bergh and AH McKay DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATIONN OF ULTRA- THIN CONCRETE ROAD TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBURBAN STREETS IN SOUTH AFRICA MR Louw, FC Rust, AO Bergh and AH McKay CSIR, Republic of South Africa rlouw...

  18. Implementation of retrofit best management practices in a suburban watershed (Cincinnati OH) via economic incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is great potential for managing stormwater runoff quantity; however, implementation in already-developed areas remains a challenge. We assess the viability of economic incentives to place best management practices (BMPs) on parcels in a 1.8 km2 suburban watershed near Cinci...

  19. Teacher Job Satisfaction and Retention in a Suburban Georgia School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Denise G.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between job satisfaction and retention among elementary, middle, and high school teachers in a suburban school district in Georgia was addressed in this mixed-methods study. The focus of the study was to determine the level of job satisfaction among the nine subscales of the Teacher Job Satisfaction…

  20. Between Hosts and Guests: Conditional Hospitality and Citizenship in an American Suburban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Roozbeh

    2018-01-01

    This article utilizes the idea of hospitality to explore how educative practices contribute to the making of citizens at Light Falls High School (LHS), a suburban American secondary school that professes a strong commitment to racial equity and global awareness. The data are derived from an ethnographic case study which took place in 2013-2014. I…

  1. A Comparison of Urban, Suburban, and Rural Principal Leadership Skills by Campus Student Achievement Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susan; Winn, Pam; Erwin, John

    2011-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled school leaders, statewide assessments of 784 Texas public school administrators were compared in a causal-comparison study to determine how leadership skills varied by type of campus (urban, suburban and rural) and by campus student achievement ratings. Data were collected from a 2006-2008…

  2. An Evaluation of the Antibullying Program at a Public Suburban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This project study addressed the problem of harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) at a public suburban high school in the Northeast United States. The study school implemented the Anti-bullying Program in September 2011, yet no evaluation had been conducted on whether the program was meeting its goals. Two conceptual frameworks that drove…

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity in suburban Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Hong; Xue, Peng; Yao, Meng-Ying; Chang, Hai-Min; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity among suburban adults in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 19,003 suburban adults aged 18-76 years was carried out in 2007-2008. Data was collected via questionnaires and blood pressure, anthropometric, and laboratory measurements. Of the residents aged 18-76 years in suburban Beijing, 25.9% (27.3% in men and 25.1% in women), 21.3% (19.4% in men and 22.9% in women), and 25.3% (24.2% in men and 26.1% in women) had 1 component, 2 components, and 3 or more components of metabolic syndrome, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting plasma glucose, decreased across categories with increasing physical activity. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, smoking, and alcohol consumption, residents were more likely to have metabolic syndrome across categories with decreasing physical activity; a similar relationship also applied to components of metabolic syndrome. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components is commonly present in suburban Beijing. Increasing physical activity can reduce the relative risk of metabolic syndrome and it components.

  4. The Poor Little Rich District: The Effects of Suburbanization on a Rural School and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Carnes, Marilyn; Eldridge, Anita; Huber, Donna; Lado, Longun Moses; Kotler, Ruth; Turner, Maryalice

    2005-01-01

    Contextualized in relationship to other case studies about rural districts that have experienced population growth and decline as well as in relationship to the small sociological literature on "boom towns," this study considered the dynamics that seem to be interfering with one previously rural and now suburbanizing district's ability to address…

  5. Impact of ethnic conflict on the nutritional status and quality of life of suburban villagers in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Taro; Nakazawa, Minato; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Kamei, Kiseko; Sato, Kanae; Bakote'e, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the health and nutritional status and quality of life (QOL) of suburban villagers in the Solomon Islands 3 y after the 1998-2003 ethnic conflict. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a small community located 50 km east of the capital city (n=206, 87 adults and 119 children). A health survey involving urine analysis, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements was conducted to assess health and nutritional status and child growth. Simultaneously, 57 non-randomly selected adults participated in the QOL questionnaire survey. Results of anthropometry show that participants had good health and nutritional status (mean BMIs: 22.8 and 21.7 for men and women, respectively) and 73% of boys and 83% of girls were judged `normal body size' based on their BMI values. Urinalysis revealed that 88% of the participants were healthy and indicated that they consumed considerable amounts of purchased food such as rice and tinned meat. These findings suggest that the population's lifestyle had essentially recovered from the ethnic conflict. However, possible consequences of the ethnic conflict on the QOL scores were observed in the environmental domain. This study found a positive association between body fat and QOL. This could be interpreted in terms of the traditionally positive view of large bodies in the South Pacific and as resulting from unstable social conditions prevailing after the ethnic conflict.

  6. Spatial-temporal variation of ecosystem water use efficiency in Beijing’s suburban region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, F.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Yuan, S. B.; Lu, N.; Yan, N. Na

    2017-08-01

    Suburban ecosystem has multiple functions such as soil conservation and water regulation, which are critical for the welfare of human beings in the city. Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator of ecosystem function that represents the amount of productivity per unit mass of evapotranspiration (ET). Improving WUE of suburban ecosystem is significant to climate regulation by carbon sequestration and water consumption, especially for cities with severe water shortage like Beijing, the capital of China. Based on remote sensing data, this paper examined the spatial and temporal variations in WUE in Beijing’s suburban region from 2002 to 2010. The results showed that the average annual WUE was 0.868 g C mm-1 m-2. It has large spatial variation with the minimum of 0.500 g C mm-1 m-2 in the Miyun District. During the study periods, the area with significant increasing trend of WUE was 63.2% of the total suburban region. In terms of ecosystem type, the value of WUE was following the sequence, deciduous coniferous forest (0.921g C mm-1 m-2) > mixed forest (0.887g C mm-1 m-2) > deciduous broadleaf forest (0.884 g C mm-1 m-2) > shrubland (0.860 g C mm-1 m-2) > evergreen coniferous forest (0.836 g C mm-1 m-2) > grassland (0.830 g C mm-1 m-2). As ET was similar among the ecosystems, the difference in WUE was mainly due to the discrepancy of NPP. We found that NPP significantly correlated with the diversity of ecosystem type (represented by Shannon-Wiener index). Our results suggest that ecological engineering construction, scientific ecosystem type selection, ecosystem diversity improvement and drought-resistant species cultivation are conductive to improve ecosystem WUE in Beijing’s suburban region.

  7. Stream Phosphorus Dynamics Along a Suburbanizing Gradient in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    While it is well known that urban streams are subject to impaired water quality relative to natural analogues, far less research has been directed at stream water quality during the process of (sub-) urbanization. This study determines the role of housing construction activities in Brampton, Canada on the concentration and flux of phosphorus (P) of a headwater stream. Prior to development the stream was engineered with a riffle-pool sequence, riparian plantings, and a floodplain corridor that was lined with sediment fencing. Stream sites were sampled daily over a period of six months at locations representing varying stages of subdivision completion (upper site -active construction; middle site -finished construction and natural vegetation; lower site -finished construction and active construction). A nearby urban stream site developed ten years prior to this study was selected as a reference site. There were no differences in total phosphorus (TP) levels or flux between the suburbanizing and urban streams; however, the forms of P differed between sites. The urban stream TP load was dominated by particulate phosphorus (PP) while suburbanizing stream P was mainly in the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) form. The importance of DOP to TP flux increased with the onset of the growing season. TP levels in all stream segments frequently exceeded provincial water quality guidelines during storm events but were generally low during baseflow conditions. During storm events PP and total suspended solid levels in the suburbanizing stream reached levels of the urban stream due to sediment fence failure at several locations along the construction-hillslope interface. Along the suburbanizing gradient, the hydrological connection to a mid-reach zone of no-construction activity / fallow field and native forest resulted in significantly lower P levels than the upper suburbanizing stream site. This suggests that stream channel design features as well as timing of construction

  8. Mobility and Active Ageing in Suburban Environments: Findings from In-Depth Interviews and Person-Based GPS Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zeitler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel diaries, brief questionnaires, and semistructured interviews were gathered from thirteen people aged from 56 to 87 years, living in low-density suburban environments in Brisbane, Australia. Results. The suburban environment influenced the choice of transportation and out-of-home mobility. Both walkability and public transportation (access and usability impact older people's transportation choices. Impracticality of active and public transportation within suburban environments creates car dependency in older age. Conclusion. Suburban environments often create barriers to mobility, which impedes older people's engagement in their wider community and ability to actively age in place. Further research is needed to develop approaches towards age-friendly suburban environments which will encourage older people to remain active and engaged in older age.

  9. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  10. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from a Suburban Area of Naples, Italy: The "Triangle of Death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Antonella De; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Picazio, Giuseppe; Caiazzo, Marcello; D'auria, Jacopo Luigi; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminated food is a general health concern worldwide; it is necessary to evaluate food safety with respect to contaminants present in the edible parts of major food crops. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn) from 51 potato plantations in the Campania region, inside the area known as the "Triangle of Death," with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Results confirm that the potatoes collected from the suburban area of Naples contained concentrations of trace elements below the safe limits prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The concentrations of elements were similar to those reported for potatoes grown in other countries. Monitoring the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. The environmental persistence of metals may result in the accumulation of significant levels of these contaminants in plants. They are absorbed to different extents, depending on their source, soil and climatic factors, plant genotype, and agrotechnical conditions, thereby entering the food chain and representing a risk to human health.

  11. Epidemiology of active epilepsy in a suburban community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    door survey using a modification of the World Health Organization Neuroscience research protocol. In the second phase, cases of active epilepsy were identified and the clinical forms of epilepsy diagnosed based on the International League ...

  12. Landscape scale assessment of ecosystem goods and services and the extent, location, and magnitude of urban-suburban expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human development adjoining coastal cities is the prevalent force changing the Anthropocene landscape. The extent, location, and magnitude of urban-suburban expansion can drastically modify how important features of ecosystems are effected. These effects are best summarized usin...

  13. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  14. Ecoreconstruction of city space of Volgograd basing on suburbanization principles of city territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature is subject to severe antropogenous impacts and dramatically changes its quality. Urban development is a process of environmental intervention, a process of its artificial change in such a speed, which doesn’t correspons to the speed of biospheric evolutions and natural selection. By improving our life quality, a human destroys the usual interrelation of living organisms with natural environment. The concepts of urban development and suburbanization of territories existing nowadays have their advantages and disadvantages from ecological point of view. The paper considers the reasons and major problems of ecological reconstruction of the urban space. Preconditions of the integrated ecological approach to the town evolution are shown in the work, as well as some generalizing conclusions concerning security assurance of the environment of the city of Volgograd. The priority trend for the urban areas suburbanization is presented.

  15. Suburban Housing Development and Off-Grid Electric Power Supply Assessment for North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibikunle Olalekan Ogundari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructures in North-Central Nigeria are inadequate and grid electricity is unable to meet suburban housing electricity demand. The alternative power-supply options proposed by government for the region require appropriation analysis for selection. Four public housing estates in suburban Abuja are selected for electricity demand analysis under conventional and energy-efficient lighting scenarios; then techno-economic parameters of two off-grid electric power supply systems (PV and Diesel-powered generation to meet these electricity demands are evaluated. An energy techno-economic assessment methodology is used. The study determines the energy-efficient lighting system is appropriate with 40% energy savings relative to the Conventional Lighting Systems. The diesel generator alternative power-supply option has Life Cycle Costs almost 4 times those of the PV option. The study established the PV-energy-efficient lighting system as the most feasible off-grid electric power supply alternative for implementation.

  16. SUBURBAN VS. URBAN FRINGES ENTITIES’ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR AMENITIES: EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN CRACOW CITY, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr LITYŃSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the value of selected amenities of infrastructure, space and public services on both sides of the cities’ administrative borders and its territorial implications. The used method is the estimation of WTP. The method was addressed to households and companies located in the district adjoining areas which are administratively not part of the city, and that are judged to be strongly characterized by the processes of suburbanization. The conclusions of the study indicate that the administrative border of the city is polarized in terms of a household economic profile. Residents of both regions express their needs for amenities and suburban residents generally estimate their value higher. While firms from both areas are not interested in improvements, the administrative border of the city does not really differentiate businesses (size, employment, wages

  17. [Survey on pinworm infection and egg contamination among urban, suburban and rural pupils in Shangqiu City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Chenl; Xu, Ying; Man, Na; Cui, Yue; Yang, Xia; Cui, Yan-Mei

    2012-12-30

    Seven hundred and ninety-eight preschool children and grade one pupils from three schools in the city of Shangqiu were sampled randomly in urban, suburban and rural areas. The transparent tape method was used to examine the infection of pinworm and the contamination of pinworm eggs on the environments. The average infection rate of pinworm was 9.9% (79/798). The prevalence of pinworm infection among the pupils of urban(4.6%) was statistically lower than those of suburban (11.2%) and rural (13.8%) (P pinworm eggs from armor, fingers, bedclothes, briefs,and stationery in infected pupils are 23.8% (5/21), 18.0% (9/50), 15.8% (3/19), 12.9% (4/31) and 5.0% (2/40), respectively, which showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05).

  18. Some issues of logistics management applied to the passenger transportation process on suburban routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana М. Grigorova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered are some questions that address the problem of logistic management of suburban transport services. Using the logistic approach to the passenger transportation process management we get possibility to determine the need for consideration of the transport process parameters’ impact on the passengers’ fatigability that affects their productivity in the workplace. Basing on the analysis of the results obtained in-field, we implemented a mathematical description of the functional link between the passenger’s regulatory systems activity index, and the negatively affecting factors. It is revealed that the change in the passenger’s regulatory systems activity index on approaching the suburban line terminal station is described with sufficient accuracy by a non-linear regression equation, which includes as variables the regulatory systems activity index value before approaching to the station, the age of the passenger, the pedestrian walking pace, the time of approaching to the stop station.

  19. Effects of urban density on carbon dioxide exchanges: observations of dense urban, suburban and woodland areas of southern England

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Bjorkegren, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Morrison, W.T.J.; Evans, J.G.; Morison, J.I.L.; Iamarino, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic and biogenic controls on the surface-atmosphere exchange of CO2 are explored for three different environments. Similarities are seen between suburban and woodland sites during summer, when photosynthesis and respiration determine the diurnal pattern of the CO2 flux. In winter, emissions from human activities dominate urban and suburban fluxes; building emissions increase during cold weather, while traffic is a major component of CO2 emissions all year round. Observed CO2 fluxes ...

  20. An Innovative Solution for Suburban Railroad Transportation: The Gas Turbine-Hybrid Train

    OpenAIRE

    Capata, Roberto; Sciubba, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports the latest results of a study conducted on a hybrid train in which a gas turbine, operating in several alternative control modes (fixed point, on-off or load-following), generates the electrical energy for recharging a battery package and for driving the electric motors of a suburban train. The model, originally developed for automotive applications, has been validated by experimental tests performed on an ELLIOTT TA-45 GT group in the ENEA-Casaccia Research Center....

  1. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  2. Study of Selected Metals Distribution, Source Apportionment, and Risk Assessment in Suburban Soil, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Javed; Shah, Munir H.

    2015-01-01

    Composite soil samples collected from suburban areas were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on pseudototal metal analysis, Fe, Mn, Sr, and Zn were the prevailing metals while Cd, Co, Cr, and Pb were the least participants. However, based on bioavailability, Cd, Co, Pb, and Sr were easily leachable and might pose adverse effects to soil biota. In ecological risk assessment, contamination factor demonstrated moderate contamination ...

  3. Observations of urban and suburban environments with global satellite scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Balk, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Neumann, G.; Sorichetta, A.; Small, C.; Elvidge, C. D.

    A global and consistent characterization of land use and land change in urban and suburban environments is crucial for many fundamental social and natural science studies and applications. Presented here is a dense sampling method (DSM) that uses satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban and intraurban areas at a posting scale of about 1 km. DSM results are analyzed together with information on population and housing censuses, with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, and with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) night-light data. The analyses include Dallas-Fort Worth and Phoenix in the United States, Bogotá in Colombia, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Guangzhou in China, and Quito in Ecuador. Results show that scatterometer signatures correspond to buildings and infrastructures in urban and suburban environments. City extents detected by scatterometer data are significantly smaller than city light extents, but not all urban areas are detectable by the current SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite. Core commercial and industrial areas with high buildings and large factories are identified as high-backscatter centers. Data from DSM backscatter and DMSP nighttime lights have a good correlation with population density. However, the correlation relations from the two satellite datasets are different for different cities indicating that they contain complementary information. Together with night-light and census data, DSM and satellite scatterometer data provide new observations to study global urban and suburban environments and their changes. Furthermore, the capability of DSM to identify hydrological channels on the Greenland ice sheet and ecological biomes in central Africa demonstrates that DSM can be used to observe persistent structures in natural environments at a km scale, providing contemporaneous data to study human impacts beyond urban and suburban areas.

  4. Effect of residential development on stream phosphorus dynamics in headwater suburbanizing watersheds of southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Tim P

    2018-10-01

    Suburban landscapes are known to have degraded water quality relative to natural settings, including increased total phosphorus (TP) levels; however, the effect of subdivision construction activities on stream TP dynamics are less understood. This study measured TP and its constituents particulate, dissolved organic, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (PP, DOP, and DIP, respectively) in two headwater streams of contrasting urbanization activity to examine whether the land-use conversion process itself contributed to TP concentrations and export. The nested watershed undergoing significant active residential community construction contained large areas of cleared former agricultural field and associated sediment mounds with elevated soil TP (~1000 mg kg -1 ), and twice as many stormwater management (SWM) ponds than the watershed with completed suburban communities. Daily stream sampling for six months revealed limited differences in TP between urbanized and urbanizing watersheds regardless of season or stream flow condition; however, the forms of TP varied significantly. The proportion of TP as DOP was consistently higher in the urbanizing stream relative to the urban stream, which was in line with significant decreases in DOP concentration as proportion of cleared former agricultural land decreased and density of SWM ponds increased. The DOP, and to a lesser extent DIP and PP, dynamics resulted in a 2.5× greater areal export of TP from a small watershed actively being suburbanized during the study period compared to the larger watershed with greater land urbanized 3-5 years ago. The results of this study suggest stream TP concentrations are relatively unresponsive to active versus established suburban cover, but the forms of TP can be quite different, and the period of home construction can increase phosphorus (P) delivery to and export through nearby streams. This information can aid land managers and urban planners update best management practices to

  5. Anthropological Critique and Framing of Suburban Enclaves: Case of Neighbourhood X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butko Matej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this article is conceptualization of newcomers within specific suburb in perimeter of Bratislava. The analysis with fruitful and extensive base of evidence provides a connection between the western suburban community theories and local actual and discursive strategies in various topics. The content of this article consists of analysis of bonding, residential and motivational strategies of newcomers, and a wide conceptualization of them, including a class concept and a bounding character of socialization. Additional analytical and evidential asset of this article is the perceptiveness that provides us the ‘other-than-actual’ evaluative perspective. This perception is provided by other inhabitants outside of the researched Neighbourhood X. This evidence, which is connected to the theory of leisure class consumption, is therefore the perceptive side of the core definition of enclaves in residentially excluded neighbourhood. This article offers conclusions of a specific field experience and broadens not only the existing suburban community theories, but also the works that try to conceptualise significant traits of suburban enclaves.

  6. Indoor radon progeny aerosol size measurements in urban, suburban, and rural regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, K.W.; Knutson, E.O.; George, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    By using direct and indirect methods, the authors conducted size distribution measurements of radon progeny particles in a variety of indoor environments in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The radon progeny particle size distribution owing to indoor activities has two definable source categories: (1) gas combustion from stoves and kerosene heaters - particles were found to be smaller than 0.1 μm in diameter, mostly in the range 0.02-0.08 μm; and (2) cigarette smoking and food frying - particles were found to be larger, in the size range 0.1-0.2 μm. The radon progeny particle size distribution, without significant indoor activities, such as cooking, was found to be larger in rural areas than in urban or suburban areas. The modal diameters of the size spectra in the rural areas were two to three times larger than those in urban or suburban areas, around 0.3-0.4 bs. 0.1-0.2 μm. Results obtained by applying the attachment theory to the measured number-weighted size spectra from an electrical aerosol size analyzer support this finding. These results, if confirmed by more extensive studies, will be useful for the assessment of the risk from the inhalation of radon progeny in various indoor environments

  7. Residential preferences towards urban and suburban areas and their relationship with demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl is, among all, also the result of voluntary or induced resettlement of population from the inner city to urban periphery, or by in-migration to peripheral parts of cities where the origin of migrants is in other settlements. The focus of this paper is on the influence that residential preferences have on suburbanization, with the emphasis on analysis of the residential choice and certain population groups' tendencies to prioritise living in suburbs or the inner-city living. Theoretical considerations which are set in this paper initiate with residential preference components and the hypothesis of change in dominant motives for residential choice throughout family and individual's lifecycle. Then, the demographic data have been analysed according to the latest Census results in the two pilot-areas of urban and suburban type in Belgrade. Additional research on residential preferences are founded on preparation of specific questionnaire which would enable application of more powerful statistical techniques, especially a wider use of measuring scales for the variables deriving from the questionnaire, and formulation of a model for prediction of different population groups' residential preferences in urban and suburban settings.

  8. Intestinal helminths of feral cat populations from urban and suburban districts of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Prabhaker, K S; Al-Ibrahim, Roda; Lewis, John W

    2010-03-25

    A survey of the helminths of 658 adult cats from feral urban and suburban populations in Qatar was conducted across all months in 2006 and 2007. Six species of helminths were identified, comprising two cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis [73.6%] and Diplopylidium acanthotetra [47.1%]) and four nematodes (Ancylostoma tubaeforme [14.7%], Physaloptera praeputialis [5.2%], Toxocara cati [0.8%] and Toxascaris leonina [0.2%]), and 83% of cats were infected with at least one of these. The average number of species harboured was 1.4 and the average worm burden was 55.8 worms/cat. The vast majority of worms (97.6%) were cestodes, nematodes being relatively rare. Prevalence and abundance of infections were analyzed, taking into consideration four factors: year (2006 and 2007), site (urban and suburban), season (winter and summer) and sex of the host. Analyses revealed marked year effects, female host bias in some species and interactions involving combination of factors, but especially sex and season of the year. The results indicate that whilst the majority of adult feral cats in Qatar carry helminth infections, infections are variable between years and subject to annual changes that may reflect climatic and other environmental changes in the rapidly developing city of Doha and its suburban surroundings. Only two species have the potential to infect humans and both were rare among the sampled cats (A. tubaeforme and T. cati).

  9. OH Reactivity Observations during the MAPS-Seoul Campaign: Contrasts between Urban and Suburban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Blake, D. R.; Wang, M. D.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Direct total OH reactivity was observed in the urban and suburban environments of Seoul, South Korea using a comparative reactivity method (CRM) during the MAPS-Seoul field campaign. In addition, CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, VOCs, aerosol, physical, and chemical parameters were also deployed. By comparing the observed total OH reactivity results with calculated OH reactivity from the trace gas observational datasets, we will evaluate our current status in constraining reactive gases in the urban and suburban environments in the East Asian megacity. Observed urban OH reactivity will be presented in the context of the ability to constrain anthropogenic reactive trace gas emissions. It will then be compared to the observed suburban results from Taehwa Research Forest (located ~ 50 km from the Seoul City Center). Our understanding of reactive trace gases in an environment of high BVOC emissions in a mildly aged anthropogenic influences will be evaluated. Using an observational constrained box model with detailed VOC oxidation schemes (e.g. MCM), we will discuss: 1) what is the amount of missing OH reactivity 2) what are the potential sources of the missing OH reactivity, and 3) what are the implications on regional air quality?

  10. Dynamic Analysis on Population Suburbanization and New Town Development in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chunlan; Yang Shangguang; Li Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the suburbanization process of Shanghai from 2000 to 2010 and the population aggregation of its five suburban new towns including Jiading,Songjiang,Qingpu,Nanqiao,and Lingang.It finds that Shanghai's population distribution pattern is featured by both continuity and variety.In detail,although Shanghai is still dominated by a single-centered expansion pattern,a multi-centered spatial pattern is gradually formed with a narrowing gap in population density between the central city and the suburbs.As the suburbanization of the migrant population is faster than that of the registered population and migrants re-gather in the central city as a result of its service industry development,there is a relatively smaller migrant population in the area between the Inner Ring Road and the Outer Ring Road.Consequently,the population in the new towns that the city planning strategy has focused on is not increasing at the expected speed,thus more attention should be paid to a reasonable central citycentered,multi-leveled,towns-grouped,and compact urban spatial structure.

  11. Dynamic Analysis on Population Suburbanization and New Town Development in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Chunlan; Yang; Shangguang

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the suburbanization process of Shanghai from 2000 to 2010 and the population aggregation of its five suburban new towns including Jiading,Songjiang,Qingpu,Nanqiao,and Lingang.It finds that Shanghai’s population distribution pattern is featured by both continuity and variety.In detail,although Shanghai is still dominated by a single-centered expansion pattern,a multi-centered spatial pattern is gradually formed with a narrowing gap in population density between the central city and the suburbs.As the suburbanization of the migrant population is faster than that of the registered population and migrants re-gather in the central city as a result of its service industry development,there is a relatively smaller migrant population in the area between the Inner Ring Road and the Outer Ring Road.Consequently,the population in the new towns that the city planning strategy has focused on is not increasing at the expected speed,thus more attention should be paid to a reasonable central citycentered,multi-leveled,towns-grouped,and compact urban spatial structure.

  12. Modelling of light pollution in suburban areas using remotely sensed imagery and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, C; Petrakis, M; Psiloglou, B; Lianou, M

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes a methodology for modelling light pollution using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The proposed approach attempts to address the issue of environmental assessment in sensitive suburban areas. The modern way of life in developing countries is conductive to environmental degradation in urban and suburban areas. One specific parameter for this degradation is light pollution due to intense artificial night lighting. This paper aims to assess this parameter for the Athens metropolitan area, using modern analytical and data capturing technologies. For this purpose, night-time satellite images and analogue maps have been used in order to create the spatial database of the GIS for the study area. Using GIS advanced analytical functionality, visibility analysis was implemented. The outputs for this analysis are a series of maps reflecting direct and indirect light pollution around the city of Athens. Direct light pollution corresponds to optical contact with artificial night light sources, while indirect light pollution corresponds to optical contact with the sky glow above the city. Additionally, the assessment of light pollution in different periods allows for dynamic evaluation of the phenomenon. The case study demonstrates high levels of light pollution in Athens suburban areas and its increase over the last decade.

  13. Knowledge and practice on prevention of diabetes mellitus among Diabetes mellitus family members, in suburban cities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolde, Mistire; Berhe, Nega; van Die, Irma; Medhin, Girmay; Tsegaye, Aster

    2017-11-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the serious non communicable diseases worldwide. Presence of DM patient in a family may be considered as risk factor for other family members to acquire the disease, due to DM inheritance nature and/or similar life style pattern among family members. This paper assessed awareness of DM patients' family members (DMPFMs) about DM occurrence and prevention. A cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 in two suburban cities of Ethiopia, namely Kemisse, and Kombolcha using an interviewer administered questionnaire among primary or secondary degree DMPFMs and controls. Based on eligibility criteria study participants were selected by health extension workers on house to house visit. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, and P value less than 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Of the total 347 study participants, 45.5% (n = 158) had DMPFMs. Majority, 60.8% of DMPFMs and 73.0% of controls were males. Mean age of DMPFMs (30.06 years) was less than that of the controls (37.38 years). On living style, 51.9% DMPFMs, and 42.8% of controls were single. In both study groups, the majority of study participants attended grade 7-12. The likelihood of having good level of knowledge among DMPFMs were 2.94 times (AOR = 2.94 95% CI 1.87-4.86) higher compared to those who did not. Those attaining higher educational levels were 3.41 times (AOR = 3.41, 95% CI 1.31-8.91) more likely to have good level of knowledge, as compared to those who were unable to read and write. The likelihood of having good level of positive practice among DMPFMs were 3.38 times (AOR = 3.38% CI 2.05-5.58) higher as compared to controls. Participants who were living in Kombolcha were 2.33 times (AOR = 2.33 95% CI 1.31-4.12) more likely to have good level of practice, as compared to individuals from Kemisse. Diabetes mellitus family members in the Ethiopian suburban cities Kemisse, and Kombolcha had better knowledge and practice about DM compared to

  14. Experiencias para la capacitación de recursos humanos en salud para la atención integral de víctimas de violencia en una zona urbano marginal de Lima, Perú Experiences in the training of health human resources for the integral care of the victims of violence in a suburban area of Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Garmendia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2003, en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, se creó el Programa Permanente de Capacitación para la Atención Integral de las Víctimas de la Violencia, y viene realizando programas de capacitación de recursos humanos para la atención integral de las víctimas de violencia. En ese sentido, se consideró necesario desarrollar una metodología para profesionales de la salud, identificando sus necesidades de capacitación y sus condiciones de trabajo en lo relacionado a este tipo de atenciones. Es en ese contexto, que el año 2004, se delineó un estudio de línea de base en la Microrred de Salud Huaycán, al este de la ciudad de Lima; el cual comprendió diversas etapas con un enfoque multisectorial con el objetivo de identificar las necesidades de capacitación de los profesionales de salud, así como la evaluación del soporte logístico y administrativo para el desarrollo de actividades de capacitación a diversos niveles. En el presente artículo se expone, de modo sucinto, los procedimientos y principales resultados encontrados. Se evidenció que la población de Huaycán se encontraba afectada por las secuelas de la violencia política; no obstante, los servicios de salud tienen recursos limitados para realizar una adecuada atención de estas personas, emerge la necesidad de capacitación en varias esferas; existen condiciones administrativas y logísticas para efectuar estas actividades. Consideramos que esta metodología facilitará construir productos e instrumentos para una adecuada y específica capacitación para la atención integral en salud a las víctimas de la violencia.In the year 2003, in the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, the Permanent Program of Training for the Integral Attention of the Victims of Violence was created, has been training human resources for the comprehensive health care to victims of violence. In this sense, we was

  15. Problem-solving counseling as a therapeutic tool on youth suicidal behavior in the suburban population in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, E A Ramani; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T

    2011-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour among youth is a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prevention of youth suicides using effective, feasible and culturally acceptable methods is invaluable in this regard, however research in this area is grossly lacking. This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of problem solving counselling as a therapeutic intervention in prevention of youth suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka. This control trial study was based on hospital admissions with suicidal attempts in a sub-urban hospital in Sri Lanka. The study was carried out at Base Hospital Homagama. A sample of 124 was recruited using convenience sampling method and divided into two groups, experimental and control. Control group was offered routine care and experimental group received four sessions of problem solving counselling over one month. Outcome of both groups was measured, six months after the initial screening, using the visual analogue scale. Individualized outcome measures on problem solving counselling showed that problem solving ability among the subjects in the experimental group had improved after four counselling sessions and suicidal behaviour has been reduced. The results are statistically significant. This Study confirms that problem solving counselling is an effective therapeutic tool in management of youth suicidal behaviour in hospital setting in a developing country.

  16. Quality of life among residents in a sub-urban area. Case study: Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Oliver Ling Hoon; Mahbot, Norseha Mohd; Asma Aqmalina Hadzaman, Nur; Azyyati Marzukhi, Marlyana; Abdullah, Jamalunlaili

    2018-02-01

    Along with the sub-urbanisation, people working in urban can stay in the sub-urban areas. Sub-urban housing areas provide cheaper and larger houses and more greenery environment. However, the residents are required to travel in longer distance. The effect on Quality of Life (QOL) due to the migration to sub-urban areas may not be positive even with the better environmental quality and lower direct housing cost. Puncak Alam, a new sub-urban area in Selangor, Malaysia had been chosen as the study area to examine the change of QOL among the residents after they moved into the study area. Through a questionnaire survey, the satisfaction of residents on the various aspects/indicators of QOL were examined. Through the statistical analysis, it is found that slightly more than half of the respondents felt that the QOL was dropped after they were moved to the study area. The sub-urban area did provide better quality for their residents. It had increased respondents’ satisfaction on most of the indicators in the aspects of economic, social and physical. However, due to the decreasing of satisfaction in job opportunities, family life, social activities, safety, and transportation system, most of the respondents were felt that their QOL were dropped.

  17. Distribution and urban-suburban differences in ground-level ozone and its precursors over Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwei; Ren, Wanhui; Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Bingkun

    2018-03-01

    Hourly mixing ratio data of ground-level ozone and its main precursors at ambient air quality monitoring sites in Shenyang during 2013-2015 were used to survey spatiotemporal variations in ozone. Then, the transport of ozone and its precursors among urban, suburban, and rural sites was examined. The correlations between ozone and some key meteorological factors were also investigated. Ozone and O x mixing ratios in Shenyang were higher during warm seasons and lower during cold ones, while ozone precursors followed the opposite cycle. Ozone mixing ratios reached maximum and minimum values in the afternoon and morning, respectively, reflecting the significant influence of photochemical production during daytime and depletion via titration during nighttime. Compared to those in downtown Shenyang, ozone mixing ratios were higher and the occurrence of peak values were later in suburban and rural areas downwind of the prevailing wind. The differences were most significant in summer, when the ozone mixing ratios at one suburban downwind site reached a maximum value of 35.6 ppb higher than those at the downtown site. This suggests that photochemical production processes were significant during the transport of ozone precursors, particularly in warm seasons with sufficient sunlight. Temperature, total radiation, and wind speed all displayed positive correlations with ozone concentration, reflecting their important role in accelerating ozone formation. Generally, the correlations between ozone and meteorological factors were slightly stronger at suburban sites than in urban areas, indicating that ozone levels in suburban areas were more sensitive to these meteorological factors.

  18. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Shiladitya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian communities are very good indicators of any ecosystem. Despite the alarming consequences of rapid urbanization, studies of avian diversity in the human-dominated landscapes of India are very few. Therefore, we studied the avian assemblage of Bongaon in southern West Bengal, India, a suburban area whose avifauna has thus far remained undocumented. Bird surveys were carried out from June 2015 to May 2016, following the fixed-radius (25 m point count method together with opportunistic observations. We recorded 119 avian species belonging to 53 families. Ardeidae was the most diverse avian family in the study area (RDi value = 5.882. Among the recorded avifauna, 89 species were resident, 26 species were winter visitors, three species were summer visitors, and one species was a passage migrant. Species richness of the resident and passage migrant species did not vary seasonally, while the winter and summer visitors displayed significant seasonal variation. In this suburban area, the species richness of feeding guilds varied significantly. Most birds were insectivorous (41.2%, followed by carnivorous (24.4%, omnivorous (18.5%, granivorous (7.6%, frugivorous (3.4%, nectarivorous (3.4% and herbivorous species (1.7%. Maximum species richness was recorded in November and minimum species richness in July. Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria are two near-threatened species found in this region. Interestingly, six species having a globally declining trend are still very common in the study area. Long-term studies are required to monitor any change in the avian communities of this suburban landscape resulting from urbanization.

  19. Impact of secondary inorganic aerosol and road traffic at a suburban air quality monitoring station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, L; Negral, L; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Suárez-Peña, B; Marañón, E

    2017-03-15

    PM10 from a suburban site in the northwest of Spain was assessed using data from chemical determinations, meteorological parameters, aerosol maps and five-day back trajectories of air masses. Temporal variations in the chemical composition of PM10 were subsequently related to stationary/mobile local sources and long-range transport stemming from Europe and North Africa. The presence of secondary inorganic species (sulphates, nitrates and ammonium) in airborne particulate matter constituted one of the main focuses of this study. These chemical species formed 16.5% of PM10 on average, in line with other suburban background sites in Europe. However, a maximum of 47.8% of PM10 were recorded after several days under the influence of European air masses. Furthermore, the highest values of these three chemical species coincided with episodes of poor air circulation and influxes of air masses from Europe. The relationship between SO 4 2- and NH 4 + (R 2  = 0.57, p-valueforest fires. On isolated days, combustion was estimated to contribute up to 21.0 μg PM/m 3 (50.8% of PM10). The contribution from industrial processes to this source is also worth highlighting given the presence of Ni and Co in its profile. Furthermore, African dust outbreaks at the sampling site, characterised by an arc through the Atlantic Ocean, were usually associated with a higher concentration of Al 2 O 3 in PM10. Results evidenced the relevance of stationary (i.e., steelworks and thermal power station) and mobile sources in the air quality at the suburban site under study, with important apportionments of particulate matter coming from road traffic and as consequence of releasing precursor gases of secondary particles to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bee Fauna and Floral Abundance Within Lawn-Dominated Suburban Yards in Springfield, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, S B; Milam, J

    2016-09-01

    Private yards comprise a significant component of urban lands, with managed lawns representing the dominant land cover. Lawns blanket > 163,000 km 2 of the United States, and 50% of urban and suburban areas. When not treated with herbicides, lawns have the capacity to support a diversity of spontaneous (e.g., not planted) flowers, with the potential to provide nectar and pollen resources for pollinators such as native bees. In order to determine the extent to which suburban lawns support these important species, we surveyed lawns in 17 suburban yards in Springfield, MA, between May and September 2013 and 2014. Householders participating in the study did not apply chemical pesticides or herbicides to lawns for the duration of the study. We collected 5,331 individual bees, representing 111 species, and 29% of bee species reported for the state. The majority of species were native to North America (94.6%), nested in soil (73%), and solitary (48.6%). Species richness was lower for oligolectic (specialists on a single plant; 9.9%) and parasitic species (12.6%). Abundance percentages for number of individuals were similar. We documented 63 plant species in the lawns, the majority of which were not intentionally planted. The most abundant lawn flowers were dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) and clover ( Trifolium sp. ). Nearly 30% of the spontaneous plant species growing in the lawns were native to North America. Our study suggests that the spontaneous lawn flowers could be viewed as supplemental floral resources and support pollinators, thereby enhancing the value of urban green spaces.

  1. Variability in carbon dioxide fluxes for dense urban, suburban and woodland environments in southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helen; Kotthaus, Simone; Grimmond, C. Sue; Bjorkegren, Alex; Wilkinson, Matt; Morrison, Will; Evans, Jon; Morison, James; Christen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The net exchange of carbon dioxide between the surface and atmosphere can be measured using the eddy covariance technique. Fluxes from a dense urban environment (central London), a suburban landscape (Swindon) and a woodland ecosystem (Alice Holt) are compared. All sites are located in southern England and experience similar climatic and meteorological conditions, yet have very different land cover. The signatures of anthropogenic and biogenic processes are explored at various (daily, seasonal and annual) timescales. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying the mixture of controls that determine the flux. In summer, there are clear similarities between the suburban and woodland sites, as the diurnal behaviour is dominated by photosynthetic uptake. In winter, however, vegetation is largely dormant and human activity determines the pattern of fluxes at the urban and suburban sites. Emissions from building heating augment the net release of carbon dioxide in cold months. Road use is a major contributor to the total emissions, and the diurnal cycle in the observed fluxes reflects this: in central London roads are busy throughout the day, whereas in Swindon a double-peaked rush-hour signal is evident. The net exchange of carbon dioxide is estimated for each site and set in context with other studies around the world. Central London has the smallest proportion of vegetation and largest emissions amongst study sites in the literature to date. Although Swindon's appreciable vegetation fraction helps to offset the anthropogenic emissions, even in summertime the 24h total flux is usually positive, indicating carbon release. Comparison of these three sites in a similar region demonstrates the effects of increasing urban density and changing land use on the atmosphere. Findings are relevant in terms of characterising the behaviour of urban surfaces and for quantifying the impact of anthropogenic activities.

  2. Characteristics of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides at urban, suburban and rural sites in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lei; Zhang, Huiling; Yu, Jie; He, Mengmeng; Xu, Nengbin; Zhang, Jingjing; Qian, Feizhong; Feng, Jiayong; Xiao, Hang

    2017-05-01

    Surface ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant that has attracted growing concern in China. In this study, the mixing ratios of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at three different sites (urban, suburban and rural) of Ningbo were continuously measured to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of O3 and its relationships with environmental variables. The diurnal O3 variations were characterized by afternoon maxima (38.7-53.1 ppb on annual average) and early morning minima (11.7-26.2 ppb) at all the three sites. Two seasonal peaks of O3 were observed in spring (April or May) and autumn (October) with minima being observed in winter (December). NOx levels showed generally opposite variations to that of O3 with diurnal and seasonal maxima occurring in morning/evening rush-hours and in winter, respectively. As to the inter-annual variations of air pollutants, generally decreasing and increasing trends were observed in NO and O3 levels, respectively, from 2012 to 2015 at both urban and suburban sites. O3 levels were positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with relative humidity and NOx levels. Significant differences in O3 levels were observed for different wind speeds and wind directions (p variation, higher levels of O3 were observed at the suburban and rural sites where less O3 was depleted by NO titration. In contrast, the urban site exhibited lower O3 but higher NOx levels due to the influence of traffic emissions. Larger amplitudes of diurnal and monthly O3 variations were observed at the suburban site than those at the urban and rural sites. In general, the O3 levels at the non-urban sites were more affected by the background transport, while both the local and regional contributions played roles in urban O3 variations. The annual average O3 mixing ratios (22.7-37.7 ppb) in Ningbo were generally similar to those of other regions around the world. However, the recommended air quality standards for O3 were often exceeded during warm

  3. Introductory strategies for the automation of suburban railway systems; Einfuehrungsstrategien fuer die Automatisierung von Nahverkehrsbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, N. [Siemens Transportation Systems, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    Driverless automatic operation is a cost-effective and passenger-friendly form of handling services in suburban railway systems. It is intended to introduce this operating mode also in railway systems that have so far been operated in a conventional mode. The article outlines solution concepts and introductory strategies for changing the operating mode. (orig.) [German] Der fahrerlose automatische Betrieb stellt eine wirtschaftliche und fahrgastfreundliche Form der Betriebsabwicklung von Nahverkehrssystemen dar. Ziel ist es, diese Betriebsform auch bei bislang konventionell betriebenen Bahnen einzufuehren. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt Loesungsansaetze und Einfuehrungsstrategien fuer die Umstellung auf einen automatischen Betrieb. (orig.)

  4. Policies Towards Suburban Rail Services in Britain and West\\ud Germany – A Comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1981, the eight S-Bahn systems of the Federal Republic of Germany carried around 7,000m passenger kilometres of traffic. By contrast, the local rail services operated by British Rail on behalf of the British Passenger Transport Executives were expected to carry around 2,000m passenger kilometres. (Table 1). The aim of this paper is to explore some of the reasons for this enormous difference is the role played by suburban rail systems between the two countries. As illustration, the particul...

  5. STILL AROUND? BARRIERS TO ENTRY IN SOLO MEDICAL PRACTICE IN SUBURBAN SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lee Mendoz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike many other countries, only 19% of physicians remain independent or solo practitioners in the United States. This study seeks to determine if entry barriers to solo practice exist in physician services markets with a predominantly suburban patient base. Any entry barrier will play a critical role in a wide variety of competition and income-related issues in these markets. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study hypothesizes that substantial deterrence to entry is present in suburban settings where physician competition is typically much less than metropolitan areas. Information about their competitive position was obtained from solo primary care physicians (PCPs and specialists in southern New Jersey municipalities. Two-sample t - tests (α =0.05 ascertained whether the means differences of these two groups are statistically significant for the population from which they were sampled. Regression coefficients were computed for the magnitude of differences in barrier impact between samples. RESULTS Adapting the Orr model, E = ß0 e ß 1 (πp -π* e ß 2 Q . S ß 3 µ, to this study allowed us to estimate the overall height of entry barriers to suburban solo practice. The study finds that entry barriers tend to have moderate effects on PCPs, with the exception of legal and regulatory compliance which are just as burdensome to specialists. Risk and insurance, capital, advertising, research and development (R & D as well as market concentration are far more challenging to solo specialists mainly due to overuse of already costly tests, procedures, and medications by specialists for "defensive medicine," and heavy reliance on specialists by PCPs. Labor costs are associated with several barriers. CONCLUSION Despite their declining population, market entry (and presumably survival of solo physicians is not as straightforward of a phenomenon as conjectural and anecdotal evidence might suggest. Medical specialty offers an explanatory variable

  6. Ch. Dokou on Bernice M. Murphy's The Suburban Gothic in American Popular Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernice M. Murphy, The Suburban Gothic in American Popular Culture. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Pp. 236. ISBN: 98-0-230-21810-9Studies in pop culture have the advantage of dealing with material that is more or less familiar to a wide majority of readers and, what is more, appreciated for what it is: the enjoyable—hence surviving and proliferating—collective currency of concepts, facts and views, crude yet effective, by which a culture defines and establishes itself and ...

  7. Biomonitoring of pollen grains of a river bank suburban city, Konnagar, Calcutta, India, and its link and impact on local people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Kavita; Pandey, Naren; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Pollen grains released by plants are dispersed into the air and can become trapped in human nasal mucosa, causing immediate release of allergens triggering severe Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible allergic patients. Recent epidemiologic data show that 11-12% of people suffer from this type of disorders in India. Hence, it is important to examine whether pollen grains have a role in dissipating respiratory problems, including allergy and astma, in a subtropical suburban city. Meteorological data were collected for a period of two years, together with aerobiological sampling with a Burkard sampler. A pollen calendar was prepared for the city. A health survey and the hospitalization rate of local people for the above problems were documented following statistical analysis between pollen counts and the data from the two above-mentioned sources. Skin Prick Test and Indirect ELISA were performer for the identification of allergenic pollen grains. Bio-monitoring results showed that a total of 36 species of pollen grains were located in the air of the study area, where their presence is controlled by many important meteorological parameters proved from SPSS statistical analysis and by their blooming periods. Statistical analysis showed that there is a high positive correlation of monthly pollen counts with the data from the survey and hospital. Biochemical tests revealed the allergic nature of pollen grains of many local species found in the sampler. Bio-monitoring, together with statistical and biochemical results, leave no doubt about the role of pollen as a bio-pollutant. General knowledge about pollen allergy and specific allergenic pollen grains of a particular locality could be a good step towards better health for the cosmopolitan suburban city.

  8. Biomonitoring of pollen grains of a river bank suburban city, Konnagar, Calcutta, India, and its link and impact on local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Pollen grains released by plants are dispersed into the air and can become trapped in human nasal mucosa, causing immediate release of allergens triggering severe Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible allergic patients. Recent epidemiologic data show that 11–12% of people suffer from this type of disorders in India. Hence, it is important to examine whether pollen grains have a role in dissipating respiratory problems, including allergy and astma, in a subtropical suburban city. Materials and methods. Meteorological data were collected for a period of two years, together with aerobiological sampling with a Burkard sampler. A pollen calendar was prepared for the city. A health survey and the hospitalization rate of local people for the above problems were documented following statistical analysis between pollen counts and the data from the two above-mentioned sources. Skin Prick Test and Indirect ELISA were performer for the identification of allergenic pollen grains. Results. Bio-monitoring results showed that a total of 36 species of pollen grains were located in the air of the study area, where their presence is controlled by many important meteorological parameters proved from SPSS statistical analysis and by their blooming periods. Statistical analysis showed that there is a high positive correlation of monthly pollen counts with the data from the survey and hospital. Biochemical tests revealed the allergic nature of pollen grains of many local species found in the sampler. Conclusions. Bio-monitoring, together with statistical and biochemical results, leave no doubt about the role of pollen as a bio-pollutant. General knowledge about pollen allergy and specific allergenic pollen grains of a particular locality could be a good step towards better health for the cosmopolitan suburban city.

  9. Status of Syndromic Management of Clients and their Partners at STI Clinic in a Suburban Area of Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STI are major public health problem of economically productive age group. Worldwide more cases of STI are seen among reproductive age group i.e., 15 to 49 years. World Health Organization estimates 340 million curable STIs each year. In India, 6% to 15% population is infected with one or more STIs. Hence, present study was conducted at STI clinic in suburban area. The objectives were to assess the socio-demographic factors, syndromes suffered and factors influencing treatment outcome among clients attending STI OPD. Methodology: 274 clients participated in the longitudinal study over a period of 6 months. Results: 232 female clients (84.7% proved female preponderance at STI clinic. Around 194 cases (70.8% belonged to the age group 25 to 44 years which is economically productive age group. Married females (92.24% and unmarried males (59.5% presented with STI syndromes. Among males, urethral discharge (66.67% and among females, vaginal discharge (82.76% were the predominating symptoms. The clients studied up to 10th standard, constituted 48.54% of the study sample. 53.28% of the clients belonged to upper lower socio-economic status. About 211 (90.9% women were housewives. About 31 (73.8% males were semi-skilled and skilled laborers. Conclusion: This study highlighted the vulnerability of females to STIs. The reproductive and economically productive age group forms major part of the affected population. The gap between the knowledge and application of correct and consistent use of condom needs to be reduced. Special emphasis on partner notification and their management will have an impact on prevention of STIs.

  10. Effects of truck-mounted, ultra low volume mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera) in a suburban field setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Nicholas A.; Danka, Robert G.; Walker, Todd W.; Ottea, James A.; Healy, Kristen B.

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of mosquito adulticides on honey bees under conditions that reflect actual field exposure. Whereas several studies have evaluated the toxicity of mosquito control products on honey bees, most have been laboratory based and have focused solely on acute mortality as a measure of impact. The goal of this study was to determine effects of routine applications of truck-based ultra-low volume (ULV) mosquito adulticides (i.e., Scourge, Duet, and Deltagard) on honey bees in a suburban setting. The mosquito adulticides used in this study were pyrethroids with active ingredients resmethrin (Scourge), prallethrin and sumithrin (Duet), and deltamethrin (Deltagard), in which resmethrin, prallethrin, and sumithrin were synergized with piperonyl butoxide. We measured and compared mortality and detoxification enzyme activities (esterase and glutathione S-transferase) from sentinel beehives within and outside of mosquito control areas. Concurrently, colony health (i.e., number of adult bees, brood quantity and brood quality) was compared throughout the study period. No significant differences were observed in honey bee mortality, colony health or detoxification enzyme activities between treated (five sprayed areas each received one to three insecticide treatment) and control sites (four unsprayed areas that did not receive insecticide treatment) over the seven week study period. However, our laboratory study showed that exposure to resmethrin, the active ingredient in Scourge, caused significant inhibition of esterase activity compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that proper application of truck based insecticides for mosquito control results in little or no exposure and therefore minimal effects on domestic honey bees. PMID:29494661

  11. Impact of oral hygiene and socio-demographic factors on dental caries in a suburban population in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedele, T A; Fadeju, A D; Adeyemo, Y I; Nzomiwu, C L; Ladeji, A M

    2018-05-14

    This was to determine dental caries determinants in the study participants. This was a secondary data study extracted from primary data through a school-based study that recruited students from primary and secondary schools in a suburban population in Nigeria. The variables included age, gender, socio-economic status, oral hygiene status, type of parenting, birth rank, family size and presence of dental caries. The diagnosis of dental caries was based on the World Health Oral Health Survey recommendations while oral hygiene was determined using simplified-oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Data was analysed using STATA version 13, statistical significance was set at P caries for the study population was 12.2%, DMFT and dmft were 0.16 and 0.06 respectively. Children within age groups 11-13 and 14-16 years had reduced chances of having dental caries (P = 0.01; P = 0.01); children with fair oral hygiene and poor oral hygiene had increased odds of having dental caries (P ≤ 0.001; P ≤ 0.001), last child of the family also had increased odds of having dental caries while children from large family size had reduced odds of having dental caries. This study also showed that first permanent molars and second primary molars were mostly affected by dental caries but there was no significant difference between distribution of the maxillary or mandibular jaw or between right and left quadrants. Age, oral hygiene, birth rank and family size were the significant determinants of dental caries in the study population and the teeth mostly affected were first permanent molars and second primary molars.

  12. Urban and suburban lifestyles and residential preferences in a highly urbanized society Urbane en suburbane leefstijlen en woonvoorkeuren in een samenleving onder verstedelijkingsdruk. Resultaten op basis van case onderzoek in Gent (Vlaanderen, België

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Allaert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that cities nowadays are confronted with (new challenges like segregation and suburbanisation. This paper explores the idea that these processes are related with residential choices (or preferences made by residents with divergent lifestyles and value patterns. The paper focuses on differences between urban and suburban lifestyles and residential preferences. Firstly the concept of lifestyles in general, and urban and suburban lifestyles more specifically, are approached. Secondly the results of a quantitative survey amongst residents within four neighbourhoods in the Ghent Region, a city in Belgium, are presented. This survey confirms that residents of urban and suburban zones have divergent lifestyles, but only for behavioural aspects, such as : private property protection, status behaviour and ecological behaviour. This results however in a social-spatial inequality and polarization between the urban centres and the suburban fringe. The shared aims amongst urban as well as suburban residents for a more secure residential environment and the ideal of the detached single-family house with private garden situated within a purely residential area, were identified as drivers for future suburban migrations. These residential preferences might cause (further suburbanisation but do not need to lead to segregated social communities, since living with peers does not seem to be a driver for migration in Flanders, Belgium.Heel wat steden worden vandaag de dag geconfronteerd met een toenemende of voortschrijdende segregatie en suburbanisatie. Deze maatschappelijke en ruimtelijke processen worden in deze paper in verband gebracht met concrete woonkeuzes of -voor­keuren van de bewoners en met hun specifieke leefstijlen. In eerste instantie wordt in de paper stilgestaan bij het concept leefstijl, waarbij een onderscheid wordt gemaakt tussen latente leefstijlen, gerelateerd aan normen, waarden en karaktereigenschappen van de

  13. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis and related risk behavior in the suburban area of Dakar, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tialla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the frequency of risk behaviors in the zoonotic transmission of bovine brucellosis in suburban Dakar. The individual serological status of 300 cattle distributed in thirty farms in this area was determined by the rose Bengal and complement fixation tests. The frequency of risk behaviors toward this zoonosis was determined using two epidemiological surveys that inventoried the known risk factors of brucellosis transmission between animals and humans. Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of rose Bengal and complement fixation tests used in series, i.e. 85% and 98.75 %, respectively, the true prevalence was estimated to be 36.36%. At least one animal was infected in 96.6% of the herds. Positivity to the complement fixation test was significantly associated with age, breed, abortion and the presence of bursitis in cattle. The risk behaviors the most frequently observed in humans in this area were: assisting during calving and abortion, handling of aborted fetuses without gloves, and consuming unpasteurized raw or curd milk and fresh cheese. These results show that brucellosis is present in dairy cattle farms in suburban Dakar. Since the milk produced in these farms is used to supply the city of Dakar, measures must be developed to promote brucellosis prevention methods aimed at Dakar’s population.

  14. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215-0.900; p healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population.

  15. Youth access to indoor tanning salons in urban versus rural/suburban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Rosenthal, Meagen; Lemon, Stephenie C; Kane, Kevin; Cheng, Jie; Oleski, Jessica L; Li, Wenjun; Hillhouse, Joel J; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-03-01

    Research suggests that youth proximity to tanning salons may promote use; however, little is known about tanning salon proximity to schools. We assessed the proximity of tanning salons to schools in urban versus rural/suburban communities across Worcester County, Massachusetts (population > 800K). To put findings in context, we compared school proximity to tanning salons to school proximity to McDonald's restaurants, a large franchise that also caters to young people. Accessibility was measured by ArcGIS 10.2 Network Analyzer (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) and the most current road network data layer from Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT). A total of 145 schools were observed in the study area, of which about 39% of schools were within 1 mile from a tanning salon. Urban schools (53.41%) had a higher proportion within 1 mile of a tanning salon than rural/suburban schools (17.54%; P < .001). More schools (39.31%) were within 1 mile of a tanning salon than schools within 1 mile of a McDonald's (22.70%; P < .001). Schools may be particularly impactful for implementing skin cancer prevention programing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The agriburb: recalling the suburban side of Ontario, California's agricultural colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandul, Paul J P

    2010-01-01

    This essay spotlights the development of Ontario, California, in the last decades of the nineteenth century. It demonstrates that many agricultural communities in California, particularly so-called agricultural colonies, represent a unique rural suburban type labeled here as "agriburbs." Agriburbs, such as Ontario, were communities consciously planned, developed, and promoted based on the drive for profit in emerging agricultural markets. Advertised as the perfect mix of rural and urban, they promised a superior middle-class lifestyle. On the one hand, agriburbs evoked the myths of agrarian security and virtue, a life on a farm in an environment that was good for both soil and soul. On the other hand, agriburbs were ideally urbane but not urban because of their many amenities that represented cultural symbols of modernity, refinement, and progress. An understanding of California's agriburbs deepens an appreciation for both the growth and development of California at the turn of the twentieth century and the diversity of suburban types across the American landscape.

  17. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  18. A social choice-based methodology for treated wastewater reuse in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Pourmand, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Reusing treated wastewater for supplying water demands such as landscape and agricultural irrigation in urban and suburban areas has become a major water supply approach especially in regions struggling with water shortage. Due to limited available treated wastewater to satisfy all water demands, conflicts may arise in allocating treated wastewater to water users. Since there is usually more than one decision maker and more than one criterion to measure the impact of each water allocation scenario, effective tools are needed to combine individual preferences to reach a collective decision. In this paper, a new social choice (SC) method, which can consider some indifference thresholds for decision makers, is proposed for evaluating and ranking treated wastewater and urban runoff allocation scenarios to water users in urban and suburban areas. Some SC methods, namely plurality voting, Borda count, pairwise comparisons, Hare system, dictatorship, and approval voting, are applied for comparing and evaluating the results. Different scenarios are proposed for allocating treated wastewater and urban runoff to landscape irrigation, agricultural lands as well as artificial recharge of aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan Area, Iran. The main stakeholders rank the proposed scenarios based on their utilities using two different approaches. The proposed method suggests ranking of the scenarios based on the stakeholders' utilities and considering the scores they assigned to each scenario. Comparing the results of the proposed method with those of six different SC methods shows that the obtained ranks are mostly in compliance with the social welfare.

  19. Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Benjamin J.; Febria, Catherine M.; Cooke, Roger M.; Hosen, Jacob D.; Baker, Matthew E.; Colson, Abigail R.; Filoso, Solange; Hayhoe, Katharine; Loperfido, J. V.; Stoner, Anne M.K.; Palmer, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) is a primary driver of freshwater and coastal eutrophication globally, and urban stormwater is a rapidly growing source of N pollution. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are used widely to remove excess N from runoff in urban and suburban areas, and are expected to perform under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Yet the capacity of BMPs to retain excess N varies; and both the variation and the drivers thereof are largely unknown, hindering the ability of water resource managers to meet water quality targets in a cost-effective way. Here, we use structured expert judgment (SEJ), a performance-weighted method of expert elicitation, to quantify the uncertainty in BMP performance under a range of site-specific environmental conditions and to estimate the extent to which key environmental factors influence variation in BMP performance. We hypothesized that rain event frequency and magnitude, BMP type and size, and physiographic province would significantly influence the experts’ estimates of N retention by BMPs common to suburban Piedmont and Coastal Plain watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region.

  20. Performance Analysis of Trans-Jakarta Bus Suburban Service Move-Across Greater Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkudung, ESW; Widyadayinta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Trans-Jakarta have developed their services scope as Suburban Service or Feeder move-across service that operate from greater Jakarta into Jakarta central vice versa. One of the route is Ciputat – Bundaran Hotel Indonesia (Tosari) and integrated with corridor 1 (one) and 8 (eight). This service is not travel on the exclusive lane or bus-way. Objective of Government Jakarta to provide this service is to decrease private car to enter the central of Jakarta. The objective of this study is to find the performance of the service. Survey have conducted static and dynamic on work day to get variable of travel time and delay, waiting time of passenger at the bus stop, headway and ridership of the bus. Service Standard Minimum of Trans-Jakarta have compared with the result of variable headway, travel speed, and waiting time at bus stop as concern of all the passengers. Analysis use correlation test method and linear regression model have done. The performance of Trans-Jakarta bus suburban service, based on travel speed indicator is fairly bad, only 8.1% of trip could comply with Minimum Service Standard. Bus performance based on the indicator of density in the bus is good, where all points are below the maximum limit i.e. 8 people/m2 at peak hour and 5 people/m2 at off-peak hour.

  1. Sources identification of the atmospheric aerosol at urban and suburban sites in Indonesia by positive matrix factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Muhayatun; Hopke, Philip K.; Hidayat, Achmad; Diah Dwiana L

    2008-01-01

    Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne particulate matter were collected in Indonesia (west central Java) at an urban site in Bandung and in suburban Lembang from January 2002 to December 2004. The samples were collected using a Gent stacked filter sampler in two size fractions of 2.5-10 mass at both sites comes from soil dust and road dust. The biomass burning factor contributes about 40% of the PM 2.5 mass in case of suburban Lembang and about 20% in urban Bandung

  2. "How will I explain why we live behind a wall?" La Zona (2007 as suburban gothic narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice M Murphy

    2012-11-01

    This paper argues that Rodrigo Pla’s film La Zona (2007, set ina privileged, self-governing gated community in Mexico City,replicates many of the North American variety of the SuburbanGothic’s most characteristic preoccupations, albeit in a LatinAmerican setting, and with reference to specifically regionaleconomic and political anxieties. The paper also discusses theways in which the Suburban Gothic so often serves as a meansof expressing specifically middle-class anxieties about therelationship between the privileged and the disenfranchised, inthis instance, specifically Mexican anxieties about the libertiesafforded to the wealthy and the ramifications of police corruptionand political cronyism.

  3. Volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds in suburban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Grand, N.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Sauvage, S.; Fronval, I.; Leonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Gouw, J.A. de; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Lopez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in suburban Paris. Measurements comprise primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scale, and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and suburban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other mega-cities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and suburban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (≤ 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt), which cannot be explained by the gas-particle partitioning theory. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I/VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an integrated approach based on emission ratios and SOA yields, 38% of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by the measured concentrations of I/VOCs, with a 2% contribution by C12-C16 n-alkane IVOCs. From the results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the average IVOC contribution to SOA formation is estimated to be 7 %, which is half of the average contribution of the traditional aromatic compounds (15 %). Both

  4. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green,; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  5. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  6. Prevalence of COPD and respiratory symptoms associated with biomass smoke exposure in a suburban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Venegas A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas,1 Mónica Velázquez-Uncal,1 Rosaura Pérez-Hernández,2 Nicolás Eduardo Guzmán-Bouilloud,1 Ramcés Falfán-Valencia,3 María Eugenia Mayar-Maya,4 Adrian Aranda-Chávez,1 Raúl H Sansores5 1Tobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Research Department of Tobacco Smoking, Centro de Investigacion de Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mexico; 3HLA Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Medical Attention Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 5Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Biomass smoke exposure (BSE is a recognized cause of COPD particularly in rural areas. However, little research has been focused on BSE in suburban areas. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD, respiratory symptoms (RS and BSE in women living in a suburban area of Mexico City exposed to BSE. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a female population aged >35 years was performed using a multistage cluster sampling strategy. The participants completed questionnaires on RS and COPD risk factors. The COPD prevalence was based on the postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio. Of the 1,333 women who completed the respiratory questionnaires, spirometry data were obtained from 1,190, and 969 of these were scored as A–C. Results: The prevalence of BSE was 47%, and the estimated prevalence of COPD was 2.5% for the total population (n=969 and 3.1% for those with BSE only. The spirometry and oximetry values were significantly lower in women with greater exposure levels. The prevalence of RS (cough, phlegm, wheezing and dyspnea was significantly higher in the

  7. PM 10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Concentrations, source characterization and estimating their risk in urban, suburban and rural areas in Kandy, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, A. P.; Karunaratne, D. G. G. P.; Sivakanesan, R.

    2011-05-01

    Kandy, a world heritage city, is a rapidly urbanized area in Sri Lanka, with a high population density of ˜6000 hab km -2. As it is centrally located in a small valley of 26 km 2 surrounded by high mountains, emissions from the daily flow of >100,000 vehicles, most are old and poorly maintained, get stagnant over the study area with an increased emphasis on the associated health impacts. Particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be major pollutants in vehicular emissions; while PAHs account for the majority of mutagenic potency of PM. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 8 h average concentrations of ambient PM 10 PAHs at twenty sites distributed in the urban, suburban and rural Kandy. Samples on glass micro fibre filters were collected with a high volume air sampler from July/2008 to March/2009, prepared through standard procedures and analyzed for PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet visible detection. Further, the type and strength of possible anthropogenic emission sources that cause major perturbations to the atmosphere were assessed by traffic volume (24 h) counts and firewood mass burnt/d at each sampling site, with the subsequent societal impact through quantitative cancer risk assessment. The results can serve as a base set to assess the PAH sources, pollution levels and human exposure. Mean total concentrations of 16 prioritized PAHs (∑PAHs) ranged from 57.43 to 1246.12 ng m -3 with 695.94 ng m -3 in urban heavy traffic locations (U/HT), 105.55 ng m -3 in urban light traffic locations, 337.45 ng m -3 in suburban heavy traffic stations, 154.36 ng m -3 in suburban light traffic stations, 192.48 ng m -3 in rural high firewood burning area and 100.31 ng m -3 in rural low firewood burning area. The mean PM 10 concentration was 129 μg m -3 (55-221 μg m -3); which is beyond the WHO air quality standards. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon signature and the spatial variation

  8. Relations of Shyness-Sensitivity and Unsociability with Adjustment in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence in Suburban Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Xinyin; Zhou, Ying; Li, Dan; Fu, Rui; Coplan, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how shyness-sensitivity and unsociability were associated with social, school, and psychological adjustment in Chinese children and adolescents. Participants included 564 children (272 boys, M[subscript age] = 9 years) and 462 adolescents (246 boys, M[subscript age] = 13 years) in a suburban region in China. Data were obtained…

  9. The Unseen Digital Divide: Urban, Suburban, and Rural Teacher Use and Perceptions of Web-Based Classroom Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Erik M.

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the differences in perceptions and attitudes toward technology integration of K-12 public school teachers in rural, suburban, and urban environments. The purpose was to examine the relationship between frequency of use and perception of effectiveness of web-based learning tools based upon the type of school…

  10. Leading a Sustainable Lifestyle in a "Non-Sustainable World": Reflections from Australian Ecovillage and Suburban Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Bentley, Kristeen

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing awareness and acceptance of sustainability, relatively little is known about the motivations, viewpoints and experiences of people who choose to lead extremely sustainable lives. Through in-depth interviews with seven sustainability leaders, residing in an ecovillage or traditional suburban community in south-east Queensland in…

  11. Landscape, vegetation characteristics, and group identity in an urban and suburban watershed: why the 60s matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Boone; Mary L. Cadenasso; J. Morgan Grove; Kirsten Schwarz; Geoffrey L. Buckley

    2010-01-01

    As highly managed ecosystems, urban areas should reflect the social characteristics of their managers, who are primarily residents. Since landscape features develop over time, we hypothesize that present-day vegetation should also reflect social characteristics of past residents. Using an urban-to-suburban watershed in the Baltimore Metropolitan Region, this paper...

  12. Comparison of Race-Gender, Urban-Suburban Criminal Justice College Students Satisfaction of the Police Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…

  13. Relations among Neighborhood Social Networks, Home Literacy Environments, and Children's Expressive Vocabulary in Suburban At-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural Equation…

  14. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in rural and suburban communities in three provinces of Turkey: need for improved diagnosis and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, Sukran; Smits, Henk L.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2006-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Brucella-specific antibodies in rural and suburban communities in different provinces of Anatolia. Cross-sectional seroepidemiological study on serum samples collected in communities in two relatively developed provinces in west Anatolia with an official low

  15. Media exposure and parental mediation on fast-food consumption among children in metropolitan and suburban Indonesian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Malik, Shelly; Ridwan, Hardinsyah; Au, Cyndy Sook Sum

    2017-01-01

    Fast-food companies have been reproached for rising obesity levels due to aggressive marketing tactics targeted at children. They have countered that parents should be held responsible considering their critical role as nutritional gatekeepers. This study examined the comparative effects of media exposure and parental mediation on Indonesian children's fast food consumption and how the effects compare in the metropolitan versus suburban areas. The sample consisted of 394 child-mother pairs comprising grade three and four children and their mothers from two schools each in Jakarta and Bogor representing 40.9% metropolitan sample and 59.1% suburban sample, respectively. The children completed a guided inclass survey, while the mothers completed a paper-and-pen survey at home. Measures comprised children's weekly media exposure to broadcast media, computer and mobile games, print media, and online and social media, active and restrictive parental mediation strategies, children's fast food consumption and nutrition knowledge. The relationship of media exposure and parental mediation with children's fast food consumption was analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling. Fast food consumption was positively influenced by exposure to broadcast media among metropolitan children, and by exposure to online and social media among suburban children. Active parental mediation was related to lower fast food consumption, but only for suburban children. Active parental mediation is critical in preventing fast food consumption. The media play a key role in influencing fast food consumption, and hence, literacy education is important to alleviate the adverse effects of exposure to junk food marketing.

  16. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second...

  17. Effects of urban density on carbon dioxide exchanges: Observations of dense urban, suburban and woodland areas of southern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, H C; Kotthaus, S; Grimmond, C S B; Bjorkegren, A; Wilkinson, M; Morrison, W T J; Evans, J G; Morison, J I L; Iamarino, M

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic and biogenic controls on the surface-atmosphere exchange of CO2 are explored for three different environments. Similarities are seen between suburban and woodland sites during summer, when photosynthesis and respiration determine the diurnal pattern of the CO2 flux. In winter, emissions from human activities dominate urban and suburban fluxes; building emissions increase during cold weather, while traffic is a major component of CO2 emissions all year round. Observed CO2 fluxes reflect diurnal traffic patterns (busy throughout the day (urban); rush-hour peaks (suburban)) and vary between working days and non-working days, except at the woodland site. Suburban vegetation offsets some anthropogenic emissions, but 24-h CO2 fluxes are usually positive even during summer. Observations are compared to estimated emissions from simple models and inventories. Annual CO2 exchanges are significantly different between sites, demonstrating the impacts of increasing urban density (and decreasing vegetation fraction) on the CO2 flux to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of urban density on carbon dioxide exchanges: Observations of dense urban, suburban and woodland areas of southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Bjorkegren, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Morrison, W.T.J.; Evans, J.G.; Morison, J.I.L.; Iamarino, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic and biogenic controls on the surface–atmosphere exchange of CO 2 are explored for three different environments. Similarities are seen between suburban and woodland sites during summer, when photosynthesis and respiration determine the diurnal pattern of the CO 2 flux. In winter, emissions from human activities dominate urban and suburban fluxes; building emissions increase during cold weather, while traffic is a major component of CO 2 emissions all year round. Observed CO 2 fluxes reflect diurnal traffic patterns (busy throughout the day (urban); rush-hour peaks (suburban)) and vary between working days and non-working days, except at the woodland site. Suburban vegetation offsets some anthropogenic emissions, but 24-h CO 2 fluxes are usually positive even during summer. Observations are compared to estimated emissions from simple models and inventories. Annual CO 2 exchanges are significantly different between sites, demonstrating the impacts of increasing urban density (and decreasing vegetation fraction) on the CO 2 flux to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Multi-seasonal comparison of contemporaneous CO 2 fluxes over contrasting land cover. • Signatures of anthropogenic and biogenic processes explored at various timescales. • Observations reveal relative magnitude of anthropogenic emissions. • CO 2 fluxes related to surface controls, strongly dependent on land cover. - Direct measurements of CO 2 fluxes reveal the impact of urbanisation and human behavioural patterns on the atmosphere at sub-daily to inter-annual time scales

  19. Examining Behavioral, Relational, and Cognitive Engagement in Smaller Learning Communities: A Case Study of Reform in One Suburban District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of Smaller Learning Community reform on students' behavioral, relational, and cognitive engagement in a suburban school district experiencing urbanization. We describe a project in which we evaluated the engagement of a cohort of 8th grade students as they transitioned to high school (n = 605).…

  20. New cities in the Randstad, Netherlands. Urbanisation and suburbanity; Nieuwe steden in de Randstad. Verstedelijking en suburbaniteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijndorp, A.; Bijlsma, L.; Nio, I.; Van der Wouden, R.

    2012-09-15

    Forty years ago, policy for centres of growth was launched in the Netherlands. The Dutch spatial planning policy hence followed the example of the English New Towns and the French Villes Nouvelles, although the term 'new cities' was not adopted in policy. As of the late 1980s, the policy for centre of growth was gradually terminated. Since then, the attention for urbanity in the suburban regions has further decreased. The 'compact city' became the new central idea in spatial planning, and urbanity became a synonym of 'big city'. The former centres of growth had to set their course in a climate characterised by fading interest in them. However, the suburban regions are still an important component of the metropolitan regions. New types of urbanity arose, partly due to the choices made by local authorities, partly as a result of the composition of the population. This mostly yields insights on how you can make suburban regions more sustainable in the sense of resistant to changes. By enhancing the adjustability of urban development, restructuring operations may be avoided in the future. This report views the centres of growth in the perspective of spatial planning and the development of metropolitan regions. Not only does it give insight in one of the most productive periods in Dutch spatial planning; it also offers future perspectives of suburban Netherlands [Dutch] Veertig jaar geleden begon het groeikernenbeleid. De Nederlandse ruimtelijke ordening volgde daarmee het voorbeeld van de Engelse New Towns en de Franse Villes Nouvelles, al werd in het beleid niet het begrip 'nieuwe steden' overgenomen. Vanaf eind jaren tachtig van de vorige eeuw werd het groeikernenbeleid geleidelijk beëindigd. Sindsdien is de aandacht voor de stedelijkheid in de suburbane gebieden verder afgenomen. De 'compacte stad' werd het centrale begrip in de ruimtelijke ordening, en stedelijkheid werd synoniem met 'grote stad'. De voormalige groeikernen moesten hun koers bepalen in een klimaat

  1. New cities in the Randstad, Netherlands. Urbanisation and suburbanity; Nieuwe steden in de Randstad. Verstedelijking en suburbaniteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijndorp, A.; Bijlsma, L.; Nio, I.; Van der Wouden, R.

    2012-09-15

    Forty years ago, policy for centres of growth was launched in the Netherlands. The Dutch spatial planning policy hence followed the example of the English New Towns and the French Villes Nouvelles, although the term 'new cities' was not adopted in policy. As of the late 1980s, the policy for centre of growth was gradually terminated. Since then, the attention for urbanity in the suburban regions has further decreased. The 'compact city' became the new central idea in spatial planning, and urbanity became a synonym of 'big city'. The former centres of growth had to set their course in a climate characterised by fading interest in them. However, the suburban regions are still an important component of the metropolitan regions. New types of urbanity arose, partly due to the choices made by local authorities, partly as a result of the composition of the population. This mostly yields insights on how you can make suburban regions more sustainable in the sense of resistant to changes. By enhancing the adjustability of urban development, restructuring operations may be avoided in the future. This report views the centres of growth in the perspective of spatial planning and the development of metropolitan regions. Not only does it give insight in one of the most productive periods in Dutch spatial planning; it also offers future perspectives of suburban Netherlands [Dutch] Veertig jaar geleden begon het groeikernenbeleid. De Nederlandse ruimtelijke ordening volgde daarmee het voorbeeld van de Engelse New Towns en de Franse Villes Nouvelles, al werd in het beleid niet het begrip 'nieuwe steden' overgenomen. Vanaf eind jaren tachtig van de vorige eeuw werd het groeikernenbeleid geleidelijk beëindigd. Sindsdien is de aandacht voor de stedelijkheid in de suburbane gebieden verder afgenomen. De 'compacte stad' werd het centrale begrip in de ruimtelijke ordening, en stedelijkheid werd synoniem met 'grote stad'. De

  2. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department.

  3. Comparison of real driving cycles and consumed braking power in suburban Slovakian driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gechev Tsvetomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the features of suburban real driving cycles performed with CORRSYS DATRON measurement equipment on routes in the region of Žilina, Slovakia. It observes differences in the maximum and average vehicle velocities and the amount of braking in relation to the elevation profile of each individual cycle. Consumed braking power was also calculated in the different cycles in order to review the potential electricity regeneration capabilities of hybrid electric vehicles, operating on the same routes. The change in braking energy depending on vehicle mass and presence of grade on the routes in the measured cycles was also assessed. The calculations and plotting were done by using Matlab software.

  4. Performance Analysis of Relays in LTE for a Realistic Suburban Deployment Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coletti, Claudio; Mogensen, Preben; Irmer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Relays are likely to play an important role in the deployment of Beyond 3G networks, such as LTE-Advanced, thanks to the possibility of effectively extending Macro network coverage and fulfilling the expected high data-rate requirements. Up until now, the relay technology potential and its cost......-effectiveness have been widely investigated in the literature, considering mainly statistical deployment scenarios, like regular networks with uniform traffic distribution. This paper is envisaged to illustrate the performances of different relay technologies (In-Band/Out-band) in a realistic suburban network...... scenario with real Macro site positions, user density map and spectrum band availability. Based on a proposed heuristic deployment algorithm, results show that deploying In-band relays can significantly reduce the user outage if high backhaul link quality is ensured, whereas Out-band relaying and the usage...

  5. Quantitative and qualitative hydrologic balance for a suburban watershed with a separate sewer system (Nantes, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, V; Larrarte, F; Berthier, M; Favreau, L; Sauvourel, Y; Letellier, L; Mosisni, M L; Raimbault, G

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative budget at the outlet of the storm-water runoff system of a small suburban watershed is presented together with some data regarding waste-water. 445,000 m3 (34% of the rain-water volume) were drained by the storm-water runoff system and 40,879 m3 by the waste-water system from September 2002 to March 2004. Storm-water runoff is generally not heavily polluted with regard to trace metals but concentrations occasionally exceed the standards for surface water of good quality. On the contrary, pesticides (diuron and glyphosate) have very high concentrations especially in spring and autumn when their use is maximum. As the St Joseph storm-water runoff is finally discharged into the Erdre River, measures to reduce the use of these pollutants should be considered.

  6. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S; Massey, Douglas S

    2013-06-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ - the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities.

  7. An Integrated Rolling Stock Planning Model for the Copenhagen Suburban Passenger Railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Larsen, Jesper; Laumanns, Marco

    A central issue for operators of passenger railways is providing sufficient number of seats for passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. This is the task of rolling stock planning. Due to the large number of practical, railway specific requirements that a rolling stock plan has...... to take into account, rolling stock plans are often constructed in a step-by-step manner, taking some requirements into consideration in each step. This may make it difficult in the final step to produce a plan that is feasible with regard to all of the requirements and at the same time economically...... attractive. This paper proposes an integrated rolling stock planning model that simultaneously takes into account all practical requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The model is then used to improve existing rolling stock plans...

  8. An integrated rolling stock planning model for the Copenhagen suburban passenger railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Larsen, Jesper; Laumanns, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A central issue for operators of passenger railways is providing sufficient number of seats for passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. This is the task of rolling stock planning. Due to the large number of practical, railway specific requirements that a rolling stock plan has...... to take into account, rolling stock plans are often constructed in a step-by-step manner, taking some requirements into consideration in each step. This may make it difficult in the final step to produce a plan that is feasible with regard to all of the requirements and at the same time economically...... attractive. This paper proposes an integrated rolling stock planning model that simultaneously takes into account all practical requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The model is then used to improve existing rolling stock plans...

  9. Characterization of Thermotolerant Chitinases Encoded by a Brevibacillus laterosporus Strain Isolated from a Suburban Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To isolate and characterize chitinases that can be applied with practical advantages, 57 isolates of chitin-degrading bacteria were isolated from the soil of a suburban wetland. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the majority of these strains belonged to two genera, Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus. Taking thermostability into account, the chitinases (ChiA and ChiC of a B. laterosporus strain were studied further. Ni-NTA affinity-purified ChiA and ChiC were optimally active at pH 7.0 and 6.0, respectively, and showed high temperature stability up to 55 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that ChiC has a lower affinity and stronger catalytic activity toward colloidal chitin than ChiA. With their stability in a broad temperature range, ChiA and ChiC can be utilized for the industrial bioconversion of chitin wastes into biologically active products.

  10. The impact of the built environment on young people's physical activity patterns: a suburban-rural comparison using GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark

    2012-08-24

    The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people's PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in identifying

  11. Prevalence and correlates of childhood obesity in suburban area of Odisha: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India obesity and overweight is increasing among urban adolescents. Both under and over nutrition is grappling the country at faster rate. Present study was an attempt to explore obesity and overweight prevalence among school going children in suburban areas of Cuttack city, Odisha, India and their correlates.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among school children in suburban area of Cuttack city, Odisha. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants to elicit information about their age, number of siblings, birth order of the child, working status of parents, television screen viewing time, mode of transport to school and dietary habit of the students. A total of 550 children studying in class five to ten participated in our study.Result: Out of 550 children screened, nearly (14 2.5% students were thin or severely thin, whereas (6712.1% students were overweight or obese. Univariate analysis revealed that girls were almost five times at higher risk of being overweight/obesity compared to boys (OR: 4.78 95%CI: 1.35-16.93. Children who used motorized vehicles for going to school had an unadjusted Odds ratio of 10.08 [95%CI: 2.08-48.77] of being overweight or obese compared to those who walked to school. Having more than one child at home (OR= 0.15, 95%CI: 0.039-0.6 and doing physical activity for more than 30min per day (0.105, 95%CI: 0.015-0.72 were found to be protective against overweight and obesity.Conclusion: Bearing in mind the burden of overweight and obesity among school children there is a need for periodic screening, awareness at school and parent counselling.

  12. Real-Time Lane Detection on Suburban Streets Using Visual Cue Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of lane boundaries on suburban streets using images obtained from video constitutes a challenging task. This is mainly due to the difficulties associated with estimating the complex geometric structure of lane boundaries, the quality of lane markings as a result of wear, occlusions by traffic, and shadows caused by road-side trees and structures. Most of the existing techniques for lane boundary detection employ a single visual cue and will only work under certain conditions and where there are clear lane markings. Also, better results are achieved when there are no other on-road objects present. This paper extends our previous work and discusses a novel lane boundary detection algorithm specifically addressing the abovementioned issues through the integration of two visual cues. The first visual cue is based on stripe-like features found on lane lines extracted using a two-dimensional symmetric Gabor filter. The second visual cue is based on a texture characteristic determined using the entropy measure of the predefined neighbourhood around a lane boundary line. The visual cues are then integrated using a rule-based classifier which incorporates a modified sequential covering algorithm to improve robustness. To separate lane boundary lines from other similar features, a road mask is generated using road chromaticity values estimated from CIE L*a*b* colour transformation. Extraneous points around lane boundary lines are then removed by an outlier removal procedure based on studentized residuals. The lane boundary lines are then modelled with Bezier spline curves. To validate the algorithm, extensive experimental evaluation was carried out on suburban streets and the results are presented.

  13. Agricultural Abandonment, Suburban Growth, and Forest Expansion in Puerto Rico between 1991 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel K. Parés-Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of local economies to the globalization process can have a large effect on population and land-use dynamics. In countries with a high population density and relatively high levels of education, the globalization process has resulted in a shift in the local economy from agriculture to manufacturing, technology, and service sectors. This shift in the economy has impacted land-use dynamics by decreasing agricultural lands, increasing urban growth, and in some cases, increasing forest cover. This process of economic and forest transition has been well documented in Puerto Rico for the period 1950 to 1990, but some authors predicted that poor planning and continued urban growth would eliminate the gains in forest cover. To investigate the impacts of recent economic changes, we evaluated demographic and land-use changes for 880 "barrios" (i.e., neighborhoods, the smallest administrative unit, in Puerto Rico using government census data from 1990 and 2000 and land-cover classifications from 1991 and 2000. During this period, the population increased by 284 127 people (8.2%. Most of the growth was in the suburban barrios, whereas urban barrios lost population. This shift was reflected by the construction of more than 100 000 housing units in suburban barrios. Although urban sprawl is perceived as the major land-cover change, urban cover only increased from 10% to 11% between 1990 and 2000, whereas the increase in forest cover was much greater (28% to 40%. Grasslands and shrublands were the major sources of new urban and forest areas in 2000. Although these results are encouraging in terms of increasing forest cover, most of the new development has been concentrated in the coastal plains, which are the location of most of the remaining agricultural areas, a few protected areas, and threatened ecosystems (e.g., mangroves.

  14. The Urban Nexus: Contradictions and Dilemmas of (PostCommunist (SubUrbanization in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Dumitrache

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization in Romania was a very tumultuous and slightly different one compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, being marked by the constant willingness to increase the degree of urbanization. The communist period was the most significant from this point of view, by considering both the number of newly declared towns and urban population growth. The urbanization of communist era corroborated with the excessive and forced industrialization has generated imbalances in the urban system and created distortions in the urban hierarchy. However, the legislative inconsistency and the lack of urban regulations during the post – communist period have lead to the increasing number of new (quasi urban units (many of which without urban amenities to the chaotic sub-urbanization of cities and urban decline. In many cases, the ability of local authorities to manage the urban development in the early years of transition has been hampered by inadequate legislation that regulates the urban growth in a completely different socio-economic system. Thus, the lacks of specific urban policies and urban regeneration plans have determined indirectly a hypertrophic evolution and an uncontrolled suburban expansion. Bucharest, the capital of the country has been most affected by these processes determining multilayered space transformation within the city and open space conversion to commercial and residential use, both affecting the urban environment and quality of life of urban-rural communities. The paper focuses on the patterns, the driving forces and the consequences of two opposing processes: socialist forced urbanization vs. post-socialist chaotic urbanization unfolding across the national urban landscape.

  15. Channel Incision Driven by Suburbanization: Impacts to Riparian Groundwater Flow and Overbank Flow Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, C. J.; Lawrence, R. L.; Noll, C.; Hancock, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    Channel incision is a widely observed response to increased flow in urbanized watersheds, but the effects of channel lowering on riparian water tables is not well documented. In a rapidly incising suburban stream in the Virginia Coastal Plain, we hypothesize that stream incision has lowered floodplain water tables and decreased the overbank flow frequency. The monitored stream is a tributary to the James River draining 1.3 km2 of which 15% is impervious cover. Incision has occurred largely through upstream migration of a one meter high knickpoint at a rate of ~1.5 m/yr, primarily during high flow events. We installed 63 wells in six stream-perpendicular transects as well as a cluster of wells around the knickpoint to assess water table elevations beneath the floodplain adjacent to the incising stream. Two transects are located 30 and 50 m upstream of the knickpoint in the unincised floodplain, and the remainder are 5, 30, 70, and 100 m downstream in the incised floodplain. In one transect above and two below, pressure transducers attached to dataloggers provide a high-resolution record of water table changes. Erosion pins were installed and channel cross-sections surveyed to determine streambed stability. Significant differences are observed in bank morphology and groundwater flow above vs. below the knickpoint. Above the knickpoint, the banks are stable, ~3 m wide, and ~0.3 m deep, and widen and deepen slightly toward the knickpoint. The water table is relatively flat and is 0.2-0.4 m below the floodplain surface, and groundwater contours suggest flow is parallel to the stream direction. The water table responds immediately to precipitation events, and rises to the floodplain surface in significant rainfall events. Immediately downstream of the knickpoint, channel width increases by about a meter, and stream depth increases to ~1.5 meters. The water table immediately below the knickpoint possesses a steep gradient, and is up to one meter below the floodplain

  16. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  17. No Escape from the Burbs. Rezension zu Roger Keil (Hg. (2013: Suburban Constellations: Governance, Land and Infrastructure in the 21st Century. Berlin: JOVIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Den Begriff des Urbanen in Auseinandersetzung mit dem Suburbanen zu bestimmen, ist horizonterweiternd. Nicht, dass er nach der Lektüre von Suburban Constellations an Schärfe gewonnen hätte, wohl aber hat sich meine Aufmerksamkeit für scheinbar banale Phänomene außerhalb der Stadt geschärft. Neu ist die enorme Bandbreite suburbaner Fallstudien aus dem ‚Globalen Norden‘ und dem ‚Globalen Süden‘, die hier versammelt werden.Der Band ist ein wichtiger Output des Forschungsverbunds „Global Suburbanism. Governance, Land and Infrastructure in the 21st Century“, dem über fünfzig Wissenschaftler_innen und Praktiker_innen angehörenAm Ende hat mich die Hauptthese des Buches überzeugt, der zufolge suburbane Räume keine Randphänomene, sondern Schlüsselaspekte der Urbanisierung im 21. Jahrhundert darstellen.

  18. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-04-04

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50-100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on Aedes aegypti infestation of water storage containers. A cross-sectional survey of 239 households in Laos (124 suburban and 115 rural), and 248 households in Thailand (127 suburban and 121 rural) was conducted. Entomological surveys alongside semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain information on Ae. aegypti infestation, socio-demographic factors and water management. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with Ae. aegypti pupal infestation. Household water management rather than socio-demographic factors were more likely to be associated with the infestation of water containers with Ae. aegypti pupae. Factors that was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti infestation were tanks, less frequent cleaning of containers, containers without lids, and containers located outdoors or in toilets/bathrooms. Associations between Ae. aegypti pupae infestation, household water management, and socio-demographic factors were found, with risk factors for Ae. aegypti infestation being specific to each study setting. Most of the containers did not have lids, larvicides, such as temephos was seldom used, and containers were not cleaned regularly; factors are facilitating dengue vector proliferation. It is recommended that, in Lao villages, health messages should promote proper use and maintenance of tightly fitted lids, and temephos in tanks, which were the most infested containers. Recommendations for Thailand are that small

  19. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia spp. in ixodid ticks and rodents in suburban, natural and rural habitats in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichová, Lenka; Hamšíková, Zuzana; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Kocianová, Elena; Kazimírová, Mária; Škultéty, Ľudovít; Štefanidesová, Katarína; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-03-24

    Natural foci of tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae of public health concern have been found in Slovakia, but the role of rodents in their circulation is unclear. Ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes trianguliceps, Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis concinna and Haemaphysalis inermis) and tissues of rodents (Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Microtus subterraneus and Micromys minutus) were examined for the presence of SFG rickettsiae and Coxiella burnetii by molecular methods. Suburban, natural and rural habitats were monitored to acquire information on the role of ticks and rodents in the agents' maintenance in various habitat types of Slovakia. The overall prevalence of rickettsial infection in questing I. ricinus and D. marginatus was 6.6% and 21.4%, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and non-identified rickettsial species were detected in I. ricinus, whereas R. slovaca and R. raoultii were identified in D. marginatus. Rickettsia spp.-infected I. ricinus occurred during the whole tick questing period. Rickettsia helvetica dominated (80.5%) followed by R. monacensis (6.5%). The species were present in all studied habitats. Rickettsia slovaca (66.7%) and R. raoultii (33.3%) were identified in D. marginatus from the rural habitat. Apodemus flavicollis was the most infested rodent species with I. ricinus, but My. glareolus carried the highest proportion of Rickettsia-positive I. ricinus larvae. Only 0.5% of rodents (A. flavicollis) and 5.2% of engorged I. ricinus removed from My. glareolus, A. flavicollis and M. arvalis were R. helvetica- and R. monacensis-positive. Coxiella burnetii was not detected in any of the tested samples. We hypothesize that rodents could play a role as carriers of infected ticks and contribute to the maintenance of rickettsial pathogens in natural foci. Long-term presence of SFG Rickettsia spp. was confirmed in questing ticks from different habitat

  20. Impacts and socio-ecological feedbacks associated with regionalization of water supply in a suburban New England watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Polsky, C.; Pontius, R.; Hopkinson, C.

    2012-12-01

    Suburban watersheds often rely on locally derived ecosystem services such as water supply, even as these services are threatened by existing land use and land-use change patterns. At some point, the ability of the watershed to provide such services may become impaired. Socio-ecological feedbacks are likely to emerge, leading to more active management of locally derived water provisioning services, or replacement of services generated locally with those from more distant locations. We applied a spatially distributed hydrological model to explore the impact of multiple interacting and spatially varying human activities, including feedbacks, on the hydrology of a suburban watershed in the Boston, MA, metropolitan area, the Ipswich R. watershed. We accounted for the role of impervious surfaces, lawns and lawn watering, septic systems, and water use, as well as several socio-ecological feedbacks evident in the region (water bans, regional import). The result of human activities on the landscape is that most of the river system is wetter than a hypothetical pristine condition (predicted mean basin runoff during summers of 0.65 mm per day in contemporary vs. 0.10 mm per day in pristine). However, water withdrawals along the large main stem river remove some of this excess, resulting in a reduced net effect of human activities at the large watershed scale (predicted mean basin runoff of 0.54 mm per day). Recent feedbacks in response to low flows have resulted in increasing importance of imported water supplies, removing local constraint to further development. Because suburban watersheds continue to rely on local ecosystem services, suburban watersheds may be useful model systems within which to study socio-ecological feedbacks.

  1. Opportunities for making ends meet and upward mobility: differences in organizational deprivation across urban and suburban poor neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexandra K; Wallace, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Given the recent rise of poverty in U.S. suburbs, this study asks: What poor neighborhoods are most disadvantageous, those in the city or those in the suburbs? Building on recent urban sociological work demonstrating the importance of neighborhood organizations for the poor, we are concerned with one aspect of disadvantage—the lack of availability of organizational resources oriented toward the poor. By breaking down organizations into those that promote mobility versus those that help individuals meet their daily subsistence needs, we seek to explore potential variations in the type of disadvantage that may exist.Methods. We test whether poor urban or suburban neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived by breaking down organizations into three types: hardship organizations, educational organizations, and employment organizations. We use data from the 2000 U.S. County Business Patterns and the 2000 U.S. Census and test neighborhood deprivation using logistic regression models.Results. We find that suburban poor neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived than are urban poor neighborhoods, especially with respect to organizations that promote upward mobility. Interesting racial and ethnic composition factors shape this more general finding.Conclusion. Our findings suggest that if a poor individual is to live in a poor neighborhood, with respect to access to organizational resources, he or she would be better off living in the central city. Suburban residence engenders isolation from organizations that will help meet one's daily needs and even more so from those offering opportunities for mobility.

  2. Description of Anomalous Noise Events for Reliable Dynamic Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Soundscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Alías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the main pollutants in urban and suburban areas. European authorities have driven several initiatives to study, prevent and reduce the effects of exposure of population to traffic. Recent technological advances have allowed the dynamic computation of noise levels by means of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN such as that developed within the European LIFE DYNAMAP project. Those WASN should be capable of detecting and discarding non-desired sound sources from road traffic noise, denoted as anomalous noise events (ANE, in order to generate reliable noise level maps. Due to the local, occasional and diverse nature of ANE, some works have opted to artificially build ANE databases at the cost of misrepresentation. This work presents the production and analysis of a real-life environmental audio database in two urban and suburban areas specifically conceived for anomalous noise events’ collection. A total of 9 h 8 min of labelled audio data is obtained differentiating among road traffic noise, background city noise and ANE. After delimiting their boundaries manually, the acoustic salience of the ANE samples is automatically computed as a contextual signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. The analysis of the real-life environmental database shows high diversity of ANEs in terms of occurrences, durations and SNRs, as well as confirming both the expected differences between the urban and suburban soundscapes in terms of occurrences and SNRs, and the rare nature of ANE.

  3. Climate Variability and Industrial-Suburban Heat Environment in a Mediterranean Area

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    Giuseppina A. Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomenon prevalently concerns industrialized countries. It consists of a significant increase in temperatures, especially in industrialized and urbanized areas, in particular, during extreme warm periods like summer. This paper explores the climate variability of temperatures in two stations located in Matera city (Southern Italy, evaluating the increase in temperatures from 1988 to 2015. Moreover, the Corine Land Covers (1990–2000–2006–2012 were used in order to investigate the effect of land use on temperatures. The results obtained confirm the prevalence of UHI phenomena for industrialized areas, highlighting the proposal that the spreading of settlements may further drive these effects on the microclimate. In particular, the presence of industrial structures, even in rural areas, shows a clear increase in summer maximum temperatures. This does not occur in the period before 2000, probably due to the absence of the industrial settlement. On the contrary, from 2000 to 2015, changes are not relevant, but the maximum temperatures have always been higher than in the suburban area (station localized in green zone during daylight hours.

  4. Pollution biomarkers in the spiny lizard (Sceloporus spp.) from two suburban populations of Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Carlos; del Pliego, Pamela González; Alfaro, Roberto Mendoza; Lazcano, David; Cruz, Julio

    2012-11-01

    Environmental pollution may severely impact reptile species in urbanized areas. The magnitude of the impact is analyzed in the present study using lizard tail tips for the quantitative evaluation of enzymatic biomarkers of pollution. Spiny lizards (Sceloporus serrifer and S. torquatus) were collected from two suburban localities in the Monterrey metropolitan area, Mexico: Chipinque Ecological Park, a natural protected area, and El Carmen Industrial Park (IP), a highly polluted site. Different enzymes were used as biomarkers including: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The levels of AChE, BChE and ACP activity were not significantly different between localities. AChE and BChE, commonly used as biomarkers of neurotoxic polluting agents (e.g. organophosphate pesticides) do not appear to be affecting the populations from the study locations. In contrast, the levels of CaE, GST, ALP and SOD were significantly different between the localities. These biomarkers are regularly associated with oxidative stress and processes of detoxification, and generally indicate pollution caused by heavy metals or hydrocarbons, which are common in industrial sites. The data resulting from the analysis of these biomarkers indicate that these polluting agents are affecting the populations of Sceloporus in IP. The present work validates the possibility of conducting additional ecotoxicological studies using biomarkers in combination with a nondestructive sampling technique in species of spiny lizards that are abundant in many North America areas.

  5. Low prevalence of obstructive lung disease in a suburban population of Malaysia: A BOLD collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Li Cher; Rashid, Abdul; Sholehah, Siti; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Patel, Jaymini H; Burney, Peter

    2016-08-01

    As a Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) collaboration, we studied the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated risk factors in a suburban population in Malaysia. Nonhospitalized men or women of age ≥ 40 years from a Penang district were recruited by stratified simple random sampling. Participants completed detailed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and exposure to COPD risk factors. Prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry conducted was standardized across all international BOLD sites in device and data quality control. Of the 1218 individuals recruited for the study, 663 (340 men and 323 women) had complete questionnaire data and acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry. The estimated population prevalence of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) ≥ stage I was 6.5% or 3.4% based on either fixed forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of population-based epidemiology data on COPD for Malaysia. Compared with other sites globally, our estimated population prevalence was relatively low. In addition to cigarette smoking, use of biomass fuel and exposure to dusty job represented significant risk to the development of COPD. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Dorthe Feldthusen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  7. Particle characterization at rural, suburban and urban aerosol sampling sites in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Koltay, E.; Szabo, G.; Meszaros, E.; Molnar, A.; Bozo, L.

    1994-01-01

    The study of atmospheric aerosols originating from natural and anthropogenic processes is of basic importance for a detailed understanding of the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been used by the authors for studying regularly the elemental composition of rural, suburban, and urban aerosols collected at six sampling sites in Hungary. Observed data presented in terms of concentrations and regional signature values and evaluated wind sector partition and in transport modelling revealed the natural/anthropogenic contribution to the moderate air pollution here. Dry deposition velocities have been deduced for elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Model calculations based on annual emission data and observed elemental concentrations resulted in total dry and wet deposition masses of the above elements to the territory of the country. At the same time, deduced budget data for the emission and deposition of the constituents indicated whether the country represents a net source or a sink for the above mentioned elements in the regional aerosol transport between neighbouring countries. Evidences have been found for intrusion events of Saharan aerosol to the atmosphere of Hungary. Part of the data collected recently will be evaluated in the frame-work of an international co-ordinated research programme. (author)

  8. Model of traffic access mode and railway station choice of suburban railway system in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor RAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the establishment of a model of understanding the access mode and railway station choice of Slovenian passengers. Therefore, a model has been designed to predict the determination of existing decision making preferences of railway users about the access mode and railway station choice with a stated preference survey and face to face method. The target group in the survey were railway passengers in the suburban environment that use the rail for work and school purposes. The total number of respondents was 412. The survey showed that most passengers access the railway station with car (60,2%, by foot (26,2%, with public transport (bus – 8,3% and with bike (5,3%. Average distance to the station is 4,9 km, average time of access is 10,5 min. Upon exit most passengers walk to the final destination (84,5%, use the public transport (bus – 14,1%, car (1,2% or bike (0,2%. Average time from exit of the train to final destination is 13,1 min, average distance is 1,58 km.

  9. Determination of greenhouse gasses in al-Nahrawan suburban by geomatics technique

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    Ziboon Abdul-Razzak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is now more important than before, based on many evidence, humans were affecting on changing Earth’s climate. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, by sea-level rise, a strong decline in Arctic ice sea, and other climate-related changes. The aim of this study was to calculate some important greenhousse gasses concentration such as CO2, CH4, N2O in AL-Nahrawan suburban -Baghdad city -Iraq. Geographic Information System (GIS was utilized to map greenhouse gasses dispersion in AL-Nahrawan bricks factory. From GIS distribution maps for CO2, CH4, N2O, it was found that the value of these gasses were changed from one location to another according to the quantity of fuel used in bricks factory, Where the value of emitted CO2 ranged from (695 -854 tones, value of N2O ranged from (1.905 - 2.318 tones, and finally value of CH4 ranged from (0.286 - 0.347 tones.

  10. Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area

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    H. Randriamiarisoa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of relative humidity (RH and aerosol parameters (scattering cross section, size distributions and chemical composition, performed in ambient atmospheric conditions, have been used to study the influence of relative humidity on aerosol properties. The data were acquired in a suburban area south of Paris, between 18 and 24 July 2000, in the framework of the 'Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile-de-France' (ESQUIF program. According to the origin of the air masses arriving over the Paris area, the aerosol hygroscopicity is more or less pronounced. The aerosol chemical composition data were used as input of a thermodynamic model to simulate the variation of the aerosol water mass content with ambient RH and to determine the main inorganic salt compounds. The coupling of observations and modelling reveals the presence of deliquescence processes with hysteresis phenomenon in the hygroscopic growth cycle. Based on the Hänel model, parameterisations of the scattering cross section, the modal radius of the accumulation mode of the size distribution and the aerosol water mass content, as a function of increasing RH, have been assessed. For the first time, a crosscheck of these parameterisations has been performed and shows that the hygroscopic behaviour of the accumulation mode can be coherently characterized by combined optical, size distribution and chemical measurements.

  11. THE PILOT STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE GENERATED IN SUBURBAN PARTS OF RURAL AREAS

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    Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies were waste generated in suburban households, in 3-bag system. The sum of wastes generated during the four analyzed seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter – 1 year, in the households under study, per 1 person, amounted to 170,3 kg (in wet mass basis. For 1 person, most domestic waste was generated in autumn – 45,5 kg per capita and the least in winter – 39,0 kg per capita. The analysis performed of sieved composition (size fraction showed that fractions: >100 mm, 40–100 mm, 20–40 mm constituted totally 80% of the mass of wastes (average in a year. The lowest fraction (<10 mm, whose significant part constitutes ashes, varied depending on the season of year: from 3.5% to 12.8%. In the morphological composition of the households analyzed (on average in 4 seasons, biowastes totally formed over 53% of the whole mass of wastes. A significant part of waste generated were also glass waste (10,7% average per year and disposable nappies (8,3% average per year. The analysis of basic chemical components of biowastes showed that in case of utilizing them for production of compost, it would be necessary to modify (correct the ratios C/N and C/P. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the biowastes were characterized by very high moisture content and neutral pH.

  12. Evaluating sources and processing of nonpoint source nitrate in a small suburban watershed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Huang, Minsheng; Ma, Minghai; Wei, Jinbao; Hu, Wei; Chouhan, Seema

    2018-04-01

    Identifying nonpoint sources of nitrate has been a long-term challenge in mixed land-use watershed. In the present study, we combine dual nitrate isotope, runoff and stream water monitoring to elucidate the nonpoint nitrate sources across land use, and determine the relative importance of biogeochemical processes for nitrate export in a small suburban watershed, Longhongjian watershed, China. Our study suggested that NH4+ fertilizer, soil NH4+, litter fall and groundwater were the main nitrate sources in Longhongjian Stream. There were large changes in nitrate sources in response to season and land use. Runoff analysis illustrated that the tea plantation and forest areas contributed to a dominated proportion of the TN export. Spatial analysis illustrated that NO3- concentration was high in the tea plantation and forest areas, and δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 were enriched in the step ponds. Temporal analysis showed high NO3- level in spring, and nitrate isotopes were enriched in summer. Study as well showed that the step ponds played an important role in mitigating nitrate pollution. Nitrification and plant uptake were the significant biogeochemical processes contributing to the nitrogen transformation, and denitrification hardly occurred in the stream.

  13. Study of Selected Metals Distribution, Source Apportionment, and Risk Assessment in Suburban Soil, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite soil samples collected from suburban areas were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on pseudototal metal analysis, Fe, Mn, Sr, and Zn were the prevailing metals while Cd, Co, Cr, and Pb were the least participants. However, based on bioavailability, Cd, Co, Pb, and Sr were easily leachable and might pose adverse effects to soil biota. In ecological risk assessment, contamination factor demonstrated moderate contamination by Co, Sr, and Zn and high contamination by Cd, Cu, and Pb; geoaccumulation index indicated heavy to extreme contamination by Cd and heavy contamination by Pb; enrichment factor revealed significant enrichment by Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sr, and Zn and extreme enrichment by Cd and Pb. Substantial human inputs for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn were also revealed by principal component analysis in the examined soil. Overall the study area was found to be contaminated at considerable/high degree.

  14. The Optimization of Passengers’ Travel Time under Express-Slow Mode Based on Suburban Line

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    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The suburban line connects the suburbs and the city centre; it is of huge advantage to attempt the express-slow mode. The passengers’ average travel time is the key factor to reflect the level of rail transport services, especially under the express-slow mode. So it is important to study the passengers’ average travel time under express-slow, which can get benefit on the optimization of operation scheme. First analyze the main factor that affects passengers’ travel time and then mine the dynamic interactive relationship among the factors. Second, a new passengers’ travel time evolution algorithm is proposed after studying the stop schedule and the proportion of express/slow train, and then membrane computing theory algorithm is introduced to solve the model. Finally, Shanghai Metro Line 22 is set as an example to apply the optimization model to calculate the total passengers’ travel time; the result shows that the total average travel time under the express-slow mode can save 1 minute and 38 seconds; the social influence and value of it are very huge. The proposed calculation model is of great help for the decision of stop schedule and provides theoretical and methodological support to determine the proportion of express/slow trains, improves the service level, and enriches and complements the rail transit operation scheme optimization theory system.

  15. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  16. Modelling Distribution Function of Surface Ozone Concentration for Selected Suburban Areas in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Izwan Zariq Mokhtar; Nurul Adyani Ghazali; Muhammad Yazid Nasir; Norhazlina Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is known as an important secondary pollutant in the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to find the best fit distribution for calculating exceedance and return period of ozone based on suburban areas; Perak (AMS1) and Pulau Pinang (AMS2). Three distributions namely Gamma, Rayleigh and Laplace were used to fit 2 years ozone data (2010 and 2011). The parameters were estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) in order to plot probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF). Four performance indicators were used to find the best distribution namely, normalized absolute error (NAE), prediction accuracy (PA), coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best distribution to represent ozone concentration at both sites in 2010 and 2011 is Gamma distribution with the smallest error measure (NAE and RMSE) and the highest adequacy measure (PA and R 2 ). For the 2010 data, AMS1 was predicted to exceed 0.1 ppm for 2 days in 2011 with a return period of one occurrence. (author)

  17. Missing ozone-induced potential aerosol formation in a suburban deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T.; Kuruma, Y.; Matsumi, Y.; Morino, Y.; Sato, K.; Tsurumaru, H.; Ramasamy, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kato, S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Kawamura, K.; Sadanaga, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Matsuda, K.; Kajii, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As a new approach to investigating formation processes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere, ozone-induced potential aerosol formation was measured in summer at a suburban forest site surrounded by deciduous trees, near Tokyo, Japan. After passage through a reactor containing high concentrations of ozone, increases in total particle volume (average of 1.4 × 109 nm3/cm3, which corresponds to 17% that of pre-existing particles) were observed, especially during daytime. The observed aerosol formations were compared with the results of box model simulations using simultaneously measured concentrations of gaseous and particulate species. According to the model, the relative contributions of isoprene, monoterpene, and aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation to SOA formation in the reactor were 24, 21, and 55%, respectively. However, the model could explain, on average, only ∼40% of the observed particle formation, and large discrepancies between the observations and model were found, especially around noon and in the afternoon when the concentrations of isoprene and oxygenated volatile organic compounds were high. The results suggest a significant contribution of missing (unaccounted-for) SOA formation processes from identified and/or unidentified volatile organic compounds, especially those emitted during daytime. Further efforts should be made to explore and parameterize this missing SOA formation to assist in the improvement of atmospheric chemistry and climate models.

  18. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  19. The prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand

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    Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid levels were recorded from 222 participants, 35-65 years old. Identification of MetS was based on guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program III. The study found the prevalence of MetS was 36.49% with no significant differences between male and female participants. An advancing body mass index (BMI emerged as one of the most significant risk factors. Participants with BMI > 23 kg*m -2 had an increased risk of MetS (OR 3.17. Furthermore, participants in the age group 55-65 years had an increased risk of MetS (OR 2.28. Lack of exercise and high waist to height ratio were also important risk factors (OR 2.38 and 3.37, respectively. Therefore, increased physical activity or exercise and weight control are advised to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of surface ozone, NO and NO₂ at urban, suburban, rural and industrial sites in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-López, D; Adame, J A; Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Vaca, F; De la Morena, B A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-01

    Surface ozone is one of the most important photochemical pollutants in the low atmosphere, causing damage to human health, vegetation, materials and climate. The weather (high temperatures and high solar radiation), orography (presence of the Guadalquivir valley) and anthropogenic (the cities of Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva and Seville and two important industrial complexes) characteristics of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula make this region ideal for the formation and accumulation of ozone. To increase the knowledge of ozone behaviour in this area, the monthly, daily and weekly variations of ozone and its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2), were analysed over a 4-year period (2003 to 2006). Using the k-means cluster technique, 12 representative stations of five different areas with different ozone behaviour were selected from a total of 29 monitoring sites. This is the first time that the analysis of these atmospheric pollutants has been carried out for the whole area, allowing therefore a complete understanding of the dynamics and the relationships of these compounds in this region. The results showed an opposite behaviour among ozone and NO and NO2 concentrations in urban and suburban zones, marked by maximums of ozone (minimums NO(x)) in spring and summer and minimums (maximums) in autumn and winter. A seasonal behaviour, with lower amplitude, was also observed in rural and industrial areas for ozone concentrations, with the NO and NO2 concentrations remaining at low and similar values during the year in rural zones due to the absence of emission sources in their surroundings. The daily cycles of ozone in urban, suburban and industrial sites registered a maximum value in the early afternoon (14:00-17:00 UTC) while for NOx two peaks were observed, at 7:00-10:00 UTC and 20:00-22:00. In the case of rural stations, no hourly peak of ozone or NO(x) was registered. The weekend effect was studied by using a statistical contrast tests (Student's t

  1. Skin and soft-tissue infections in suburban primary care: epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and observations on abscess management

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    Boggs John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports from urban medical centers suggest that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs. Risk factors for MRSA have been identified but have not been clinically useful. Findings From May 2006-April 2007, we performed an observational study of 529 SSTIs among ambulatory patients in the urgent care departments of a large suburban primary-care practice. SSTIs were included if they produced pus or fluid. The proportion of MRSA was determined overall (defined as prevalence and by SSTI diagnosis. Potential risk factors for MRSA were examined with multivariate analysis, and descriptive statistics were generated for follow-up and abscess management. The prevalence of MRSA was 22% and did not rise during the study. MRSA was isolated from 36% of abscesses, 15% of cellulitis, and 14% of other SSTIs. Independent risk factors for MRSA included a prior history of MRSA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 41.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.4-147.3, a close contact with prior MRSA (aOR, 12.83; 95% CI, 4.2-39.2, erythema ≥10 cm (aOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.5-4.4, and abscess diagnosis (aOR, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.1-5.0. Prior MRSA had a positive predictive value of 88% for current MRSA. When both abscess diagnosis and erythema ≥10 cm were present, the proportion of MRSA was 59%. The vast majority of SSTIs (96 percent resolved or improved within one week. Most abscesses, even small ones, were treated with antibiotics. Resource utilization was highest in those abscesses with erythema ≥10 cm. Conclusions The prevalence of MRSA is relatively low among SSTIs in suburban primary care. However, MRSA is common in the subgroup of abscesses with large erythema. While the effectiveness of adjunctive antibiotic therapy for large abscesses is unknown, drugs chosen for these infections should be active against MRSA. Most non-abscess SSTIs do not require treatment with a MRSA

  2. How much is enough? Minimal responses of water quality and stream biota to partial retrofit stormwater management in a suburban neighborhood.

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    Allison H Roy

    Full Text Available Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km(2 Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA. In 2007-2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments, we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions. Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and

  3. Provider Perspectives on School-Based Mental Health for Urban Minority Youth: Access and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…

  4. Long-term deer exclusion has complex effects on a suburban forest understory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faison, Edward K.; Foster, David R.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory by deer is one of the leading biotic disturbances on forest understories (i.e., herbs, small shrubs, and small tree seedlings). A large body of research has reported declines in height, abundance, and reproductive capacity of forbs and woody plants coupled with increases in abundance of graminoids, ferns, and exotic species due to deer herbivory. Less clear is the extent to which (and the direction in which) deer alter herbaceous layer diversity, where much of the plant diversity in a forest occurs. We examined the effect of 15 y of deer exclusion on the understory of a suburban hardwood forest in Connecticut exposed to decades of intensive herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We compared species richness (at subplot and plot scale), individual species and life form group abundance (% cover), and community composition between grazed and exclosure plots, as well as between mesic and wet soil blocks. Forb cover was more than twice as abundant in exclosure as in grazed plots, whereas sedge (Carex spp.) cover was 28 times more abundant, and exotic species cover generally higher in grazed than in exclosure plots. Native and exotic species richness were both higher in grazed than exclosure plots at the subplot scale, and native herbaceous richness was higher in grazed plots at both spatial scales. In contrast, native shrub richness increased with deer exclusion at the plot scale. Our results suggest that deer exclusion had contrasting effects on species richness, depending on plant life form, but that overall richness of both exotic and native plants declined with deer exclusion. In addition, site heterogeneity remained an important driver of vegetation dynamics even in the midst of high deer densities.

  5. [Soil Phosphorus Forms and Leaching Risk in a Typically Agricultural Catchment of Hefei Suburban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui-hui; Li, Ru-zhong; Pei, Ting-ting; Zhang, Rui-gang

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the soil phosphorus forms and leaching risk in a typically agricultural catchment of Ershibu River in Hefei Suburban, Chaohu Lake basin, 132 surface soil samples were collected from the catchment area. The spatial distribution of total phosphorus (TP) and bio-available phosphorus (Bio-P), and the spatial variability of soil available phosphorus (Olsen-P) and easy desorption phosphorus (CaCl2-P) were analyzed using the Kriging technology of AreGIS after speciation analysis of soil phosphorus. Moreover, the enrichment level of soil phosphorus was studied, and the phosphorus leaching risk was evaluated through determining the leaching threshold value of soil phosphorus. The results showed that the samples with high contents of TP and Bio-P mainly located in the upstream of the left tributary and on the right side of local area where two tributaries converged. The enrichment rates of soil phosphorus forms were arranged as follows: Ca-P (15.01) > OP (4.16) > TP (3. 42) > IP (2.94) > Ex-P (2.76) > Fe/Al-P (2.43) > Olsen-P (2.34). The critical value of Olsen-P leaching was 18.388 mg x kg(-1), and the leaching samples with values higher than the threshold value accounted for 16.6% of total samples. Generally, the high-risk areas mainly occurred in the upstream of the left tributary, the middle of the right tributary and the local area of the downstream of the area where two tributaries converged.

  6. Rural settlements transition (RST) in a suburban area of metropolis: Internal structure perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqiu; Jiang, Guanghui; Wang, Deqi; Li, Wenqing; Guo, Hongquan; Zheng, Qiuyue

    2018-02-15

    Rural settlements transition (RST) is one of the most significant indices for understanding the phenomena of rural reconstruction and urban-rural transformation in China. However, a systematic overview of RST is missing, and there is a lack of evidence regarding its characteristics from the internal structure perspectives. In this paper, we systematically explore the RST regarding spatio-temporal change characteristics of internal structure, patterns and impacts on rural environment and development by using practical survey internal land-use data from 2005 to 2015. The results show that the temporal change characteristics of the internal structure of rural settlements demonstrate a tendency for housing land to decrease and other land-use types to increase. The spatial change characteristics reveal that the structure inclines to more complexity and diversity from an exurban area to an urban-rural fringe area. Based on this finding, we identify that rapid development of rural industrialization, more agglomerate and effective industrial land-use, and improved public infrastructure construction are the general RST patterns. Spatially, there exists a physical decay pattern in the exurban area, thereby resulting in the hollowing-out of rural industries and of the population. In addition, the extensive and disorderly pattern in the suburban area causes low efficiency output and serious environmental pollution. The RST pattern in the urban hinterland promoted the "men-environment" compatible development. The study concludes that regional differentiation in patterns and impacts are significant in the process of RST. Future adaptive strategies for rural settlements adjustment should be conducted according to regional characteristics, including socio-economic status, physical geography condition and economic location to improve the rural environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Different integrated geophysical approaches to investigate archaeological sites in urban and suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Zamuner, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical methods are frequently used in archaeological prospection in order to provide detailed information about the presence of structures in the subsurface as well as their position and their geometrical reconstruction, by measuring variations of some physical properties. Often, due to the limited size and depth of an archaeological structure, it may be rather difficult to single out its position and extent because of the generally low signal-to-noise ratio. This problem can be overcome by improving data acquisition, processing techniques and by integrating different geophysical methods. In this work, two sites of archaeological interest, were investigated employing several methods (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Fluxgate Differential Magnetic) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity dating from the third century B.C. The second site, is instead situated in an urban area in the city of Rome (Basilica di Santa Balbina), where historical evidence is also present. The methods employed, allowed to determine the position and the geometry of some structures in the subsurface related to this past human activity. To have a better understanding of the subsurface, we then performed a qualitative and quantitative integration of this data, which consists in fusing the data from all the methods used, to have a complete visualization of the investigated area. Qualitative integration consists in graphically overlaying the maps obtained by the single methods; this method yields only images, not new data that may be subsequently analyzed. Quantitative integration is instead performed by mathematical and statistical solutions, which allows to have a more accurate reconstruction of the subsurface and generates new data with high

  8. Biological and environmental controls on tree transpiration in a suburban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emily B.; McFadden, Joseph P.; Montgomery, Rebecca A.

    2010-12-01

    Tree transpiration provides a variety of ecosystem services in urban areas, including amelioration of urban heat island effects and storm water management. Tree species vary in the magnitude and seasonality of transpiration owing to differences in physiology, response to climate, and biophysical characteristics, thereby complicating efforts to manage evapotranspiration at city scales. We report sap flux measurements during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons for dominant tree species in a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. Evergreen needleleaf trees had significantly higher growing season means and annual transpiration per unit canopy area (1.90 kg H2O m-2 d-1 and 307 kg H2O m-2 yr-1, respectively) than deciduous broadleaf trees (1.11 kg H2O m-2 d-1 and 153 kg H2O m-2 yr-1, respectively) because of a smaller projected canopy area (31.1 and 73.6 m2, respectively), a higher leaf area index (8.8 and 5.5 m2 m-2, respectively), and a longer growth season (8 and 4 months, respectively). Measurements also showed patterns consistent with the species' differences in xylem anatomy (conifer, ring porous, and diffuse porous). As the growing season progressed, conifer and diffuse porous genera had increased stomatal regulation to high vapor pressure deficit, while ring porous genera maintained greater and more constant stomatal regulation. These results suggest that evaporative responses to climate change in urban ecosystems will depend in part on species composition. Overall, plant functional type differences in canopy structure and growing season length were most important in explaining species' differences in midsummer and annual transpiration, offering an approach to predicting the evapotranspiration component of urban water budgets.

  9. Trace metals in bulk precipitation and throughfall in a suburban area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Koshikawa, M. K.; Hosomi, M.

    Throughfall and bulk precipitation samples were collected monthly for 1.5 years over bare land and under canopies of Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora), Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa), and bamboo-leafed oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia) in a suburban area of Japan. Samples were analyzed for dissolved Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb and Bi by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The metal concentrations were higher in throughfall, especially that of C. japonica, than bulk precipitation. Enrichment ratios (ERs: ratios of metal concentrations in throughfall to those in bulk precipitation) ranged from 2.5 (Zn) to 5.3 (Ag) (3.9 on average), and ERs for slightly soluble metals were generally higher than those for easily soluble metals. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn accounted for 99% of the total concentration of heavy metals in rainwater, whereas those of rare metals such as Ag, In, Sn, and Bi totaled rare metals were 0.002 and 0.010 μg l -1 for Ag, 0.001 and 0.005 μg l -1 for In, 0.062 and 0.21 μg l -1 for Sn, and 0.006 and 0.023 μg l -1 for Bi in bulk precipitation and throughfall, respectively. The metal concentrations in rainwater were negatively correlated to the volume of rainwater, indicating that washout is the main mechanism that incorporates metals into rainwater. From the enrichment factors, that is, (X/Al) rain/(X/Al) crust, metals other than Fe were shown to be more enriched in rainwater than in the Earth's crust, including those present as a result of leaching from soil dust (Mn) and from anthropogenic sources (Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, and Bi).

  10. Heavy Metals in Suburban Ecosystems of Industrial Centres and Ways of their Reduction

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    Onistratenko Nikolay Vladimirovich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Technogenic contamination of ecosystems is one of the main dangers of our time. In order to reduce the harmful effects of this contamination and to provide cost-effective and environmentally safe food production methods, we are forced to look for ways of reliable analysis of the environmental situation, the selection systems of animal husbandry and regulations for the degree of impact of pollutants on the elements of the agroecosystem. This article presents the results of studies aimed at assessing the plight of the environment of a large industrial centre, and its anthropogenic impacts on every element of the suburban ecosystems. It presents data on maintenance and migration of anthropogenous pollutants in the trophic chains of pasturable ecosystems of the suburb of Volgograd. The authors have listed the industrial enterprises as the key sources of pollution. The features of the distribution of xenobiotics in the tissues and organs of calves and heifers of different breeds were analysed in the study. Conclusions were drawn on the accumulation of heavy metals and arsenic in cattle, and the impact of this factor on the quality of production. A comparative assessment of the resistance of different breeds of cows to the action of toxicants in the environment of the Lower Volga region was carried out. Ways to decrease the impact of pollutants on the cattle organism have also been suggested. The article pays attention to the environmental pollution of the industrial centre, the influence of these processes on all elements of an ecosystem including humans, and offers ways to minimize the damage.

  11. Risk factors associated with abdominal obesity in suburban adolescents from a Malaysian district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wai Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Yap, Sook Fan; Yasmin, A Malik; Choo, Kong Bung; Low, Gary Kim Kuan; Boo, Nem Yun

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to determine the risk factors associated with abdominal obesity (AO) in suburban adolescents. This cross-sectional study included adolescents aged 15-17 years from five randomly selected secondary schools in the Hulu Langat district of Selangor state, Malaysia. Waist circumference (WC) was measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable rib and the top of the iliac crest. Information on sociodemographic data, dietary habits, physical activity levels and duration of sleep was obtained via interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants' habitual food intake was determined using a 73-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Among 832 participants, 56.0% were girls; 48.4% were Malay, 40.5% Chinese, 10.2% Indian and 0.8% of other ethnic groups. Median age and WC were 16 (interquartile range [IQR] 15-16) years and 67.9 (IQR 63.0-74.6) cm, respectively. Overall prevalence of AO (> 90th percentile on the WC chart) was 11.3%. A higher proportion (22.4%) of Indian adolescents were found to have AO compared with Malay and Chinese adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.064, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.087-23.913; p = 0.002), Indian ethnicity (adjusted OR 10.164, 95% CI 2.182-47.346; p = 0.003), irregular meals (adjusted OR 3.193, 95% CI 1.043-9.774; p = 0.042) and increasing body mass index (BMI) (adjusted OR 2.867, 95% CI 2.216-3.710; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with AO. AO was common among Malaysian adolescents. Female gender, Indian ethnicity, irregular meals and increasing BMI were significant risk factors. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  12. Associations between air pollution in the industrial and suburban parts of Ostrava city and their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirik, Vitezslav; Brezna, Barbara; Machaczka, Ondrej; Honkysova, Sabina; Miturova, Hana; Janout, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    Selecting the locations and numbers of air quality monitoring stations is challenging as these are expensive to operate. Representative concentrations of pollutants in certain areas are usually determined by measuring. If there are significant correlations with concentrations of other pollutants or with other monitoring sites, however, concentrations could also be computed, partly reducing the costs. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such possible relationships using data on concentrations of ambient air pollutants obtained in different areas of a larger city. Presented are associations between industrial (IP) and suburban parts (SP) as well as correlations between concentrations of various pollutants at the same site. Results of air pollutant monitoring come from Ostrava, an industrial city in Central Europe with a population of over 300,000. The study showed that certain pollutants were strongly correlated, especially particulate matter (r = 0.940) and ozone (r = 0.923) between the IP and SP. Statistically significant correlations were also found between different pollutants at the same site. The highest correlations were between PM 10 and NO 2 (r IP  = 0.728; r SP  = 0.734), NO 2 and benzo(a)pyrene (r IP  = 0.787; r SP  = 0.697), and NO 2 and ozone (r IP  = -0.706; r SP  = -0.686). This could contribute to more cost-effective solutions for air pollution monitoring in cities and their surroundings by using computational models based on the correlations, optimization of the network of monitoring stations, and the best selection of measuring devices.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Marmet, Julie; Chassagne, Michelle; Bord, Séverine; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Numerous vertebrate reservoirs have been described for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes the etiological agents of Lyme Borreliosis (LB). The Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) is a rodent originating from Asia, where it is suspected to be a B. burgdorferi reservoir. It has been intentionally released into the wild in Europe since the 1970s, but has not yet been subject to any study regarding its association with the LB agent. In this paper we studied Siberian chipmunk infestation with the LB vector (Ixodes ricinus) and infection prevalence by LB spirochetes in a suburban introduced population. We compared these findings with known competent reservoir hosts, the bank vole (Myodes [clethrionomys] glareolus) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). All Siberian chipmunks were infested with larvae and larval abundance was higher in this species (mean number of larvae [95% Confidence Interval]: 73.5 [46.0, 117.2]) than in the two other rodent species (bank voles: 4.4 [3.0, 6.3] and wood mice: 10.2 [4.9, 21.2]). Significant factors affecting abundance of larvae were host species and sampling season. Nymphs were most prevalent on chipmunks (86.2%, mean: 5.1 [3.3, 8.0]), one vole carried only two nymphs, and none of the mice had any nymphs. Nymph abundance in chipmunks was affected by sampling season and sex. Furthermore, the infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in the Siberian chipmunk was the highest (33.3%) and predominantly of B. afzelii. The infection prevalence was 14.1% in bank voles, but no wood mouse was found to be infected. Our results suggest that the Siberian chipmunk may be an important reservoir host for LB.

  14. Managing Tree Diversity: A Comparison of Suburban Development in Two Canadian Cities

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    Sophie A. Nitoslawski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Is (suburban forest diversity shaped by previous land use? This study was designed to quantitatively assess the impacts of subdivision development on urban tree-species composition in two Canadian cities: Halifax, Nova Scotia, and London, Ontario. The main goal was to determine whether cities with contrasting pre-urbanized or pre-settlement landscapes—woodlands in Halifax and agricultural fields in London—also revealed differences in urban tree diversity losses and/or gains due to urbanization. In each city, four residential neighbourhoods representing two age categories, older and newer (40–50 years, <15 years, were examined and trees on three land types were sampled: public (street, private (residential, and remnant (woodland. All public street trees within the chosen neighbourhoods were inventoried and approximately 10% of the residential property lots were sampled randomly. Plots were examined in remnant forests in or near each city, representing the original forest habitats prior to agricultural and/or urban landscape transformations. Diameter at breast height, species richness and evenness, and proportions of native and non-native trees were measured. In both cities, streetscapes in newer neighbourhoods exhibit greater species richness and evenness, and are characterized by substantially more native trees. Despite this trend, developers and home owners continue to intensively plant non-native species on newer and smaller property lots. Older neighbourhoods in Halifax containing remnant forest stands hold the greatest number of native trees on private property, alluding to the importance of residual forest buffers and patches in promoting naturalness in the private urban forest. These results suggest that identifying and quantifying flows of species between green spaces during and after development is valuable in order to effectively promote native species establishment and enhance overall urban forest diversity.

  15. Differences in adolescents' physical activity from school-travel between urban and suburban neighbourhoods in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Amanda; Voss, Christine; Winters, Meghan; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Higgins, Joan Wharf; McKay, Heather

    2015-01-01

    To investigate differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from school-travel between adolescents in urban and suburban neighbourhoods and to describe its relative contribution to MVPA on school days. We measured 243 adolescents (51% male, grades 8-10) from Vancouver's walkable downtown core and its largely car-dependent suburb Surrey (fall 2011, 2013). We estimated mean school-travel MVPA from accelerometry (hour before/after school on ≥ 2 days; n = 110, 39% male) and compared school-travel MVPA by neighbourhood type and school-travel mode. The influence of mean school-travel MVPA on mean school-day MVPA (≥ 600 min valid wear time on ≥ 2 days) was examined by linear regression. Over half of students used active modes (urban: 63%, suburban: 53%). Those using active travel and living in the urban neighbourhood obtained the most school-travel MVPA (22.3 ± 8.0 min). Urban passive travellers used public transit and obtained more school-travel MVPA than suburban students (16.9 ± 6.2 vs. 8.0 ± 5.3, p travel MVPA (R (2) = 0.38, p travel MVPA in adolescents. School-travel MVPA is an important contributor to adolescents' school-day MVPA. Where feasible, physically active options for school-travel should be promoted, including public transit.

  16. Change Detection Analysis in Urban and Suburban Areas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper data: Case of Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Dana; Fahsi, A.; Steinfeld S.; Coleman, T.

    1998-01-01

    Two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, from July 1984 and July 1992, were used to identify land use/cover changes in the urban and suburban fringe of the city of Huntsville, Alabama. Image difference was the technique used to quantify the change between the two dates. The eight-year period showed a 16% change, mainly from agricultural lands to urban areas generated by the settlement of industrial, commercial, and residential areas. Visual analysis of the change map (i.e., difference image) supported this phenomenon by showing that most changes were occurring in the vicinity of the major roads and highways across the city.

  17. A study of feral pigeon Columba livia var. in urban and suburban areas in the city of Jena, Germany

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    Ferman, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A population of feral pigeons, Columba livia var. was conducted in the city of Jena, Germany, from July to December 2007. Daily censuses were conducted by walking ten transects in a selected area of the city, five transects in built up areas and five in the suburbs. Pigeon population density was higher in urban areas than in suburbs but differences were not significant. Main behavioural activities recorded were resting, preening, flying, eating, sunning and roosting. Regular locations of activities were rooftops and roof edges in urban areas, and rooftops, eaves on balconies in suburban areas. The plumage phenotype most frequently recorded in both areas was Blue bar.

  18. A microcomputer-based model for identifying urban and suburban roadways with critical large truck accident rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of techniques for merging highway accident record and roadway inventory files and employing the combined data set to identify spots or sections on highway facilities in urban and suburban areas with unusually high large truck accident rates. A statistical technique, the rate/quality control method, is used to calculate a critical rate for each location of interest. This critical rate may then be compared to the location's actual accident rate to identify locations for further study. Model enhancements and modifications are described to enable the technique to be employed in the evaluation of routing alternatives for the transport of radioactive material

  19. Impact of economic development on quality of life and human happiness: a study on urban socio economic classes of suburban Mumbai

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    Debjani Banerjee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes that for a nation to revitalize in terms of development, not only does it need to evaluate in terms of GDP growth rate, but also has to consider the Quality of Life of its citizen and their human happiness. There is strong correlation between macro-economic development parameters like health, education, GDP growth rate and Quality of Life Index, expressed through HDI. It also has correlation with subjective quality of life based on the perception of urban socio economic classes, as measured in this study. The subjective quality of life is studied through five parameters like Quality of house, education, health care, transportation and recreation facilities. Human happiness is evaluated through the perception of respondents towards change in their financial conditions and consumption expenditure influencing their quality of life. This empirical research through spearman’s rank correlation tried to establish the relationship between macro-economic indicators with the quality of life parameters as perceived by people. The study was conducted in Mumbai, and its suburban areas .with a sample of 850 respondents taken through structured questionnaire, during 2012-13. It was observed from A. T. Kearney’s GRDI report that India was ranking between first five positions, consistently in terms of Modern Trade Retail Business since 2000. The managerial implication of the study highlights the association of quantitative economic development with larger aspect of human development, for the policy makers to understand the various areas which needs to be taken care to cater towards revitalizing the development of the nation

  20. Bank-derived material dominates fluvial sediment in a suburban Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, M. J.; Gellis, A.; Gorman-Sanisaca, L.; Noe, G. B.; Cogliandro, V.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Excess fine sediment is a leading cause of ecological degradation within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Piedmont physiographic province, which includes parts of the Washington, D.C. metro area, has the highest sediment yields in the Chesapeake Bay. In order to effectively employ sediment mitigation measures, it is necessary to identify and quantify the contributions of sediments sources within rapidly urbanizing areas in the Piedmont. This sediment fingerprinting study examines the inputs of various sediment sources to Upper Difficult Run (14.2 km2; 22.6% impervious surface), an urbanized watershed in Fairfax County, Virginia. A source sediment library was constructed from collections of stream bank material, forest soils, and road dust from across the watershed. Target fluvial sediments were collected from fine channel margin deposits and from suspended sediment using an autosampler during 16 storm events from 2008 - 2012. Apportionment of the target samples to the source sediments was performed using Sed_SAT, a publically available toolkit for sediment fingerprinting. Bed sediment was found to be dominated by stream bank sources (mean: 96%), with minor contributions from forest (4%) and no detectable contribution from roads (0%). Suspended fine sediments were also found to predominantly originate from stream bank sources (SSC-weighted mean: 91%), with minor contributions from roads (8%), and negligible contributions from forests (1%). Stream bank sources dominated at all discharges, with the greatest contributions from overland sources found only at low discharges. On the rising limb of the hydrograph and at peak flow, sediment concentrations increased due to increasing contributions of bank material rather than surface erosion caused by overland flow. Results demonstrate that stream bank erosion is responsible for the vast majority of fine sediment occurring in this suburban basin of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This is likely a consequence of storm

  1. Subcutaneous Fentanyl Administration: A Novel Approach for Pain Management in a Rural and Suburban Prehospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Johann; Fournier, Francis; Bégin, François; Hebert, Denise; Fleet, Richard; Foldes-Busque, Guilaume; Tanguay, Alain

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the subcutaneous route of fentanyl administration by Basic Life Support-Emergency Medical Technicians (BLS-EMT) in a rural and suburban region, with the support of an online pain management medical control center. Retrospective study of patients who received subcutaneous fentanyl and were transported by BLS-EMT to the emergency department (ED) of an academic hospital between July 1, 2013 and January 1, 2014, inclusively. Fentanyl orders were obtained from emergency physicians via an online medical control (OLMC) center. Effectiveness was defined by changes in pain scores 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 45+ minutes after initial fentanyl administration. Safety was evaluated by measuring vital signs, Ramsay sedation scores, and adverse events subsequent to fentanyl administration. Feasibility was defined as successful fentanyl administration by BLS-EMT. SPSS-20 was used for descriptive statistics, and independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine inter- and intra-group differences based on transport time. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (288; 14 to 93 years old) with pain scores ≥7 were eligible for the study. Of the 284 (98.6%) who successfully received subcutaneous fentanyl, 35 had missing records or data, and 249 (86.5%) were included in analyses. Average pain score pre-fentanyl was 8.9 ± 1.1. Patients fentanyl than those ≥70 years old (1.4 ± 0.3 vs, 0.8 ± 0.2 mcg/kg, p fentanyl administration and the proportion of patients achieving pain relief increased significantly (p 3 (n = 1; 0.4%). Prehospital subcutaneous fentanyl administration by BLS-EMT with the support of an OLMC center is a safe and feasible approach to pain relief in prehospital settings, and is not associated with major adverse events. Effectiveness, subsequent to subcutaneous fentanyl administration is characterized by a decrease in pain over the course of transport to ED. Further studies are needed to

  2. Recent and historic sediment dynamics along Difficult Run, a suburban Virginia Piedmont stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Noe, Gregory B.; Schenk, Edward R.; Bentham, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended sediment is one of the major concerns regarding the quality of water entering the Chesapeake Bay. Some of the highest suspended-sediment concentrations occur on Piedmont streams, including Difficult Run, a tributary of the Potomac River draining urban and suburban parts of northern Virginia. Accurate information on catchment level sediment budgets is rare and difficult to determine. Further, the sediment trapping portion of sediment budget represents an important ecosystem service that profoundly affects downstream water quality. Our objectives, with special reference to human alterations to the landscape, include the documentation and estimation of floodplain sediment trapping (present and historic) and bank erosion along an urbanized Piedmont stream, the construction of a preliminary sediment balance, and the estimation of legacy sediment and recent development impacts. We used white feldspar markers to measure floodplain sedimentation rates and steel pins to measure erosion rates on floodplains and banks, respectively. Additional data were collected for/from legacy sediment thickness and characteristics, mill pond impacts, stream gaging station records, topographic surveying, and sediment density, texture, and organic content. Data were analyzed using GIS and various statistical programs. Results are interpreted relative to stream equilibrium affected by both post-colonial bottomland sedimentation (legacy) and modern watershed hardening associated with urbanization. Six floodplain/channel sites, from high to low in the watershed, were selected for intensive study. Bank erosion ranges from 0 to 470 kg/m/y and floodplain sedimentation ranges from 18 to 1369 kg/m/y (m refers to meters of stream reach). Upstream reaches are net erosional, while downstream reaches have a distinctly net depositional flux providing a watershed sediment balance of 2184 kg/m/y trapped within the system. The amounts of both deposition and erosion are large and suggest

  3. Suburban heat island effect in groundwater energy utilisation in Nordic climate - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Teppo

    2017-04-01

    We present the preliminary results from the initial thermogeological characterization of Finland's first-ever planned large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) facility. The site is located in the Asko area (Lahti), at a latitude of 60°59'N. In particular, emphasis is put on the results from an aquifer's pumping test performed in July / August 2016 to investigate the potential implication of suburban heat island (SUHI) effect to ATES system on the naturally cold groundwater area. The site has been under geological investigation since July 2015. At a regional scale, the groundwater's natural temperature is about 5.8- 6°C. However, preliminary measurements during the investigations revealed that local groundwater temperature ranged between 7.5 to 8.7 °C in Asko area. The highest temperature was observed underneath buildings, suggesting that higher-than-average temperature is most likely influenced due to anthropogenic heat flux into the ground. The pumping test was performed for 39 days, of which 28 days with groundwater withdrawal and 11 days of heads recovery. The pumped volumes range from 350 to 540 m3/d leading the total volume of 10400 m3 of groundwater. Groundwater temperatures were continuously measured from pumping test well and two observation piezometers during the entire test. The results indicated that aquifer's temperature remained nearly constant being between 7.4 to 7.9 °C during the test period. Heat pulses with temperature variation of 0.1 to 0.3 °C were observed in the pumping well and nearest monitoring well (19 meters from pumping well) during the pumping test and recovery phase. We estimate that the pulses were due to rapidly changed groundwater flowing conditions and pulse indicate "new groundwater" flow to the well. Overall, the preliminary test suggests that groundwater temperature are expected to remain elevated during the ATES system operation. Elevated temperature due the SUHI effect increases groundwater heating potential

  4. Temporal dynamic of malaria in a suburban area along the Niger River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissoko, Mahamadou Soumana; Sissoko, Kourane; Kamate, Bourama; Samake, Yacouba; Goita, Siaka; Dabo, Abdoulaye; Yena, Mama; Dessay, Nadine; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Gaudart, Jean

    2017-10-23

    Even if rainfall and temperature are factors classically associated to malaria, little is known about other meteorological factors, their variability and combinations related to malaria, in association with river height variations. Furthermore, in suburban area, urbanization and growing population density should be assessed in relation to these environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of combined environmental, meteorological and hydrological factors on malaria incidence through time in the context of urbanization. Population observational data were prospectively collected. Clinical malaria was defined as the presence of parasites in addition to clinical symptoms. Meteorological and hydrological factors were measured daily. For each factors variation indices were estimated. Urbanization was yearly estimated assessing satellite imaging and field investigations. Principal component analysis was used for dimension reduction and factors combination. Lags between malaria incidences and the main components were assessed by cross-correlation functions. Generalized additive model was used to assess relative impact of different environmental components, taking into account lags, and modelling non-linear relationships. Change-point analysis was used to determine transmission periods within years. Malaria incidences were dominated by annual periodicity and varied through time without modification of the dynamic, with no impact of the urbanization. The main meteorological factor associated with malaria was a combination of evaporation, humidity and rainfall, with a lag of 3 months. The relationship between combined temperature factors showed a linear impact until reaching high temperatures limiting malaria incidence, with a lag 3.25 months. Height and variation of the river were related to malaria incidence (respectively 6 week lag and no lag). The study emphasizes no decreasing trend of malaria incidence despite accurate access to care and

  5. Recent and historic sediment dynamics along Difficult Run, a suburban Virginia Piedmont stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Noe, Gregory B.; Schenk, Edward R.; Benthem, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended sediment is one of the major concerns regarding the quality of water entering the Chesapeake Bay. Some of the highest suspended-sediment concentrations occur on Piedmont streams, including Difficult Run, a tributary of the Potomac River draining urban and suburban parts of northern Virginia. Accurate information on catchment level sediment budgets is rare and difficult to determine. Further, the sediment trapping portion of sediment budget represents an important ecosystem service that profoundly affects downstream water quality. Our objectives, with special reference to human alterations to the landscape, include the documentation and estimation of floodplain sediment trapping (present and historic) and bank erosion along an urbanized Piedmont stream, the construction of a preliminary sediment balance, and the estimation of legacy sediment and recent development impacts. We used white feldspar markers to measure floodplain sedimentation rates and steel pins to measure erosion rates on floodplains and banks, respectively. Additional data were collected for/from legacy sediment thickness and characteristics, mill pond impacts, stream gaging station records, topographic surveying, and sediment density, texture, and organic content. Data were analyzed using GIS and various statistical programs. Results are interpreted relative to stream equilibrium affected by both post-colonial bottomland sedimentation (legacy) and modern watershed hardening associated with urbanization. Six floodplain/channel sites, from high to low in the watershed, were selected for intensive study. Bank erosion ranges from 0 to 470 kg/m/y and floodplain sedimentation ranges from 18 to 1369 kg/m/y (m refers to meters of stream reach). Upstream reaches are net erosional, while downstream reaches have a distinctly net depositional flux providing a watershed sediment balance of 2184 kg/m/y trapped within the system. The amounts of both deposition and erosion are large and suggest

  6. Major to ultra trace elements in rainfall collected in suburban Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tadashi; Iwashita, Masato; Iijima, Satoe; Shintani, Megumi; Takaku, Yuichi

    Major to ultra trace elements such as rare earth elements (REEs), platinum group elements (PGEs) in 20 rainfall events from suburban Tokyo were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anion species were also determined by an ion chromatography (IC). The concentrations of PGEs were so low that only Pt was detected in some rainfall events. Enrichment factors (EFs), refer to soil and sea salt components, were calculated for the measured elements (with Al and Na as references). Be, (Na), Mg, (Al), Si, Cl, K, Fe, Rb, Sr, REEs (except La, Gd), Ta, and U were mostly originated from natural materials (soil and sea salt). For Li, B, Ca, Mn, Sr, Ba, and Cs, the contribution of natural materials was significant. EFs for Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Cd, Pb, Bi, Ag, Te, Au, Pt, SO 4-S and NO 3-N exceeded 100 indicating non-crustal, non-sea salt origin, presumably anthropogenic; however, contribution of volcanic gases could not be excluded for As, Se, Te and Bi. Pt seemed to be uniformly distributed worldwide and a catalyst for automobile emission control may be the main source. Au also showed uniform distribution. On the other hand, EFs for Zr, Nb, Hf and Th were less than unity. Probably these elements resided in acid resistant refractory fine minerals that did not decompose with acid treatment, and did not evaporate and ionize in the ICP. An alternative explanation is that the concentration of these elements was lower in the soil of the sampling area than the average crust. In the crust normalized REE pattern plot, La, Eu and Gd showed clear positive anomalies. La and Gd could have anthropogenic components. A possible source of La and Gd is cracking catalyst for petrol refining, but this source does not fully explain the anomaly. The source of Gd may also be Gd-DTPA (Gadolinium (III) diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid) used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents. The Eu origin may be soil with higher concentration than the crust average.

  7. Analysis of influence factors of free cataract surgery in suburban district of one city in middle China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-He Xiao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the reasons of the barriers to free cataract surgery in suburban area of one city in middle China. METHODS: From 2008 to 2009, in Sight Rehabilitation Programme of Cataract in suburban district of one city in middle China, all visually significant cataract patients screened were questioned about why he/she did not accept free cataract surgery. The answers were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 892 screened patients, only 387 patients(43.39%wanted a free cataract surgery at first. At last 490 patients(54.93%accepted free surgery. The main reasons for patients who did not accept free surgery include: be afraid of surgery and wanting other treatments(193, 21.64%, thinking the eyesight was enough for daily life(148, 16.59%, worrying about that the result would not be good as those paid for surgery(147, 16.48%, and other reasons(17, 1.91%.CONCLUSION: The reasons of the barriers to free cataract surgery include patients' ignorance, surgery outcome of patients around, and working mode of designated surgical hospital.

  8. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pagano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  9. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junying; Da Liangjun; Song Kun; Li Bailian

    2008-01-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  10. Examining of solid waste generation and community awareness between city center and suburban area in Medan City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, H.; Putri, C. N.; Dalimunthe, R. A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2018-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is still an issue in many cities in Indonesia including Medan. Understanding the waste generation, its characteristic and communities involvement could provide effective solid waste management. This research compares waste generation from people who live in the city center and suburban area. The research also examines the willingness and participation of community about environmental aspect, especially solid waste management. The method of waste generation used Indonesian Nasional Standard 19-3964-1994. The city center generates 0.295 kg/person/day of solid waste and 0.180 kg/person/day for suburbs. The result showed that there are the common amount of waste compositions between the city center and suburban area. The majority waste composition was an organic fraction. Questionnaires were distributed to examine the community awareness. The descriptive statistic used to analyze the data. The result showed that people living in the city center are slightly higher in community awareness than in the suburb. This paper highlights that area of living could give some effect to solid waste generation, waste composition and rate of awareness.

  11. Seasonal variation of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spore concentrations in urban and suburban districts of the city of Szczecin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies,[i] Ganoderma[/i] may be the third genus, after [i]Alternaria[/i] and [i]Cladosporium[/i], the spores of which cause symptoms of allergy, and concentration is related to meteorological factors. The aerobiology of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spores in Szczecin in urban and suburban districts was examined using Lanzoni Volumetric Spore Traps in 2008–2010. [i]Ganoderma[/i] spores were present in the atmosphere on more than 90% of the days from June through September with peak concentrations in June, July and September. The number of days with spores was lower in the suburban district, while the total number of spores collected was higher there than in the urban district. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed weak relationships between [i]Ganoderma[/i] and meteorological conditions, while testing the significance of differences between the districts showed that urban development did not have a clear impact on the values of meteorological parameters. A significantly higher abundance of spores in the suburbs of Szczecin seemed to be conditioned by the closeness of potential area sources. This study indicates that a single measuring site in the city centre insufficiently reflected the dynamics and level of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spore concentration in peripheral districts.

  12. Price and quality of livestock feeds in suburban markets of West Africa’s Sahel: Case study from Bamako, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ayantunde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In West African Sahel cities, livestock husbandry such as smallholder dairy production and livestock (cattle, sheep and goat fattening has become popular among livestock owners to meet food needs for the household, and for income generation. The increasing importance of urban and suburban agriculture, particularly livestock husbandry in the region, has led to a rapid increase in livestock populations in most of the cities. As a result of this increase and the associated growth in the demand for feeds, feed markets have sprung up in many cities and towns of West Africa’s Sahel. A survey of livestock feed markets was conducted in five markets in Bamako, Mali. Prices of livestock feeds were monitored monthly from January to December 2010. In addition, feed samples were collected from the markets for laboratory analysis to determine their nutritional quality. Results showed that the prices of cowpea hay and groundnut haulm were consistently higher than those of other feeds throughout the year. The price of cowpea hay ranged from 367 FCFA/kg dry matter (DM (1 USD ≈ 500 FCFA in October, i.e. immediately after harvest, to 667 FCFA/kg DM in August, i.e. in the wet season. Results also showed that there was no relationship between price and quality for all feed types. However, prices and quality of feeds differed significantly across seasons suggesting that the season was a major determinant for the price of livestock feeds in suburban areas of West Africa’s Sahel.

  13. Examining community and consumer food environments for children: An urban-suburban-rural comparison in Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBreck, Catherine M; Sadler, Richard C; Arku, Godwin; Gilliland, Jason A

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study is to evaluate how retail food environments for children in the City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada, vary according to level of urbanicity and level of socioeconomic distress. Urbanicity in this study is defined as a neighbourhood's designation as urban, suburban, or rural. We assessed community food environments (e.g., the type, location, and accessibility of food outlets) using 800m and 1600m network buffers (school zones) around all public and private elementary schools, and we calculated and compared density of junk food opportunities (JFO) (e.g., fast food and full-service restaurants, grocery stores, and convenience stores) within each school zone in urban, suburban and rural settings. The study also assessed consumer food environments (e.g., the price, promotion, placement, and availability of healthy options and nutrition information) through restaurant children's menu audits using the Children's Menu Assessment tool. Results suggest JFO density is greater around elementary schools in areas with higher levels of socioeconomic distress and urbanicity, while urbanicity is also associated with greater use of branded marketing and inclusion of an unhealthy dessert on children's menus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Diago [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Pagano, Enrico [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Tricoli, Pietro [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  15. Seasonal variation of Ganoderma spore concentrations in urban and suburban districts of the city of Szczecin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Przestrzelska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    According to recent studies, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, the spores of which cause symptoms of allergy, and concentration is related to meteorological factors. The aerobiology of Ganoderma spores in Szczecin in urban and suburban districts was examined using Lanzoni Volumetric Spore Traps in 2008-2010. Ganoderma spores were present in the atmosphere on more than 90% of the days from June through September with peak concentrations in June, July and September. The number of days with spores was lower in the suburban district, while the total number of spores collected was higher there than in the urban district. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed weak relationships between Ganoderma and meteorological conditions, while testing the significance of differences between the districts showed that urban development did not have a clear impact on the values of meteorological parameters. A significantly higher abundance of spores in the suburbs of Szczecin seemed to be conditioned by the closeness of potential area sources. This study indicates that a single measuring site in the city centre insufficiently reflected the dynamics and level of Ganoderma spore concentration in peripheral districts.

  16. [The comparison of the indoor environmental factors associated with asthma and related allergies among school-child between urban and suburban areas in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hai-bo; Deng, Fu-rong; Sun, Ji-dong; Wu, Shao-wei; Sun, Xiu-ming; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yan-hua; Guo, Xin-biao

    2010-07-01

    To study the indoor environmental factors associated with the prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children. A cluster sampling method was used and the ISAAC questionnaire was conducted. A total of 4612 elementary students under Grade Five of 7 schools were enrolled in the survey for the impact of indoor environmental factors on the prevalence of asthma and related allergies in several urban and suburban schools of Beijing. A total of 4060 sample were finally analyzed including 1992 urban and 2068 suburban. The prevalence of wheeze, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema in the past 12 months was 3.1% (61/1992), 5.3% (106/1992), 1.1% (22/1992) among urban children while 1.3% (27/2068), 3.1% (65/2068), 1.0% (22/2068) among suburban children respectively. The prevalence of wheeze and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis of the past 12 months in urban were both significantly higher than that in suburban (χ(2) = 14.77, 11.93, P children (5.3% (105/1992), 29.4% (586/1992)) were significantly (χ(2) = 39.03, 147.22, P interior decoration had different influence on the prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children in the two areas. The significant impact of passive smoking on having asthma ever among suburban children was observed (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.17 - 6.23) while no significant result in urban (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.71 - 1.58); the percentage of interior decoration was 84.0% (1673/1992) among urban children and 80.0% (1655/2068) among suburban children, there was significant impact of interior decoration on the prevalence of having eczema ever among urban children (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.17 - 2.10) but no significant results were found in suburban sample (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.76 - 1.48). The prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children is much higher in urban areas than that in suburban areas and the indoor environmental factors such as passive smoking and interior decoration may differently explain the

  17. Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China—Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Celine S. L.; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ding, Ai-Jun; Wang, Tao

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in South China has placed great strain on the environment and on human health. In the present study, the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, the two largest urban centres in South China, was sampled from December 2003 to January 2005. The samples were analysed for the concentrations of major elements (Al, Fe, Mg and Mn) and trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn), and for Pb isotopic composition. Elevated concentrations of metals, especially Cd, Pb, V and Zn, were observed in the urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou, showing significant atmospheric trace element pollution. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in the heavy metal concentrations of aerosols in Hong Kong, with higher metal concentrations during the winter monsoon period, and lower concentrations during summertime. The seasonal variations in the metal concentrations of the aerosols in Guangzhou were less distinct, suggesting the dominance of local sources of pollution around the city. The Pb isotopic composition in the aerosols of Hong Kong had higher 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in winter, showing the influence of Pb from the northern inland areas of China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and lower 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in summer, indicating the influence of Pb from the South Asian region and from marine sources. The back trajectory analysis showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in Hong Kong and Guangzhou was closely associated with the air mass from the north and northeast that originated from northern China, reflecting the long-range transport of heavy metal contaminants from the northern inland areas of China to the South China coast.

  18. Storms, channel changes, and a sediment budget for an urban-suburban stream, Difficult Run, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Myers, Michael; Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Shenk, Edward; Myers, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Determining erosion and deposition rates in urban-suburban settings and how these processes are affected by large storms is important to understanding geomorphic processes in these landscapes. Sediment yields in the suburban and urban Upper Difficult Run are among the highest ever recorded in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, ranging from 161 to 376 Mg/km2/y. Erosion and deposition of streambanks, channel bed, and bars and deposition of floodplains were monitored between 1 March 2010 and 18 January 2013 in Upper Difficult Run, Virginia, USA. We documented the effects of two large storms, Tropical Storm Lee (September 2011), a 100-year event, and Super Storm Sandy (October 2012) a 5-year event, on channel erosion and deposition. Variability in erosion and deposition rates for all geomorphic features, temporally and spatially, are important conclusions of this study. Tropical Storm Lee was an erosive event, where erosion occurred on 82% of all streambanks and where 88% of streambanks that were aggrading before Tropical Storm Lee became erosional. Statistical analysis indicated that drainage area explains linear changes (cm/y) in eroding streambanks and that channel top width explains cross-sectional area changes (cm2/y) in eroding streambanks and floodplain deposition (mm/y). A quasi-sediment budget constructed for the study period using the streambanks, channel bed, channel bars, and floodplain measurements underestimated the measured suspended-sediment load by 61% (2130 Mg/y). Underestimation of the sediment load may be caused by measurement errors and to contributions from upland sediment sources, which were not measured but estimated at 36% of the gross input of sediment. Eroding streambanks contributed 42% of the gross input of sediment and accounted for 70% of the measured suspended-sediment load. Similar to other urban watersheds, the large percentage of impervious area in Difficult Run and direct runoff of precipitation leads to increased streamflow and

  19. Factors associated to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among older adult populations in urban and suburban communities in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in China, particularly among older adults. Factors associated with suboptimal vitamin D levels are not well defined. The present study was a population-based study that included 10 urban and suburban communities in Shanghai, to evaluate vitamin D status and its correlates among older adults. Method This cross-sectional study was based on study data for 3924 healthy men and women aged 65−95 years. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were collected in June−July 2014. Serum 25(OHD levels were detected using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. The following socioeconomic data were obtained through self-administered questionnaires: education level, lifestyle, residency, and dietary habits. A logistic regression model was used to assess associations between anthropometric factors, socioeconomic factors and serum 25(OHD levels. Results Median levels of serum 25(OHD in men and women were 22.73 and 19.99 ng/mL, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was common in subjects, even though data collection was conducted during summer. The general prevalence of serum 25(OHD levels <20 ng/mL were 35.4% and 50.5% for men and women respectively. The general prevalence of serum 25(OHD levels <10 ng/mL were 2.73% and 5.9% for men and women respectively. A multivariable model indicated serum 25(OHD levels ≥20 ng/mL were significantly and positively correlated with male sex, calcium or vitamin D supplementation, and residency in suburban communities. The model also indicated that high level of physical activity was protective factors of vitamin D deficiency for men and milk consumption for women, respectively. By contrast, deficient serum 25(OHD levels were significantly correlated with education level (lower than primary school or obesity [body mass index (BMI ≥ 26.06 kg/m2] for men or women, respectively. Conclusion This cross-sectional study of older adults in communities in Shanghai demonstrates that

  20. University Environment Experience of the First Two Years of University Graduates at a Newly Established Small University Located in Suburban Area in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe students' university environment experience from the perspectives of the first two years of university graduates of a newly established small university located in suburban area in Taiwan. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth interviews is adopted. Fourteen male and sixteen female seniors,…

  1. The Effects of Maternal Employment on the Attitudes, Work Expectations, and Self-Esteem of Urban and Suburban Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinelski, Kristin; Markowitz, Jessie; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the effects of maternal employment on beliefs and attitudes of suburban and urban middle school students in addition to their comparative levels of self-esteem. A 5-part survey, including demographic information, beliefs about consequences of maternal employment of children; information about the mother's work status;…

  2. Personal Safety and Teacher/Student Relationships Viewed through Black/White Framework in a Suburban Middle School, an Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Dana C.; Spruill, Sherill A.; Giani, Joseph; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Inserra, Albert

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of teacher-student relationships and personal student safety differences between Caucasian and African-American middle school students. The research was conducted using a survey in a suburban middle class school on Long Island, New York. Twenty-eight of 176 Caucasian students were chosen through random sampling…

  3. How School Leaders Prioritize and Allocate Resources to Improve Teacher Quality through Teacher Professional Development: A Multiple Case Study in Suburban North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Deonte Rashawn

    2017-01-01

    This multiple case study examined the methods by which school leaders determined and planned teacher professional development, as well as what teachers perceived as their professional development needs and how they believe school leaders take those needs into account. The study took place at two suburban elementary schools (1 traditional public, 1…

  4. Energy demand analysis via small scale hydroponic systems in suburban areas - An integrated energy-food nexus solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xydis, George A; Liaros, Stelios; Botsis, Konstantinos

    2017-09-01

    The study is a qualitative approach and looks into new ways for the effective energy management of a wind farm (WF) operation in a suburban or near-urban environment in order the generated electricity to be utilised for hydroponic farming purposes as well. Since soilless hydroponic indoor systems gain more and more attention one basic goal, among others, is to take advantage of this not typical electricity demand and by managing it, offering to the grid a less fluctuating electricity generation signal. In this paper, a hybrid business model is presented where the Distributed Energy Resources (DER) producer is participating in the electricity markets under competitive processes (spot market, real-time markets etc.) and at the same time acts as a retailer offering - based on the demand - to the hydroponic units for their mass deployment in an area, putting forward an integrated energy-food nexus approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  6. An Anomalous Noise Events Detector for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Claudi Socoró

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. To this aim, this paper introduces an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED designed to differentiate between RTN and ANE in real time within a predefined interval running on the distributed low-cost acoustic sensors of a WASN. The proposed ANED follows a two-class audio event detection and classification approach, instead of multi-class or one-class classification schemes, taking advantage of the collection of representative acoustic data in real-life environments. The experiments conducted within the DYNAMAP project, implemented on ARM-based acoustic sensors, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational cost and classification performance using standard Mel cepstral coefficients and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM. The two-class GMM core classifier relatively improves the baseline universal GMM one-class classifier F1 measure by 18.7% and 31.8% for suburban and urban environments, respectively, within the 1-s integration interval. Nevertheless, according to the results, the classification performance of the current ANED implementation still has room for improvement.

  7. Variation in concentrations of three mercury (Hg) forms at a rural and a suburban site in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Huang, Jiaoyan; Mondal, Sumona; Holsen, Thomas M

    2013-03-15

    Tekran® Hg speciation systems were used at a rural site (Huntington Forest, NY; HF) and a suburban site (Rochester, NY; ROC) to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and fine particulate-bound mercury (PBM2.5) concentrations for two years (December 2007 to November 2009). Ancillary data were also available from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Status and Trends Network. Seasonal GEM concentrations were similar at both sites and influenced by factors such as the planet boundary layer (PBL) height and mercury emissions from snow, soil, and point sources. In some seasons, O3 was negatively correlated with GEM at ROC and positively correlated with GEM at HF. At HF, O3 was correlated with GOM and was typically higher in the afternoon. The cause of this pattern may be photochemical reactions during the day, and the GOM diel pattern may also be due to deposition which is enhanced by dew formation during the night and early morning. PBM2.5 concentrations were higher in winter at both sites. This is indicative of local wood combustion for space heating in winter, increased sorption to particles at lower temperatures, and lower PBL in the winter. At the suburban site, 2 of 12 events with enhanced GEM/CO ratios were poorly correlated with SO2/GOM, implying that these two events were due either to long range transport or regional metallurgical industries in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling and analysis of walkability in suburban neighborhoods in Las Vegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Walking has sound health benefits and can be a pleasurable experience requiring neither fuel, fare, license, nor registration. : Society also benefits by the associated reduction of motorized vehicle travel. The objective of this study was to quantif...

  9. Community assessment in a suburban Hispanic community: a description of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Beymer, P; Blankemeier, J R; Casas-Byots, C; Suarez-Balcazar, Y

    1996-01-01

    The Hispanic population is growing rapidly and is composed of individuals from many countries with varying levels of acculturation, education, income, and citizenship status. The Genesis Health and Empowerment Program was developed locally in 1993 to improve the health status of Hispanics living in Des Plaines, Illinois, USA. Understanding the quality of life and its cultural patterning for the community is an essential aspect of planning and implementing a health care delivery program. Using Leininger's Theory of Culture Care: Diversity and Universality as a framework, adapted the Concerns Report Method was essential for data collection. This paper describes the method used for learning about the Hispanic community. Steps included conducting three focus groups, constructing a structured interview guide, collecting data, analyzing data, and reporting the findings to the community. Some very preliminary findings are presented and implications for transcultural health care are described.

  10. Perception and Utilization of Primary Health Care Services in a Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The health status of most people living in developing countries of the world remains poor. Linked to this are some factors, of which low utilization of PHC facilities remain a major issue. This study therefore aimed to determine the utilization of PHC services in a sub-urban community in a developing country in West ...

  11. A Collaboration for Health and Physical Education in High-Need Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Sarah; Beale, Angela; DeMarzo, Jenine

    2009-01-01

    Teacher education programs have a long history of producing excellent health and physical education (HPE) teachers for suburban school districts. But graduates who start their career at high-need schools often feel poorly prepared to face the challenges of low-income school districts, schools, and students. This article is directed primarily to…

  12. Characteristics of Surface Ozone in Agra, a Sub-urban site in Indo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant which has an important effect on air quality, climate. 49 change and atmospheric chemistry (Solomon et al., 2000; Sitch et al., 2007). Depending on its. 50 location in the atmosphere, O3 can influence human health and climate; in the stratosphere, O3. 51 filters out detrimental ultraviolet ...

  13. Characteristics of Surface Ozone in Agra, a Sub-urban site in Indo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra. 4. 282110, India ... location in the atmosphere, O3 can influence human health and climate; in the stratosphere, O3. 51 ...... ozone exposure: reconciling science and standard setting in the United States, Europe, and Asia;. 582.

  14. A retrospective audit of paediatric surgical admission in a sub-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Childhood injuries, congenital anomalies and infections are important paediatric health problems. Key words: Children, Admission, Injuries, Congenital malformation, Pattern, Surgical care, Infection. Résumé Introductions: Les données sur l'utilisation du service de la chirurgie pediatrique et le problème des ...

  15. Prevalence of refractive error in malay primary school children in suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Syaratul-Emma; Tan, Hui-Ken; Wan-Hazabbah, W H; Ibrahim, Mohtar

    2008-11-01

    Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide, and the prevalence of refractive error varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of refractive error and study the possible associated factors inducing refractive error among primary school children of Malay ethnicity in the suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to July 2006 by random selection on Standard 1 to Standard 6 students of 10 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district. Visual acuity assessment was measured using logMAR ETDRS chart. Positive predictive value of uncorrected visual acuity equal or worse than 20/40, was used as a cut-off point for further evaluation by automated refraction and retinoscopic refraction. A total of 840 students were enumerated but only 705 were examined. The prevalence of uncorrected visual impairment was seen in 54 (7.7%) children. The main cause of the uncorrected visual impairment was refractive error which contributed to 90.7% of the total, and with 7.0% prevalence for the studied population. Myopia is the most common type of refractive error among children aged 6 to 12 years with prevalence of 5.4%, followed by hyperopia at 1.0% and astigmatism at 0.6%. A significant positive correlation was noted between myopia development with increasing age (P <0.005), more hours spent on reading books (P <0.005) and background history of siblings with glasses (P <0.005) and whose parents are of higher educational level (P <0.005). Malays in suburban Kelantan (5.4%) have the lowest prevalence of myopia compared with Malays in the metropolitan cities of Kuala Lumpur (9.2%) and Singapore (22.1%). The ethnicity-specific prevalence rate of myopia was the lowest among Malays in Kota Bharu, followed by Kuala Lumpur, and is the highest among Singaporean Malays. Better socio-economic factors could have contributed to higher myopia rates in the

  16. Lead concentration distribution and source tracing of urban/suburban aquatic sediments in two typical famous tourist cities: Haikou and Sanya, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhicheng; Bao, Zhengyu; Wu, Guoai; Fu, Yangrong; Yang, Yi

    2010-11-01

    The content and spatial distribution of lead in the aquatic systems in two Chinese tropical cities in Hainan province (Haikou and Sanyan) show an unequal distribution of lead between the urban and the suburban areas. The lead content is significantly higher (72.3 mg/kg) in the urban area than the suburbs (15.0 mg/kg) in Haikou, but quite equal in Sanya (41.6 and 43.9 mg/kg). The frequency distribution histograms suggest that the lead in Haikou and in Sanya derives from different natural and/or anthropogenic sources. The isotopic compositions indicate that urban sediment lead in Haikou originates mainly from anthropogenic sources (automobile exhaust, atmospheric deposition, etc.) which contribute much more than the natural sources, while natural lead (basalt and sea sands) is still dominant in the suburban areas in Haikou. In Sanya, the primary source is natural (soils and sea sands).

  17. Planning Review: Developments and Planning Issues of Land Use Control in Suburban Areas by Local Government’s Ordinances in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mashima, Toshimitsu; Kawakami, Mitsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to clarify how changes in the legal system combined with changing social, economic, and environmental pressures have affected approaches taken for land use control. Our emphasis is on how historical transitions in the legal system, particularly in the use of local government ordinances (Development Permission Ordinances and voluntary ordinances concerning land use management) have contributed to land use control in suburban areas. Our results show that because of the revision ...

  18. Expansion Strategy of Agricultural Industrial Chain of Suburban Villages and Towns in the Process of Urbanization - A Case Study of Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyano City

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Zhu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the connotation of agricultural industrial chain, taking Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyang City as an example, this paper analyzes me advantages and constraint factors of the suburban villages and towns in the process of expanding agricultural industrial chain in the context of urbanization. Corresponding strategies of expanding the agricultural industrial chain of Yongle Town in the process of urbanization as follows, vigorously develop the leading enterp...

  19. Water-soluble components in PM10 aerosols over an urban and a suburban site in the city of Sfax (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    AZRI, C.; MABROUK, C.; ABIDA, H.; MEDHIOUB, K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of source and meteorological factors on the physico-chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols collected at two sampling sites, urban and suburban, in the city of Sfax (Tunisia) during the year of 2004. Atmospheric aerosols were further analyzed for their chemical composition and spatio-temporal evolution was investigated. Based on particle content distribution, the species studied were classified into distinct groups with different content and temporal...

  20. Determinants of SME location in a suburban area: Evidence from the Gdańsk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the European economy, it is essential to have adequate information about the various factors that determine their choice of location. However, the size of a company is often an aspect not covered in theoretical studies and empirical research on industrial locations and urban planning. This article examines the place of residence as a stimulator of SME development in suburbs. Multidisciplinary research carried out in the Gdańsk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area, known as the Tricity, confirms this trend. The location determinants of SMEs in suburban areas were identified using a questionnaire. The survey was conducted in 251 enterprises located in seven municipalities with the highest suburbanisation rates within the Tricity. The study confirms that the municipalities characterised by the highest intensity of suburbanisation processes have higher business activity than other municipalities. Location decisions were largely made by business owners in line with behavioural theory. This means that SME owners more often consider personal factors than cost or demand factors. From the perspective of an entrepreneur, living conditions, the quality of public space, education and healthcare are significant.

  1. Spatial Analysis to Determine Paddy Field Changes in Indonesia: A Case Study in Suburban Areas of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri Utami, Nadia; Ahamed, Tofael

    2018-05-01

    Karawang, a suburban area of Greater Jakarta, is known as the second largest rice-producing region in West Java, Indonesia. However, expansion of urban sprawl and industrial area from Greater Jakarta have created rapid agricultural land use/cover changes, especially paddy field, in Karawang. This study analyzed the land use/cover changes of paddy field from 2000 to 2016. Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS images were acquired from USGS Earth Explorer, UTM zone 48 south. Satellite image pre-processing, ground truth data collection, supervised maximum likelihood classifications, and Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) were performed in ArcGIS 10.3®. It was observed between 2000 and 2016, urban area increased 4.46% (8530 ha) from initial area of 10,004 ha. Meanwhile paddy field decreased 3.18% (6091 ha) from initial area of 115,720 ha. The spatial analysis showed that paddy field in the fringe of urban area are more susceptible for changes.

  2. The impact of sewage irrigation on the uptake of mercury in corn plants (Zea mays) from suburban Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, S.E.; Du, X.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Jay, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of sewage irrigation on the uptake and translocation of mercury (Hg) in corn plants (Zea mays) was investigated. Corn plants were harvested the same day from two nearby fields in suburban Beijing, one irrigated historically with sewage effluent, and one irrigated solely with groundwater. Hg content was analyzed in the soil, roots and stems, while percent moisture and soil organic content were analyzed in the soil samples. The concentration of Hg in the soil and roots, and the soil organic content were not significantly different between the two fields, despite the historic practice of sewage irrigation. Hg content in roots was positively correlated with soil Hg concentration (r = 0.95, n = 6). The transfer coefficients between roots and stems were significantly higher in the control site (control: 2.06, sewage-irrigated: 0.44, p < 0.05), indicating that the barrier effect of the roots was not consistent between the two fields. - Hg content in the roots of corn plants (Zea mays) was positively correlated with soil Hg content, but negatively correlated with Hg content in stems

  3. Utilization of Ion-Exclusion Chromatography for Water Quality Monitoring in a Suburban River in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kozaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of ion-exclusion chromatographic systems for analyzing the behavior of inorganic ions (e.g., bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved silicate, sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium ions in a suburban river located in Jakarta, Indonesia. Carbonate, phosphate, and silicate ion concentrations were determined using ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (WCX in the H+-form with water eluent. Other ions were identified by ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC on a WCX column with tartaric acid eluent. The use of IEC systems for water quality monitoring was advantageous for the following reasons: (1 the concentrations of analyte ions, except NO3− and silicate ions, increased from upstream to downstream; and (2 the speciation of inorganic nitrogen ions could be analyzed by single injection into the IEC/CEC. The IEC approach provided beneficial information for the construction of sewage treatment facilities in our study area. Results showed that (1 the analyte concentrations for samples obtained in the downstream area were higher than those in the upstream area owing to contamination by domestic sewage; (2 the concentrations of NO3− and NH4+ correlated with the concentration of dissolved oxygen; and (3 bicarbonate concentrations increased downstream, likely due to respiration of bacteria and dissolution of concrete under low-oxygen conditions.

  4. Impact of Train Schedule on Pedestrian Movement on Stairway at Suburban Rail Transit Station in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jiten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow takes place in confined environment on stairways under the influence of composition, direction of movement, and schedule of trains. During peak-period, alighting and boarding rate is quite high resulting in very high pedestrian movement from one platform to the other to catch the next train at interchange stations. The transfer of passengers from railway platforms through common undivided stairways becomes difficult, uncomfortable, and unsafe at times when pedestrian flow reaches the capacity level. Understanding of criteria defining quality of flow that affect the effectiveness of facilities like stairways in handling the pedestrian traffic is vital for planning and designing of such facilities to ensure the desired level of service as well as safety in case of emergency. The present paper is based on the study of pedestrian movement on stairways at busy suburban rail transit interchange station at Dadar in Mumbai, India. Pedestrian movements are captured through videography at two stairways and the effect of bidirectional movement on average walking speed is analyzed. The ascending flow in small proportion is found to be more influential in causing speed reduction on undivided stairways. The outcome of the study is useful for capacity and level of service analysis while planning and designing the transit station stairways.

  5. Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric OH reactivity and trace species within a suburban forest near Tokyo during AQUAS-TAMA campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sathiyamurthi; Nagai, Yoshihide; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Yamasaki, Shohei; Shoji, Koki; Ida, Akira; Jones, Charlotte; Tsurumaru, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yuhi; Yoshino, Ayako; Shimada, Kojiro; Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Kato, Shungo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2018-07-01

    Total OH reactivity, which gives the instantaneous loss rate of OH radicals due to reactive species, is an invaluable technique to understand regional air quality, as it gives the overall reactivity of the air mass, the fraction of each trace species reactive to OH, the fraction of missing sinks, O3 formation potential, etc. Total OH reactivity measurement was conducted in a small suburban forest located ∼30 km from Tokyo during the air quality study at field museum TAMA (AQUAS-TAMA) campaign in early autumn 2012 and summer 2013. The average measured OH reactivities during that autumn and summer were 7.4 s-1 and 11.4 s-1, respectively. In summer, isoprene was the major contributor, accounting for 28.2% of the OH reactivity, as a result of enhanced light-dependent biogenic emission, whereas NO2 was major contributor in autumn, accounting for 19.6%, due to the diminished contribution from isoprene as a result of lower solar strength. Higher missing OH reactivity 34% was determined in summer, and linear regression analysis showed that oxygenated VOCs could be the potential candidates for missing OH reactivity. Lower missing OH reactivity 25% was determined in autumn and it was significantly reduced (11%) if the interference of peroxy radicals to the measured OH reactivity were considered.

  6. Evaluation of an open-path fourier-transform infrared spectrometer for monitoring vehicle emissions over a suburban roadway intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfield, W.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of an open-path, fourier-transform infrared spectrometer to detect vehicle exhaust emissions approximately 3 meters above the roadway surface at a busy Albuquerque suburban intersection was evaluated in this study. Multiple measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were carried out over pathlengths up to 100 meters during the morning commute period on multiple days in the summer of 1993. The carbon monoxide to fuel carbon ratio was computed from all spectral data in order to derive a vehicle fleet average ratio. The data were determined to be normally distributed with an overall carbon monoxide-fuel carbon ratio of 0.15. The 95% confidence interval about the mean was ± 0.009. Day-to-day variation of the mean ratio was determined to be on the order of 3%. The results indicate that anticipated reductions in carbon monoxide emissions following the implementation of a winter-season oxygenated fuel program could be reliably detected with an open-path fourier transform spectrometer. The periodic use of such an instrument may offer a cost-effective means of generating a city-wide carbon monoxide emission budget for vehicles sources

  7. Absorption of Mercury from Polluted Soil by Rice Plant(Case Study: Farms of Amol Industrial Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has recognized as one of the most toxic heavy metals, which many industries generate and dispose to the environment. Few studies are done about mercury accumulation in soil and bioconcentration and transfer factor of mercury in rice plant cultivated in industrial areas. In this study samples were taken randomly from 10 farms in vicinity of Amol industrial suburban area with three replications. Samples were measured by the LECO AMA 254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM D-6733method. Also the parameters related to the quality of the soil were measured. The mean of mercury concentration in soil, root, stem and grain were found 0.031 ±0.012 mg/kg, 0.074 ±0.0163 mg/kg, 0.058 ±0.008 mg/kg and 0.051 ±0.0083 mg/kg respectively. The calculated transfer factor of mercury to various organs and bioconcentration factor were < 1 and 2.46 respectively. Pearson correlation test showed a positive correlation between mercury concentration in soil with mercury concentration in grain and also a negative correlation between pH with mercury concentration in root and soil. It is concluded that rice plant have high potential for phytoremediation of mercury from soil.

  8. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of size-resolved particles in Hong Kong sub-urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Huang, Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) samples were collected with a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at a sub-urban site (Tung Chung) in Hong Kong for four non-consecutive months representing four seasons from 2011 to 2012. Major chemical components were water-soluble anions (i.e., Cl-, NO3-, and SO42 -), cations (i.e., NH4+, Na+, K+, and Ca2 +), organic and elemental carbon and elements. Both chemical mass closure and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were employed to understand the chemical composition, resolve particle size modes, and evaluate the PM sources. Tri-modal size distributions were found for PM mass and major chemical components (e.g., SO42 -, NH4+, and OC). Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) with similar standard deviations (1.32 burning. Secondary SO42 - is also the most dominant component in the droplet mode, accounting for 23% of PM mass, followed by an industrial source (19%). Engine exhaust, secondary NO3-, and sea salt each accounted for 13-15% of PM mass. Sea salt and soil are the dominated sources in the coarse mode, accounting for 80% of coarse mass.

  9. The impact of sewage irrigation on the uptake of mercury in corn plants (Zea mays) from suburban Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, S.E. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772 CHS, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: srothenb@ucla.edu; Du, X.; Zhu, Y.-G. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Jay, J.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 951593 Boelter Hall, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The impact of sewage irrigation on the uptake and translocation of mercury (Hg) in corn plants (Zea mays) was investigated. Corn plants were harvested the same day from two nearby fields in suburban Beijing, one irrigated historically with sewage effluent, and one irrigated solely with groundwater. Hg content was analyzed in the soil, roots and stems, while percent moisture and soil organic content were analyzed in the soil samples. The concentration of Hg in the soil and roots, and the soil organic content were not significantly different between the two fields, despite the historic practice of sewage irrigation. Hg content in roots was positively correlated with soil Hg concentration (r = 0.95, n = 6). The transfer coefficients between roots and stems were significantly higher in the control site (control: 2.06, sewage-irrigated: 0.44, p < 0.05), indicating that the barrier effect of the roots was not consistent between the two fields. - Hg content in the roots of corn plants (Zea mays) was positively correlated with soil Hg content, but negatively correlated with Hg content in stems.

  10. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Sediment Leachates of Small Watercourses in the Brno City Suburban Area (South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of two small watercourses Leskava and Troubsky Brook in the Brno city suburban area were examined for their ecotoxicity. Using a standard procedure, extracts of the sediments were prepared for diagnostic tests. These extracts were tested for acute toxicity to fresh-water organisms. The ecotoxicological tests were performed on the fresh-water alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the vascular water plant Lemna minor, on a representative of invertebrates – the water flea Daphnia magna and on the Xenopus laevis frog embryo and luminiscent Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Possible toxic effects were evaluated using the test determining the inhibition of the growth of white mustard root Sinapis alba. Results of ecotoxicological assessment of sediment leachates showed that their quality varied significantly during the year. Differences were found between results of sediment evaluations from different collection profiles, which may indicate effects of point source pollution. Of the ecotoxicological tests used, the most sensitive organisms included the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, bioluminiscent bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. The highest concentrations of arsenic were found by chemical analysis in both spring and autumn sediment leachate samples collected at Site L1 (Leskava. The highest organic pollutant concentrations were found in autumn sediment leachate samples from Site L1. In total PAH sums, phenanthrene was the dominant pollutant at all the sites investigated.

  11. Effects of Fireplace Use on Forest Vegetation and Amount of Woody Debris in Suburban Forests in Northwestern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; van Loon, Nicole; Ryser, Annette; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2009-02-01

    Urban forests are popular recreation areas in Europe. Several of these temperate broad-leaved forests also have a high conservation value due to sustainable management over many centuries. Recreational activities, particularly the use of fireplaces, can cause extensive damage to soil, ground vegetation, shrubs, and trees. Firewood collection depletes woody debris, leading to a loss of habitat for specialized organisms. We examined the effects of fireplace use on forest vegetation and the amount of woody debris by comparing disturbed and control plots in suburban forests in northwestern Switzerland. At frequently used fireplaces, we found reduced species densities in the ground vegetation and shrub layer and changes in plant species composition due to human trampling within an area of 150-200 m2. Picnicking and grilling also reduced the height and changed the age structure of shrubs and young trees. The amount of woody debris was lower in disturbed plots than in control plots. Pieces of wood with a diameter of 0.6-7.6 cm were preferentially collected by fireplace users. The reduction in woody debris volume extended up to a distance of 16 m from the fire ring, covering an area of 800 m2 at each picnic site. In order to preserve the ecological integrity of urban forests and to maintain their attractiveness as important recreation areas, we suggest depositing logging residues to be used as firewood and to restrict visitor movements near picnic sites.

  12. Influence of Meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a suburban site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Gaddamidi; Mahesh, Pathakoti; Subin, Jose; Lakshmi Kanchana, Asuri; Venkata Narasimha Rao, Pamaraju; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impacts on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHGs using high-precision LGR-GGA over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the year 2014. The annual mean CO2 and CH4 over the study region are found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (μ ± 1σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 show a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during pre-monsoon (monsoon), while CH4 recorded the maximum during post-monsoon and minimum during monsoon. Irrespective of the seasons, consistent diurnal variations of these gases are observed. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity) on GHGs have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 show a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon with correlation coefficients (Rs) equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61, and 0.72 respectively, indicating a common anthropogenic source for these gases. Analysis of this study reveals the major sources for CO2 are soil respiration and anthropogenic emissions while vegetation acts as a main sink, whereas the major source and sink for CH4 are vegetation and presence of hydroxyl (OH) radicals.

  13. Indoor/outdoor relationships, sources and cancer risk assessment of NPAHs and OPAHs in PM2.5 at urban and suburban hotels in Jinan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Xiangfeng; Jiang, Pan; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Junmei; Yu, Hao; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-06-01

    Paired indoor and outdoor measurements of 16 NPAHs and 5 OPAHs in PM2.5 were conducted at urban and suburban sites during January 2016 in Jinan, China. The concentrations of both indoor and outdoor NPAHs and OPAHs were higher at the urban site compared with the suburban site. 9N-ANT (16-42%), 2+3N-FLA (15-51%), 2N-PYR (6-20%), and 1N-PYR (4-6%) were the dominant NPAHs at all sites, and 9-FO (61-81%) was the most abundant OPAHs. Solid fuel combustion, motor vehicle exhausts, and secondary generation were the main sources of the PAH derivatives in this study area. The I/O ratios of 90% of NPAHs and OPAHs at the first urban indoor site (abbreviated as URI1, Green Tree Inn) and the suburban indoor site (abbreviated as SUI, the Seven Star Hotel) were Hotel), the I/O ratios of 2- and 3-ring NPAHs and OPAHs were >1.00, which was likely due to cooking activities occurring near the measurement site. Measurements of outdoor 2+3N-FLA/1N-PYR revealed mainly primary emission at the urban site and secondary sources at the suburban site, the average ratios were 3.76 and 12.22, respectively. The average ratio of 2+3N-FLA/2N-PYR at all sites was 3.3, indicating that the OH-initiated reaction was the dominant secondary formation pathway. Nighttime ratios of 2+3N-FLA/1N-PYR were significantly higher than the daytime ratios at all sites. The difference was especially pronounced during heavily polluted conditions at the suburban site, which suggests that heavy pollution and nighttime conditions promote secondary production. Additionally, the cancer risk was highest in urban outdoor (abbreviated as URO) when the population expose to the level as the outdoor air in the urban. The risk suggested that adults may be at a higher cancer risk.

  14. The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michelle R; Faulkner, Guy Ej; Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron N

    2014-01-22

    Children's independent mobility (CIM) is critical to healthy development in childhood. The physical layout and social characteristics of neighbourhoods can impact opportunities for CIM. While global evidence is mounting on CIM, to the authors' knowledge, Canadian data on CIM and related health outcomes (i.e., physical activity (PA) behaviour) are missing. The purpose of this study was to examine if CIM is related to multiple characteristics of accelerometry-measured PA behaviour (total PA, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, time spent sedentary) and whether associations between CIM and PA behaviour systematically vary by place of residence, stratifying by gender and type of day/period (weekdays, after-school, weekend). Participants were recruited through Project BEAT (Built Environment and Active Transport; http://www.beat.utoronto.ca). Children (n = 856) were stratified into four neighbourhood classifications based on the period of neighbourhood development (urban built environment (BE) (old BE) versus inner-suburban BE (new BE)) and socioeconomic status (SES; low SES and high SES). Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph GT1M). CIM was assessed via parental report and two categories were created (low CIM, n = 332; high CIM, n = 524). A series of two-factor ANOVAs were used to determine gender-specific differences in PA for weekdays, weekend days and the after-school period, according to level of CIM, across four neighbourhood classifications. Children who were granted at least some independent mobility (high CIM) had more positive PA profiles across the school week, during the after-school period, and over the weekend; they were also less sedentary. The influence of CIM on PA behaviour was particularly salient during the after-school period. Associations of CIM with PA varied by gender, and also by neighbourhood classification. CIM seemed to matter more in urban neighbourhoods for boys and suburban neighbourhoods for girls. Our

  15. The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Children’s independent mobility (CIM) is critical to healthy development in childhood. The physical layout and social characteristics of neighbourhoods can impact opportunities for CIM. While global evidence is mounting on CIM, to the authors’ knowledge, Canadian data on CIM and related health outcomes (i.e., physical activity (PA) behaviour) are missing. The purpose of this study was to examine if CIM is related to multiple characteristics of accelerometry-measured PA behaviour (total PA, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, time spent sedentary) and whether associations between CIM and PA behaviour systematically vary by place of residence, stratifying by gender and type of day/period (weekdays, after-school, weekend). Methods Participants were recruited through Project BEAT (Built Environment and Active Transport; http://www.beat.utoronto.ca). Children (n = 856) were stratified into four neighbourhood classifications based on the period of neighbourhood development (urban built environment (BE) (old BE) versus inner-suburban BE (new BE)) and socioeconomic status (SES; low SES and high SES). Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph GT1M). CIM was assessed via parental report and two categories were created (low CIM, n = 332; high CIM, n = 524). A series of two-factor ANOVAs were used to determine gender-specific differences in PA for weekdays, weekend days and the after-school period, according to level of CIM, across four neighbourhood classifications. Results Children who were granted at least some independent mobility (high CIM) had more positive PA profiles across the school week, during the after-school period, and over the weekend; they were also less sedentary. The influence of CIM on PA behaviour was particularly salient during the after-school period. Associations of CIM with PA varied by gender, and also by neighbourhood classification. CIM seemed to matter more in urban neighbourhoods for boys and suburban

  16. Evaluation of bifenthrin barrier spray on foliage in a suburban eastern North Carolina neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDusen, Amberlynne E; Richards, Stephanie L; Balanay, Jo Anne G

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes can transmit pathogens through blood feeding. Mosquito control programs conduct surveillance and source reduction, treat mosquito oviposition sites and spray adulticides to protect public health. In some areas, homeowners may contract with private mosquito control companies to address mosquito-related issues. We evaluated the efficacy of barrier sprays by comparing weekly host-seeking mosquito abundance at treatment and control properties in a residential neighborhood. The chemical concentration of bifenthrin residue on foliage was quantified, and field-collected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes albopictus, were tested for bifenthrin resistance using bottle bioassays. Mosquito abundance at treatment properties was significantly (P bifenthrin detected on foliage from treatment properties was not correlated with mosquito abundance. No bifenthrin resistance was detected in captured mosquitoes. Based on the rate of application, we expected that chemical analysis of bifenthrin residue would show similar concentrations of bifenthrin on foliage in treatment areas. Although mosquitoes were not bifenthrin resistant, further studies are needed to evaluate the extent to which resistance changes over time with repeated applications. Findings from this study provide insight into control methods commonly used by mosquito control companies and could potentially be used to guide future mosquito management strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Arthropods of the great indoors: characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Matthew A; Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M; Malow, Tara L F; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32-211 morphospecies, and 24-128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae). Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape. As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species. Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity. These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives. Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications.

  18. Arthropods of the great indoors: characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M.; Malow, Tara L.F.; Dunn, Robert R.; Trautwein, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32–211 morphospecies, and 24–128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae). Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape. As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species. Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity. These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives. Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications. PMID:26819844

  19. Assessment of Life Quality Index Among Patients with Acne Vulgaris in a Suburban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Neirita; Rajaprabha, Radha K

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of adolescents, often extending into adulthood. Psychosocial impact of acne on health-related quality of life (QoL) has been identified, but it remains under-evaluated, especially in Indian patients. This study was aimed to assess the impact of acne and its sequelae on the QoL. This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study done between June and November 2014 on 114 consenting patients above 15 years of age with acne vulgaris. Acne vulgaris and its sequelae were graded, and QoL was assessed by using Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Most cases (64%) were between 15 and 20 years. Females (57%) outnumbered males. Facial lesions (61.4%) and grade II acne were most common. Mean DLQI score was 7.22. DLQI scores were statistically influenced by the age of the patient, duration and grade of acne, acne scar, and postacne hyperpigmentation. This study showed significant impairment of QoL in acne patients. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris are important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  20. Carbonaceous and inorganic aerosols over a sub-urban site in peninsular India: Temporal variability and source characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, A. R.; Hegde, Prashant; Nair, Prabha R.

    2018-01-01

    PM10 aerosol samples collected from a sub-urban site in Coimbatore during pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter from 2014 to 2016 showed a large variability from 7.6 to 89 μg m- 3 with an annual average of 41 ± 21 μg m- 3 (N = 69). High abundance of PM10 and other components were recorded during winter and lowest during monsoon period. Total carbonaceous aerosols and water soluble ionic species contributed to 31% and 45% of PM10 mass respectively. SO42 - was the most abundant species (average 9.8 ± 4.8 μg m- 3) and constituted for 24% of total mass. Organic Carbon (OC) was the next most abundant species ranging from 1 to 16 μg m- 3 with an average of 7 ± 3.6 μg m- 3 accounting for 17% of PM10 mass concentration. POC (primary organic carbon) and SOC (secondary organic carbon) accounted for 56% and 44% of OC respectively. A major portion of OC ( 60%) was found to be water soluble. The correlation between OC and EC (elemental carbon) was found to be higher for night-time compared to daytime suggesting their origin from common sources during night-time. K+ was found to be strongly correlated with OC during night-time. WSOC showed good correlation with POC and K+ which was high especially during night-time. WSON (water soluble organic nitrogen) accounted for 34% of water soluble total nitrogen (WSTN). HCO3- exhibited significant positive correlation with Ca2 + during daytime indicating their crustal origin. The observations suggest that the region is influenced by biomass burning sources, however during day-time, secondary production and terrestrial sources (due to high temperature and wind) significantly influence the atmospheric aerosols over this region.

  1. Tracking nitrous oxide emission processes at a suburban site with semicontinuous, in situ measurements of isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Henne, Stephan; Hüglin, Christoph; Zellweger, Christoph; Tuzson, Béla; Ibraim, Erkan; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) was measured semicontinuously, at ˜35 min frequency in intermittent periods of 1-6 days over one and a half years, using preconcentration coupled to a quantum cascade laser spectrometer at the suburban site of Dübendorf, Switzerland. The achieved measurement repeatability was 0.08‰, 0.11‰, and 0.10‰ for δ18O, site preference, and δ15Nbulk respectively, which is better than or equal to standard flask sampling-based isotope ratio mass spectrometry performance. The observed mean diurnal cycle reflected the buildup of N2O from isotopically light sources on an isotopically heavy tropospheric background. The measurements were used to determine the source isotopic composition, which varied significantly compared to chemical and meteorological parameters monitored at the site. FLEXPART-COSMO transport modeling in combination with modified Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research inventory emissions was used to model N2O mole fractions at the site. Additionally, isotopic signatures were estimated for different source categories using literature data and used to simulate N2O isotopic composition over the measurement period. The model was able to capture variability in N2O mole fraction well, but simulations of isotopic composition showed little agreement with observations. In particular, measured source isotopic composition exhibited one magnitude larger variability than simulated, clearly indicating that the range of isotopic source signatures estimated from literature significantly underestimates true variability of source signatures. Source δ18O signature was found to be the most sensitive tracer for urban/industry versus agricultural N2O. δ15Nbulk and site preference may provide more insight into microbial and chemical emission processes than partitioning of anthropogenic source categories.

  2. ROLE OF CT IN THE STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS IN A RURAL AND SUBURBAN TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of the study was to identify the prevalence, lobar distribution of neurocysticercosis in a suburban and rural centre of southern Karnataka. Its distribution in male and female population, distribution among various age groups, distribution in lobes, describe its stages, and presence of perilesional oedema. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, for a period of 6 yrs. from January 2009 to December 2015. Data collection was prospective. A computer-assisted search of all the reports of CT brain with the diagnosis of NCC was conducted within the departmental database. A total of 198 patients with NCC were identified and the study was conducted. RESULTS Total 4582 CT studies of brain were reviewed. 198 cases of neurocysticercosis (4.3% were detected. 115 were males and 83 were females. The age range was 8 to 70 years with a mean age of 30 years. The number of patients under age 20 years (n=46 was more compared to the adult patients. Maximum numbers of patients were seen in 41 to 50 years age group followed by 51 to 60 years. Stage 2 of the disease was noted to be predominant in our study with 61 cases (30% followed by stage 4. However, individual cases showing multiple stages of NCC were observed in 56 cases. Parietal lobe was more commonly involved followed by temporal, frontal, and occipital lobe. Multiple stages of the NCC in individual cases were seen in 56 cases. The presence of an eccentric enhancing scolex was noted in 57 cases. CONCLUSION The prevalence of neurocysticercosis in our study over a period of six years is 4.3% and it is more commonly observed in the paediatric age group (23.2% and in male sex (58%.

  3. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND SOLUBILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN URBAN AND SUBURBAN SOILS OF RAVENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three location types with of different environmental impacts were considered in the district of Ravenna, a city park, a suburban pinewood and arable fields. In this paper we report the preliminary results about the relationship between land use and soil management with chemical fractionation of heavy metals. The distribution and solubility of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb was determined by water and LMWOAs extraction procedures in horizons A1 and A2 of 13 soils. In general the maximum potentially toxic element concentrations were associated with soil collected from the pinewood, and they tended to decrease with depth. The upper layer enrichment of the pinewood soils clearly revealed an anthropogenic origin of pollution. Under the pinewood, the extraction power by the single extraction procedures showed a pattern quite similar in terms of ranking of metals extracted, except that Zn and Ni were more dissolved than Cu by the use of LMWOAs. Under the pinewood, the metal levels presented a rather similar distribution pattern in terms of ranking of extractive power by the single extraction procedures, with Zn and Ni being more dissolved than Cu by the use of LMWOAs extractant. However, both readily available pools were demonstrated to be more enriched in Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb compared those of city park and arable soils. City park and arable soils had high contents of  Cu. The highest concentrations were particularly shown by the arable soil under orchard, due to frequent fungicide applications. Single extractions were compared to metals dissoved in aqua regia by bivariate correlations. By comparison, pinewood soils showed higher positive relationships between pseudo-total contents determined by aqua regia and metal concentrations from single extraction procedures than city park and arable soils. The highest correlation coefficients were found for Zn and Cd by water extraction, and for Cu and Pb by LMWOAs extraction. Both water and LMWOAs pools exhibited

  4. Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus as a Source of Ectoparasites in Urban-suburban Areas of Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hajipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals which become popular in the world and have important role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Thus, the present study aimed to survey ectoparasite infestation from April 2010 to December 2011 in urban and suburban parts of Urmia and Tabriz Cities, Northwest of Iran.Methods: A total number of 84 hedgehogs (40 females and 44 males were examined. They have been carefully inspected for ectoparasites and collected arthropods were stored in 70% ethanol solution. The identification of arthropods was carried out using morphological diagnostic keys.Results: The occurrence of ticks on hedgehogs was 23 (67.7% with Rhipicephalus turanicus in Urmia and 11 (22% as well as 1(2% with Rh. turanicus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Tabriz, respectively. One flea species, Archaeopsylla erinacei, was found with prevalence of 19 (55.9% and 27 (54% in Urmia and Tabriz Cities, respectively. Prevalence of infestation with Rh. turanicus and A. erinacei were not different (P> 0.05 between sexes of hedgehogs in two study areas. Highest prevalence of tick and flea infestation was in June in Urmia, whereas it was observed in August in Tabriz. Both tick and flea parasitizing hedgehogs showed seasonal difference in prevalence (P< 0.05 in Urmia, but it was not detected in Tabriz (P> 0.05.Conclusion: The result showed the high occurrence of ectoparasites in hedgehog population and according to the zoonotic potential of these animals as vector of some agents further studies are needed to investigate in different parts of Iran.

  5. Parameter Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis of an Urban Surface Energy Balance Parameterization at a Tropical Suburban Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshan, S.; Roth, M.; Velasco, E.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting of the urban weather and climate is of great importance as our cities become more populated and considering the combined effects of global warming and local land use changes which make urban inhabitants more vulnerable to e.g. heat waves and flash floods. In meso/global scale models, urban parameterization schemes are used to represent the urban effects. However, these schemes require a large set of input parameters related to urban morphological and thermal properties. Obtaining all these parameters through direct measurements are usually not feasible. A number of studies have reported on parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis to adjust and determine the most influential parameters for land surface schemes in non-urban areas. Similar work for urban areas is scarce, in particular studies on urban parameterization schemes in tropical cities have so far not been reported. In order to address above issues, the town energy balance (TEB) urban parameterization scheme (part of the SURFEX land surface modeling system) was subjected to a sensitivity and optimization/parameter estimation experiment at a suburban site in, tropical Singapore. The sensitivity analysis was carried out as a screening test to identify the most sensitive or influential parameters. Thereafter, an optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed to calibrate the input parameter. The sensitivity experiment was based on the "improved Sobol's global variance decomposition method" . The analysis showed that parameters related to road, roof and soil moisture have significant influence on the performance of the model. The optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed using the AMALGM (a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective method) evolutionary algorithm. The experiment showed a remarkable improvement compared to the simulations using the default parameter set. The calibrated parameters from this optimization experiment can be used for further model

  6. Assessment of atmospheric aerosol content in Abuesi: a suburban Coastal community in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempong-Manful, E.

    2013-07-01

    Airborne particulate matter (APM) composition has been studied at the Abuesi area. Aerosol samples in two size fractions were collected over a period of 3 months using the Gent stacked filter unit (SFU). Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was used to measure concentrations of up to 28 elements at the INFN - Accelerator laboratory, University of Florence, Italy for the coarse fraction which accounted for 53.84 % of PM 10 aerosols in the Abuesi area. Mean values of 41.890µg/m 3 , 22.469 µg/m 3 and 19.422 µg/m 3 were measured for Inhalable Particulate Matter (IPM/PM 10), Coarse mode Particulate Matter (CPM) and Fine mode Particulate Matter (FPM) respectively and these were within the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Chlorine is established as an important component of the aerosol in Abuesi, Originating mainly from sea spray. It accounted for 32.13 % of the total coarse mode aerosol elemental concentration. Characterisation of aerosols in the study area was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with VARIMAX rotation. Six factors score accounted for the three main identified APM sources (i.e. crustal material/soil dust, marine/sea spray and mechanical operations) in the area with crustal material/dust representing the dominant source. Enrichment Factor (EF) values also showed no enrichment for about 86 % of the measured elements with only Na which resulted predominantly from sea spray recording a moderate enrichment score of EF=3.386. The results obtained suggest that ambient air quality in the Abuesi area is safe. There is, however, the need to conduct further studies to estimate the black carbon concentrations of both fine and coarse aerosol fractions and, as well, investigate the elemental source profile of the various APM sources in the study area. (au)

  7. Predictors and Barriers to Hepatitis B Screening in a Midwest Suburban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanna; Li, Elton; Lok, Anna S

    2017-06-01

    Despite guidelines recommending hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening among the Asian population, not all Asians are screened. We assessed barriers to and factors predicting HBV screening in Michigan. Adults residing in Southeast Michigan self-identifying as Asian were surveyed at Asian grocery stores, restaurants, churches, and community events. 404 persons participated in the survey, 54 % were women, median age was 51 years, 63 % were Chinese, and 93.8 % were born outside the U.S. 181 (44.8 %) had not or could not recall having been screened for HBV. Of these, 89 % said their primary care physicians (PCP) had never brought up screening. Unscreened participants were more likely to think HBV is genetically inherited and cannot be treated than those who had been screened. They were also more likely to think they should avoid close contact with others, would bring shame to their families, and lose their job, if found to be infected with HBV. Among 223 (55.2 %) who had been screened, 48 % said their PCP had the greatest influence in their decision to be screened and 70.9 % said they were screened at a doctor's visit. Screened participants were more likely to know someone with HBV, have a PCP, and have health insurance. Logistic regression analysis showed knowing someone with HBV was the only predictor for screening. Despite guidelines for HBV screening, only half of the Asian Americans surveyed had been screened. Increasing awareness among PCPs is needed to increase HBV screening in this population.

  8. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruen, Emel; Yalcin, S. Songuel; Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc; Yurdakoek, Kadriye; Uzun, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 μg/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 μg/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 μg/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 μg/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 μg/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: → Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. → The mothers having history

  9. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  10. Prevalence of depression and anxiety among children in rural and suburban areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in children and adolescents is a major concern as they become more complex and intense with children's transition into adolescence. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the prevalence of depression and anxiety among children residing in rural and suburban area of eastern Uttar Pradesh and understand the burden of these problems in our society. Materials and Methods: Children, in the age group 11–18 years, were divided into 2 groups: Group I – 100 children from rural area Tikri; Group II – 100 children from suburban area Sunderpur. Their sociodemographic details were recorded. Children's Depression Inventory and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used to screen for depression and anxiety in children, respectively. The final diagnosis was done using present state examination in accordance with International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders 10. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of depression was found to be 14.5% while that of anxiety disorder was found to be 15%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of depression or anxiety in rural and suburban areas (P > 0.05. Depression and anxiety were more prevalent in middle adolescence, in females, and in lower-middle socioeconomic group. Depression was more prevalent in the students of class 9th –12th, whereas anxiety was more in students of lower classes. Depression was more prevalent in joint families. These differences show some important trends regarding factors affecting these problems. Conclusion: This study yields useful information which could be of use in early management of psychiatric disorders present in the community and prevent their development into chronic disorders.

  11. Prevalence of pregnancy experiences and contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Atefi, Narges; Majid, Hazreen Abd; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), p<0.05. Likewise, male participants who had experienced impregnating their partners had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), p<0.05. The results showed evidence of premarital unplanned pregnancy among this suburban community. The low level of contraceptive knowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge.

  12. Occurrence, homologue patterns and source apportionment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in suburban soils of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Xu, Si-Yue; Wang, Xi-Kui; Hu, Bao-Ping; Jia, Hao-Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to systematically investigate the spatial distribution, homologue profiles, and sources of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in suburban soils in Shanghai, SCCPs and MCCPs in soils were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with low resolution mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) mode (GC-ECNI-MS). The CP concentrations in soils were between not detected (ND) - 697 ng g -1 with a median value of 3.52 ng g -1 for SCCPs, and ND - 666 ng g -1 with a median value of 15.3 ng g -1 for MCCPs, respectively. The concentrations of MCCPs in most soils were higher than that of SCCPs. The total CP concentrations (sum of SCCPs and MCCPs) in soils varied from ND to 964 ng g -1 with a median value of 20.5 ng g -1 . The concentration of MCCPs was higher than that of SCCPs in most soils. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in suburban soils in Shanghai were at the medium level when compared to other areas around the world. No significant correlation was observed between soil CP concentrations and total organic carbon contents (p > 0.05). For different use type of soils, the median concentrations of CPs in soils were found higher in greenland than that in other areas probably due to busy traffic, sewage sludge application and/or wastewater irrigation. All soils were divided into two groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) both for SCCPs and MCCPs. Three discharge sources of CPs in suburban soil of Shanghai were identified by PMF model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Particle size distribution of nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs on traffic and suburban sites of a European megacity: Paris (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ringuet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution of particulate nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs was determined during two field campaigns at a traffic site in summer 2010 and at a suburban site during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation experiment in summer 2009. Both, OPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated (>85% to fine particles (Dp< 2.5 μm increasing the interest of their study on a sanitary point of view. Results showed really different NPAH and OPAH particle size distributions between both sites. At traffic site, clearly bimodal (notably for NPAHs particle size distributions (Dp = 0.14 and 1.4 μm were observed, while the particle size distributions were more scattered at the suburban site, especially for OPAHs. Bimodal particle size distribution observed at traffic site for the NPAH could be assigned to the vehicle emissions and the particle resuspension. Broadest distribution observed at the suburban site could be attributed to the mass transfer of compounds by volatilization/sorption processes during the transport of particles in the atmosphere. Results also showed that the combination of the study of particle size distributions applied to marker compounds (primary: 1-nitropyrene; secondary: 2-nitrofluoranthene and to NPAH or OPAH chemical profiles bring some indications on their primary and/or secondary origin. Indeed, 1,4-anthraquinone seemed only primary emitted by vehicles while 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene, benz[a]antracen7,12-dione and benzo[b]fluorenone seemed secondarily formed in the atmosphere.

  14. Long-Term Profiles of Wind and Weibull Distribution Parameters up to 600 m in a Rural Coastal and an Inland Suburban Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the long-term variability of wind profiles for wind energy applications is presented. The observations consists of wind measurements obtained from a ground-based wind lidar at heights between 100 and 600 m, in combination with measurements from tallmeteorological towers...... by the root-mean-square error was about 10 % lower for the analysis compared to the forecast simulations. At the rural coastal site, the observed mean wind speeds above 60 m were underestimated by both the analysis and forecast model runs. For the inland suburban area, the mean wind speed is overestimated...

  15. Strategic planning and marketing research for older, inner-city health care facilities: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, V R; Robertson, K R

    1992-01-01

    Numerous health care facilities, located in downtown metropolitan areas, now find themselves surrounded by a decaying inner-city environment. Consumers may perceive these facilities as "old," and catering to an "urban poor" consumer. These same consumers may, therefore, prefer to patronize more modern facilities located in suburban areas. This paper presents a case study of such a health care facility and how strategic planning and marketing research were conducted in order to identify market opportunities and new strategic directions.

  16. The carbon commute: Effects of urbanization on dissolved organic carbon quality on a suburban New England river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, E.; Robison, A.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding anthropogenic influence on the sources and fluxes of carbon is necessary for interpreting the carbon cycle and contaminant transport throughout a river system. As urbanization increases worldwide, it is critical to understand how urbanization affects the carbon cycle so that we may be able to predict future changes. Rivers act as both transporters of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to coastal regions, and active transformers of DOC. The character (lability) of the carbon found within a river network is influenced by its sources and fluxes, as determined by the ecological processes, land use, and discharge, which vary throughout the network. We have characterized DOC quantity and quality throughout a suburban New England river network (Ipswich River, MA) in an attempt to provide a detailed picture of how DOC quality varies within a network, and how urbanization influences these changes. We conducted a synoptic survey of 45 sites over two hydrologically similar days in the Ipswich River network in northeast Massachusetts, USA. We collected discrete grab samples for DOC quantity and quality analyses. We also collected dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and nutrients (major anions and cations) as an extension of the synoptic survey. We plan to determine the source of the DOC by using excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), and specific UV absorption (SUVA) at 254 nm. These analyses will provide us with a detailed picture of how DOC quality varies within a network, and how urbanization influences these changes. Using land use data of the Ipswich River watershed, we are able to model the changes in DOC quality throughout the network. In highly urbanized headwaters, through the progressively more forested and wetland dominated main stem reaches, we expect to see the imprint of urbanization throughout the network due to its decreased lability. Studying the imprint of urbanization on DOC throughout a river network helps us complete our understanding of

  17. Water table and overbank flow frequency changes due to suburbanization-induced channel incision, Virginia Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G.; Mattell, N.; Christianson, E.; Wacksman, J.

    2004-12-01

    Channel incision is a widely observed response to increased flow in urbanized watersheds, but the effects of channel lowering on riparian water tables is not well documented. In a rapidly incising suburban stream in the Virginia Coastal Plain, we hypothesize that incision has lowered floodplain water tables and decreased the overbank flow frequency, and suggest these changes impact vegetation distribution in a diverse, protected riparian habitat. The monitored stream is a tributary to the James River draining 1.3 km2, of which 15% is impervious cover. Incision has occurred largely through upstream migration of a one m high knickpoint at a rate of 1-2 m/yr, primarily during high flow events. We installed 33 wells in six floodplain transects to assess water table elevations beneath the floodplain adjacent to the incising stream. To document the impacts of incision, two transects are located 30 and 50 m upstream of the knickpoint in unincised floodplain, and the remainder are 5, 30, 70, and 100 m downstream of the knickpoint in incised floodplain. In one transect above and two below, pressure transducers attached to dataloggers provide a high-resolution record of water table response to storm events. Significant differences have been observed in the water table above and below the knickpoint. Above the knickpoint, the water table is relatively flat and is 0.2-0.4 m below the floodplain surface. Water table response to precipitation events is nearly immediate, with the water table rising to the floodplain surface in significant rainfall events. In the transect immediately downstream of the knickpoint, the water table possesses a steep gradient, rising from ~1 m below the floodplain at the stream to 0.3 m below the surface within 20 m. In the most downstream transects, the water table is relatively flat, but is one m below the floodplain surface, equivalent to the depth of incision generated by knickpoint passage. Upstream of the knickpoint, overbank flooding occurs

  18. Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donckt, van der.

    1976-01-01

    The article is a critical review of the work group VI ''health'' in the ''sages report'', the criteria of total body dosis for radionuclides as strontium 90 and iodine 131 are discussed. It emphasizes the lack of adequate solution for the effluents as carbon-14, tritium and iodine 129 as well as for the high radioactivity waste management: the toxicity of plutonium and its cancerous properties are recalled. The risks of accidents in the nuclear facilities and their effect on the population in the proximity of the power plant and the contamination from cooling media are considered as well as sabotage risks. (A.F.)

  19. Just a suburban boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Barrett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of Craig McGregor's Australian Son: Inside Mark Latham (Pluto Press, North Melbourne, 2004, Margaret Simons's Quarterly Essay: Latham’s World: The New Politics of the Outsiders (Black Inc., Melbourne, 2004 and Michael Duffy's Latham and Abbott (Random House Australia, Milson’s Point, 2004.

  20. Arte Juntos/Art Together: Promoting School Readiness among Latino Children through Parent Engagement and Social Inclusion in a Suburban Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Tazi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Census data reveal that suburban communities are becoming increasingly diverse. Once considered affluent and predictable places, American suburbs are now confronting increasing poverty rates as well as ethnic, racial and linguistic diversity. Currently, more than half of US Latinos live in the suburbs. Schools and public institutions such as museums are challenged to provide programming that meets the needs of Latinos, who are disproportionately poor (Ackerman and Tazi 2015:3. Promoting school readiness among Latino children is an important effort in maximizing the potential and educational attainment of this growing population. In one suburban community, a school-museum collaboration resulted in a bilingual parent-child program promoting school readiness and social inclusion for Latino families. Arte Juntos/Art Together engaged parents and children using art andculture-based activities that developed observation skills, creativity, critical thinking, vocabulary, and aesthetic appreciation. Celebrating diverse perspectives and self-expression, the program provided access to museums as enriching spaces for informal learning, personal empowerment and social inclusion

  1. Prevalence of pregnancy experiences and contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Results A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), pknowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), pknowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge. PMID:25438066

  2. Through The Decades - Changes in Social, Economic, Legal and Planning Determinants of Residential Development across Decades - Evidence from Suburban Areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Źróbek-Różańska, Alina; Zysk, Elżbieta; Źróbek, Ryszard

    2017-10-01

    Poland has experienced many political, legal, social and economic transformations. For the last twelve decades, this country was under foreign partition, in the war, under the influence of socialist system with centrally planned economy and finally regained autonomy and rapidly introduced market economy. Each epoch had its own characteristic, that can be recognized also in the residential buildings development. Therefore, the authors focused on the social, economic, legal and planning conditionings that shaped the development of the residential buildings with the most characteristic periods: pre-II world war, 50-ties, 60-ties, 70-ties, 80-ties, 90-ties and XXI century. Some of them are visible in the still existing residential buildings, especially in the suburban villages. The most recent process that can be observed in the study area is urban sprawl. Since the beginning of the XXI century, urban population in Poland has been gradually declining, while suburban villages transform into ‘urban-like’ districts. The aim of the study was to arrange and present in the decade-by-decade manner, the social, economic, legal and planning conditionings that were valid in particular periods. It was realized by correlating information on the contemporary social trends, economic conditions, legal framework and planning regulations. Presentation was enriched by the examples of the buildings developed in the accordance with the contemporary restrictions.

  3. Identification of Avian and Hemoparasite DNA in Blood-Engorged Abdomens of Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) from a West Nile Virus Epidemic region in Suburban Chicago, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Emily; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-05-01

    Multiple mosquito-borne parasites cocirculate in nature and potentially interact. To understand the community of parasites cocirculating with West Nile virus (WNV), we screened the bloodmeal content of Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes for three common types of hemoparasites. Blood-fed Cx. pipiens were collected from a WNV-epidemic area in suburban Chicago, IL, from May to September 2005 through 2010. DNA was extracted from dissected abdomens and subject to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate host. RNA was extracted from the head or thorax and screened for WNV using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Seventy-nine engorged females with avian host origin were screened using PCR and amplicon sequencing for filarioid nematodes, Haemosporida, and trypanosomatids. Filarioid nematodes were identified in 3.8% of the blooded abdomens, Plasmodium sp. in 8.9%, Haemoproteus in 31.6%, and Trypanosoma sp. in 6.3%. The sequences from these hemoparasite lineages were highly similar to sequences from birds in prior studies in suburban Chicago. Overall, 50.6% of blood-fed Culex pipiens contained hemoparasite DNA in their abdomen, presumably from current or prior bloodmeals. Additionally, we detected hemoparasite DNA in the blooded abdomen of three of 10 Cx. pipiens infected with WNV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Three very high resolution optical images for land use mapping of a suburban catchment: input to distributed hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueminet, Christine; Kermadi, Saïda; Michel, Kristell; Jankowfsky, Sonja; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Beal, David; Gagnage, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Keywords : land cover mapping, very high resolution, remote sensing processing techniques, object oriented approach, distributed hydrological model, peri-urban area Urbanization and other modifications of land use affect the hydrological cycle of suburban catchments. In order to quantify these impacts, the AVuPUR project (Assessing the Vulnerability of Peri-Urban Rivers) is currently developing a distributed hydrological model that includes anthropogenic features. The case study is the Yzeron catchment (150 km²), located close to Lyon city, France. This catchment experiences a growing of urbanization and a modification of traditional land use since the middle of the 20th century, resulting in an increase of flooding, water pollution and river banks erosion. This contribution discusses the potentials of automated data processing techniques on three different VHR images, in order to produce appropriate and detailed land cover data for the models. Of particular interest is the identification of impermeable surfaces (buildings, roads, and parking places) and permeable surfaces (forest areas, agricultural fields, gardens, trees…) within the catchment, because their infiltration capacity and their impact on runoff generation are different. Three aerial and spatial images were acquired: (1) BD Ortho IGN aerial images, 0.50 m resolution, visible bands, may 5th 2008; (2) QuickBird satellite image, 2.44 m resolution, visible and near-infrared bands, august 29th 2008; (3) Spot satellite image, 2.50 m resolution, visible and near-infrared bands, September 22nd 2008. From these images, we developed three image processing methods: (1) a pixel-based method associated to a segmentation using Matlab®, (2) a pixel-based method using ENVI®, (3) an object-based classification using Definiens®. We extracted six land cover types from the BD Ortho IGN (visible bands) and height classes from the satellite images (visible and near infrared bands). The three classified images are

  5. Housing Density and Ecosystem Function: Comparing the Impacts of Rural, Exurban, and Suburban Densities on Fire Hazard, Water Availability, and House and Road Distance Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukomanovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many amenity-rich regions are experiencing rapid land-use change through low-density residential development or exurbanization. Those same natural-resource amenities that attracted migration are often degraded by housing growth and associated development. This study examines the impacts of exurbanization on three ecosystem indicators (fire hazard, water availability, and generalized distance effects of houses and roads and compares them to areas with rural and suburban housing densities in the Sonoita Plain, southeastern Arizona. We found that although they support significantly lower population densities, exurban areas have impacts on ecosystem function comparable to suburban areas. Exurban areas had the highest potential for fire, suggesting that it is the presence of people rather than the density that increases fire hazard. The increase in the number of wells in exurban areas far exceeded suburban areas and matched increases for agricultural use in rural areas. When the impacts of houses and roads on ecosystem function were considered, 98% of exurban areas were “highly” or “very highly” impacted, compared to 100% for suburban areas and 35% for rural areas. Since development in the area is not readily visible, assessing the spatial extent of impacts is important for understanding the vulnerability of systems and guiding decisions about development.

  6. COST Action TU1206 "SUB-URBAN - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Diarmad; de Beer, Johannes; Lawrence, David; van der Meulen, Michiel; Mielby, Susie; Hay, David; Scanlon, Ray; Campenhout, Ignace; Taugs, Renate; Eriksson, Ingelov

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urbanisation is the focus of SUB-URBAN, a European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TU1206 - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities. This aims to transform relationships between experts who develop urban subsurface geoscience knowledge - principally national Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs), and those who can most benefit from it - urban decision makers, planners, practitioners and the wider research community. Under COST's Transport and Urban Development Domain, SUB-URBAN has established a network of GSOs and other researchers in over 20 countries, to draw together and evaluate collective urban geoscience research in 3D/4D characterisation, prediction and visualisation. Knowledge exchange between researchers and City-partners within 'SUB-URBAN' is already facilitating new city-scale subsurface projects, and is developing a tool-box of good-practice guidance, decision-support tools, and cost-effective methodologies that are appropriate to local needs and circumstances. These are intended to act as catalysts in the transformation of relationships between geoscientists and urban decision-makers more generally. As a result, the importance of the urban sub-surface in the sustainable development of our cities will be better appreciated, and the conflicting demands currently placed on it will be acknowledged, and resolved appropriately. Existing city-scale 3D/4D model exemplars are being developed by partners in the UK (Glasgow, London), Germany (Hamburg) and France (Paris). These draw on extensive ground investigation (10s-100s of thousands of boreholes) and other data. Model linkage enables prediction of groundwater, heat, SuDS, and engineering properties. Combined subsurface and above-ground (CityGML, BIMs) models are in preparation. These models will provide valuable tools for more holistic urban planning; identifying subsurface opportunities and saving costs by reducing uncertainty in

  7. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  8. Green area loss in San Juan's inner-ring suburban neighborhoods: a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing green/gray area dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Ramos-Santiago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of green areas and vegetation in suburban neighborhoods poses short- and long-term consequences associated with environmental changes and socioeconomic decline that can propel such developments to an unsustainable state. We summarize an interdisciplinary investigation aimed at identifying the drivers of green area loss, green cover loss, and quantifying the impact on three inner-ring suburban neighborhoods located along the Rio Piedras watershed in San Juan, Puerto Rico. An inductive approach to social-ecological research was undertaken because it provides a flexible platform for interdisciplinary collaboration on this complex and dynamic subject. The three developments selected for the study were constructed in the mid-20th century under paradigms of modernity that included providing conditions for a better and more dignified way of living, among which green areas played a central role. The green area change analysis was undertaken first, by way of using building footprint growth as a proxy, which represents a minimal estimate of change, and transferring the information from aerial photographs, original development plans, construction drawings, and GIS maps to AutoCAD to quantify building footprint change for each neighborhood. The period of analysis started from the time of the construction of each development to the year 2010. The second estimation was performed using orthorectified infrared aerial imagery to quantify green cover in year 2008 and contrast that information with the conditions at the time the developments were constructed. Green-gray area dynamics were thus analyzed together with longitudinal socioeconomic data to help in the assessment of effects. The investigation revealed long-term socioeconomic declining trends in two of the neighborhoods, weak governance of the built environment, substantial increase in automobile ownership, and distinct physical-spatial characteristics as drivers behind the changes observed. The

  9. Characteristics and diurnal variations of NMHCs at urban, suburban, and rural sites in the Pearl River Delta and a remote site in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J. H.; Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Li, Y. S.; Chang, C. C.; Liu, S. C.; Wu, D.; Li, Y. D.

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is one of the most industrialized and urbanized regions in China. With rapid growth of the economy, it is suffering from deteriorating air quality. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were investigated at urban and suburban sites in Guangzhou (GZ), a rural site in PRD and a clean remote site in South China, in April 2005. Additional roadside samples in GZ and Qingxi (QX, a small industrial town in PRD), ambient air samples at the rooftop of a printing factory in QX and exhaust samples from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)—fueled taxis in GZ were collected to help identify the source signatures of NMHCs. A large fraction of propane (47%) was found in exhaust samples from LPG-fueled taxis in GZ and extremely high levels of toluene (2.0-3.1 ppmv) were found at the rooftop of the printing factory in QX. Vehicular and industrial emissions were the main sources of NMHCs. The effect of vehicular emission on the ambient air varied among the three PRD sites. The impact of industrial emissions was widespread and they contributed greatly to the high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially toluene, at the three PRD sites investigated. Leakage from vehicles fueled by LPG contributed mainly to the high levels of propane and n-butane at the urban GZ site. Ethane and ethyne from long-range transport and isoprene from local biogenic emission were the main contributors to the total hydrocarbons at the remote site. Diurnal variations of NMHCs showed that the contribution from vehicular emissions varied with traffic conditions and were more influenced by fresh emissions at the urban site and by aged air at the suburban and rural sites. Isoprene from biogenic emission contributed largely to the ozone formation potential (OFP) at the remote site. Ethene, toluene and m/ p-xylene were the main contributors to the OFP at the three PRD sites.

  10. The 'other' London effect: the diversification of London's suburban grammar schools and the rise of hyper-selective elite state schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, Sol

    2018-03-30

    This paper examines the rise of a new elite of 'super-state' schools in London, revealing a growing divide within the state sector which problematizes claims that the capital is a 'hotspot' for social mobility (Social Mobility Commission ). Although recent research has revealed a 'London effect' in which students in the capital on Free School Meals outperform their peers in other regions (Greaves, Macmillan and Sibieta ), inequalities between London's schools in access to elite universities have been overlooked. Drawing on a case study of a suburban London grammar school, 'King Henry's School', I show how ethnic-minority suburbanization has combined with an institutional strategy to compete with elite private schools. Strategies of selection have been mobilized alongside elements of elite 'gentlemanly' educational culture in order to reposition the school within the hierarchy of London's schools. The result is a hyper-selective school which provides a conduit to elite universities for upwardly mobile British-Asian students. I show that this strategy has strong parallels with the school's attempts in the early twentieth century to compete with London's fee-paying 'public' schools. The continuing symbolic value of 'traditional' forms of elite educational culture to a school seeking to reposition itself within the field reflects deep structural patterns of inequality in English education. To understand how apparent improvements in social mobility can sit alongside deepening inequalities between state schools, there is a need for a historical sociological approach that takes account of long-term processes of institutional change (Savage ; Inglis ). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of joint emission control policies on the reduction of ambient VOCs: Implications from observation during the 2014 APEC summit in suburban Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Junling; Wang, Weigang; Tong, Shengrui; Liggio, John; Ge, Maofa

    2017-09-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a suburban Beijing site were on-line detected using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) during autumn of 2014, near the location of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. During the APEC summit, the Chinese government enacted strict emission control policies. It was found that VOC concentrations only slightly decreased during the first emission control period (EC I), when control policies were performed in Beijing and 5 cities along the Tai-hang Mountains. However, most of the VOCs (10 out of 12 non-biogenic species) significantly decreased (more than 40%) during the second emission control period (EC II), when control policies were carried out in 16 cities including Beijing, Tianjin, 8 cities of Hebei province and 6 cities of Shandong province. Also the ratio of toluene and benzene decreased during EC II, likely because the emission control policies changed the proportions of different anthropogenic sources. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment method, five factors are analyzed: (1) vehicle + fuel, (2) solvent, (3) biomass burning, (4) secondary, and (5) background + long-lived. Among them, vehicle + fuel, solvent and biomass burning contribute most of the VOCs concentrations (60%-80%) during the polluted periods and are affected most by emission control policies. During EC II, the reductions of vehicle + fuel, solvent, biomass burning and secondary species were all no less than 50%. Overall, when emission control policies were carried out in many North China Plain (NCP) cities (i.e. EC II), the VOC concentrations of suburban Beijing markedly decreased. This indicates the cross-regional joint-control policies have a large influence on reductions of organic gas species. The findings of this study have vital implications for helping formulate effective emission control policies in China and other countries.

  12. 'Hyped up': assemblages of alcohol, excitement and violence for outer-suburban young adults in the inner-city at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Sarah; Moore, David

    2014-05-01

    Young adults from across greater Melbourne are drawn to the city centre night time economy (NTE). There is some evidence that young adults who live in outer-suburbs are involved in higher rates of weekend night time assaults than their inner-urban peers, both as perpetrators and as victims. Using the notion of 'assemblages', this article explores outer-suburban people's participation in the affectively charged spaces of inner-city entertainment precincts to show that trouble in the NTE cannot be attributed to alcohol and other drugs alone. We provide a narrative analysis of interviews conducted in 2012 with 60 young adult drinkers aged 18-24, half of whom lived in an inner-city area and half in outer-suburbs. More so for young adults from outer-suburbs than those who live closer to the city, going to the city is an event marked out as different from everyday life. Their sense of being 'hyped up' in the inner-city made different sets of practices possible, particularly in relation to drinking and being open to new engagements with friends and sexual partners. Participants also spoke, however, of discomfort, danger and fear. Violence was most likely to occur at points where people felt a dissonance between their heightened affective states and the spaces where they found themselves. In this analysis, outer-suburban young adults' positioning within the assemblages of the city centre NTE makes conflict and violence more likely for them. Efforts to improve NTE safety should maintain a focus on managing alcohol availability. Nonetheless additional strategies to decentralise the NTE, ensure better late night public transport to outer-suburbs or to support people to manage sudden affective shifts in NTE might also play a greater part in the overall effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aromatic hydrocarbons at urban, sub-urban, rural (8°52'N; 67°19'W) and remote sites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, R.; Kleiss, B.; Donoso, L.; Sanhueza, E.

    Using the novel on-line proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique, atmospheric concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and C 9-benzenes were measured in Caracas (urban), Altos de Pipe (sub-urban), Calabozo (rural) and Parupa (remote), during various campaigns in 1999 and 2000. Average daytime mixing ratios measured in Caracas are 1.1, 3.2, 3.7, and 2.7 nmol/mol for benzene, toluene, xylenes, and C 9-benzenes. At the sub-urban site, located only few km from Caracas, relatively low levels (˜20% of the levels measured in Caracas) of these aromatic hydrocarbons were observed. At the rural site during the dry season, higher concentrations of benzene (0.15 nmol/mol) were recorded, whereas those of toluene (0.08 nmol/mol) were lower during that time. The aromatic hydrocarbon ratios in the wet season (benzene: 0.08 nmol/mol; toluene: 0.09 nmol/mol) are consistent with an aged urban plume, whereas biomass burning emissions dominate during the dry season. From rural and urban [benzene]/[toluene] ratios a mean HO concentration of 2.6×10 6 molecules/cm 3 was estimated during the wet season. This value must be considered an overestimate because it does not account for background concentrations which are likely for benzene and toluene. At the remote "La Gran Sabana" region (Parupa) very low mixing ratios (0.031 and 0.015 nmol/mol for benzene and toluene) are showing the pristine region to be unaffected by local sources. From the [benzene]/[toluene] ratio we deduced, that "urban" air arriving from the coastline (350 km) is likely mixed with air containing some background of benzene and toluene. Urban emissions (automobiles) should be the major source of aromatic compounds, however, during the dry season biomass burning seems to make an important contribution.

  14. Resilience of sewage services to climate change uncertainty: analysis of the management of sewer overflows in two Parisian suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioust, E.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Barroca, B.; Bonierbale, T.; de Gouvello, B.; Deutsch, J. C.; Hubert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the resilience perspective as an approach for understanding social and political vulnerabilities of urban services. The authors examine to what extend uncertainty due to climate change may affect the resilience of these urban services. The resilience perspective is increasingly used for analysing social groups' capacities to adapt to and live with disturbances. A lot of work on resilience has focused on the capacity to absorb shocks and still maintain functions. But there is also another aspect of resilience, which leads to take into account systems vulnerabilities and to aim at understanding their equilibrium and re-organization capacity. The purpose with this paper is to assess sewage systems capacities to adapt to climate change. Indeed, climate change could cause an increase of extreme rain events and, as a matter of consequence, an increase of sewer overflows and flooding of urbanised areas. Sewer systems have to cope with this change that may gravely affect urban planning. In recent studies of political science, risk management has been considered as a public policy involving and resulting from complex social, political and technical processes (Gilbert et al. 2003). From this point of view, the management of wastewaters and storm waters has to be considered not only as a technical but also as a political and a social system. Therefore, political science can be a fruitful perspective to understand the stakeholders perceptions of uncertainty and the way they are going to integrate this issue in their practices. The authors analyse the adaptive capacities of two sewer systems located in the Parisian suburban area. The chosen areas are highly populated. Each network is managed within a political and administrative unit called "Département". Both authorities of these "Départements" implement a public sewage service. Nonetheless these networks are connected and part of the greater Paris sewage policy. In both areas a real time control of

  15. Sustainability Strategies for Regional Health Information Organization Startups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Ozturk, Pinar; Brown, Carol V.

    2016-01-01

    the population health of an underserved urban population, and an HIE capability to enable the transition to a healthcare landscape that rewards care coordination across suburban hospitals and physician practices. Conclusions: We propose two models of technology and sustainability strategies for developing bottom...... initiatives by states and regional health information organizations (HIOs). Given the high failure rates of regional U.S. HIOs in the past, our primary objective is to identify the key characteristics of HIO startups that became operational and demonstrated sustainability with non-renewable SHIECAP funding...

  16. Polyphasic approach to characterize heterotrophic bacteria of biofilms and patina on walls of the Suburban Bath of the Herculaneum's archaeological excavations in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, V.; Pepe, O.; Sannino, L.; Blaiotta, G.; Palomba, S.

    2012-04-01

    Built between the walls of Herculaneum excavations, one of the world's most important archaeological sites, and the sea in the early 1st cent. AD, the Suburban Bath is one of the best thermal complexes better preserved in ancient times. The entrance opens onto a large courtyard that leads into a hallway well lit by a skylight, impluvium, with a portrait of "Apollo". From this room you can access various parts of the thermae, all beautifully preserved. A single room, mostly occupied by the pool, serving both apodyterium (dressing room) that frigidarium. Among tepidarium and frigidarium there's a room elegantly decorated with stucco and marble. The vestibule opens to the right, through a corridor, onto a waiting room with a floor in signinum opus and into a praefurnium (oven for heating). A large pool of tepidarium, connected with laconicum, a small circular room for the baths sweat, is also present. The calidarium, as usual, has a small tank for hot water and a basin for washing in cold water. Behind the calidarium is the praefurnium, an environment with the boiler for heating the bath. Although the suburban baths are well preserved, unfortunately in you can observe the development of visible microbial coatings. During the biodeterioration process, secondary colonization of wall is due to heterotrophic bacteria and fungi that induce deterioration cause structural as well as aesthetic damage such as the discoloration of materials, the formation of crusts on surfaces and the loss of material. This investigation was carried out sampling the surfaces of walls of different rooms in the Suburban Thermae according to Italian legal procedures. Depending on the samples typology, sampling was carry out using sterile nitrocellulose membranes pressed on the surface of the walls, sterile swabs or with sterile tweezers by tearing out surface material. The samples were suspended in physiological solution and immediately refrigerated until analysis. Isolated colonies grown on PCA

  17. Use of the Regenerative Braking of Suburban Trains for Fast DC Charging of Electric Cars; Utilizacion del frenado regenerativo de trenes suburbanos para la recarga rapida de automoviles electricos en corriente continua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafoz, M.; Concha, P.; Navarro, G.; Blanco, M.; Rodriguez, C.

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the problem of the electric vehicles fast charge from the perspective of the need for a high voltage power supply in areas where it is hard to access power transmission infrastructures, and how this problem can be solved with a system based on the supply of power from suburban train lines, together with energy storage systems and where everything is governed by optimized control strategies to maximize the energy use as much as possible. (Author)

  18. Digit Sucking, Age, Sex, and Socioeconomic Status as Determinants of Oral Hygiene Status and Gingival Health of Children in Suburban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, Hakeem O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Folayan, Morenike O; Onyejaka, Nneka K; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus A; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Oshomoji, Olusegun V

    2016-09-01

    This study determines prevalence of digit sucking and gingivitis, and association among age, sex, socioeconomic status, presence of digit-sucking habits, oral hygiene status (OHS), and gingivitis among a group of Nigerian children. Data of 992 children aged 1 to 12 years recruited through a household survey conducted in Osun State, Nigeria were analyzed. Information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and history of digit-sucking habits were collected. Children were assessed for OHS and severity of gingivitis using the simplified oral hygiene index and the gingival index, respectively. Predictors of presence of gingivitis and poor oral hygiene were determined using multivariate logistic regression. One (0.2%) and 454 (93.0%) children aged 1 to 5 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. Twenty-two (4.4%) and 361 (72.9%) children aged 6 to 12 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. The odds of having poor oral hygiene (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.35; P oral hygiene and gingivitis. Increasing age and low socioeconomic status were factors that significantly increased chances of having poor oral hygiene and gingivitis.

  19. Problem—solving counseling as a therapeutic tool on youth suicidal behavior in the suburban population in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, E. A. Ramani; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicidal behaviour among youth is a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prevention of youth suicides using effective, feasible and culturally acceptable methods is invaluable in this regard, however research in this area is grossly lacking. Objective: This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of problem solving counselling as a therapeutic intervention in prevention of youth suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka. Setting and design: This control trial study was based on ho...

  20. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  2. Microbiological and serological control of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in kindergarten staff in Buenos Aires city and suburban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina J. Fernández-Brando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections are implicated in the development of the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Despite the magnitude of the social and economic problems caused by HUS, no licensed vaccine or effective therapy is currently available for human use. Prevention of STEC infections continues being the most important measure to reduce HUS incidence. This is especially true for Argentina where HUS incidence among children is extremely high and shows an endemic pattern. The aim of this work was to investigate serologically adult staff of kindergartens in Buenos Aires city and suburban areas in order to detect possible carriers, and to educate personnel about good practices to reduce HUS transmission. We also assessed the microbiological quality of water and meal samples from the same kindergartens. We tested 67 healthy adults, 13 water supplies and 6 meals belonging to 6 public kindergartens. We analysed hand swabs for isolation of STEC and serum samples for the presence of antibodies against Stx and lipopolysaccharide (LPS of O157 serogroup. We identified 46 Stx2-positive individuals, but only 7 for O157 LPS. No presence of STEC pathogens was detected in hands of staff, water or meal samples

  3. Urban and suburban malaria in Rondônia (Brazilian Western Amazon II: perennial transmissions with high anopheline densities are associated with human environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Herman Soares Gil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal entomological surveys were performed in Vila Candelária and adjacent rural locality of Bate Estaca concomitantly with a clinical epidemiologic malaria survey. Vila Candelária is a riverside periurban neighborhood of Porto Velho, capital of the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. High anopheline densities were found accompanying the peak of rainfall, as reported in rural areas of the region. Moreover, several minor peaks of anophelines were recorded between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the next rainy season. These secondary peaks were related to permanent anopheline breeding sites resulting from human activities. Malaria transmission is, therefore, observed all over the year. In Vila Candelária, the risk of malaria infection both indoors and outdoors was calculated as being 2 and 10/infecting bites per year per inhabitant respectively. Urban malaria in riverside areas was associated with two factors: (1 high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in a stable human population and (2 high anopheline densities related to human environmental changes. This association is probably found in other Amazonian urban and suburban communities. The implementation of control measures should include environmental sanitation and better characterization of the role of asymptomatic carriers in malaria transmission.

  4. A checklist of beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) on pig carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China: A preliminary study and its forensic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhou; Wan, Li-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Rui; Xu, Lyu-Zi

    2016-07-01

    Examining the succession pattern of carrion insects on vertebrate carcasses is widely accepted as an effective method to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of decayed bodies. Investigation of the community of sarcosaprophagous insects, especially flies and beetles, is the foundation of the succession pattern study. This study aimed to investigate the sarcosaprophagous beetles succession on animal carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China and to establish a basic catalog for forensic application. The present study was conducted in 2013 in a mountain in Chongqing municipality with modified Schoenly traps. Carcasses of miniature pig were used to simulate human bodies. For most carcasses, five decomposition stages were observed. A total of 2108 adult coleopterans belonging to at least 61 species and 18 families were collected in the study, and most of the specimens occurred at the advanced decay stage. Omosita colon (Linnaeus, 1758), Necrodes nigricornis (Harold, 1875), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius, 1775) and Neosilusa ceylonica (Kraatz, 1857) were the dominant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How and why wealthy suburban congregations are responding to poverty and inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Bowers du Toit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church’s response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, ‘majority white’ suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and inequality. This is attempted through the lense of restorative justice, which is broadly explored and defined through a threefold perspective of reconciliation, reparations and restitution. The first part explores a description of the basic features of poverty and inequality in South Africa today, followed by a discussion on restorative justice. This is followed by the case study, which gives the views of clergy and lay leaders with regard to their congregations’ perspectives and responses to poverty and inequality within the context of restorative justice. Findings from the case study begin to plot a tentative ‘way forward’ as to how our reality can more constructively be engaged from the perspective of congregational involvement in reconstruction of our society.

  6. Influence of meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a sub-urban site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, G.; Mahesh, P.; Subin, J.; Kanchana, A. L.; Rao, P. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impact on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHG's using high precision Los Gatos Research's-greenhouse gas analyser (LGR-GGA) over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the period 2014. The annual mean of CO2 and CH4 over the study region is found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (mean, μ ± 1 SD, σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 showed a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during Pre-monsoon (Monsoon), while CH4 recorded maximum during post-monsoon and minimum in monsoon. A consistent diurnal mixing ratio of these gases is observed with high (low) during night (afternoon) hours throughout the study period. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity) on GHG's have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 showed a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon with R equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61 and 0.72 respectively. It implies the seasonal variations in source-sink mechanisms of CO2 and CH4. Present study also confirms implicitly the presence OH radicals as a major sink of CH4 over the study region.

  7. Relationship between Aedes aegypti production and occurrence of Escherichia coli in domestic water storage containers in rural and sub-urban villages in Thailand and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Nsa; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Lenhart, Audrey; Stenström, Thor Axel; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Overgaard, Hans J

    2013-06-01

    In a cross-sectional survey in one rural and one suburban village each in Thailand and Laos the relationship between Aedes aegypti production and Escherichia coli contamination in household water storage containers was investigated. Entomological and microbiological surveys were conducted in 250 and 239 houses in Thailand and Laos, respectively. Entomological indices across all four villages were high, indicating a high risk for dengue transmission. Significantly more Ae. aegypti pupae were produced in containers contaminated with E. coli as compared to those that were not, with the odds of Ae. aegypti infested containers being contaminated with E. coli ranging from two to five. The level of E. coli contamination varied across container classes but contamination levels were not significantly associated with the number of pupae produced. We conclude that the observed relationship between Ae. aegypti production and presence of E. coli in household water storage containers suggests a causal relationship between dengue and diarrheal disease at these sites. How this relationship can be exploited for the combined and cost-effective control of dengue and diarrheal diseases requires further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Network integration modelling of feeder and BRT(bus rapid transit) to reduce the usage of private vehicles in Palembang’s suburban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur'afalia, D.; Afifa, F.; Rubianto, L.; Handayeni, K. D. M. E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the optimal feeder network route that integrates with BRT (Bus Rapid Transit). Palembang, a high growing population city with unresolved transportation demand sector. BRT as main public transportation could not fulfill people’s demand in transportation, especially in Alang-Alang Lebar sub-district. As an impact, the usage of private vehicles increases along the movement toward the city center. The concept of Network Integration that integrates feeder network with BRT is expected to be a solution to suppress the rate of private vehicles’ usage and to improve public transportation service, so that the use of BRT will be increased in the suburban area of Palembang. The method used to identifying the optimal route using Route Analysis method is route analysis using Tranetsim 0.4. The best route is obtained based on 156 movement samples. The result is 58,7% from 199 mobility’s potency of private vehicle usage’s can be reduced if there is a feeder network’s route in Alang-Alang Lebar’s sub-district. From the result, the existance of integration between feeder network and BRT is potential enough to reduce the usage of private vehicles and supports the sustainability of transportation mobility in Palembang City.

  9. The Cartographic Method of Research in Exploring the Real Estate Market - A Case of Using Maps for the Introductory Analyses of the Lublin Suburban Commune of Konopnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieścioruk Kamil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the introductory analysis of the real estate market of a suburban commune located near a big (voivodeship capital city. The analysis is based mainly of the cartographic method of research. Besides data mining and preparation, maps play an important role here, presenting values acquired directly from the register of notarial deeds of estate sales and purchases, as well as values resulting from statistic computation, for example mean values of area or price, absolute numbers of transactions or real estate type. The spatial factor is also taken into consideration when it comes to more complex or specific analyses. The influence of distance understood as a metric and time factor, as well as regression analysis results are also visualized on maps. Such presentation is a good step towards advanced analyses providing maps are prepared according to the rules of cartography. The paper stresses that a map can be a great tool in aiding every stage of research, but may also cause misinterpretations and false conclusions when at least basic rules are not complied with.

  10. Effects of soil pollutants, biogeochemistry and microbiology on the distribution and composition of enchytraeid communities in urban and suburban holm oak stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, Emilia; Caruso, Tancredi; Monaci, Fabrizio; Baldantoni, Daniela; De Nicola, Flavia; Iovieno, Paola; Bargagli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Holm oaks form typical urban woodlands in the Mediterranean region. We aimed at characterizing the enchytraeid communities in these environments and searching for possible correlations with soil parameters, including the traffic contamination. Samples of litter and topsoil were collected at different spatial scales and seasons in Naples and Siena cities and in two suburban stands. Only the co-variation between pollution and other soil chemico-physical factors showed significant effects, whereas no direct effect of soil microbiology was detected. Some thermophilous Fridericia and Achaeta tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs and their abundance was mainly determined by Ca bioavailability. Central-European mesophilous species increased significantly under more temperate environmental conditions. Different combinations of soil cohesiveness, grain size composition and moisture regime seem to select species of certain body sizes. -- Highlights: •We examined the enchytraeid assemblages of urban holm oak stands in relation to pollution gradients. •Only the co-variation between pollution and other soil chemico-physical factors showed significant effects. •Thermophilous species in Fridericia and Achaeta are mainly affected by Ca bioavailability. -- The co-variation between pollution and other soil chemico-physical factors affects significantly the enchytraeid communities in Mediterranean urban holm oak stands

  11. PM2.5 and Associated Ionic Species in a Sub-urban Coastal Area of Kuala Terengganu, Southern South China Sea (Malaysia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhayati Mohd Tahir; Meikee, Koh; Suhaimi Suratman

    2013-01-01

    PM 2.5 mass concentration and associated water-soluble ionic species in a sub-urban coastal area of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia were investigated intermittently from year 2006 to 2009. A total of 78 weekly PM 2.5 samples were analyzed. The mass concentration of PM 2.5 exhibited annual, seasonal and diurnal variations. Temporal distributions of rainfall, sporadic haze episodes and local air flow (sea breeze circulation) were factors controlling PM 2.5 mass variations in the study area. Although the PM 2.5 concentrations were increased during haze episodes in 2006 (August and October) and 2007 (October), their concentrations however, were still within the international guidelines. The average concentration of individual ions was in decreasing trend; SO 4 2- > NH 4 + > K + > Na + > NO 3 - > Cl - > Ca 2+ . The concentrations of SO 42- and NH 4 + accounted for > 70 % of the water-soluble aerosol mass. More than 80 % of ionic species associated with PM 2.5 are from non-marine sources. Major processes affecting the ionic composition of PM 2.5 are biomass burning, crustal loading and sea spray. Air quality mitigation strategies should focus on anthropogenic activities emitting SO 2 , which promotes aerosol SO 4 2- formation. (author)

  12. On the Impact of Anomalous Noise Events on Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Urban and Suburban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orga, Ferran; Alías, Francesc; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma

    2017-12-23

    Noise pollution is a critical factor affecting public health, the relationship between road traffic noise (RTN) and several diseases in urban areas being especially disturbing. The Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC and the CNOSSOS-EU framework are the main instruments of the European Union to identify and combat noise pollution, requiring Member States to compose and publish noise maps and noise management action plans every five years. Nowadays, the noise maps are starting to be tailored by means of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN). In order to exclusively monitor the impact of RTN on the well-being of citizens through WASN-based approaches, those noise sources unrelated to RTN denoted as Anomalous Noise Events (ANEs) should be removed from the noise map generation. This paper introduces an analysis methodology considering both Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and duration of ANEs to evaluate their impact on the A-weighted equivalent RTN level calculation for different integration times. The experiments conducted on 9 h of real-life data from the WASN-based DYNAMAP project show that both individual high-impact events and aggregated medium-impact events bias significantly the equivalent noise levels of the RTN map, making any derived study about public health impact inaccurate.

  13. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7–30.6), 0.6 (0.3–0.9), and 4.7 (2.1–7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches. PMID:26504832

  14. Blood pressure and its associated factors among primary school children in suburban Selangor, Malaysia: A cross-sectional survey

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    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the relationship of blood pressure (BP with adiposity indicators, dietary habits, physical activity, and sleep in school children in Malaysia. We aimed to study about the distribution of BP and its associated factors in primary school children. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out on a random sample of 335 children in five primary schools. BP was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Anthropometry was done by standard methods. Demographic information, dietary habits, physical activity, and duration of sleep were collected by interviews. World Health Organization classification based on body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC cut-offs were used to define overweight/obesity. Elevated BP was defined according to US reference standards. Results: A total 335 children (144 boys and 191 girls were examined. Their mean age was 9.18 years (standard deviation [SD] = 0.28. Overall mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 99.32 mmHg (SD = 10.79 and 67.11 mmHg (SD = 10.76, respectively. Mean BMI and WC were 16.39 (SD = 3.58 and 57.77 cm (SD = 8.98, respectively. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 12.23% (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 8.73, 15.75 and hypertension was 13.4% (95% CIs 9.78, 17.09. Mean SBP and DBP was higher among overweight and obese children than normal children. By multivariate linear regression analyses, BMI (β = 0.250, P = 0.049 and WC (β = 0.308, P = 0.015 were positively associated with SBP; age (β = 0.111, P = 0.017, BMI (β = 0.320, P = 0.012 were positively associated with DBP but total (weekly hours of sleep (β = −0.095, P = 0.037 was negatively associated with DBP. Conclusion: BP was associated with BMI and WC. Health promotion activities should be initiated in primary schools.

  15. Blood pressure and its associated factors among primary school children in suburban Selangor, Malaysia: A cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Chew, Wai F.; Poulsaeman, Veronica; Boo, Nem Y.; Choo, Kong B.; Yap, Sook F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the relationship of blood pressure (BP) with adiposity indicators, dietary habits, physical activity, and sleep in school children in Malaysia. We aimed to study about the distribution of BP and its associated factors in primary school children. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out on a random sample of 335 children in five primary schools. BP was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Anthropometry was done by standard methods. Demographic information, dietary habits, physical activity, and duration of sleep were collected by interviews. World Health Organization classification based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cut-offs were used to define overweight/obesity. Elevated BP was defined according to US reference standards. Results: A total 335 children (144 boys and 191 girls) were examined. Their mean age was 9.18 years (standard deviation [SD] = 0.28). Overall mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 99.32 mmHg (SD = 10.79) and 67.11 mmHg (SD = 10.76), respectively. Mean BMI and WC were 16.39 (SD = 3.58) and 57.77 cm (SD = 8.98), respectively. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 12.23% (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 8.73, 15.75) and hypertension was 13.4% (95% CIs 9.78, 17.09). Mean SBP and DBP was higher among overweight and obese children than normal children. By multivariate linear regression analyses, BMI (β = 0.250, P = 0.049) and WC (β = 0.308, P = 0.015) were positively associated with SBP; age (β = 0.111, P = 0.017), BMI (β = 0.320, P = 0.012) were positively associated with DBP but total (weekly) hours of sleep (β = −0.095, P = 0.037) was negatively associated with DBP. Conclusion: BP was associated with BMI and WC. Health promotion activities should be initiated in primary schools. PMID:23983560

  16. ATTAINMENT OF TREATMENT TARGETS AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS FIRST ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE SETTING IN SUBURBAN KERALA

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    Sajeeth Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes is growing in epidemic proportions worldwide, particularly in Asian subcontinent and especially in India. The disease takes a toll on the health system of a country, especially the developing nations. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the attainment of metabolic and anthropometric goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS i Informed consents were obtained. ii The study subjects were subjected to a detailed clinical, anthropometrical and biochemical evaluation at baseline by a dedicated diabetologist. iii These data were collected using a structured questionnaire and were analysed using EPI INFO (Ver 3.4.1. RESULTS A total of 350 cases were studied. Overall, 76.3% of patients could not achieve ADA A1c goal and 36.3% had very poor glycaemic control as evidenced by A1c >9%. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increasing awareness of type 2 diabetes both among attending physicians and patients, attainment of treatment targets still is a challenge even at a tertiary care setting. The lifestyle and dietary habits may be a main contributing factor for this situation. More focus needs to be given to nutritional aspects and physical exercise in not only in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but also in apparently healthy individuals of the productive age group so that the disease can be delayed if not prevented.

  17. Heterogeneity in a Suburban River Network: Understanding the Impact of Fluvial Wetlands on Dissolved Oxygen and Metabolism in Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J. S.; Wollheim, W. M.; Sheehan, K.; Lightbody, A.

    2014-12-01

    Low dissolved oxygen content in rivers threatens fish populations, aquatic organisms, and the health of entire ecosystems. River systems with high fluvial wetland abundance and organic matter, may result in high metabolism that in conjunction with low re-aeration rates, lead to low oxygen conditions. Increasing abundance of beaver ponds in many areas may exacerbate this phenomenon. This research aims to understand the impact of fluvial wetlands, including beaver ponds, on dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and metabolism throughout the headwaters of the Ipswich R. watershed, MA, USA. In several fluvial wetland dominated systems, we measured diel D.O. and metabolism in the upstream inflow, the surface water transient storage zones of fluvial wetland sidepools, and at the outflow to understand how the wetlands modify dissolved oxygen. D.O. was also measured longitudinally along entire surface water flow paths (x-y km long) to determine how low levels of D.O. propagate downstream. Nutrient samples were also collected to understand how their behavior was related to D.O. behavior. Results show that D.O. in fluvial wetlands has large swings with periods of very low D.O. at night. D.O. swings were also seen in downstream outflow, though lagged and somewhat attenuated. Flow conditions affect the level of inundation and the subsequent effects of fluvial wetlands on main channel D.O.. Understanding the D.O. behavior throughout river systems has important implications for the ability of river systems to remove anthropogenic nitrogen.

  18. Analysis on the distribution characteristics and sources of soil heavy metals in suburban farmland in Xiangtan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Xinxin

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of the economy will inevitably have an impact on the farmland soil environment. The content of heavy metal is increasing day by day, and the heavy metal can enter people's body through different channels and endanger people's health. Based on agricultural land and crop types in accordance with the regional land use classification, using the method of the Single Factor Index and Comprehensive Pollution Index, the pollution status of heavy metals in farmland soil in the suburbs of Xiangtan city was studied and evaluated. At the same time, we use SPSS software to analyze the four heavy metal elements (Cu, Zn, As and Pb) and analyze their possible sources. The results showed that the farmland soils in Erhuan Road and Zhubu Port were polluted, and the farmland soil in Shuangma (an old industrial district) was not polluted; for different crop lands, orchards and vegetable lands were not contaminated, but rape and rice lands were contaminated. Pearson correlation analysis showed that Cu, As and Pb might come from the same pollution source, while Zn might come from other sources. Waste water from a chemical plant, crop types, automobile exhaust and other human factors may be important sources of soil pollution in agricultural fields.

  19. Water quality decline in coastal aquifers under anthropic pressure: the case of a suburban area of Dakar (Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Viviana; Cissé Faye, Seynabou; Faye, Abdoulaye; Faye, Serigne; Gaye, Cheikh Becaye; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the unregulated increase of the population in coastal areas of developing countries has become source of concern for both water supply and quality control. In the region of Dakar (Senegal), approximately 80% of water resources come from groundwater reservoirs, which are increasingly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The identification of the main sources of pollution, and thus the aquifer vulnerability, is essential to provide a sound basis for the implementation of long-term geochemically based water management plans in this sub-Saharan area. With this aim, a hydrochemical and isotopic survey on 26 wells was performed in the so-called Peninsula of Cap-Vert. Results show that seawater intrusion represents the main process affecting groundwater chemical characteristics. Nitrates often exceed the World Health Organization drinking water limits: stable isotopes of dissolved nitrate (δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O) indicate urban sewage and fertilizers as a major source of contamination. Results depict a complex situation in which groundwater is affected by direct and indirect infiltration of effluents, mixing with seawater and freshening processes from below. Besides the relevance of the investigation at a regional level, it represents a basis for decision-making processes in an integrated water resources management and in the planning of similar monitoring strategies for other urban coastal regions.

  20. Initiation of breastfeeding and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in urban, suburban and rural areas of Zhejiang China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in China are relatively low and below national targets. The aim of this study was to document the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding initiation in Zhejiang, PR China. Methods A cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal region of China. A total of 1520 mothers who delivered in four hospitals located in city, suburb and rural areas during late 2004 to 2005 were enrolled in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Results On discharge from hospital, 50.3% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants out of 96.9% of the mothers who had earlier initiated breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was positively related to vaginal birth, baby's first feed being breast milk, mother living in the suburbs or rural areas, younger age of mother, lower maternal education level and family income. Conclusion The exclusive breastfeeding rate in Zhejiang is only 50.3% on discharge and does not reach Chinese or international targets. A number of behaviours have been identified in the study that could be potentially incorporated into health promotion activities.

  1. The Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Craving and Dependence on Hookah in Suburban Pregnant Women in South East of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahed, Kheirolnesa; Navidian, Ali

    2018-05-30

    Hookah smoking during pregnancy is a health concern which requires effective interventions. Thus, the authors have aimed to evaluate the effect of motivational interviewing on craving and dependence on hookah in pregnant women (n = 140) addicted to hookah who reside in the outskirts of Zahedan, a city in southeast of Iran. The subjects were selected using the convenience sampling and randomly divided into either the control or intervention group. The intervention group received five motivational interviewing group sessions about hookah smoking withdrawal, whereas the control group was given the conventional recommendations for quitting hookah. Data were collected after eight weeks during the post intervention period using Hookah Craving Test and Hookah Addiction Severity Index. Next, they were analyzed using independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After the motivational interviewing intervention, the independent t-test indicated a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of the mean score of hookah craving (P = 0.0001). Moreover, ANCOVA, with control of the effect of pretest and duration of hookah addiction, demonstrated a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean score of hookah dependence after the intervention (P = 0.0001). Motivational interviewing had a significant positive impact on decreased hookah craving and dependence (two indices of withdrawal). Therefore, healthcare providers are recommended to incorporate motivational interviewing-based education into prenatal care programs to promote the chance of hookah smoking withdrawal.

  2. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J Padmaka; Gunathunga, M W; Jayasinghe, S

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  3. Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Emergency Contraception among Female Adolescent Hawkers in Rigasa Suburban Community of Kaduna State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Attahir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria the rate of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents is about 30%, considerably lower than the rates reported for developed countries. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female adolescent hawkers in Rigasa community, a suburb of Kaduna town.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of 1200 adolescent female hawkers aged 15–29 years was carried out in 2008, using both self and interviewer administered questionnaires. Results: Vast majority of the respondents are divorcees, constituting 92%. About 46% of them have never attended formal school before marriage. Of the 18 participants who were aware of emergency contraception; none correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for the method’s use. Antibiotics or home remedies such as dye Robin Blue mixed with Coca cola or mixed with lime or lime mixed with potash and salt water were mentioned as unlisted methods of emergency contraception by responders. Conclusion: It is glaring that there exist a yawning gap of information and knowledge on contraception in general and emergency contraception in particular among female adolescent hawkers. The need to inform this target group about reproductive health generally and unwanted pregnancy in particular would not be out of place.  

  4. Temporal characterization and regional contribution to O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Min, E-mail: minxie@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Kuanguang; Wang, Tijian, E-mail: tjwang@nju.edu.cn; Chen, Pulong; Han, Yong; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Shu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    To improve our understanding of the interplay among local and regional photochemical pollutants in the typical city of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, the concurrent observation of O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing during 2008 is presented. In general, the annual mean O{sub 3} concentration is 2.35 ppbv lower in the downtown than at suburban due to higher NO{sub x} pollution levels correlated with heavy traffic. At both sites, O{sub 3} shows a distinct seasonality with the spring maximum and the winter minimum, while the minimum concentration of NO{sub x} appears in summertime. Besides the chemical processes of O{sub 3} sensitivity in the daytime and the NO{sub x} titration at night, meteorological conditions also play an essential role in these monthly and diurnal variations. The ozone weekend effect that can be attributed to the weekly routine of human activities is observed in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing as well, with O{sub 3} concentrations 2.09 ppbv higher and NO{sub x} concentrations 6.20 ppbv lower on weekends than on weekdays. The chemical coupling of NO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is investigated to show that the OX-component (O{sub 3} and NO{sub 2}) partitioning point occurs at about 35 ppbv for NO{sub x}, with O{sub 3} being the dominant form at lower levels and NO{sub 2} dominating at higher levels. And it is also discovered that the level of OX is made up of two contributions, including the regional contribution affected by regional background O{sub 3} level and the local contribution correlated with the level of primary pollution. The diurnal peak of regional contribution appears 2–5 h after the peak of local contribution, implying that OX in Nanjing might prominently affected by the pollutants from a short distance. The highest regional contribution and the second highest local contribution lead to the spring peak of O{sub 3} observed in Nanjing, whereas the highest local contribution and the

  5. Hydromorphological adjustments and re-adjustments of low energy rivers in a sub-urban catchment following historical engineering and recent urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugie, Marion; Gob, Frédéric; Slawson, Deborah; Le-Coeur, Charles

    2014-05-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, October 2000) mandated that the Member States of the European Union achieve the general objective of protection of aquatic ecology by 2015. European rivers and streams have to attain "good ecological status" through the preservation and restoration of aquatic environments. Member will have to ensure environmental continuity through "the adequate distribution of fish species and transport of sediments". In France, more than 61,000 transverse structures - mill dams, weirs, diversion gates - have been identified on rivers as being obstacles to ecological and sedimentary continuity. Because of their historical occupation by societies, rivers flowing in the Paris area have long been anthropized and artificialized. River courses, channel shape, sediment transport and hydrological regime modifications have tremendously transformed the hydrosystems surrounding the city of Paris. The Merantaise's catchment is one of this low energy river watershed, near Paris, that have been modified by historical engineering, especially during medieval-modern times and by the building of the Versailles Castle (XVIIth century). The hydraulic infrastructures are still there and impact the hydromorphogical conditions of the river (incision, lateral erosion, …). In addition to these ancient pressures a rapid and massive urbanization of the suburban areas has applied a new type of constraint to the hydrosystems in recent decades. This undermines the balance that was established following ancient engineering and disturbs the current functioning of the valley. These new types of land occupation have significantly altered the ecological circumstances and transformed the hydrological responses of rivers. In this study, we therefore seek to understand these processes of successive adjustments (ancient and recent) of a small river from the urban margins of the Orge watershed (to the south of Paris). We use a multi-scalar spatial and temporal approach to

  6. Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

  7. Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Gouw

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives. Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC, and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps

  8. Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-05-28

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar

  9. Estimation of the molecular hydrogen soil uptake and traffic emissions at a suburban site near Paris through hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radon-222 semicontinuous measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yver, C.; Schmidt, M.; Bousquet, P.; Ramonet, M.; Bousquet, P.; Zahorowski, W.

    2009-01-01

    Since June 2006, simultaneous semicontinuous measurements of tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and radon-222 ( 222 Rn) have been performed at Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris region), a suburban atmospheric measurement site in France. Molecular hydrogen mixing ratios range from 500 to 1000 ppb, CO mixing ratios vary from 100 to 1400 ppb, and 222 Rn concentrations fluctuate from 0 to 20 Bq m -3 . The H 2 seasonal cycle shows the expected pattern for the Northern Hemisphere with a maximum in spring and a minimum in autumn. We inferred a mean baseline value of 533 ppb with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 30 ppb. Carbon monoxide exhibits a seasonal cycle with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The mean baseline value reaches 132 ppb with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 40 ppb. Radon-222 presents weak seasonal variations with a maximum in autumn/winter and a minimum in spring/summer. The diurnal cycles of H 2 and CO are dominated by emissions from nearby traffic with two peaks during morning and evening rush hours. The typical H 2 /CO emission ratio from traffic is found to be 0.47 ± 0.08 on a molar basis (ppb/ppb). The radon tracer method is applied to nighttime H 2 observations to estimate the H 2 soil uptake of the nocturnal catchment area of our sampling site. The influences from nocturnal local anthropogenic combustion sources are estimated by parallel measurements of CO at 0.14 * 10 -5 g(H 2 ) m -2 h -1 . The mean inferred dry deposition velocity is 0.024 ± 0.013 cm s -1 with a seasonal amplitude of 40% at Gif-sur-Yvette.

  10. Life cycle assessment of forecasting scenarios for urban water management: A first implementation of the WaLA model on Paris suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Guérin-Schneider, Laetitia; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    A framework and an associated modeling tool to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban water system, namely the WaLA model, has been recently developed. In this paper, the WaLA model is applied to a real case study: the urban water system of the Paris suburban area, in France. It aims to verify the capacity of the model to provide environmental insights to stakeholder's issues related to future trends influencing the system (e.g., evolution of water demand, increasing water scarcity) or policy responses (e.g., choices of water resources and technologies). This is achieved by evaluating a baseline scenario for 2012 and several forecasting scenarios for 2022 and 2050. The scenarios are designed through the modeling tool WaLA, which is implemented in Simulink/Matlab: it combines components representing the different technologies, users and resources of the UWS. The life cycle inventories of the technologies and users components include water quantity and quality changes, specific operation (electricity, chemicals) and infrastructures data (construction materials). The methods selected for the LCIA are midpoint ILCD, midpoint water deprivation impacts at the sub-river basin scale, and endpoint Impact 2002+. The results of the baseline scenario show that wastewater treatment plants have the highest impacts compared to drinking water production and distribution, as traditionally encountered in LCA of UWS. The results of the forecasting scenarios show important changes in water deprivation impacts due to water management choices or effects of climate change. They also enable to identify tradeoffs with other impact categories and to compare several scenarios. It suggests the capacity of the model to deliver information for decision making about future policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pollution Characteristics and Light Extinction Effects of Water-soluble Ions in PM2.5 During Winter Hazy Days at North Suburban Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yao-yao; Ma, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Cui, Fen-ping; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and their contribution to light extinction in haze days, on-line monitoring of PM2.5. was conducted at North Suburban Nanjing from 25 January through 3 February, 2013. Water-soluble components were collected with a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS), and analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) for the contents of SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ Simultaneously particle size distributions were measured using scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The absorption and scattering coefficients were measured by three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3). Trace gases (SO2, NO2 etc.) were also monitored. The results showed that the average concentrations of total water-soluble ions were 70.3 and 22.9 microg x m(-3) in haze and normal days, respectively. Secondary hygroscopic components including SO4(2-), NO3- and NH4+ were the major ionic pollutants. Hazy days favored the conversion of SO2 and NOx, to SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively, and in particular the oxidation of NOx. Using multiple linear regression statistical method, the empirical relationship between the dry aerosol extinction coefficient and the chemical composition was established. NH4NO3 was found to be the largest contributor to aerosol extinction in winter in Nanjing, followed by (NH4)2SO4, OC and EC. In two heavy pollution events, the increase of ion concentrations was influenced by the increase of primary emissions and secondary transformation.

  12. Speciation, sources, and risk assessment of heavy metals in suburban vegetable garden soil in Xianyang City, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Tao, Wendong; Smardon, Richard C.; Xu, Xue; Lu, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Intensive anthropogenic activities can lead to soil heavy metal contamination resulting in potential risks to the environment and to human health. To reveal the concentrations, speciation, sources, pollution level, and ecological risk of heavy metals in vegetable garden soil, a total of 136 soil samples were collected from three vegetable production fields in the suburbs of Xianyang City, Northwest China. These samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Hg in vegetable garden soil were higher than the corresponding soil element background values of Shaanxi Province. The heavy metals studied in vegetable garden soil were primarily found in the residual fraction, averaging from 31.26% (Pb) to 90.23% (Cr). Considering the non-residual fractions, the mobility or potential risk was in the order of Pb (68.74%)>Co (60.54%)>Mn (59.28%) >Cd (53.54%) ≫Ni (23.36%) >Zn (22.73%)>Cu (14.93%)>V (11.81%)>Cr (9.78%). Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and As in the studied soil were related to soilforming parent materials, while Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd, Co, and Pb were associated with the application of plastic films, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as traffic emissions and industrial fumes. Cr, Ni, V, and As presented low contamination levels, whereas Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn levels were moderate, and Cd and Hg were high. Ecological risk was low for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, with high risk observed for Cd and Hg. The overall pollution level and ecological risk of these heavy metals were high.

  13. Speciation, sources, and risk assessment of heavy metals in suburban vegetable garden soil in Xianyang City, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Tao, Wendong; Smardon, Richard C.; Xu, Xue; Lu, Xinwei

    2017-07-01

    Intensive anthropogenic activities can lead to soil heavy metal contamination resulting in potential risks to the environment and to human health. To reveal the concentrations, speciation, sources, pollution level, and ecological risk of heavy metals in vegetable garden soil, a total of 136 soil samples were collected from three vegetable production fields in the suburbs of Xianyang City, Northwest China. These samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Hg in vegetable garden soil were higher than the corresponding soil element background values of Shaanxi Province. The heavy metals studied in vegetable garden soil were primarily found in the residual fraction, averaging from 31.26% (Pb) to 90.23% (Cr). Considering the non-residual fractions, the mobility or potential risk was in the order of Pb (68.74%)>Co (60.54%)>Mn (59.28%) >Cd (53.54%) ≫Ni (23.36%) >Zn (22.73%)>Cu (14.93%)>V (11.81%)>Cr (9.78%). Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and As in the studied soil were related to soilforming parent materials, while Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd, Co, and Pb were associated with the application of plastic films, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as traffic emissions and industrial fumes. Cr, Ni, V, and As presented low contamination levels, whereas Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn levels were moderate, and Cd and Hg were high. Ecological risk was low for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, with high risk observed for Cd and Hg. The overall pollution level and ecological risk of these heavy metals were high.

  14. Association of neighbourhood residence and preferences with the built environment, work-related travel behaviours, and health implications for employed adults: findings from the URBAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Oliver, Melody; Kearns, Robin A; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Duncan, Mitch J; Batty, G David

    2012-10-01

    Although the neighbourhoods and health field is well established, the relationships between neighbourhood selection, neighbourhood preference, work-related travel behaviours, and transport infrastructure have not been fully explored. It is likely that understanding these complex relationships more fully will inform urban policy development, and planning for neighbourhoods that support health behaviours. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify associations between these variables in a sample of employed adults. Self-reported demographic, work-related transport behaviours, and neighbourhood preference data were collected from 1616 employed adults recruited from 48 neighbourhoods located across four New Zealand cities. Data were collected between April 2008 and September 2010. Neighbourhood built environment measures were generated using geographical information systems. Findings demonstrated that more people preferred to live in urban (more walkable), rather than suburban (less walkable) settings. Those living in more suburban neighbourhoods had significantly longer work commute distances and lower density of public transport stops available within the neighbourhood when compared with those who lived in more urban neighbourhoods. Those preferring a suburban style neighbourhood commuted approximately 1.5 km further to work when compared with participants preferring urban settings. Respondents who preferred a suburban style neighbourhood were less likely to take public or active transport to/from work when compared with those who preferred an urban style setting, regardless of the neighbourhood type in which they resided. Although it is unlikely that constructing more walkable environments will result in work-related travel behaviour change for all, providing additional highly walkable environments will help satisfy the demand for these settings, reinforce positive health behaviours, and support those amenable to change to engage in higher levels of

  15. Description of an establishment event by the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis in a suburban landscape in the northeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hull-Sanders

    Full Text Available The establishment of non-native species is commonly described as occurring in three phases: arrival, establishment, and dispersal. Both arrival and dispersal by the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, a xylophagous Cerambycid native to China and the Korean peninsula, has been documented for multiple locations in both North America and Europe, however the transitional phase, establishment, is not well understood for this species due to the need to rapidly remove populations to prevent dispersal and assist eradication, and the evident variation in the behavior of populations. Here we describe the dynamics of an establishment event for the Asian longhorned beetle in a small, isolated population within the regulated quarantine zone near Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. These data were collected during an opportunity afforded by logistical limits on the Cooperative Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program administered by state, federal, and local government partners. Seventy-one infested red maple (Acer rubrum trees and 456 interspersed un-infested trees were surveyed in an isolated, recently established population within a ~0.29 ha stand in a suburban wetland conservation area in which nearly 90% of the trees were host species, and nearly 80% were Acer rubrum. Tree-ring analyses show that within this establishing population, Asian longhorned beetles initially infested one or two A. rubrum, before moving through the stand to infest additional A. rubrum based not on distance or direction, but on tree size, with infestation biased towards trees with larger trunk diameters. Survey data from the larger landscape suggest this population may have generated long-distance dispersers (~1400 m, and that these dispersal events occurred before the originally infested host trees were fully exploited by the beetle. The distribution and intensity of damage documented in this population suggest dispersal here may have been spatially more

  16. Suburban Soils: Are they the answer in determining factors controlling non-point-source DOC and DON in urban surface waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Generally the quality of urban streams has been attributed to storm water runoff and sewage effluent discharge. Recent work in the upper Trinity Basin downstream from the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolis, TX concluded that sewage effluent only contributed between 1 and 35% of DOC dependent upon the population of the watershed. Change from native to urban land use increased DOC exports to between 938 - 1840 kg km-2 yr-1relative to the 517 kg km-2 yr-1 expected from native land use. Where this excess DOC might come from in an urban ecosystem was addressed in a separate study examining water extractable DOC (WEDOC) and DON (WEDON) in soils of single-family home lawns in Chicago, IL, Frederick, MD, Bryan/College Station, TX and Galveston, TX. These cities were exposed to different sources of sodium. Time of exposure to sodium was considered on the assumption that as new sub-divisions are built, new soil or turfgrass sod is introduced to the site. Exposure times were 0-5, 6-10, 11-20, 21-30 and > 30 yr. Length of exposure time of the soil to the urban environment was significant among the four cities examined for DOC (p < 0.001), DON (p < 0.001), sodium adsorption ratio (p < 0.006) but not for sodium (p = 0.08) or exchangeable sodium percent (ESP) (p = 0.09). In all cities WEDON increased with urban exposure time and in all cities except Galveston WEDOC increased with urban exposure time. Sodium, regardless of its source, explained 60% of the variance in WEDOC and 54% of the variance in WEDON across all cities (n = 136). To determine what other factors might be involved in increasing WEDOC and WEDON losses from suburban soils, backward stepwise regression models were used. Across the four cities, time of urban exposure, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), NO3-N, NH4-N, S, PO4-P, Na, Cu, Ca, Fe and Zn produced a significant model for WEDOC (Adjusted r2 = 0.85; p < 0.001) and Ksat, pH, NH4-N, PO4-P, S, Alkalinity and Cu produced a significant model for WEDON

  17. Sources and atmospheric processes impacting oxalate at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong: Insights inferred from 1 year hourly measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Xiaohui Hilda; Bian, Qijing; Griffith, Stephen M.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Oxalic acid is one of the most abundant dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential influence on cloud condensation nucleus activities. In this work, we report 10 months of hourly oxalate measurements in particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by a Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in ambient Air at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong from April 2012 to February 2013. A total of more than 6000 sets of oxalate and inorganic ion data were obtained. The mean (±SD) oxalate concentration was 0.34 (±0.18) µg m-3, accounting for 2.8% of the total ion mass and 1.5% of the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variation showed higher concentrations in fall and winter (0.54 and 0.36 µg m-3, respectively) and lower concentrations in spring and summer (~0.26 µg m-3). Different from the inorganic ions, a shallow dip in the oxalate concentration consistently occurred in the morning after sunrise (around 9:00 A.M.) throughout all seasons. Our analysis suggests that this was likely due to photolysis of oxalate-Fe (III) complex under sunlight. In summer, a small daytime peak was discernable for oxalate and nitrate. This characteristic, together with a more evident diurnal variation of O3, indicates comparatively more active photochemical oxidation in summer than other seasons. High correlations were observed between oxalate and non-sea-salt SO42- (NSS) (R2 = 0.63) and Ox (O3 + NO2) (R2 = 0.48), indicating significant commonality in their secondary formation. Positive matrix factorization analysis of oxalate and other real-time gas and particle-phase component data estimates that secondary formation processes, including secondary gas or aqueous oxidation processes (49%), oxidation processes of biomass burning emissions (37%), accounted for the majority of PM2.5 oxalate. A backward trajectories cluster analysis found that higher oxalate/NSS ratios were associated with low pollution samples under the influence of

  18. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  19. Adaptation of an urban land surface model to a tropical suburban area: Offline evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and optimization of TEB/ISBA (SURFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshan, Suraj

    The main objective of the present thesis is the improvement of the TEB/ISBA (SURFEX) urban land surface model (ULSM) through comprehensive evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and optimization experiments using energy balance and radiative and air temperature data observed during 11 months at a tropical sub-urban site in Singapore. Overall the performance of the model is satisfactory, with a small underestimation of net radiation and an overestimation of sensible heat flux. Weaknesses in predicting the latent heat flux are apparent with smaller model values during daytime and the model also significantly underpredicts both the daytime peak and nighttime storage heat. Surface temperatures of all facets are generally overpredicted. Significant variation exists in the model behaviour between dry and wet seasons. The vegetation parametrization used in the model is inadequate to represent the moisture dynamics, producing unrealistically low latent heat fluxes during a particularly dry period. The comprehensive evaluation of the USLM shows the need for accurate estimation of input parameter values for present site. Since obtaining many of these parameters through empirical methods is not feasible, the present study employed a two step approach aimed at providing information about the most sensitive parameters and an optimized parameter set from model calibration. Two well established sensitivity analysis methods (global: Sobol and local: Morris) and a state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (Borg) were employed for sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Experiments were carried out for three different weather periods. The analysis indicates that roof related parameters are the most important ones in controlling the behaviour of the sensible heat flux and net radiation flux, with roof and road albedo as the most influential parameters. Soil moisture initialization parameters are important in controlling the latent heat flux. The built (town) fraction

  20. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of PM10 in a naturally ventilated school in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Noorlin; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Md Firoz

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and potential sources of PM10 as well as assess the potential health hazards it posed to school children. PM10 samples were taken from classrooms at a school in Kuala Lumpur's city centre (S1) and one in the suburban city of Putrajaya (S2) over a period of eight hours using a low volume sampler (LVS). The composition of the major ions and trace metals in PM10 were then analysed using ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that the average PM10 concentration inside the classroom at the city centre school (82µg/m(3)) was higher than that from the suburban school (77µg/m(3)). Principal component analysis-absolute principal component scores (PCA-APCS) revealed that road dust was the major source of indoor PM10 at both school in the city centre (36%) and the suburban location (55%). The total hazard quotient (HQ) calculated, based on the formula suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was found to be slightly higher than the acceptable level of 1, indicating that inhalation exposure to particle-bound non-carcinogenic metals of PM10, particularly Cr exposure by children and adults occupying the school environment, was far from negligible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suburban-Urban Educational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Benjamin C.

    This speech discusses ways of using school resources more efficiently, premised on the understanding that putting more money into a system does not necessarily make that system better. The author suggests the creation of a search-and-plan group of selected educational, community, and student personnel that would share ideas with other districts,…

  2. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  3. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    the cultural and urban life took place in squares, shops, cafes, etc. However, changed conditions as new forms of everyday life, the current climate and sustainability agenda, increasing social segregation, etc. give us a need to see the suburb in a new perspective. This industrial PhD project examines...

  4. Knowledge and awareness about diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in suburban population of a South Indian state and its practice among the patients with diabetes mellitus: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rameez; Rajesh, Bindu; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Sadasivan, Sanjai; James, Justin; Vijayan, Pradeep Padickal; John, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    Ocular complications due to diabetes mellitus (DM) were on the rise despite good literacy levels in South India. To assess the knowledge and attitude toward DM and diabetic retinopathy of the general population in a suburban town of South India. Door-to-door population survey in suburban town of South India in May 2013. A 30-point questionnaire was prepared and the data were collected and analyzed to determine statistically the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores of the general and diabetic population and also to determine significant demographic associations. In this study, 6211 people (3528 [56.8%] women and 2683 [43.2%] men) with a mean age of 55.6 ± 11.7 years (range 21-98 years) were included. Good knowledge and positive attitude were observed in 3457 (55.6%) and 3280 (52.8%) people. Among 1538 (25.4%) people known to have DM, only 619 (40.7%) had good knowledge, 828 (53.8%) had a positive attitude, and 886 (57.6%) had good practice patterns. Although half of them followed general diabetic care, only 9.6% had undergone screening for retinopathy. Literacy showed a significant association with good KAP (P knowledge (P < 0.001). Better literacy, especially among women, is contributory to better public awareness; however, the trend for poor practice patterns needs to be radically changed with aggressive public motivation emphasizing on the necessity of retinopathy screening and periodic follow-ups.

  5. Using semi-continuous, in-situ measurements of nitrous oxide isotopic composition at a suburban site to track emission processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Henne, Stephan; Christoph, Hüglin; Christoph, Zellweger; Béla, Tuzson; Erkan, Ibraim; Lukas, Emmenegger; Joachim, Mohn

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and the strongest ozone-destroying substance emitted this century. The atmospheric N2O mole fraction has been increasing at a rate of 0.2-0.3% per year over the past decades due to anthropogenic emissions; in addition, recent results suggest that the rate of increase is rising - therefore effective mitigation of N2O emissions is a critical point for environmental policy. However, N2O sources are poorly defined and disperse, complicating the development of targeted mitigation strategies. Online isotopic measurements using preconcentration and laser spectroscopy [1,2,3] have great potential to unravel spatial and temporal variations in sources, sinks and chemistry of trace gases such as N2O. Semi-continuous, real-time measurements of N2O isotopic composition (δ18O, site preference [SP = 14N15N16O - 15N14N16O] and δ15Nbulk) were performed at the suburban site of Dübendorf, Switzerland, for 19 months between July 2014 and February 2016. The data precision reached 0.1‰ in the final months, thus the results could clearly identify nocturnal build-up of N2O, with a corresponding decrease in δ18O, SP and δ15Nbulk due to isotopically depleted anthropogenic sources. Daily mean source isotopic composition was calculated by considering the measured and the background mole fraction and isotopic composition. Delta values of the mean emission source were highest in winter, with a seasonal cycle of 12, 8 and 5‰ for δ18O, SP and δ15Nbulk respectively. The chemical and meteorological parameters controlling source isotopic composition were considered using data from the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) as well as a transport regime cluster analysis. A clear spatial distribution for source isotopic composition was observed for δ18O, as well as a significant relationship with the level of urban pollution, indicating δ18O may be a strong indicator of combustion/industrial vs. agricultural N2O. In contrast

  6. Health literacy in the urgent care setting: What factors impact consumer comprehension of health information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Traci L; Morris, Nancy J

    2017-05-01

    An increasing number of Americans are using urgent care (UC) clinics due to: improved health insurance coverage, the need to decrease cost, primary care offices with limited appointment availability, and a desire for convenient care. Patients are treated by providers they may not know for episodic illness or injuries while in pain or not feeling well. Treatment instructions and follow-up directions are provided quickly. To examine health literacy in the adult UC population and identify patient characteristics associated with health literacy risk. As part of a larger cross-sectional study, UC patients seen between October 2013 and January 2014 completed a demographic questionnaire and the Newest Vital Sign. Descriptive, nonparametric analyses, and a multinomial logistic regression were done to assess health literacy, associated and predictive factors. A total of 57.5% of 285 participants had adequate health literacy. The likelihood of limited health literacy was associated with increased age (p literacy is common in a suburban UC setting, increasing the risk that consumers may not understand vital health information. Clear provider communication and confirmation of comprehension of discharge instructions for self-management is essential to optimize outcomes for UC patients. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Household Exposure to Livestock and Health in the CHILILAB HDSS Cohort, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; MacDonald, Lauren E; Schurer, Janna M; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-07-01

    In Vietnam, pigs and poultry are predominantly produced by small-scale farmers, creating challenges for zoonotic disease management. The objective of this study was to characterize practices related to livestock and manure management and to measure association with 3 self-reported health symptoms (coughing, fever, and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting) in a region currently undergoing health transitions. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from a subset (N = 5520) of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System cohort in Chi Linh district, Vietnam. Bivariate analyses indicated that female gender was a significant risk factor for all 3 health symptoms, whereas age (≥60 years), suburban living, low education level, and household wealth were risk factors for 2 symptoms. Overall, we found no indication that biogas production or exposure to livestock and manure adversely affected human health. Efforts to control zoonotic disease transmission should prioritize utilization of veterinarians, enhanced farm biosecurity, and improvements to commune drinking water/wastewater infrastructure.

  8. Obesity, physical activity, and the urban environment: public health research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Russell P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent trends in overweight and obesity have resulted in a rapid research effort focused on built environment, physical activity, and overweight. Much of the focus of this research has been on the design and form of suburbs. It suggests that several features of the suburban built environment such as low densities, poor street connectivity and the lack of sidewalks are associated with decreased physical activity and an increased risk of being overweight. But compared to suburban residents, inner city populations have higher rates of obesity and inactivity despite living in neighborhoods that are dense, have excellent street connectivity and who's streets are almost universally lined with sidewalks. We suggest that the reasons for this apparent paradox are rooted in the complex interaction of land use, infrastructure and social factors affecting inner city populations. Sometimes seemingly similar features are the result of very different processes, necessitating different policy responses to meet these challenges. For example, in suburbs, lower densities can result from government decision making that leads to restrictive zoning and land use issues. In the inner city, densities may be lowered because of abandonment and disinvestment. In the suburbs, changes in land use regulations could result in a healthier built environment. In inner cities, increasing densities will depend on reversing economic trends and investment decisions that have systematically resulted in distressed housing, abandoned buildings and vacant lots. These varying issues need to be further studied in the context of the totality of urban environments, incorporating what has been learned from other disciplines, such as economics and sociology, as well as highlighting some of the more successful inner city policy interventions, which may provide examples for communities working to improve their health. Certain disparities among urban and suburban populations in

  9. The influence of patient characteristics on healthcare-seeking behavior: a multilevel analysis of 70 primary care practices in urban-suburban regions in Malta.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullicino, G.; Sciortino, P.; Camilleri, L.; Schäfer, W.; Boerma, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social homogeneity and an almost indiscernible rural-urban difference are generally assumed to be strong factors that reduce any tendency for health inequities in a small island community. A strong primary health care system is one of the components that protect populations against

  10. Improving the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island: Achieving parity through cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eileen Perman

    The research in this dissertation focuses on ways to improve the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island, New York. The study is my attempt to find ways to achieve parity in my classroom in terms of success in science. I was specifically looking for ways to encourage Black female students in my classroom and in other classrooms to continue their science education into the upper grades. The participants were the 27 students in the class, a friend of one of the students, and I, as the teacher-researcher. In order to examine the ways in which structure mediates the social and historical contexts of experiences in relation to teacher and student practices in the classroom, I used collaborative research; autobiographical reflection; the sociology of emotions; immigration, racialization, and ethnicity, and cogenerative dialogues (cogens) as tools. Cogenerative dialogues are a way for students and teachers to accept shared responsibility for teaching and learning. This study is of importance because of my school's very diverse student body. The school has a large minority population and therefore shares many of the characteristics of urban schools. In my study I look at why there are so few Black female students in the advanced science courses offered by our district and how this problem can be addressed. I used a variety of qualitative approaches including critical ethnography and micro analysis to study the teaching and learning of science. In addition to the usual observational, methodological, and theoretical field notes, I videotaped and audiotaped lessons and had discussions with students and teachers, one-on-one and in groups. In the first year the cogenerative group consisted of two Black female students. In the second year of the study there were four Black and one White-Hispanic female students in the cogen group. In my research I studied the interactions of the students between lessons and during laboratory activities as

  11. Towards environment and health promoting South African schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, A; Byrne, J

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the activities of the Greater Johannesburg Healthy Schools Program of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Healthy Cities Project in South Africa. Healthy Cities projects emphasize community participation, intersectoral action, supportive environments for health, and a settings approach. Children in South Africa, are exposed to environmental and health hazards in the school setting including poor building design, poor equipment, and understaffing. The Healthy Schools initiative in Greater Johannesburg, is a pilot for enhancing environmental quality, health, and well-being among students. Schools include those in an informal settlement in an industrial area, an inner city district, and in a suburban area. The initiative includes research, establishment of environmental and health committees, development of an action plan, and evaluation and feedback. The plan aims to promote environmental and health sustainability, to empower children to become full participants in the community, and to support teachers and parents in the promotion of health-enhancing school environments. The program builds upon the lessons learned from several local school initiatives. Initiatives include an anti-smoking poster competition involving over 10,000 students, special environmental and health awareness days, consciousness raising among high school students about air pollution, and local efforts to engage students in environmental clean-up days.

  12. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ? 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS : Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36; health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD, Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS : Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001, with chronic disease (p < 0.0001, who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01, who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS : Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over

  13. Continued urbanization of the United States is causing the deterioration of the central city; costly suburban developments; and increases in congestion, pollution, crime, violence and alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that urban sprawl and the abuses of technological industries result in substantial environmental and economic costs at the expense of center city locations and populations. Socioeconomic deterioration and modification of the biosphere triggers climatic and environmental changes leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict.

  14. Mental health concerns among Canadian physicians: results from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Frank, Erica

    2011-01-01

    In light of prior reports on the prevalence of stress, depression, and other mental health problems among physicians in training and practice, we examined the mental health concerns of Canadian physicians using data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study. Among 3213 respondents, 5 variables (depressive symptoms during the past year, anhedonia in the past year, mental health concerns making it difficult to handle one's workload in the past month, problems with work-life balance, and poor awareness of resources for mental health problems) were examined in relation to sex, specialty, practice type (solo practice vs group or other practice settings), and practice setting (inner city, urban/suburban, or rural/small town/remote). Nearly one quarter of physicians reported a 2-week period of depressed mood, and depression was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians. Anhedonia was reported by one fifth; anesthesiologists were most likely to report anhedonia, followed by general practitioners/family physicians. More than one quarter reported mental health concerns making it difficult to handle their workload, which was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians and psychiatrists. Nearly one quarter reported poor work-life balance. Lack of familiarity with mental health resources was problematic, which was more prominent among female physicians and specialists outside of general practice/family medicine or psychiatry. Mental health concerns are relatively common among Canadian physicians. Training programs and programmatic/policy enhancements should redouble efforts to address depression and other mental health concerns among physicians for the benefit of the workforce and patients served by Canadian physicians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Children and Nature: Linking Accessibility of Natural Environments and Children’s Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Tillmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research suggests that increasing children’s nature interactions can have positive benefits for their health-related quality of life (HRQOL; however, researchers have yet to examine how geographical context influences this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine individual-level and environmental factors that are associated with HRQOL of children from different geographical contexts. Data were collected for 851 children from 34 elementary schools in Ontario, Canada. The natural environments around each child’s home were computed using geospatial analyses in a geographic information system. Natural environment measures were combined with HRQOL and the demographics from child surveys to be used in a series of step-wise linear regression models. These models explored the relationship between children’s HRQOL and the natural environment in urban/suburban and rural populations. In addition to important individual-level determinants, the findings revealed that characteristics of the natural environment, including the amount of greenness, park, and water, show significant relationships in the urban/suburban population. Interpersonal variables were the key predictors of HRQOL in the rural population. Where children live influences relationships between nature and HRQOL. These findings have implications for policymakers, health practitioners, educators, and parents in the design and the promotion of nature for children’s HRQOL.

  16. Accessibility to health care facilities in Montreal Island: an application of relative accessibility indicators from the perspective of senior and non-senior residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morency Catherine

    2010-10-01

    significantly less mobile than people of other age cohorts. The combination of average trip length estimates with the spatial distribution of health care facilities indicates that despite being more mobile, suburban residents tend to have lower levels of accessibility compared to central city residents. The effect is more marked for seniors. Furthermore, the results indicate that accessibility calculated using a fixed bandwidth would produce patterns of exposure to health care facilities that would be difficult to achieve for suburban seniors given actual mobility patterns. Conclusions The analysis shows large disparities in accessibility between seniors and non-seniors, between urban and suburban seniors, and between vehicle owning and non-owning seniors. This research was concerned with potential accessibility levels. Follow up research could consider the results reported here to select case studies of actual access and usage of health care facilities, and related health outcomes.

  17. Mental Health-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Ghana: Experience of Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, P E; Adongo, P B; Aikins, M

    2015-03-01

    Mental health is now attracting increased public health attention from health professionals, policy makers and the general population. However, stigma and discrimination usually have enormous negative impact on the patients and their families. This study reports on stigma and discrimination faced by mental health patients and their caregivers in a suburban area of Ghana and the coping strategies used. This is a cross-sectional exploratory study which used both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Two hundred and seventy seven mental health patients were purposively interviewed. Focus group discussions were held with caregivers and in-depth interviews were held with mental health professionals. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel(®) whilst the qualitative data were coded and manually analyzed thematically. Mental disorder cuts across all age, sex, education, ethnicity, employment, and marital status. More females were stigmatized than males at the work/employment and educational levels. Various forms of stigma were observed at the economic, psychological and social levels, whilst for discrimination it was only observed at the economic and social levels. Caregivers were also stigmatized and discriminated. The coping strategies adopted by the mental patients and their caregivers were also economic, psychological and social in nature. Mental health patients and their families suffer from stigma and discrimination from the individual, family, work, employment, education to the health level. Thus, community level policy on mental health care needs to be developed and implemented. Furthermore mental health education needs to be intensified at the community level.

  18. Health and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of our social and political effort, including a portion of the research in this university, is directed towards the promotion of one goal: health. But what is health? Or rather, how should we define health so that it is an identifiable goalpost for our social policies and technological

  19. Suburban amoebiasis. CT and US findings and percutaneous treatment of amoebic liver abscess; Amebiasi sub-urbana: aspetti diagnostici con tomografia computerizzata ed ecografia e trattamento percutaneo degli ascessi amebici del fegato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; De Rosa, A. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Rossi, E.; Carbone, M.; Mondillo, F. [Naples Univ. II, Naples (Italy).Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali, Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Capuano, N. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Naples (Italy). Div. di Chirurgia; Nunziata, A. [Naples Univ. II, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    2000-03-01

    The study reports ultrasonography and computerise tomography findings in 16 patients with amoebic abscesses, 12 of whom lived in a temperate peripheral area north-east of Naples (Italy). All patients have a clinical-diagnostic condition called sub-urban amoebiasis. The personal experience with the US guided therapeutic drainage of amoebic abscess with repeated cavity washing, which is important for positive parasitology. Combined US and CT assessment facilitated the diagnosis of amoebiasis and its differentiation from pyogenic abscess and hepatoma. [Italian] La colonizzazione epatica rappresenta la localizzazione piu' comune dell'amebiasi extraintestinale e gli ascessi epatici ne costituiscono la manifestazione piu' frequente sviluppandosi nel 3-9 % dei pazienti affetti da infezione parassitaria. Diversi studi confermano che la terapia medica dell'amebiasi risulta piu' efficace quando viene associato il drenaggio percutaneo degli ascessi epatici con piu' rapida guarigione clinica e risposta favorevole dell'organismo. Scopo del presente lavoro e' di descrivere gli aspetti ecografici e di tomografia computerizzata degli ascessi amebici in un gruppo di 16 pazienti, 12 dei quali residenti in zona temperata e periferica di una vasta area a nord-est di Napoli presentandosi con caratteristico e raro quadro clinico-diagnostico definito amebiasi sub-urbana. Si discute infine l'esperienza personale del drenaggio terapeutico sotto guida ecografica dell'ascesso con tecnica del lavaggio ripetuto dalla cavita', importante ai fini della positivita' dell'esame. L'associazione dei reperti tipici ecografici e TC ha consentito la diagnosi agevole dell'amebiasi differenziandola dall'ascesso piogenico e dall'epatoma.

  20. Luanda e Maputo: inflexões suburbanísticas da cidade socialista à cidade-metrópole neoliberal Luanda and Maputo: sub-urbanistic inflections from the socialist city to the neoliberal metropolis city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Luanda e Maputo, duas capitais africanas da lusofonia, são marcadas por crescentes desigualdades socioespaciais.Os centros urbanizados dessas urbes, traçados pela e para a sociedade colonial e onde hoje reside a maioria da população de maiores recursos, distinguem-se dos densos e extensos subúrbios habitacionais suburbanizados, onde outrora residia a sociedade colonizada e hoje se acantona a população de menores recursos. Nos primeiros anos de independência, em contexto de ideologia de inspiração socialista, economia planificada e planeamento centralizado, ambos os países visaram diminuir as desigualdades socioespaciais herdadas do colonialismo, intervindo nos subúrbios. A partir de finais da década de 80 do século XX, com o início da liberalização econômica e política, que levou, em Moçambique, à descentralização (ainda emergente em Angola, surgem novos actores, indutores de diferentes modelos de cidade e de fazer cidade, diversificando-se os tipos de intervenções suburbanas. A explosão, segregação e complexidade socioespacial desses subúrbios tem-se intensificado com a adopção do modelo de cidade neoliberal, competitiva e desigual.Tomando como referência esses dois grandes períodos sociopolíticos e urbanísticos, este artigo restitui,num olhar cruzado e crítico, diferentes tipos de intervenção nos subúrbios habitacionais semiurbanizados.O seu principal objectivo é reflectir sobre a circulação de influências e os paradigmas suburbanísticos em que se inscrevem.

  1. Incorporating consideration of health impacts into land use development approval processes: Development of a Health Background Study Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloughney, Brent W; Bursey, Gayle E; Neumann, Jana; Leeming, Daniel H; Gutmann, Christine E; Sivanand, Bhavna; Mowat, David L

    2014-09-12

    This project involved development of a Health Background Study (HBS) Framework to support consideration of health impacts within municipalities' approval process for land use development. Peel Public Health and Toronto Public Health led the project with the participation of planners, urban designers, engineers, public health staff and development industry representatives. Historical growth in the Region of Peel and suburban Toronto has resulted in extensive low-density development, creating car-dependent communities with disconnected streets and segregated land uses. The inclusion of an HBS in developers' applications to municipalities is one approach by which health-related expectations for the built environment can be established within the approval process. Development of the HBS Framework used the six core elements of the built environment with the strongest evidence for impact on health and was informed by analysis of the provincial and local policy contexts, practices of other municipalities and stakeholder interviews. The Framework's contents were refined according to feedback from multidisciplinary stakeholder workshops. The HBS Framework identifies minimum standards for built environment core elements that developers need to address in their applications. The Framework was created to be simple and instructive with applicability to a range of development locations and scales, and to various stages of the development approval process. Peel Public Health is leading several initiatives to support the use of the HBS as a part of the development application process. The HBS Framework is a tool that public health and planning can use to support the consideration of health impacts within municipalities' land use development processes.

  2. Worker Preferences for a Mental Health App Within Male-Dominated Industries: Participatory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dorian; Deady, Mark; Glozier, Nick; Harvey, Samuel; Calvo, Rafael A

    2018-04-25

    Men are less likely to seek help for mental health problems, possibly because of stigma imposed by cultural masculine norms. These tendencies may be amplified within male-dominated workplaces such as the emergency services or transport industries. Mobile apps present a promising way to provide access to mental health support. However, little is known about the kinds of mental health technologies men would be willing to engage with, and no app can be effective if the intended users do not engage with it. The goal of this participatory user research study was to explore the perceptions, preferences, and ideas of workers in male-dominated workplaces to define requirements for a mental health app that would be engaging and effective at improving psychological well-being. Workers from male-dominated workplaces in rural, suburban, and urban locations took part in an exploratory qualitative study involving participatory workshops designed to elicit their perspectives and preferences for mental health support and the design of an app for mental health. Participants generated a number of artifacts (including draft screen designs and promotional material) designed to reify their perceptions, tacit knowledge, and ideas. A total of 60 workers aged between 26 and 65 years, 92% (55/60) male, from male-dominated workplaces in rural (16/60, 27%), suburban (14/60, 23%), and urban (30/60, 50%) locations participated in one of the 6 workshops, resulting in 49 unique feature ideas and 81 participant-generated artifacts. Thematic analysis resulted in a set of feature, language, and style preferences, as well as characteristics considered important by participants for a mental health app. The term "mental health" was highly stigmatized and disliked by participants. Tools including a mood tracker, self-assessment, and mood-fix tool were highly valued, and app characteristics such as brevity of interactions, minimal on-screen text, and a solutions-oriented approach were considered

  3. Mineral magnetism of atmospheric dust over southwest coast of India: Impact of anthropogenic activities and implications to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Anish Kumar; Shankar, R.; Manjunatha, B. R.; Harshavardhana, B. G.

    2014-03-01

    We have used rock magnetic techniques in this study to assess atmospheric pollution at five stations in and around Mangalore city on the southwestern coast of India. Samples of dust were collected from two suburban areas (Thokkottu and Pumpwell located respectively ~ 10 km and 3 km from the city center), the city center itself (Milagres) and industrial/port areas (Panambur and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL)). Low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf), frequency-dependent susceptibility (χfd), susceptibility of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (χARM) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM 20 to 1000 mT) were determined on 23 dust samples and inter-parametric ratios calculated. Results show that samples from suburban areas (particularly Thokkottu) are characterized by low χlf (Company Limited (KIOCL) at Panambur and its storage and export through the nearby New Mangalore Port. However, the dust sample from MRPL has magnetically "soft" minerals like magnetite. This magnetic mineral may have originated from petroleum refining processes at MRPL. Particulate pollution from industrial activities and motor vehicle exhaust is a threat to human health and is known to cause cardiovascular and respiratory ailments. Therefore, the pollution levels brought out by this study warrant a comprehensive epidemiological study in the area of study.

  4. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Brookline Early Education Project: a 25-year follow-up study of a family-centered early health and development intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfrey, Judith S; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Bronson, Martha B; Warfield, Marji Erickson; Sirin, Selcuk; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-07-01

    Clinicians, scientists, and policy makers are increasingly taking interest in the long-term outcomes of early intervention programs undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, which were intended to improve young children's health and educational prospects. The Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) was an innovative, community-based program that provided health and developmental services for children and their families from 3 months before birth until entry into kindergarten. It was open to all families in the town of Brookline and to families from neighboring Boston, to include a mixture of families from suburban and urban communities. The goal of the project, which was administered by the Brookline Public Schools, was to ensure that children would enter kindergarten healthy and ready to learn. Outcome studies of BEEP and comparison children during kindergarten and second grade demonstrated the program's effectiveness during the early school years. The goal of this follow-up study was to test the hypotheses that BEEP participants, in comparison with their peers, would have higher levels of educational attainment, higher incomes, and more positive health behaviors, mental health, and health efficacy during the young adult period. Participants were young adults who were enrolled in the BEEP project from 1973 to 1978. Comparison subjects were young adults in Boston and Brookline who did not participate in BEEP but were matched to the BEEP group with respect to age, ethnicity, mother's educational level, and neighborhood (during youth). A total of 169 children were enrolled originally in BEEP and monitored through second grade. The follow-up sample included a total of 120 young adults who had participated in BEEP as children. The sample differed from the original BEEP sample in having a slightly larger proportion of college-educated mothers and a slightly smaller proportion of urban families but otherwise resembled the original BEEP sample. The demographic features of

  6. Effects of electronic health information technology implementation on nursing home resident outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Meador, Rhoda H; Teresi, Jeanne A; Chen, Emily K; Henderson, Charles R; Lachs, Mark S; Boratgis, Gabriel; Silver, Stephanie; Eimicke, Joseph P

    2012-02-01

    To examine the effects of electronic health information technology (HIT) on nursing home residents. The study evaluated the impact of implementing a comprehensive HIT system on resident clinical, functional, and quality of care outcome indicators as well as measures of resident awareness of and satisfaction with the technology. The study used a prospective, quasi-experimental design, directly assessing 761 nursing home residents in 10 urban and suburban nursing homes in the greater New York City area. No statistically significant impact of the introduction of HIT on residents was found on any outcomes, with the exception of a significant negative effect on behavioral symptoms. Residents' subjective assessment of the HIT intervention were generally positive. The absence of effects on most indicators is encouraging for the future development of HIT in nursing homes. The single negative finding suggests that further investigation is needed on possible impact on resident behavior. © The Author(s) 2012

  7. Social media for school nurses: promoting school health in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Regina

    2015-05-01

    People across the globe use social media to connect with one another, stay in touch with friends and family, and exchange information. Health care has embraced social media, and nursing organizations such as the American Nurses Association (ANA) and NASN have a presence in the social media landscape. The students in our schools today are digital natives who grew up with and are at home in the world of technology. With so many options in the digital world, the question is how can school nurses harness this technology to connect with their students and families? More importantly, how can school nurses use social media in a professional and responsible manner and help to enhance the profession of school nursing overall? This article will outline the planning and implementation of an ongoing social media campaign on wellness and healthy behaviors by one Texas suburban school district. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health services: Distance types and aggregation-error issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Mylène

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. Yet, the choice of these parameters may potentially generate different results leading to significant measurement errors. The aim of this paper is to compare discrepancies in results for geographical accessibility of selected health care services for residential areas (i.e. census tracts computed using different distance types and aggregation methods. Results First, the comparison of distance types demonstrates that Cartesian distances (Euclidean and Manhattan distances are strongly correlated with more accurate network distances (shortest network and shortest network time distances across the metropolitan area (Pearson correlation greater than 0.95. However, important local variations in correlation between Cartesian and network distances were observed notably in suburban areas where Cartesian distances were less precise. Second, the choice of the aggregation method is also important: in comparison to the most accurate aggregation method (population-weighted mean of the accessibility measure for census blocks within census tracts, accessibility measures computed from census tract centroids, though not inaccurate, yield important measurement errors for 5% to 10% of census tracts. Conclusion Although errors associated to the choice of distance types and aggregation method are only important for about 10% of census tracts located mainly in suburban areas, we should not avoid using the best estimation method possible for evaluating geographical accessibility. This is especially so if these measures are to be included as a dimension of the

  9. Designing Urban Experiences for a Suburban Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    In the planning of Almere special attention was paid to establishing attractive  surroundings for modern middle class living. Accordingly the city was developed as a  network of suburbs with ample space for gardens, parks etc., and with an infrastructure aimed  at keeping different forms......, as a consequence of the governmental policy for  future regional development, agreed upon in the 1990es, Almere remains a kernel for future  growth. The population of the city is expected to extend further in the next decades. In 2030 it  should thus have 350.000 inhabitants, becoming by then the fifth largest......  dwellers, and also new segments of citizens with other preferences and more pronounced  expectations (esp. upper middle class, which at the time being are largely absent). To face  these challenges, the city council in 1995 decided to develop a new city centre, which should  enhance Almere’s regional...

  10. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  11. Go-To Telescopes Under Suburban Skies

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, Neale

    2010-01-01

    For the last four centuries stargazers have turned their telescopes to the night skies to look at its wonders, but only in this age of computers has it become possible to let the telescope find for you the object you are looking for! So-called “go-to” telescopes are programmed with the locations of thousands of objects, including dazzling distant Suns, stunning neighboring galaxies, globular and open star clusters, the remnants of past supernovae, and many other breathtaking sights. This book does not tell you how to use your Go-to telescope. Your manual will help you do that. It tells you what to look for in the deep sky and why, and what equipment to best see it with. Organized broadly by what is best for viewing in the northern hemisphere in different seasons, Monks further divides the sights of each season into groupings such as “Showpiece Objects,” “Interesting Deep Sky Objects,” and “Obscure and Challenging Deep Sky Objects.” He also tells what objects are visible even in light-polluted ...

  12. Participatory public health systems research: value of community involvement in a study series in mental health emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Marum, Felicity; Semon, Natalie; Mosley, Adrian; Gwon, Howard; Perry, Charlene; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have arisen over recent years about the absence of empirically derived evidence on which to base policy and practice in the public health system, in general, and to meet the challenge of public health emergency preparedness, in particular. Related issues include the challenge of disaster-caused, behavioral health surge, and the frequent exclusion of populations from studies that the research is meant to aid. To characterize the contributions of nonacademic collaborators to a series of projects validating a set of interventions to enhance capacity and competency of public mental health preparedness planning and response. Urban, suburban, and rural communities of the state of Maryland and rural communities of the state of Iowa. Study partners and participants (both of this project and the studies examined) were representatives of academic health centers (AHCs), local health departments (LHDs), and faith-based organizations (FBOs) and their communities. A multiple-project, case study analysis was conducted, that is, four research projects implemented by the authors from 2005 through 2011 to determine the types and impact of contributions made by nonacademic collaborators to those projects. The analysis involved reviewing research records, conceptualizing contributions (and providing examples) for government, faith, and (nonacademic) institutional collaborators. Ten areas were identified where partners made valuable contributions to the study series; these "value-areas" were as follows: 1) leadership and management of the projects; 2) formulation and refinement of research topics, aims, etc; 3) recruitment and retention of participants; 4) design and enhancement of interventions; 5) delivery of interventions; 6) collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; 7) dissemination of findings; 8) ensuring sustainability of faith/government preparedness planning relationships; 9) optimizing scalability and portability of the model; and 10) facilitating

  13. Occupational health

    OpenAIRE

    Coosemans, R.

    1997-01-01

    Health at work and healthy work environments are among the most valuable assets of individuals, communities and countries. Nowadays, new broader approach is promoted, recognizing the fact that occupational health is a key, but not a unique element of workers’ health. Workers health is a public health approach to resolving the health problems of working populations including all determinants of health recognized as targets of risk management. It focuses on primary prevention of occupational an...

  14. Spatially explicit assessment of heat health risk by using multi-sensor remote sensing images and socioeconomic data in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Mingjun; Yang, Xuchao; Hu, Kejia; Qi, Jiaguo

    2018-05-25

    The increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events, which are potentially associated with climate change in the near future, highlights the importance of heat health risk assessment, a significant reference for heat-related death reduction and intervention. However, a spatiotemporal mismatch exists between gridded heat hazard and human exposure in risk assessment, which hinders the identification of high-risk areas at finer scales. A human settlement index integrated by nighttime light images, enhanced vegetation index, and digital elevation model data was utilized to assess the human exposure at high spatial resolution. Heat hazard and vulnerability index were generated by land surface temperature and demographic and socioeconomic census data, respectively. Spatially explicit assessment of heat health risk and its driving factors was conducted in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), east China at 250 m pixel level. High-risk areas were mainly distributed in the urbanized areas of YRD, which were mostly driven by high human exposure and heat hazard index. In some less-urbanized cities and suburban and rural areas of mega-cities, the heat health risks are in second priority. The risks in some less-developed areas were high despite the low human exposure index because of high heat hazard and vulnerability index. This study illustrated a methodology for identifying high-risk areas by combining freely available multi-source data. Highly urbanized areas were considered hotspots of high heat health risks, which were largely driven by the increasing urban heat island effects and population density in urban areas. Repercussions of overheating were weakened due to the low social vulnerability in some central areas benefitting from the low proportion of sensitive population or the high level of socioeconomic development. By contrast, high social vulnerability intensifies heat health risks in some less-urbanized cities and suburban areas of mega-cities.

  15. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  16. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  17. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  18. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  19. Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Health Disparities conduct transdisciplinary research involving social, behavioral, biological, and genetic research to improve knowledge of the causes of health disparities and devise effective methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease and promoting ...

  20. Development of indicators for patient care and monitoring standards for secondary health care services of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Seema S; D'Souza, Roshni Cynthia; Pashte, Pramod Mukund; Satoskar, Smita Manohar; D'Souza, Remilda Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The Qualitative aspect of health care delivery is one of the major factors in reducing morbidity and mortality in a health care setup. The expanding suburban secondary health care delivery facilities of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai are an important part of the healthcare backbone of Mumbai and therefore the quality of care delivered here needed standardization. The project was completed over a period of one year from Jan to Dec, 2013 and implemented in three phases. The framework with components and sub-components were developed and formats for data collection were standardized. The benchmarks were based on past performance in the same hospital and probability was used for development of normal range. An Excel spreadsheet was developed to facilitate data analysis. The indicators comprise of 3 components--Statutory Requirements, Patient care & Cure and Administrative efficiency. The measurements made, pointed to the broad areas needing attention. The Indicators for patient care and monitoring standards can be used as a self assessment tool for health care setups for standardization and improvement of delivery of health care services.

  1. WTP (willingness to pay) for tele-health consultation service in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Abe, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    We developed a tele-health consultation system that combines a sphygmomanometer with a tele-conference system. These were placed in pharmacies and the University. We selected five pharmacies to set up a consultation room; one in a local area, two in a suburban area, and the remaining two in an urban area. Nurses with more than 5 years of clinical experience were assigned as consultants. These consultants offer health consultation but do not practice medicine. Some researchers have indicated the economic viability of at-home health management systems, but nothing has been researched on the economic viability of tele-health consultation. The objective of present study was estimated Willingness to Payment (WTP) of Tele-health consultation service. The WTP was estimated by Double-Bounded Dichotomous-Choice model. We performed logistic-regression analysis to confirm factors to affect WTP. The number of the respondent was 480. Mean WTP was calculated 495 yen and the median was 367 yen. There was significant difference for factor of "annual income", "have a willingness to use this system", and "have a child/children".

  2. Insufficient dollars and qualified personnel to meet United States mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2015-04-01

    The American populace currently supports the need for providing additional mental health services for adolescents who frequently express anger and mood instability and maybe are at risk for major psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems; Vietnam, Iraqi, and Afghanistan veterans or military personnel still on duty diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or other similar combat-related disabilities; the approximately 1 million prisoners currently incarcerated primarily because of substance abuse and needing medically related rehabilitative services; and senior citizens who experience dementia and depression and require improved therapeutics. The problems outlined herein are as follows: far too limited monies are being spent for mental health services (5.6% of total US expenditures for health or roughly one fifth of what is consumed for hospital care); effective therapies are often lacking; and there is a shortage of qualified mental health personnel except in upscale urban and suburban areas. Unfortunately, these problems are so immense that, even with enhanced prioritization of our available resources, they are still not entirely solvable. The American public may continue to impart lip service when attempting to respond to our nation's mental health needs or may decide to spend vastly more money for such care. The latter choice may not be forthcoming in the near future for various cultural-societal-clinical-fiscal reasons.

  3. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    and Adolescent Health Promotion', Salutogenesis - from theory to practice' and Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007......In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...

  4. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and an emerging public health problem in developing ... and public health challenges in their immigrant countries. More so ..... The nutrition transition in Brazil. 46.

  5. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ik People" People Awakening Resilience Project (PARP), Cuqyun "Measuring" Treatment and Health Services Research Alcohol Treatment and ... addressing Health Disparities . 1 2009-2013 Health Disparities Strategic Plan, p.4 2 Ibid, p.4 3 ...

  6. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...

  7. Factors associated with health risk behavior among school children in urban Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Bich Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health risk behavior among young people is a public health problem in Vietnam. In addition, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years. The consequences can be devastating for adolescents and their families, and can create a significant economic burden on society. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify protective and risk factors that may influence three health risk behaviors among school children: suicidal thinking (ST, drinking alcohol (DA, and underage motorbike driving (MD. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 972 adolescents (aged 12–15 years was conducted in two secondary schools in Hanoi, Vietnam. The schools were purposely selected, one each from the inner city and a suburban area, from which classes (grade 6 to 8 were randomly selected. All students attending classes on survey days took part in the survey. The anonymous, self-completed questionnaire included measures of risk behavior, school connectedness, parental bonding, and other factors. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between the independent variables and the three health risk behaviors controlling for confounding factors. Results: Young people in the inner city school reported a higher prevalence of all three risk behaviors than those in the suburban area (ST: 16.1% [95% confidence interval, or CI, 12.9–19.3] versus 4.6% [95% CI 2.7–6.5], p<0.001; DA: 20.3% [95% CI 16.8–23.8] versus 8.3% [95% CI 5.8–10.8], p<0.001, and MD: 10.1% [95% CI 7.4–12.8] versus 5.7% [95% CI 3.6–7.8], p<0.01. School connectedness and mother and father care appeared to be significant protective factors. For males, bullying in school was associated with suicidal thoughts, whereas for both males and females, school connectedness may be protective against suicidal ideation. Conclusion: This study supports findings from other nations regarding suicidal thoughts and alcohol use, and appears to be one of

  8. Health psychology and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Delshad Noghabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Health psychology is the defined as studying of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It contributes to is concerned with the understanding of how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute role to in physical health and illness. Psychological factors can affect health directly. For example, health is hurt by the chronically occurring environmental stressors which cumulatively affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. On the other hand, a person's health is also interwoven with the Behavioral behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For exampleinstance, certain behaviors behaviors, including smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can, over time, harm (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption health but exercise and diet low in saturated fat or can enhance health (exercise, diet low in saturated fat.

  9. [Frequent attendance in a Primary Health Care District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Granados, Nicolás; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Toledano Estepa, Manuel; Pérez Díaz, Manuel Modesto; Redondo Pedraza, Rosa

    2017-10-09

    To describe the distribution of frequent attenders (FA) through the different primary care practices in Cordoba-Guadalquivir Health District (Córdoba, Spain). An ecological study was performed, including data from 2011 to 2015. Defining FA as those subjects who made12 or more appointments per year; independently analysed for nursing, general practice and paediatrics. Prevalence of frequent attendance and FA/professional ratio were used as dependent variables. Demographic characteristics from district population, number of health professionals and use of general facilities were also examinated. Aiming to understand FA distribution, primary health settings were classified according to facility size and environmental location (urban, suburban and rural). The mean prevalence for FA was 10.86% (0.5 SE) for nursing; general practice 21.70% (0.7 SE) and for paediatrics 16.96% (0.7 SE). FA/professional ratios for the different professional categories were: 101.07 (5.0 SE) for nursing, 239.74 (9.0 SE) for general practice and 159.54 (9.8 SE) for paediatrics. A major part of primary health care users make a high number of consultations. From this group, women overuse nursing and general practitioner services more compared to men. A higher prevalence of FAs was observed in smaller settings, in rural areas. Although taking the FAs:professional ratio as the bar, medium-size practices are more highly overused. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. What makes people decide who to turn to when faced with a mental health problem? Results from a French survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovess-Masféty Viviane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unequal use of mental health care is a great issue, even in countries with universal health coverage. Better knowledge of the factors that have an impact on the pathway to mental health care may be a great help for designing education campaigns and for best organizing health care delivery. The objective of this study is to explore the determinants of help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and which factors influence treatment opinions and the reliance on and compliance with health professionals' advice. Methods 441 adults aged 18 to 70 were randomly selected from the general population of two suburban districts near Paris and agreed to participate in the study (response rate = 60.4%. The 412 respondents with no mental health problems based on the CIDI-SF and the CAGE, who had not consulted for a mental health problem in the previous year, were asked in detail about their intentions to seek help in case of a psychological disorder and about their opinion of mental health treatments. The links between the respondents' characteristics and intentions and opinions were explored. Results More than half of the sample (57.8% would see their general practitioner (GP first and 46.6% would continue with their GP for follow-up. Mental health professionals were mentioned far less than GPs. People who would choose their GP first were older and less educated, whereas those who would favor mental health specialists had lower social support. For psychotherapy, respondents were split equally between seeing a GP, a psychiatrist or a psychologist. People were reluctant to take psychotropic drugs, but looked favorably on psychotherapy. Conclusion GPs are often the point of entry into the mental health care system and need to be supported. Public information campaigns about mental health care options and treatments are needed to educate the public, eliminate the stigma of mental illness and eliminate prejudices.

  11. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Approaches of Pre-Primary and Primary School Teachers in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ankita; Oswal, Kunal C; Sajnani, Dipti A; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    Background. School teachers have an internationally recognized potential role in school-based dental education and considerable importance has therefore been attributed to their dental knowledge. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of pre-primary and primary school teachers in the city of Mumbai. Methods. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the suburban regions of Mumbai using a self-administered questionnaire and involved 511 teachers. Results. Teachers demonstrated inappropriate or incomplete knowledge regarding children's oral health. Only 53.2% knew that an individual has two sets of dentition. Moreover, only 45.4% of the teachers knew that a primary dentition consists of 20 teeth. Only 56.9% of the teachers asked their children to clean their mouth after snacking during school hours. 45.0% of the teachers were unaware of fluoridated tooth pastes whilst 78.9% of them were unaware of school water fluoridation programmes. Also, 54.8% of the teachers never discussed the oral health of children with their parents during parents meet. Conclusions. The studied school teachers demonstrated incomplete oral health knowledge, inappropriate oral practices, and unfavourable approaches to children's oral health. There is a definite and immediate need for organized training of school teachers on basic oral health knowledge.

  12. Health Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health fraud involves selling drugs, devices, foods, or cosmetics that have not been proven effective. Keep in ... you from getting the treatment you really need. Health fraud scams can be found everywhere, promising help ...

  13. Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  14. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  15. Health Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regular health exams and tests can help find problems before they start. They also can help find problems early, ... and screenings you need depends on your age, health and family history, and lifestyle choices such as ...

  16. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  17. Health Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the clock, people who work in the health care industry provide care for millions of people, ... newborns to the very ill. In fact, the health care industry is one of largest providers of ...

  18. Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z A Acne Anorexia nervosa Anxiety disorders Asthma Autoimmune diseases Return to ... Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Nursing (breastfeeding) Nutrition Return to top O Oral health Osteoporosis Ovarian ...

  19. Employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has produced a new guideline looking at improving the health and wellbeing of employees, with a particular focus on organisational culture and context, and the role of line managers.

  20. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  1. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  2. HEALTH SYSTEMS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    many levels, and underscores the fact that health ... The health of mothers and their children depends on the status of women. INSIGHT ... tions find fertile ground when poverty ... Dr Gita Sen, Professor of Public Policy at the Indian Institute.

  3. Toddler Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child visits are important to your toddler's health. Toddlers will get their recommended immunizations during these visits. Routine exams and screenings help you and your kids prevent and treat health problems as well as chart their growth and development.

  4. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  5. Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...

  6. Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marie; Brittain, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Identifies current trends and issues in health informatics with examples of applications, particularly in English-speaking countries. Topics include health systems, professionals, and patients; consumer health information; electronic medical records; nursing; privacy and confidentiality; finding and using information; the Internet; e-mail;…

  7. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  8. Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Improvement, April 19, 2017 Considerations for a New Definition of Health Literacy, April 04, 2016 Health Literacy Online, Office of Disease Prevention & Health Promotion Connect with Us Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram YouTube Flickr More Social Media from NIH ...

  9. HEALTH NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human needs are of great interest to different scientific fields: sociology, anthropology, psychology, medicine, economy… Malinowski, Maslow, Adler and From have largely contributed to studying the needs. While trying to define the need concept, not only one definition is acceptable. In psychology, need is defined as a lack or disorder, i.e. the necessity to dislodge this lack. It was Maslow who gave the fullest classification and explanation of human needs. If we start from the fact that need represents the lack or deficit of something, in this context health needs would indicate the lack of health, and the measurement of health needs would be the same as the measurement of health. Therefore, almost all human needs can be enumerated as health needs, i.e. those which, after being satisfied, can lead to physical, psychical and social welfare. According to WHO, health needs can be defined as scientifically settled evasions from health which require preventive, curative and probably regulative and eradicative measurements. According to the medical method used by the health service while regarding the needs, the emphasis is on morbidity, mortality, incidence, prevalence, inability, etc. Usually, when we have very low level of health culture, and the responsibility for personal health is in most of the cases unacceptable, for the health service user the curative services will have priority over preventive ones. The measurement of health needs is a complex task. The needs can be regarded through medical documentation and by perception of the needs by people in the community.

  10. Suburban development – a search for public domains in Danish suburban neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    These years some of the post-war Danish suburbs are facing great challenges – social segregation, demographic changes and challenges in building technology. In particular, segregation prevents social life from unfolding across social, economic and cultural borders. Therefore, in this paper......, potentials for bridge-building across the enclaves of the suburb are looked for through a combined architectural-anthropological mapping of public spaces in a specific suburb in Denmark, the analyses being carried out in the light of Hajer & Reijndorp’s definition of public domains and the term exchange...

  11. Health inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Social investment policy has become a central response to the demographic and economic challenges facing European welfare states. This focus on investment in human capabilities and their efficient use is, however, challenged by health inequalities where education, health and employment...... are increasingly linked. This paper outlines the main principles of social investment policies (learning, activation and protection) and links them to a conceptual model of health inequalities and the policy entry-points tackling them by addressing the processes of social stratification, differential exposure...... investments in health so as to enable social investments to tackle the health divide....

  12. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Community Health, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Mental morbidity is a public health problem that can lead to a great burden of disability in the community. ..... community study in Sao Paulo, Brazil where.

  13. Japanese study on stratification, health, income, and neighborhood: study protocol and profiles of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25-50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants' spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization's Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan's Healthy Japan 21.

  14. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  15. Health literacy and health communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuchi Takahiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health communication consists of interpersonal or mass communication activities focused on improving the health of individuals and populations. Skills in understanding and applying information about health issues are critical to this process and may have a substantial impact on health behaviors and health outcomes. These skills have recently been conceptualized in terms of health literacy (HL. This article introduces current concepts and measurements of HL, and discusses the role of HL in health communication, as well as future research directions in this domain. Studies of HL have increased dramatically during the past few years, but a gap between the conceptual definition of HL and its application remains. None of the existing instruments appears to completely measure the concept of HL. In particular, studies on communication/interaction and HL remain limited. Furthermore, HL should be considered not only in terms of the characteristics of individuals, but also in terms of the interactional processes between individuals and their health and social environments. Improved HL may enhance the ability and motivation of individuals to find solutions to both personal and public health problems, and these skills could be used to address various health problems throughout life. The process underpinning HL involves empowerment, one of the major goals of health communication.

  16. Learning strengths from cultural differences: a comparative study of maternal health-related behaviors and infant care among Southern Asian immigrants and Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ching; Wei, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-01-22

    Many studies have indicated that most immigrant women come from underdeveloped countries, and this can have negative effects on their lives, children's adaptation to school, and medical care utilization. However, there is insufficient literature about differences in infant caretaking, pre-postpartum health care, and health outcome between immigrant and native Taiwanese populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between Southern Asia immigrants and Taiwanese women in their access to medical care, postnatal growth, and infant care throughout the first six months postpartum. Comparative and descriptive designs were applied. Immigrant women were eligible if they visited three suburban settings of the Outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Outpatient Department of Pediatrics in Northern Taiwan during the period up to six months postpartum. Immigrant women appeared to have a lower frequency of antenatal examinations and obtained less health information from health care providers. However, they did not differ significantly from native Taiwanese women in maternal body size, postnatal growth curves, exclusive breastfeeding rates or vaccination awareness at the 6th month postpartum. Learning strengths from cultural differences between immigrant and native women and closing the gaps in health inequality are important issues. Despite the limitation of small sample size, the present findings can be used as references to help health care providers to develop further health policies in Taiwan.

  17. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...

  18. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  19. Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical words, and of how their health care system works Abilities, such as physical or mental limitations Personal factors, such as age, education, language abilities, and culture More than 90 million adults in the United States have low health literacy. It affects their ability ...

  20. HEALTH & FINANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEALTH & FINANCE. Patrick Thokwa Masobe. Patrick Thokwa Masobe completed his undergraduate studies at Grinnel/. University in the USA, and a Master. Degreefrom the University of London in. 1995. He is wrrently employed by the national Department of Health, where he led the task team charged with making.