WorldWideScience

Sample records for subsurface microbiology program

  1. Program overview: Subsurface science program

    1994-03-01

    The OHER Subsurface Science Program is DOE's core basic research program concerned with subsoils and groundwater. These practices have resulted in contamination by mixtures of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. A primary long-term goal is to provide a foundation of knowledge that will lead to the reduction of environmental risks and to cost-effective cleanup strategies. Since the Program was initiated in 1985, a substantial amount of research in hydrogeology, subsurface microbiology, and the geochemistry of organically complexed radionuclides has been completed, leading to a better understanding of contaminant transport in groundwater and to new insights into microbial distribution and function in the subsurface environments. The Subsurface Science Program focuses on achieving long-term scientific advances that will assist DOE in the following key areas: providing the scientific basis for innovative in situ remediation technologies that are based on a concept of decontamination through benign manipulation of natural systems; understanding the complex mechanisms and process interactions that occur in the subsurface; determining the influence of chemical and geochemical-microbial processes on co-contaminant mobility to reduce environmental risks; improving predictions of contaminant transport that draw on fundamental knowledge of contaminant behavior in the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneities to improve cleanup effectiveness and to predict environmental risks

  2. Subsurface transport program: Research summary

    1987-01-01

    DOE's research program in subsurface transport is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biological mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in subsurface ecosystems can be understood. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the transport of single and co-contaminants is the underlying concern of the program. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research and to geosphere-biosphere interactions. The scientific results of the program will contribute to resolving Departmental questions related to the disposal of energy-producing and defense wastes. The background papers prepared in support of this document contain additional information on the relevance of the research in the long term to energy-producing technologies. Detailed scientific plans and other research documents are available for high priority research areas, for example, in subsurface transport of organic chemicals and mixtures and in the microbiology of deep aquifers. 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Subsurface Science Program Bibliography, 1985--1992

    1992-08-01

    The Subsurface Science Program sponsors long-term basic research on (1) the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that control the reactivity, mobilization, stability, and transport of chemical mixtures in subsoils and ground water; (2) hydrogeology, including the hydraulic, microbiological, and geochemical properties of the vadose and saturated zones that control contaminant mobility and stability, including predictive modeling of coupled hydraulic-geochemical-microbial processes; and (3) the microbiology of deep sediments and ground water. TWs research, focused as it is on the natural subsurface environments that are most significantly affected by the more than 40 years of waste generation and disposal at DOE sites, is making important contributions to cleanup of DOE sites. Past DOE waste-disposal practices have resulted in subsurface contamination at DOE sites by unique combinations of radioactive materials and organic and inorganic chemicals (including heavy metals), which make site cleanup particularly difficult. The long- term (10- to 30-year) goal of the Subsurface Science Program is to provide a foundation of fundamental knowledge that can be used to reduce environmental risks and to provide a sound scientific basis for cost-effective cleanup strategies. The Subsurface Science Program is organized into nine interdisciplinary subprograms, or areas of basic research emphasis. The subprograms currently cover the areas of Co-Contaminant Chemistry, Colloids/Biocolloids, Multiphase Fluid Flow, Biodegradation/ Microbial Physiology, Deep Microbiology, Coupled Processes, Field-Scale (Natural Heterogeneity and Scale), and Environmental Science Research Center

  4. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  5. Selection of organic chemicals for subsurface transport. Subsurface transport program interaction seminar series. Summary

    Zachara, J.M.; Wobber, F.J.

    1984-11-01

    Model compounds are finding increasing use in environmental research. These individual compounds are selected as surrogates of important contaminants present in energy/defense wastes and their leachates and are used separately or as mixtures in research to define the anticipated or ''model'' environmental behavior of key waste components and to probe important physicochemical mechanisms involved in transport and fate. A seminar was held in Germantown, Maryland, April 24-25, 1984 to discuss the nature of model organic compounds being used for subsurface transport research. The seminar included participants experienced in the fields of environmental chemistry, microbiology, geohydrology, biology, and analytic chemistry. The objectives of the seminar were two-fold: (1) to review the rationale for the selection of organic compounds adopted by research groups working on the subsurface transport of organics, and (2) to evaluate the use of individual compounds to bracket the behavior of compound classes and compound constructs to approximate the behavior of complex organic mixtures

  6. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  7. Observation to Theory in Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research: Can We Piece It Together?

    Colwell, F. S.; Thurber, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Three decades of observations of microbes in deep environments have led to startling discoveries of life in the subsurface. Now, a few theoretical frameworks exist that help to define Stygian life. Temperature, redox gradients, productivity (e.g., in the overlying ocean), and microbial power requirements are thought to determine the distribution of microbes in the subsurface. Still, we struggle to comprehend the spatial and temporal spectra of Earth processes that define how deep microbe communities survive. Stommel diagrams, originally used to guide oceanographic sampling, may be useful in depicting the subsurface where microbial communities are impacted by co-occurring spatial and temporal phenomena that range across exponential scales. Spatially, the geological settings that influence the activity and distribution of microbes range from individual molecules or minerals all the way up to the planetary-scale where geological formations, occupying up to 105 km3, dictate the bio- and functional geography of microbial communities. Temporally, life in the subsurface may respond in time units familiar to humans (e.g., seconds to days) or to events that unfold over hundred millennial time periods. While surface community dynamics are underpinned by solar and lunar cycles, these cycles only fractionally dictate survival underground where phenomena like tectonic activity, isostatic rebound, and radioactive decay are plausible drivers of microbial life. Geological or planetary processes that occur on thousand or million year cycles could be uniquely important to microbial viability in the subsurface. Such an approach aims at a holistic comprehension of the interaction of Earth system dynamics with microbial ecology.

  8. Subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrology: research needs. Subsurface Transport Program

    Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-03-01

    A number of energy technologies presently in operation or under development generate solid wastes in large quantities as a major byproduct. These wastes will, for the most part, be disposed to the ground in landfills or inactive mine sites. Although the waste materials differ significantly among technologies, most contain residual, water-soluble chemical components which are of ecological and human health concern. Thus, in ground disposal may have a significant long-term impact on water supplies and human health if not properly conducted. With the growing magnitude of solid waste disposal operations, it becomes imperative to establish common ground between technologies such that research in this complex area can be efficiently managed to benefit a variety of users. This report develops the concept of multitechnology or generic research in subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrogeochemistry. Initially, a generic research approach was developed independent of waste characteristics. This approach both identified and prioritized the research information or experimentation and data management tools (models) required to resolve major technical concerns for in ground disposal. Waste characteristics were then evaluated to identify the common, cross-technology information needs. This evaluation indicated that solid wastes from energy producing technologies have physiocochemical properties in common which serve as a useful basis for identification of fundamental, generic research needs. Priority research projects are suggested for addressing contaminant identification, solubilization, transformation and transport. 38 references, 3 tables

  9. Microbiological monitoring of carbon dioxide storage in a subsurface saline aquifer in Ketzin/Germany within the scope of CO2SINK

    Wandrey, M.; Morozova, D.; Zemke, K.; Lerm, S.; Scherf, A.-K.; Vieth, A.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Group

    2009-04-01

    Within the scope of the EU project CO2SINK (www.co2sink.org) a research facility in Ketzin (Germany, west of Berlin) is operated to store CO2 in a saline subsurface aquifer (Würdemann et al., EGU General Assembly 2009). In order to examine the influence of CO2 storage on the environment a comprehensive monitoring program is applied at this site including molecular and microbiological investigations. With the injection of CO2 into the geological formation chemical and physical reservoir characteristics are changed. This may influence the composition and activities of the deep biosphere at the storage horizon. Mineral precipitation, dissolution and corrosion of reservoir casing may be consequences, influencing permeability and long-term stability of the reservoir. The objective of the microbial monitoring program is the characterisation of the microbial community (biocenosis) in fluid samples, as well as in samples from reservoir and cap rock before and during CO2storage using molecular biological methods. 16S rRNA taxonomic studies, Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and RealTime PCR are used to examine the composition of the biocenosis. First results of fluid sampling revealed that the microbial community of the saline aquifer is dominated by haloalkaliphilic fermentative bacteria and extremophilic organisms, coinciding with reduced conditions, high salinity and pressure. RealTime RT-PCR of selected genes and the creation and analysis of cDNA libraries will allow the prediction of microbial metabolic activities. In addition, the analysis of organic and inorganic components of the samples will add to the knowledge of possible metabolic shifts during CO2 storage. In order to simulate the storage conditions in situ, long term laboratory experiments in high pressure incubators have been set up using original rock cores from Ketzin. Since DNA and RNA analysis techniques are very sensitive, contamination entries from the adjacent environment have to be excluded

  10. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report

  11. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  12. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    -water-quality single-sample criterion of 235 colony forming units per 100 milliliters in only 3 of 56 samples. Of these three samples, two were collected within 1 day post-LDME application from the treatment receiving 8,000 gal/acre LDME with no tillage (NT8000). The third sample was from the rolling-tine aerator treatment with 4,000 gal/acre LDME application rate after the first significant rainfall. Two wastewater chemicals and two bacterial genes (eaeA and stx1) detected in the LDME, but absent in field blank or pre-application samples, were detected in the 4-hour or 1-day postapplication NT8000 samples. No LDME-associated chemicals were detected in later samples from the NT8000 treatment, and none were detected in samples from other treatments after the first significant rainfall. Results of this field trial were somewhat equivocal with respect to the influence of LDME concentration and tillage practices on subsurface-drain water quality, both immediately after LDME application and in the longer term, after significant rainfall. Interpretation of study findings is limited by the fact that treatments were not replicated, and flow rate or discharge from the subsurface drains was not measured. Nevertheless, study results provide useful information about nutrient and bacteria concentrations in subsurface drains during the non-growing season. In addition, study results demonstrate some potential for the use of chemical and microbiological indicators of LDME transport to subsurface drains.

  13. LLNL SFA OBER SBR FY17 Program Management and Performance Report: Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-23

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of anthropogenic plutonium (Pu) has accumulated worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al. 1999; Novikov et al. 2006; Santschi et al. 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA) and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program.

  14. [Quality assessment program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Analysis of results. 2005].

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Pérez, José L; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2006-10-01

    Quality assurance of the analytical processes performed at the clinical microbiology laboratory is mandatory and should be carried out by using external and internal quality control activities. External quality assessment programs allow intercomparison within laboratories, detection of errors, and evaluation of the suitability of some reagents or diagnostic kits for the purpose for which they were designed; these activities are also useful for continuous education. The program launched 15 years ago by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology is based on sending typified materials along with a clinical and microbiological case related to these control materials. The spectrum of the samples is broad, including bacteriology (monthly and three-monthly), serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. After receiving the results from the participants, the program organization delivers an individual certificate comparing the results with those of a reference laboratory. Additionally, a report is generated by analyzing all the results sent by the participants; laboratories are also sent review articles on the subject of each assessment as a tool for continuous education in clinical microbiology. In this article, the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2005 assessments are presented.

  15. Cleaning and disinfection programs against Campylobacter jejuni for broiler chickens: productive performance, microbiological assessment and characterization.

    Castro Burbarelli, Maria Fernanda de; do Valle Polycarpo, Gustavo; Deliberali Lelis, Karoline; Granghelli, Carlos Alexandre; Carão de Pinho, Agatha Cristina; Ribeiro Almeida Queiroz, Sabrina; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Moro de Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Gaglianone Moro, Maria Estela; de Andrade Bordin, Roberto; de Albuquerque, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Detailed cleaning and disinfection programs aims to reduce infection pressure from microorganisms from one flock to the next. However, studies evaluating the benefits to poultry performance, the sanitary status of the facilities, and the sanitary quality of the meat are rarely found. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate 2 cleaning and disinfecting programs regarding their influence on productive performance, elimination of Campylobacter, and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strains when applied to broiler chickens' facilities. Two subsequent flocks with 960 birds each were distributed into 32 pens containing 30 birds each. In the first, the whole flock was inoculated with a known strain of Campylobacter jejuni in order to contaminate the environment. In the second flock, performance and microbiological evaluations were done, characterizing an observational study between 2 cleaning and disinfection programs, regular and proposed. The regular program consisted of sweeping facilities, washing equipment and environment with water and neutral detergent. The proposed cleaning program consisted of dry and wet cleaning, application of 2 detergents (one acid and one basic) and 2 disinfectants (250 g/L glutaraldehyde and 185 g/L formaldehyde at 0.5% and 210 g/L para-chloro-meta-cresol at 4%). Total microorganism count in the environment and Campylobacter spp. identification were done for the microbiological assessment of the environment and carcasses. The positive samples were submitted to molecular identification of Campylobacter spp. and posterior genetic sequencing of the species identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The birds housed in the facilities and submitted to the proposed treatment had better performance when compared to the ones in the regular treatment, most likely because there was a smaller total microorganism count on the floor, walls, feeders and drinkers. The proposed program also resulted in a reduction of Campylobacter spp. on floors

  16. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  17. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project

  18. Technical support to the ER program subsurface technologies team leader. Final report, March 15, 1993--March 15, 1998

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This research included development of a new geologic sample management facility and associated quality assurance systems for the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Additional work with the LANL Environmental Restoration Program included the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP) for various Operable Units for the Laboratory. The PI (Davidson) served as the sample curation/sample management specialist on the ER program Subsurface Studies Technical Team. Specialization in Field Unit Data Base systems was the focus of the work towards the end of the contract. A document is included which provides the Statement of Policy for the management of borehole samples collected during environmental restoration activities at LANL.

  19. Technical support to the ER program subsurface technologies team leader. Final report, March 15, 1993 - March 15, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This research included development of a new geologic sample management facility and associated quality assurance systems for the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Additional work with the LANL Environmental Restoration Program included the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP) for various Operable Units for the Laboratory. The PI (Davidson) served as the sample curation/sample management specialist on the ER program Subsurface Studies Technical Team. Specialization in Field Unit Data Base systems was the focus of the work towards the end of the contract. A document is included which provides the Statement of Policy for the management of borehole samples collected during environmental restoration activities at LANL

  20. The Microbiology of Subsurface, Salt-Based Nuclear Waste Repositories: Using Microbial Ecology, Bioenergetics, and Projected Conditions to Help Predict Microbial Effects on Repository Performance

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Cherkouk, Andrea; Arnold, Thuro; Meleshyn, Artur; Reed, Donald T.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based nuclear waste repositories using available information on the microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions, and ''repository microbiology'' related studies. In areas where microbial activity is in question, there may be a need to shift the research focus toward feasibility studies rather than studies that generate actual input for performance assessments. In areas where activity is not necessary to affect performance (e.g., biocolloid transport), repository-relevant data should be generated. Both approaches will lend a realistic perspective to a safety case/performance scenario that will most likely underscore the conservative value of that case.

  1. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  2. Microbiological Monitoring for the Constellation Program: Current Requirements and Future Considerations

    Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological requirements for spaceflight are based on assessments of infectious disease risk which could impact crew health or mission success. The determination of risk from infectious disease is composed of several factors including (1) crew susceptibility, (2) crew exposure to the infectious disease agent, (3) the concentration of the infectious agent, and (4) the characteristics of the infectious agent. As a result of the Health Stabilization Program, stringent monitoring, and cleaning protocols, in-flight environmental microbial monitoring is not necessary for short-duration spaceflights. However, risk factors change for long-duration missions, as exemplified by the presence of medically significant organisms in the environments of both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Based upon this historical evidence, requirements for short duration usage aboard the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Lander Vehicle will not require in-flight monitoring; however, as mission duration increases with a Lunar Outpost, an ability to detect microbial hazard will be necessary. The nature of the detection requirements will depend on the maturity of technology in a rapidly evolving marketplace. Regardless, the hardware will still need to maximize information to discipline experts and the crew, while minimizing the size, mass, power consumption, and crew time usage. The refinement of these monitors will be a major goal in our efforts to travel successfully to Mars.

  3. Subsurface Planar Vitrification Treatment of Problematic TRU Wastes: Status of a Technology Demonstration Program

    Morse, M.K.; Nowack, B.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the In Situ Transuranic Waste Delineation and Removal Project in which the GeoMelt R Subsurface Planar Vitrification TM (SPV TM ) process is being evaluated for the in situ treatment of burial sites containing remote handled mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. The GeoMelt R SPV TM process was invented and patented by Geosafe Corporation. AMEC holds the exclusive worldwide license to use this technology. The current project is part of a three-phase demonstration program to evaluate the effectiveness of the GeoMelt R SPV TM process to treat waste contained in vertical pipe units (VPUs) and caissons that were used for the disposal of remote handled transuranic wastes located at Hanford's 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. This project is being performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for use at the Hanford site and other DOE installations. The Phase I evaluation determined that removal and treatment of the 618-10/11 VPUs are beyond what can be safely accomplished using conventional excavation methods. Accordingly, a careful stepwise non-intrusive delineation approach and treatment using the GeoMelt R SPV TM technology, followed by removal, characterization, and disposal of the resulting inert vitrified mass was identified as the preferred alternative. Phase II of the project, which started in July 2004, included a full-scale non-radioactive demonstration of AMEC's GeoMelt R SPV TM process on a mock VPU configured to match the actual VPUs. The non-radioactive demonstration (completed in May 2005) was performed to confirm the approach and design before proceeding to a radioactive ('hot') demonstration on an actual VPU. This demonstration took approximately 130 hours, processed the entire mock VPU, and resulted in a vitrified monolith weighing an estimated 90 tonnes. [1] Plans for a radioactive demonstration on an actual VPU are being developed for CY 2006. In addition to demonstrating GeoMelt R SPV TM , delineation techniques are being

  4. Subsurface Investigations Program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual progress report, FY-1985

    Hubbell, J.M.; Hull, L.C.; Humphrey, T.G.; Russell, B.F.; Pittman, J.R.; Cannon, K.M.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes work conducted in FY-85 in support of the Subsurface Investigation Program at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The work is part of a continuing effort to define and predict radionuclide migration from buried waste. The Subsurface Investigation Program is a cooperative study conducted by EG and G Idaho and the US Geological Survey, INEL Office. EG and G is responsible for the shallow drilling, solution chemistry, and net downward flux portions of this program, while the US Geological Survey is responsible for the weighing lysimeters and test trench. Data collection was initiated by drilling, sampling, and instrumenting shallow wells, continuing the installation of test trenches, and modifying the two weighing lysimeters. Twenty-one shallow auger holes were around the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to evaluate radionuclide content in the surficial sediments, to determine the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the surficial sediments, and to provide as monitoring sites for moisture in these sediments. Eighteen porous cup lysimeters were installed in 12 auger holes to collect soil water samples from the surficial sediments. Fourteen auger holes were instrumented with tensiometers, gypsum blocks and/or psychrometers at various depths throughout the RWMC. Readings from these instruments are taken on a monthly basis

  5. Subsurface Investigations Program at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Annual progress report, FY-1987

    Laney, P.T.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; McElroy, D.L.; Hubbell, J.M.; Hull, L.C.; Russell, B.F.; Stormberg, G.J.; Pittman, J.T.

    1988-04-01

    The Subsurface Investigations Program is obtaining program objectives of a field calibration of a model to predict long-term radionuclide migration and measurement of the actual migration to date. Three deep boreholes were drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to collect sample material for evaluation of radionuclide content in the interbeds, to determine geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the sediments, and to provide monitoring sites for moisture movement in these sediments. Suction lysimeters and heat dissipation sensors were installed in two deep boreholes to collect moisture data. Data from the moisture sensing instruments installed at the RWMC continued to be collected during FY-1987. Because of the large volume of collected data, the RWMC Data Management System was developed and implemented to facilitate the storage, retrieval, and manipulation of the database. Work on the Computer Model Development task focused on a detailed review of previous vadose zone modeling studies at INEL, acquisition and installation of a suite of computer models for unsaturated flow and contaminant transport, and preliminary applications of computer models using site-specific data. Computer models installed on the INEL CRAY computer for modeling transport through the subsurface pathway include SEMTRA, FEMTRA, TRACR3D, MAGNUM, and CHAINT. In addition to the major computer models, eight other codes, referred to as support codes and models, have been acquired and implemented. 27 refs., 70 figs., 22 tabs

  6. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  8. The Serpentinite Subsurface Microbiome

    Schrenk, M. O.; Nelson, B. Y.; Brazelton, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial habitats hosted in ultramafic rocks constitute substantial, globally-distributed portions of the subsurface biosphere, occurring both on the continents and beneath the seafloor. The aqueous alteration of ultramafics, in a process known as serpentinization, creates energy rich, high pH conditions, with low concentrations of inorganic carbon which place fundamental constraints upon microbial metabolism and physiology. Despite their importance, very few studies have attempted to directly access and quantify microbial activities and distributions in the serpentinite subsurface microbiome. We have initiated microbiological studies of subsurface seeps and rocks at three separate continental sites of serpentinization in Newfoundland, Italy, and California and compared these results to previous analyses of the Lost City field, near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In all cases, microbial cell densities in seep fluids are extremely low, ranging from approximately 100,000 to less than 1,000 cells per milliliter. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed low-diversity microbial communities related to Gram-positive Firmicutes and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Interestingly, unlike Lost City, there has been little evidence for significant archaeal populations in the continental subsurface to date. Culturing studies at the sites yielded numerous alkaliphilic isolates on nutrient-rich agar and putative iron-reducing bacteria in anaerobic incubations, many of which are related to known alkaliphilic and subsurface isolates. Finally, metagenomic data reinforce the culturing results, indicating the presence of genes associated with organotrophy, hydrogen oxidation, and iron reduction in seep fluid samples. Our data provide insight into the lifestyles of serpentinite subsurface microbial populations and targets for future quantitative exploration using both biochemical and geochemical approaches.

  9. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  10. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  11. Cleaning and disinfection programs against Campylobacter jejuni for broiler chickens: productive performance, microbiological assessment and characterization1

    Deliberali Lelis, Karoline; Granghelli, Carlos Alexandre; Carão de Pinho, Agatha Cristina; Ribeiro Almeida Queiroz, Sabrina; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Moro de Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Gaglianone Moro, Maria Estela; de Andrade Bordin, Roberto; de Albuquerque, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Detailed cleaning and disinfection programs aims to reduce infection pressure from microorganisms from one flock to the next. However, studies evaluating the benefits to poultry performance, the sanitary status of the facilities, and the sanitary quality of the meat are rarely found. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate 2 cleaning and disinfecting programs regarding their influence on productive performance, elimination of Campylobacter, and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strains when applied to broiler chickens’ facilities. Two subsequent flocks with 960 birds each were distributed into 32 pens containing 30 birds each. In the first, the whole flock was inoculated with a known strain of Campylobacter jejuni in order to contaminate the environment. In the second flock, performance and microbiological evaluations were done, characterizing an observational study between 2 cleaning and disinfection programs, regular and proposed. The regular program consisted of sweeping facilities, washing equipment and environment with water and neutral detergent. The proposed cleaning program consisted of dry and wet cleaning, application of 2 detergents (one acid and one basic) and 2 disinfectants (250 g/L glutaraldehyde and 185 g/L formaldehyde at 0.5% and 210 g/L para-chloro-meta-cresol at 4%). Total microorganism count in the environment and Campylobacter spp. identification were done for the microbiological assessment of the environment and carcasses. The positive samples were submitted to molecular identification of Campylobacter spp. and posterior genetic sequencing of the species identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The birds housed in the facilities and submitted to the proposed treatment had better performance when compared to the ones in the regular treatment, most likely because there was a smaller total microorganism count on the floor, walls, feeders and drinkers. The proposed program also resulted in a reduction of Campylobacter spp. on

  12. Impact of a clinical microbiology-intensive care consulting program in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit.

    Arena, Fabio; Scolletta, Sabino; Marchetti, Luca; Galano, Angelo; Maglioni, Enivarco; Giani, Tommaso; Corsi, Elisabetta; Lombardi, Silvia; Biagioli, Bonizella; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-09-01

    A preintervention-postintervention study was carried out over a 4-year period to assess the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention, based on clinical microbiologist ward rounds (clinical microbiology-intensive care partnership [CMICP]), at a cardiothoracic intensive care unit. Comparison of clinical data for 37 patients with diagnosis of bacteremia (18 from preintervention period, 19 from postintervention period) revealed that CMICP implementation resulted in (1) significant increase of appropriate empirical treatments (+34%, P = .029), compliance with guidelines (+28%, P = .019), and number of de-escalations (+42%, P = .032); and (2) decrease (average = 2.5 days) in time to optimization of antimicrobial therapy and levofloxacin (Δ 2009-2012 = -74 defined daily dose [DDD]/1,000 bed days) and teicoplanin (Δ 2009-2012 = -28 DDD/1,000 bed days) use. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy of a Water Filter Program in a Rural Honduran Community

    Jaclyn Arquiette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water purification in the rural Honduras is a focus of the nonprofit organization Honduras Outreach Medical Brigade Relief Effort (HOMBRE. We assessed water filter use and tested filter microbiologic and clinical efficacy. A 22-item questionnaire assessed water sources, obtainment/storage, purification, and incidence of gastrointestinal disease. Samples from home clay-based filters in La Hicaca were obtained and paired with surveys from the same home. We counted bacterial colonies of four bacterial classifications from each sample. Sixty-five surveys were completed. Forty-five (69% individuals used a filter. Fifteen respondents reported diarrhea in their home in the last 30 days; this incidence was higher in homes not using a filter. Thirty-three paired water samples and surveys were available. Twenty-eight samples (85% demonstrated bacterial growth. A control sample was obtained from the local river, the principal water source; number and bacterial colony types were innumerable within 24 hours. Access to clean water, the use of filters, and other treatment methods differed within a geographically proximal region. Although the majority of the water samples failed to achieve bacterial eradication, water filters may sufficiently reduce bacterial coliform counts to levels below infectious inoculation. Clay water filters may be sustainable water treatment measures in resource poor settings.

  14. Geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Research plan: subsurface transport program

    Wobber, F.J.

    1985-09-01

    Because natural processes associated with the release and the transport of organic compounds, trace metals, and radionuclides are incompletely understood, research in this area is critical if the long term scientific uncertainties about contaminant transport are to be resolved. The processes that control mobilization and attenuation of energy residuals in soils and geological strata, their hydrological transport to and within ground water regimes, and their accumulation in biological systems require research attention. A summary of DOE's core research program is described. It is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical hydrological, and biophysical mechanics that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in natural systems can be understood

  15. Subsurface probing

    Lytle, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Imaging techniques that can be used to translate seismic and electromagnetic wave signals into visual representation are briefly discussed. The application of these techniques is illustrated on the example of determining the subsurface structure of a proposed power plant. Imaging makes the wave signals intelligible to the non-geologists. R and D work needed in this area are tabulated

  16. Salty Microbiology

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  17. The Effects of Two Different Cleaning and Disinfection Programs on Broiler Performance and Microbiological Status of Broiler Houses

    MFC Burbarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cleaning and disinfection programs on broiler performance and on the microbiological status of the facilities. This trial was an observational study of comparative character. Two experiments were conducted, with 960 birds each. Both experiments were carried out in a positive-pressure broiler house. Broilers were distributed in pens equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder each. In the first experiment, new wood shavings were used as litter material, and in the second, reused wood shavings were used. Two treatments with16 replicates of 30 birds each were evaluated. The regular treatment consisted of dry and wet organic matter removal, followed by washing. The European treatment consisted of dry organic matter removal, humidification, washing with water under high pressure, detergent application, rinsing, and application of two combined disinfectants: glutaraldehyde 250g/L + formaldehyde 185g/L; p-chlor-m-cresol 210 g/L. Biosecurity measures were adopted during daily management tasks to prevent cross contamination between treatments. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by microbiological analysis performed before and after treatment applications, as well as by broiler performance results. Live performance results were similar between both treatments when broilers were reared on new litter. When reused word-shavings were used as litter material, the European treatment promoted better broiler performance. The European treatment was more effective than the regular treatment in reducing total microbial counts in the facilities when reused wood shavings were used as litter material, and positively influenced broiler performance.

  18. The effectiveness of a health-surveillance program for caisson saturation divers in a tunnel-boring machine: a microbiological survey

    van Rees Vellinga, T. P.; Sterk, W.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this field study is to report and evaluate the implementation of a health surveillance program we developed to monitor the microbiological load for saturation divers, including preventive and therapeutic interventions. We extended the DMAC protocol for Saturation Diving Chamber

  19. Food microbiology

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  20. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology...

  1. Environmental microbiology

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  2. Soil microbiology

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  3. Complex Systems Science for Subsurface Fate and Transport Report from the August 2009 Workshop

    2010-01-01

    modeling and is defined, in the context of Biological Systems Science research programs under DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), as ''the holistic, multidisciplinary study of complex interactions that specify the function of an entire biological system - whether single cells or a multicellular organism - rather than the reductionist study of individual components.'' In August 2009, BER held the Subsurface Complex System Science Relevant to Contaminant Fate and Transport workshop to assess the merits and limitations of complex systems science approaches to subsurface systems controlled by coupled hydrological, microbiological, and geochemical processes.

  4. [Implementation of quality standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17043 in the External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Poveda Gabaldón, Marta; Ovies, María Rosario; Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Avila, Javier; Giménez, Alicia; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The quality standard "UNE-EN-ISO 17043: 2010. Conformity assessment. General requirements for proficiency testing" applies to centers that organize intercomparisons in all areas. In the case of clinical microbiology laboratories, these intercomparisons must meet the management and technical standards required to achieve maximum quality in the performance of microbiological analysis and the preparation of test items (sample, product, data or other information used in the proficiency test) to enable them to be accredited. Once accredited, these laboratories can operate as a tool for quality control laboratories and competency assessment. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body [Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC)]. The objective of this review is to explain how to apply the requirements of the standard to laboratories providing intercomparisons in the field of clinical microbiology (the organization responsible for all the tasks related to the development and operation of a proficiency testing program). This requires defining the scope and specifying the technical requirements (personnel management, control of equipment, facilities and environment, the design of the proficiency testing and data analysis for performance evaluation, communication with participants and confidentiality) and management requirements (document control, purchasing control, monitoring of complaints / claims, non-compliance, internal audits and management reviews). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on radionuclide migration under subsurface geochemical conditions. JAERI/AECL Phase II Collaborative Program Year 1 (joint research)

    1998-11-01

    A radionuclide migration experiment program for fractured rocks was performed under the JAERI/AECL Phase-II Collaborative Program on research and development in radioactive waste management. The program started in the fiscal year 1993, as a five-year program consists of Quarried block radionuclide migration program, Speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, Isotopic hydrogeology and Groundwater flow model development. During the first year of the program (Program Year 1: March 18, 1994 - September 30, 1994), a plan was developed to take out granite blocks containing part of natural water-bearing fracture from the wall of the experimental gallery at the depth of 240 m, and literature reviews were done in the area of the speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, isotopic hydrogeology and the groundwater flow model development to proceed further work for the Program Year 2. (author)

  6. Preprinting Microbiology.

    Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-05-23

    The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Schloss.

  7. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Univ. Relations and Science Education; Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  8. Subsurface Prospecting by Planetary Drones, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program innovates subsurface prospecting by planetary drones to seek a solution to the difficulty of robotic prospecting, sample acquisition, and sample...

  9. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  10. Advances in rapid identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory: implications for patient care and antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Florian P. Maurer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious diseases patients. Currently, using traditional approaches, it usually takes at least 48 hours for identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the slowness of diagnostic procedures drives prolongation of empiric, potentially inappropriate, antibacterial therapies. Over the last couple of years, the improvement of available techniques (e.g. for susceptibility testing, DNA amplification assays, and introduction of novel technologies (e.g. MALDI-TOF has fundamentally changed approaches towards pathogen identification and characterization. Importantly, these techniques offer increased diagnostic resolution while at the same time shorten the time-to-result, and are thus of obvious importance for antimicrobial stewardship. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in medical microbiology with special emphasis on the impact of novel techniques on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  11. Advances Afoot in Microbiology

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnost...

  12. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    1998-11-01

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  13. Advances Afoot in Microbiology.

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnostic Paradigms for Microbiology , 2017, https://www.asm.org/index.php/colloquium-reports/item/6421-changing-diagnostic-paradigms-for-microbiology?utm_source=Commentary&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=diagnostics). Emerging POC microbiology tests, especially nucleic acid amplification tests, have the potential to advance medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries

    Salman S. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries. Keywords: Developing country, Molecular technique, Molecular microbiology laboratory

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2016

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in American Samoa from 2012 to 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2010 to 2016

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  18. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) at selected coral reef locations across the Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  20. The effectiveness of a health-surveillance program for caisson saturation divers in a tunnel-boring machine: a microbiological survey.

    Van Rees Vellinga, T P; Sterk, W; Van Dijk, F J H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this field study is to report and evaluate the implementation of a health surveillance program we developed to monitor the microbiological load for saturation divers, including preventive and therapeutic interventions. We extended the DMAC protocol for Saturation Diving Chamber Hygiene and added some components: ear inspections, swabs and environmental swabs every third day. The implementation was evaluated by analyzing the results of the activities. In a pre-saturation dive check we examined a total of 17 divers. Here we present the data from all seven saturation phases, collected over a period of 1.5 years. In every saturation phase we have found pathogenic bacteria or fungi in divers and in the environment, but more in some periods than in others. We did not observe any serious infection that required a diver to abort his stay in the living chamber. This health surveillance program has demonstrated the potential value of an early warning system to prevent problems. The bacterial load found in divers and in the environment was clearly visible. Prevention could be improved by more consistent implementation of the protocol. Fortunately, the infections had no serious consequences for the health of the workers or for the continuation of the work process.

  1. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE`s Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  2. High-pressure microbiology

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  3. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  4. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  5. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  6. [Monitoring microbiological safety of small systems of water distribution. Comparison of two sampling programs in a town in central Italy].

    Papini, Paolo; Faustini, Annunziata; Manganello, Rosa; Borzacchi, Giancarlo; Spera, Domenico; Perucci, Carlo A

    2005-01-01

    To determine the frequency of sampling in small water distribution systems (distribution. We carried out two sampling programs to monitor the water distribution system in a town in Central Italy between July and September 1992; the Poisson distribution assumption implied 4 water samples, the assumption of negative binomial distribution implied 21 samples. Coliform organisms were used as indicators of water safety. The network consisted of two pipe rings and two wells fed by the same water source. The number of summer customers varied considerably from 3,000 to 20,000. The mean density was 2.33 coliforms/100 ml (sd= 5.29) for 21 samples and 3 coliforms/100 ml (sd= 6) for four samples. However the hypothesis of homogeneity was rejected (p-value samples (beta= 0.24) than with 21 (beta= 0.05). For this small network, determining the samples' size according to heterogeneity hypothesis strengthens the statement that water is drinkable compared with homogeneity assumption.

  7. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  8. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  9. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  10. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  11. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  12. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  13. Biogenic Carbon on Mars: A Subsurface Chauvinistic Viewpoint

    Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Harris, R.; Chen, Y.; Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Borgonie, G.; Dong, H.

    2015-12-01

    A review of 150 publications on the subsurface microbiology of the continental subsurface provides ~1,400 measurements of cellular abundances down to 4,800 meter depth. These data suggest that the continental subsurface biomass is comprised of ~1016-17 grams of carbon, which is higher than the most recent estimates of ~1015 grams of carbon (1 Gt) for the marine deep biosphere. If life developed early in Martian history and Mars sustained an active hydrological cycle during its first 500 million years, then is it possible that Mars could have developed a subsurface biomass of comparable size to that of Earth? Such a biomass would comprise a much larger fraction of the total known Martian carbon budget than does the subsurface biomass on Earth. More importantly could a remnant of this subsurface biosphere survive to the present day? To determine how sustainable subsurface life could be in isolation from the surface we have been studying subsurface fracture fluids from the Precambrian Shields in South Africa and Canada. In these environments the energetically efficient and deeply rooted acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation plays a central role for chemolithoautotrophic primary producers that form the base of the biomass pyramid. These primary producers appear to be sustained indefinitely by H2 generated through serpentinization and radiolytic reactions. Carbon isotope data suggest that in some subsurface locations a much larger population of secondary consumers are sustained by the primary production of biogenic CH4 from a much smaller population of methanogens. These inverted biomass and energy pyramids sustained by the cycling of CH4 could have been and could still be active on Mars. The C and H isotopic signatures of Martian CH4 remain key tools in identifying potential signatures of an extant Martian biosphere. Based upon our results to date cavity ring-down spectroscopic technologies provide an option for making these measurements on future rover missions.

  14. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  16. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  17. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Wilson, T.; Novotny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES)

  18. Overview of research and development in subsurface fate and transport modeling

    Sullivan, T.M.; Chehata, M.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of over 450 different subsurface-contaminated sites. Contaminant plumes at these sites range in volume from several to millions of cubic yards. The concentration of contaminants also ranges over several orders of magnitude. Contaminants include hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and organic chemicals, radioactive waste including tritium, uranium, and thorium, and mixed waste, which is a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The physical form of the contaminants includes solutes, nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), and vapor phase contaminants such as volatilized organic chemicals and radon. The subject of contaminant fate and transport modeling is multi-disciplinary, involving hydrology, geology, microbiology, chemistry, applied mathematics, computer science, and other areas of expertise. It is an issue of great significance in the United States and around the world. As such, many organizations have substantial programs in this area. In gathering data to prepare this report, a survey was performed of research and development work that is funded by US government agencies to improve the understanding and mechanistic modeling of processes that control contaminant movement through subsurface systems. Government agencies which fund programs that contain fate and transport modeling components include the Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, United States Geological Survey, and National Institutes of Health

  19. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  1. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  2. Complex Systems Science for Subsurface Fate and Transport Report from the August 2009 Workshop

    None

    2010-03-01

    experimentation and modeling and is defined, in the context of Biological Systems Science research programs under DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), as ''the holistic, multidisciplinary study of complex interactions that specify the function of an entire biological system - whether single cells or a multicellular organism - rather than the reductionist study of individual components.'' In August 2009, BER held the Subsurface Complex System Science Relevant to Contaminant Fate and Transport workshop to assess the merits and limitations of complex systems science approaches to subsurface systems controlled by coupled hydrological, microbiological, and geochemical processes.

  3. Manual Laboratorio de Microbiologia. Documento de trabajo Programa de Educacion en Ocupaciones de Salud (Microbiology Laboratory Manual. Curriculum Document. Program of Education in Health Occupations).

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This laboratory manual on microbiology begins with an introduction relating the study of microorganisms to health occupations education and stressing the importance of teaching critical thinking. The introduction is followed by general instructions for the use of the manual and an illustration of hand washing procedures. The 13 laboratory…

  4. Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING

    Parsons, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local geochemistry science investigations and precision measurements of Mars subsurface reSOurces in preparation for future human exploration. As such, PING is thus fully capable of meeting a majority of both ncar and far term elements in Challenge #1 presented for this conference. Measuring the ncar subsurface composition of Mars will enable many of the MEPAG science goals and will be key to filling an important Strategic Knowledge Gap with regard to In situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) needs for human exploration. [1, 2] PING will thus fill an important niche in the Mars Exploration Program.

  5. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  6. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    2009-01-01

    species grow as multicel- lular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium, some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual...reinforced fluorinated 18 MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION polyimide composites due to hyphae penetration into resin interiors. The

  7. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Subsurface quality assurance practices

    1987-08-01

    This report addresses only the concept of applying Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) practices to repository shaft and subsurface design and construction; how NQA will be applied; and the level of detail required in the documentation for construction of a shaft and subsurface repository in contrast to the level of detail required in the documentation for construction of a traditional mine. This study determined that NQA practices are viable, attainable, as well as required. The study identified the appropriate NQA criteria and the repository's major structures, systems, items, and activities to which the criteria are applicable. A QA plan, for design and construction, and a list of documentation, for construction, are presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  9. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  10. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  11. Characterization of DNA-repair potential in deep subsurface bacteria challenged by UV light, hydrogen peroxide, and gamma radiation

    Arrage, Andrew Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Subsurface bacterial isolates obtained through the DOE Subsurface Science Program were tested for resistance to UV light, gamma radiation and H202. Some deep subsurface bacteria were resistant to UV light, demonstrating â ¥1.0% survival at fluences which resulted in a 0.0001% survival level of E. coli B. The percentage of UV resistant aerobic subsurface bacteria and surface soil bacteria were similar; 30.8% and 25.8% respectively. All of the microaerophilic subsurface isolates ...

  12. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  14. Microbiological soil regeneration

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  15. ZoBell and his contributions to petroleum microbiology

    Bass, C.

    2000-01-01

    The unique contributions that microbiologist Claude ZoBell has made toward the advancement of knowledge in petroleum microbiology was discussed. His research from 1938 to 1978 has provided opportunity for improved oil recovery, modification of petroleum products, knowledge of subsurface microbiology and remediation of polluted environments. Much of his work focused on the key role of microorganisms in the diagenesis of hydrocarbon products and in enhanced oil recovery. Petroleum microbiology is divided into the following six broad areas: (1) diagenesis of organic components in sediments and subsequent oleogenesis, (2) degradation of hydrocarbons, (3) improved recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs, (4) modification of hydrocarbon products in formation or post production, (5) mitigation of the effects of 'nuisance organisms' during production, and (6) bioremediation of escaped crude or processed product. ZoBell recognized that oil recovery could be improved using bacterial products such as acids and gases to help mobilisation and as a control agent in oil spill pollution. 26 refs

  16. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  17. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  19. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease. (b...

  20. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  1. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  2. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  3. Predictive Food Microbiology

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  4. Infection: microbiology and management

    Jones, Jane; Gillespie, S. H; Bannister, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    ..., management and control. The presentation, diagnosis and management of individual diseases are described in the systematic chapters. Each chapter introduces the range of diseases that can affect the relevant system, and lists the pathogens responsible for each presentation in approximate order of importance. For each individual pathogen, the epidemiology and microbiology, clinical presentations and diagnosis, and strategies for prevention and control are described. This textbook is designed to be used either as a...

  5. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  6. Subsurface Facility System Description Document

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Subsurface Facility System encompasses the location, arrangement, size, and spacing of the underground openings. This subsurface system includes accesses, alcoves, and drifts. This system provides access to the underground, provides for the emplacement of waste packages, provides openings to allow safe and secure work conditions, and interfaces with the natural barrier. This system includes what is now the Exploratory Studies Facility. The Subsurface Facility System physical location and general arrangement help support the long-term waste isolation objectives of the repository. The Subsurface Facility System locates the repository openings away from main traces of major faults, away from exposure to erosion, above the probable maximum flood elevation, and above the water table. The general arrangement, size, and spacing of the emplacement drifts support disposal of the entire inventory of waste packages based on the emplacement strategy. The Subsurface Facility System provides access ramps to safely facilitate development and emplacement operations. The Subsurface Facility System supports the development and emplacement operations by providing subsurface space for such systems as ventilation, utilities, safety, monitoring, and transportation

  7. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

    Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaaron L

    2012-01-01

    the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced......Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from...

  8. Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald

    Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation's strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site's soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site's southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald's mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald

  9. Subsurface remote sensing

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Groves, Joel L.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically, instrument packages are lowered into a borehole at the end of a long cable, that may be as long as 10 km, and two-way data and instruction telemetry allows a single radiation instrument to operate in different modes and to send the data to a surface computer. Because these boreholes are often in remote locations throughout the world, the data are frequently transmitted by satellite to various locations around the world for almost real-time analysis and incorporation with other data. The complete system approach that permits rapid and reliable data acquisition, remote analysis and transmission to those making decisions is described

  10. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  11. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  12. Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- Subsurface bioremediation

    Happer, W.; MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    During the past summer, the authors had the opportunity to examine aspects of the remediation program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The most important conclusion that they have come to is that there is an urgent need to mount a comprehensive research program in remediation. It is also clear to them that DOE does not have the funding to carry out a program on the scale that is required. On the other hand, Environmental Management could very well fund such activities. They would hope that in the future there would be close collaboration between Environmental Management and Energy Research in putting together a comprehensive and well thought-out research program. Here, the authors comment on one aspect of remediation: subsurface bioremediation

  13. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads].

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, María del Remedio Guna; Martínez, José-Carlos Latorre; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained in the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads and HCV genotyping. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 3-5 log(10) copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, with the aim of determining repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.6% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.2 log(10)copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ<0.5 log(10)copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.1% in the case of HCV and 87.1% in HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log(10)UI/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected in these controls. Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbiology Education in Nursing Practice?

    Durrant, Robert J.; Doig, Alexa K.; Buxton, Rebecca L.; Fenn, JoAnn P.

    2017-01-01

    Nurses must have sufficient education and training in microbiology to perform many roles within clinical nursing practice (e.g., administering antibiotics, collecting specimens, preparing specimens for transport and delivery, educating patients and families, communicating results to the healthcare team, and developing care plans based on results of microbiology studies and patient immunological status). It is unclear whether the current microbiology courses required of nursing students in the...

  15. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) at selected coral reef locations across the Pacific Ocean from 2001-09-20 to 2012-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0162471)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in American Samoa from 2012-04-08 to 2013-04-03 (NCEI Accession 0162220)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in American Samoa from 2012-03-21 to 2015-03-25 (NCEI Accession 0162246)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Marianas Archipelago from 2011-04-09 to 2014-05-06 (NCEI Accession 0162244)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2013-07-13 to 2016-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0162216)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  20. SUBSURFACE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    N.E. Kramer

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify appropriate construction methods and develop a feasible approach for construction and development of the repository subsurface facilities. The objective of this analysis is to support development of the subsurface repository layout for License Application (LA) design. The scope of the analysis for construction and development of the subsurface Repository facilities covers: (1) Excavation methods, including application of knowledge gained from construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). (2) Muck removal from excavation headings to the surface. This task will examine ways of preventing interference with other subsurface construction activities. (3) The logistics and equipment for the construction and development rail haulage systems. (4) Impact of ground support installation on excavation and other construction activities. (5) Examination of how drift mapping will be accomplished. (6) Men and materials handling. (7) Installation and removal of construction utilities and ventilation systems. (8) Equipping and finishing of the emplacement drift mains and access ramps to fulfill waste emplacement operational needs. (9) Emplacement drift and access mains and ramps commissioning prior to handover for emplacement operations. (10) Examination of ways to structure the contracts for construction of the repository. (11) Discussion of different construction schemes and how to minimize the schedule risks implicit in those schemes. (12) Surface facilities needed for subsurface construction activities

  1. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    Treat, R.L.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE's EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only

  2. Linking deposit morphology and clogging in subsurface remediation: Final Technical Report

    Mays, David C. [University of Colorado Denver

    2013-12-11

    Groundwater is a crucial resource for water supply, especially in arid and semiarid areas of the United States west of the 100th meridian. Accordingly, remediation of contaminated groundwater is an important application of science and technology, particularly for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees a number of groundwater remediation sites from Cold War era mining. Groundwater remediation is complex, because it depends on identifying, locating, and treating contaminants in the subsurface, where remediation reactions depend on interacting geological, hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological factors. Within this context, permeability is a fundamental concept, because it controls the rates and pathways of groundwater flow. Colloid science is intimately related to permeability, because when colloids are present (particles with equivalent diameters between 1 nanometer and 10 micrometers), changes in hydrological or geochemical conditions can trigger a detrimental reduction in permeability called clogging. Accordingly, clogging is a major concern in groundwater remediation. Several lines of evidence suggest that clogging by colloids depends on (1) colloid deposition, and (2) deposit morphology, that is, the structure of colloid deposits, which can be quantified as a fractal dimension. This report describes research, performed under a 2-year, exploratory grant from the DOE’s Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program. This research employed a novel laboratory technique to simultaneously measure flow, colloid deposition, deposit morphology, and permeability in a flow cell, and also collected field samples from wells at the DOE’s Old Rifle remediation site. Field results indicate that suspended solids at the Old Rifle site have fractal structures. Laboratory results indicate that clogging is associated with colloid deposits with smaller fractal dimensions, in accordance with previous studies on initially clean granular media. Preliminary

  3. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  4. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  5. Spectrometric microbiological analyzer

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Meissner, Ken E.

    1996-04-01

    Currently, there are four general approaches to microbiological analysis, i.e., the detection, identification and quantification of micro-organisms: (1) Traditional culturing and staining procedures, metabolic fermentations and visual morphological characteristics; (2) Immunological approaches employing microbe-specific antibodies; (3) Biotechnical techniques employing DNA probes and related genetic engineering methods; and (4) Physical measurement techniques based on the biophysical properties of micro-organisms. This paper describes an instrumentation development in the fourth of the above categories, physical measurement, that uses a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra to detect and identify micro-organisms at the species level. A major advantage of this approach is the rapid turnaround possible in medical diagnostic or water testing applications. Fluorometric spectra serve to define the biochemical characteristics of the microbe, and light scatter spectra the size and shape morphology. Together, the two spectra define a 'fingerprint' for each species of microbe for detection, identification and quantification purposes. A prototype instrument has been developed and tested under NASA sponsorship based on fluorometric spectra alone. This instrument demonstrated identification and quantification capabilities at the species level. The paper reports on test results using this instrument, and the benefits of employing a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra.

  6. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  7. Microbiologically induced corrosion

    Stein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Biological attack is a problem that can affect all metallic materials in a variety of environments and systems. In the power industry, corrosion studies have focused on condensers and service water systems where slime, barnacles, clams, and other macro-organisms are easily detected. Efforts have been made to eliminate the effect of these organisms through the use of chlorination, backflushing, organic coating, or thermal shock. The objective is to maintain component performance by eliminating biofouling and reducing metallic corrosion. Recently, corrosion of power plant components by micro-organisms (bacteria) has been identified even in very clean systems. A system's first exposure to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) occurs during its first exposure to an aqueous environment, such as during hydrotest or wet layup. Corrosion of buried pipelines by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been studied by the petrochemical industry for years. This paper discusses various methods of diagnosing, monitoring, and controlling MIC in a variety of systems, as well as indicates areas where further study is needed

  8. Safety analysis in subsurface repositories

    1985-06-01

    The development of mathematical models to represent the repository-geosphere-biosphere system, and the development of a structure for data acquisition, processing, and use to analyse the safety of subsurface repositories, are presented. To study the behavior of radionuclides in geosphere a laboratory to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient was constructed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    D.W. Markman

    2001-01-01

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  10. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  11. Patterns and drivers of bacterial α- and β-diversity across vertical profiles from surface to subsurface sediments.

    Luna, Gian Marco; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Rastelli, Eugenio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the patterns and drivers of bacterial α- and β-diversity, along with viral and prokaryotic abundance and the carbon production rates, in marine surface and subsurface sediments (down to 1 m depth) in two habitats: vegetated sediments (seagrass meadow) and non-vegetated sediments. Prokaryotic abundance and production decreased with depth in the sediment, but cell-specific production rates and the virus-to-prokaryote ratio increased, highlighting unexpectedly high activity in the subsurface. The highest diversity was observed in vegetated sediments. Bacterial β-diversity between sediment horizons was high, and only a minor number of taxa was shared between surface and subsurface layers. Viruses significantly contributed to explain α- and β-diversity patterns. Despite potential limitations due to the only use of fingerprinting techniques, this study indicates that the coastal subsurface host highly active and diversified bacterial assemblages, that subsurface cells are more active than expected and that viruses promote β-diversity and stimulate bacterial metabolism in subsurface layers. The limited number of taxa shared between habitats, and between surface and subsurface sediment horizons, suggests that future investigations of the shallow subsurface will provide insights into the census of bacterial diversity, and the comprehension of the patterns and drivers of prokaryotic diversity in marine ecosystems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Imaging subsurface geology and volatile organic compound plumes

    Qualheim, B.J.; Daley, P.F.; Johnson, V.; McPherrin, R.V.; Laguna, G.

    1992-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Fig. 1) is in the final stages of the Superfund decisionmaking process for site remediation and restoration. In the process of characterizing the subsurface of the LLNL site, we have developed unique methods of collecting, storing, retrieving, and imaging geologic and chemical data from more than 350 drill holes. The lateral and vertical continuity of subsurface paleostream channels were mapped for the entire LLNL site using geologic descriptions from core samples, cuttings, and interpretations from geophysical logs. A computer-aided design and drafting program, SLICE, written at LLNL, was used to create two-dimensional maps of subsurface sediments, and state-of-the-art software produced three-dimensional images of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes using data from water and core fluid analyses

  13. Microbial transformations of natural organic compounds and radionuclides in subsurface environments

    Francis, A.J.

    1985-10-01

    A major national concern in the subsurface disposal of energy wastes is the contamination of ground and surface waters by waste leachates containing radionuclides, toxic metals, and organic compounds. Microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of organic compounds, radionuclides, and toxic metals present in the waste and affect their mobility in subsurface environments. Microbial processes involved in dissolution, mobilization, and immobilization of toxic metals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are briefly reviewed. Metal complexing agents and several organic acids produced by microbial action affect mobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals in subsurface environments. Information on the persistence of and biodegradation rates of synthetic as well as microbiologically produced complexing agents is scarce but important in determining the mobility of metal organic complexes in subsoils. Several gaps in knowledge in the area of microbial transformation of naturally occurring organics, radionuclides, and toxic metals have been identified, and further basic research has been suggested. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  16. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  17. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  18. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  19. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology

    The journal welcomes papers focusing on microbiological and/or immunological studies from medical or pharmaceutical perspectives. Research pieces on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, spores, immunity, immune systems, health and pharmaceutical applications are highly relevant ...

  20. Antimony Redox Biotransformation in the Subsurface: Effect of Indigenous Sb(V) Respiring Microbiota.

    Wang, Liying; Ye, Li; Yu, Yaqin; Jing, Chuanyong

    2018-02-06

    Anaerobic microbiological antimonate [Sb(V)] respiration is a newly discovered process regulating the Sb redox transformation in soils. However, little is known about the role microbiological Sb(V) respiration plays in the fate of Sb in the subsurface, especially in the presence of sulfate and electron shuttles. Herein, we successfully enriched a Sb(V) reducing microbiota (SbRM) from the subsurface near an active Sb mine. SbRM was dominated by genus Alkaliphilus (18-36%), Clostridiaceae (17-18%), Tissierella (24-27%), and Lysinibacillus (16-37%). The incubation results showed that SbRM reduced 88% of dissolved Sb(V) to Sb(III), but the total Sb mobility remained the same as in the abiotic control, indicating that SbRM alone did not increase the total Sb release but regulated the Sb speciation in the subsurface. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis suggested the association of Sb and Fe, and electron shuttles such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic disodium salt (AQDS) markedly enhanced the Sb release due to its ability to facilitate Fe mineral dissolution. Sb L-edge and S K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results demonstrated that indigenous SbRM immobilized Sb via Sb 2 S 3 formation, especially in a sulfur-rich environment. The insights gained from this study shed new light on Sb mobilization and its risk assessment in the subsurface environment.

  1. Integrated geomechanical modelling for deep subsurface damage

    Wees, J.D. van; Orlic, B.; Zijl, W.; Jongerius, P.; Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.

    2001-01-01

    Government, E&P and mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is difficult to

  2. Recent advances in diagnostic microbiology.

    Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the development of a variety of molecular diagnostics designed to rapidly identify or characterize medically important microorganisms. We briefly review important advances in molecular microbiology, and then discuss specific assays that have been implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the country. We also discuss emerging methods and technologies that will soon be more widely used for the prompt and accurate detection of the agents of infectious diseases.

  3. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  4. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Subsurface Noble Gas Sampling Manual

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The intent of this document is to provide information about best available approaches for performing subsurface soil gas sampling during an On Site Inspection or OSI. This information is based on field sampling experiments, computer simulations and data from the NA-22 Noble Gas Signature Experiment Test Bed at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The approaches should optimize the gas concentration from the subsurface cavity or chimney regime while simultaneously minimizing the potential for atmospheric radioxenon and near-surface Argon-37 contamination. Where possible, we quantitatively assess differences in sampling practices for the same sets of environmental conditions. We recognize that all sampling scenarios cannot be addressed. However, if this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from the scenario assumed here, it will have achieved its goal.

  6. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  7. Effect of synthetic iron colloids on the microbiological NH(4)(+) removal process during groundwater purification.

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2004-04-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater that is used to make drinking water potable. In a groundwater system with pH>7 subsurface aeration results in non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove iron in situ, the formation of non-mobile iron precipitate, which facilitates the metal's removal, is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) in the purification station. Mobile iron colloids could be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the NH(4)(+) removal process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether synthetic iron colloids could improve the NH(4)(+) removal process. The effect of synthetic iron colloids on the NH(4)(+) removal process was studied using an artificial purification set-up on a laboratory scale. Columns that purified groundwater with or without added synthetic iron colloids were set up in duplicate. The results showed that the NH(4)(+) removal was significantly ( alpha = 0.05 ) increased in columns treated with the synthetic iron colloids. Cumulative after 4 months about 10% more NH(4)(+) was nitrified in the columns that was treated with the groundwater containing synthetic iron colloids. The results support the hypothesis that mobile iron colloids could be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the NH(4)(+) removal process.

  8. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  9. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

    Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaron L.; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Horton, J. Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ~35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ~35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  13. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  14. Microbial activity in the terrestrial subsurface

    Kaiser, J.P.; Bollag, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the layers under the earth's crust. Only in recent years have techniques for sampling the deeper subsurface been developed to permit investigation of the subsurface environment. Prevailing conditions in the subsurface habitat such as nutrient availability, soil composition, redox potential, permeability and a variety of other factors can influence the microflora that flourish in a given environment. Microbial diversity varies between geological formations, but in general sandy soils support growth better than soils rich in clay. Bacteria predominate in subsurface sediments, while eukaryotes constitute only 1-2% of the microorganisms. Recent investigations revealed that most uncontaminated subsurface soils support the growth of aerobic heteroorganotrophic bacteria, but obviously anaerobic microorganisms also exist in the deeper subsurface habitat. The microorganisms residing below the surface of the earth are capable of degrading both natural and xenobiotic contaminants and can thereby adapt to growth under polluted conditions. (author) 4 tabs, 77 refs

  15. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Riemsdijk, Willem H. van

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the formation of non-mobile Fe precipitate is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of NH 4 in the purification station. A hypothesis is that mobile Fe colloids may be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the microbiological removal of NH 4 . The objective of this study is to characterise the mobile Fe colloids and to derive a synthetic substitute for the naturally formed Fe colloids in order to be able to apply the Fe colloids as a management tool to enhance the removal of NH 4 in the process of producing drinking water from groundwater. At a purification station in The Netherlands natural Fe colloids from an aerated well were sampled. Furthermore, eight synthetic Fe colloids were prepared by oxidising synthetic solutions differing in elemental composition. The colloids were analysed using chemical analysis and electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDAX). The Fe colloids sampled in the field contained Fe, Ca, Na, PO 4 and Mn. Also in the synthetic Fe colloids PO 4 , Ca, Na and Mn were the most important elements next to Fe. Phosphate and dissolved organic C strongly influenced the morphology of the synthetic Fe colloids. When both the elemental composition and the morphology of the Fe colloids are taken into account, the synthetic Fe colloids formed in the synthetic solution containing Fe, Mn, PO 4 , SiO 4 and dissolved organic matter best match the Fe colloids from the field

  16. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Riemsdijk, Willem H. van

    2004-09-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the formation of non-mobile Fe precipitate is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of NH{sub 4} in the purification station. A hypothesis is that mobile Fe colloids may be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the microbiological removal of NH{sub 4}. The objective of this study is to characterise the mobile Fe colloids and to derive a synthetic substitute for the naturally formed Fe colloids in order to be able to apply the Fe colloids as a management tool to enhance the removal of NH{sub 4} in the process of producing drinking water from groundwater. At a purification station in The Netherlands natural Fe colloids from an aerated well were sampled. Furthermore, eight synthetic Fe colloids were prepared by oxidising synthetic solutions differing in elemental composition. The colloids were analysed using chemical analysis and electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDAX). The Fe colloids sampled in the field contained Fe, Ca, Na, PO{sub 4} and Mn. Also in the synthetic Fe colloids PO{sub 4}, Ca, Na and Mn were the most important elements next to Fe. Phosphate and dissolved organic C strongly influenced the morphology of the synthetic Fe colloids. When both the elemental composition and the morphology of the Fe colloids are taken into account, the synthetic Fe colloids formed in the synthetic solution containing Fe, Mn, PO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 4} and dissolved organic matter best match the Fe colloids from the field.

  17. The Mojave Subsurface Bio-Geochemistry Explorer (MOSBE)

    Guerrero, J.; Beegle, L.; Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Kounaves, S.; Russell, M.; Towles, D.

    2012-01-01

    The MOSBE Team has developed a terrestrial field campaign to explore two subsurface biological habitats under the Mojave Desert. This field campaign will not only help us understand terrestrial desert biology, but also will develop methodologies and strategies for potential future Mars missions that would seek to explore the Martian subsurface. We have proposed to the ASTEP program to integrate a suite of field demonstrated instruments with a 20 m subsurface drill as a coherent unit, the Mojave Subsurface Bio-geochemistry Explorer. The ATK Space Modular Planetary Drill System (MPDS) requires no drilling fluid, which allows aseptic sampling, can penetrate lithic ground up to 20 meters of depth, and utilizes less than 100 Watts throughout the entire depth. The drill has been developed and demonstrated in field testing to a depth of 10 meters in Arizona, December 2002. In addition to caching a continuous core throughout the drilling depth, it also generates and caches cuttings and fines that are strata-graphically correlated with the core. As a core segment is brought to the surface, it will be analyzed for texture and structure by a color microscopic imager and for relevant chemistry and mineralogy with a UV fluorescence/Raman spectrometer. Organic and soluble ionic species will be identified through two instruments -- a microcapillary electrophoresis, and an ion trap mass spectrometer that have been developed under PIDDP, ASTID and MIDP funding.

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  19. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  20. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  1. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology

    Okafor, Nduka

    2007-01-01

    ... and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for ...

  2. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  3. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  4. Imaging the Subsurface with Upgoing Muons

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upgoing muons. Traditional muon imaging focuses on more-prevalent downgoing muons. Muons are subatomic particles capable of penetrating the earth's crust several kilometers. Downgoing muons have been used to image the Pyramid of Khafre of Giza, various volcanoes, and smaller targets like cargo. Unfortunately, utilizing downgoing muons requires below-target detectors. For aboveground objects like a volcano, the detector is placed at the volcano's base and the top portion of the volcano is imaged. For underground targets like tunnels, the detector would have to be placed below the tunnel in a deeper tunnel or adjacent borehole, which can be costly and impractical for some locations. Additionally, detecting and characterizing subsurface features like voids from tunnels can be difficult. Typical characterization methods like sonar, seismic, and ground penetrating radar have shown mixed success. Voids have a marked density contrast with surrounding materials, so using methods sensitive to density variations would be ideal. High-energy cosmic ray muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, tomography using downgoing muons can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. We present results of exploratory work, which demonstrates that upgoing muon fluxes appear sufficient to achieve target detection within a few months. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice...... learning. The aims of this study were to test 1) the students’ perception combining theory with small laboratory exercises and 2) the students’ perception of how the course collaborates with and combines theories and practices from other current semester courses. The students evaluated the course...

  6. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious corrosion threat that impacts the operating integrity and reliability of assets in the oil and gas, maritime, power generation, and other industries. Yet MIC is also commonly misunderstood, leading to ineffective mitigation programs, wasted...... and implement improved mitigation strategies and thereby reduce operating risk. Our experts provide guidance in applying the latest state-of-the-art molecular microbiological methods (MMM) and industry standards to properly diagnose MIC in operating assets and on failed components. With this understanding, MIC...... can be effectively addressed as part of the overall Corrosion Management System (CMS)....

  7. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring. Final report

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitored in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program. Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media

  8. Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

    Rosa J. Buxeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes, microbiologist roles, and skills needed by microbiologists. Evaluation of these topics using pre- and posttest data indicates a significant increase in acquired knowledge relevant to daily workplace environments with the reformed course. In both courses, students gain information early in their academic experience to help them consider participation in research experiences while providing them with real-world experience toward the end of their academic careers, when they see the need for it.

  9. Production of microbiological fuel

    Sinyeris, S

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of programs developed in different countries for increasing production of alcohol by fermenting substrates for use in the pure form or in a mixture with gasoline (gasoline alcohol) as liquid fuel for transportation vehicles. Direct conversion of cellulose into alcohol using bacteria excluding hydrolytic processes for production of sugars (substrates for yeast and bacteria Zymomonas) is important. This conversion is done by thermophilic bacteria Clostridium thermocellum with growth temperature 60-65/sup 0/C. It is established that with joint growth of these bacteria with bacteria Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, there is a considerable acceleration in the process of cellulose conversion to ethanol and decrease in the number of other products of fermentation (acetyl cellulose and hydrogen) formed with the use of the indicated cultures separately. Under corresponding conditions almost any organic compound (sugar, starch, protein) contained in the straw, natural polymers, wastewater, etc. by fermentation can be converted into methane. The methane produced by the method of fermentation can be used for daily needs or be added to natural gas. In the region of London, Tuyknem, anaerobic units generate a quantity of biogas sufficient to generate electricity needed to guarantee operation of the unit for purifying wastewater and pumping stations supplying the wastewater. Under conditions of sanitary dumps (United States) spontaneous formation of methane occurs. The methane is lifted through drilled wells upwards and can be transmitted on pipes. In recent years extensive study and modeling have begun of the process of fermentation of solid wastes.

  10. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  13. The microbiology of hydorcarbon degradation in subsurface petroleum reservoirs: perspectives and prospects.

    Roling, W.F.M.; Head, I.M.; Larter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of the Earth's petroleum resource is partly biodegraded. This is of considerable practical significance and can limit economic exploitation of petroleum reserves and lead to problems during petroleum production. Knowledge of the microorganisms present in petroleum reservoirs, their

  14. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  15. A subsurface Fe-silicate weathering microbiome

    Napieralski, S. A.; Buss, H. L.; Roden, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of microbially mediated weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals often invoke organic ligands (e.g. siderophores) used for nutrient acquisition. However, it is well known that the oxidation of Fe(II) governs the overall rate of Fe-silicate mineral dissolution. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of lithtrophic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) to grow via the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in biotite as a source of metabolic energy with evidence suggesting a direct enzymatic attack on the mineral surface. This process necessitates the involvement of dedicated outer membrane proteins that interact with insoluble mineral phases in a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). To investigate the potential role FeOB in a terrestrial subsurface weathering system, samples were obtained from the bedrock-saprolite interface (785 cm depth) within the Rio Icacos Watershed of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Prior geochemical evidence suggests the flux of Fe(II) from the weathering bedrock supports a robust lithotrophic microbial community at depth. Current work confirms the activity of microorganism in situ, with a marked increase in ATP near the bedrock-saprolite interface. Regolith recovered from the interface was used as inoculum to establish enrichment cultures with powderized Fe(II)-bearing minerals serving as the sole energy source. Monitoring of the Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratio and ATP generation suggests growth of microorganisms coupled to the oxidation of mineral bound Fe(II). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic libraries from in situ and enrichment culture samples lends further support to FeOB involvement in the weathering process. Multiple metagenomic bins related to known FeOB, including Betaproteobacteria genera, contain homologs to model EET systems, including Cyc2 and MtoAB. Our approach combining geochemistry and metagenomics with ongoing microbiological and genomic characterization of novel isolates obtained

  16. Building a Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, Maria; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The integration of food data from research, microbiological monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance is crucial to manage foodborne risk. Consequently, INSA launched the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) in a partnership with GS1 Portugal to create national food chain expert networks and sustainable databases on food composition, consumption and chemical and microbiological contamination. Presently, the Food Microbiological Inform...

  17. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of...

  18. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ...

    Author Guidelines. Aims and scope. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology is the official Journal of African Society for Clinical Microbiology. It publishes original research papers in all aspects of Medical Microbiology, including Bacteriology, Virology Rickettsiology and Chlamydiology, Mycology, ...

  19. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pietraß, Tanja [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-22

    From beneath the surface of the earth, we currently obtain about 80-percent of the energy our nation consumes each year. In the future we have the potential to generate billions of watts of electrical power from clean, green, geothermal energy sources. Our planet’s subsurface can also serve as a reservoir for storing energy produced from intermittent sources such as wind and solar, and it could provide safe, long-term storage of excess carbon dioxide, energy waste products and other hazardous materials. However, it is impossible to underestimate the complexities of the subsurface world. These complexities challenge our ability to acquire the scientific knowledge needed for the efficient and safe exploitation of its resources. To more effectively harness subsurface resources while mitigating the impacts of developing and using these resources, the U.S. Department of Energy established SubTER – the Subsurface Technology and Engineering RD&D Crosscut team. This DOE multi-office team engaged scientists and engineers from the national laboratories to assess and make recommendations for improving energy-related subsurface engineering. The SubTER team produced a plan with the overall objective of “adaptive control of subsurface fractures and fluid flow.”This plan revolved around four core technological pillars—Intelligent Wellbore Systems that sustain the integrity of the wellbore environment; Subsurface Stress and Induced Seismicity programs that guide and optimize sustainable energy strategies while reducing the risks associated with subsurface injections; Permeability Manipulation studies that improve methods of enhancing, impeding and eliminating fluid flow; and New Subsurface Signals that transform our ability to see into and characterize subsurface systems. The SubTER team developed an extensive R&D plan for advancing technologies within these four core pillars and also identified several areas where new technologies would require additional basic research

  20. Drawing the subsurface : an integrative design approach

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Lafleur, F.; Trinh, T.T.; Gogu, Constantin Radu; Campbell, Diarmad; de Beer, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The sub-surface, with its man-made and natural components, plays an important, if not crucial, role in the urban climate and global energy transition. On the one hand, the sub-surface is associated with a variety of challenges such as subsidence, pollution, damage to infrastructure and shortages of

  1. Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

    Akhoury, SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...

  2. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  4. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  5. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  6. Considerations in the selection of model substrates for microbiological effects research

    Francis, A.J.; Rose, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of several energy residues have been briefly reviewed in order to select a model or representative substrate of basic research to determine the significance of anaerobic microbial dissolution and mobilization or immobilization of toxic trace elements under subsurface environmental conditions. The major factors which influence the dissolution and mobilization of trace metals have been critically examined, e.g., (i) effects on pH of leachates (pyrite oxidation), soluble acid, and basic compounds; (ii) effects on oxidation state of leachates (oxidation state of Fe, presence of organics); (iii) concentration of toxic inorganic species, and chemical form; (iv) surface area of waste particles; and (v) physical strength and particle size, with resulting effects on permeability of the substrate. Several major physical and chemical characteristics are common to energy-related residues yet each of these materials has a unique set of physical and chemical properties. The pros and cons of selecting a single model substrate for microbiological research were discussed at the Geochemical and Biochemical Working Group Meeting and use of the end-member concept was suggested. From the abundance, distribution, forms of trace metals present, and volume of these metal-containing residues disposed of in the subsurface environments, microbiological studies can be performed with coal beneficiation and coal gasification residues under a variety of subsurface environmental conditions, and results can be validated in the field. The basic scientific information obtained from this research can be applied to other materials of similar composition. 18 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  7. Studies of the subsurface effects of earthquakes

    Marine, I.W.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the National Terminal Waste Storage Program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting a series of studies on the subsurface effects of earthquakes. This report summarizes three subcontracted studies. (1) Earthquake damage to underground facilities: the purpose of this study was to document damage and nondamage caused by earthquakes to tunnels and shallow underground openings; to mines and other deep openings; and to wells, shafts, and other vertical facilities. (2) Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities: the study included an analysis of block motion, an analysis of the dependence of displacement on the orientation and distance of joints from the earthquake source, and displacement related to distance and depth near a causative fault as a result of various shapes, depths, and senses of movement on the causative fault. (3) Numerical simulation of earthquake effects on tunnels for generic nuclear waste repositories: the objective of this study was to use numerical modeling to determine under what conditions seismic waves might cause instability of an underground opening or create fracturing that would increase the permeability of the rock mass

  8. Modeling Subsurface Hydrology in Floodplains

    Evans, Cristina M.; Dritschel, David G.; Singer, Michael B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil-moisture patterns in floodplains are highly dynamic, owing to the complex relationships between soil properties, climatic conditions at the surface, and the position of the water table. Given this complexity, along with climate change scenarios in many regions, there is a need for a model to investigate the implications of different conditions on water availability to riparian vegetation. We present a model, HaughFlow, which is able to predict coupled water movement in the vadose and phreatic zones of hydraulically connected floodplains. Model output was calibrated and evaluated at six sites in Australia to identify key patterns in subsurface hydrology. This study identifies the importance of the capillary fringe in vadose zone hydrology due to its water storage capacity and creation of conductive pathways. Following peaks in water table elevation, water can be stored in the capillary fringe for up to months (depending on the soil properties). This water can provide a critical resource for vegetation that is unable to access the water table. When water table peaks coincide with heavy rainfall events, the capillary fringe can support saturation of the entire soil profile. HaughFlow is used to investigate the water availability to riparian vegetation, producing daily output of water content in the soil over decadal time periods within different depth ranges. These outputs can be summarized to support scientific investigations of plant-water relations, as well as in management applications.

  9. Introduction: energy and the subsurface

    Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-01-01

    This theme issue covers topics at the forefront of scientific research on energy and the subsurface, ranging from carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration to the recovery of unconventional shale oil and gas resources through hydraulic fracturing. As such, the goal of this theme issue is to have an impact on the scientific community, broadly, by providing a self-contained collection of articles contributing to and reviewing the state-of-the-art of the field. This collection of articles could be used, for example, to set the next generation of research directions, while also being useful as a self-study guide for those interested in entering the field. Review articles are included on the topics of hydraulic fracturing as a multiscale problem, numerical modelling of hydraulic fracture propagation, the role of computational sciences in the upstream oil and gas industry and chemohydrodynamic patterns in porous media. Complementing the reviews is a set of original research papers covering growth models for branched hydraulic crack systems, fluid-driven crack propagation in elastic matrices, elastic and inelastic deformation of fluid-saturated rock, reaction front propagation in fracture matrices, the effects of rock mineralogy and pore structure on stress-dependent permeability of shales, topographic viscous fingering and plume dynamics in porous media convection. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Energy and the subsurface’. PMID:27597784

  10. Manipulation of natural subsurface processes: Field research and validation. Interim report

    Fruchter, J.S.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Often the only alternative for treating deep subsurface contamination is in situ manipulation of natural processes to change the mobility or form of contaminants. However, the complex interactions of natural subsurface physical, chemical, and microbial processes limit the predictability of the system-wide impact of manipulation based on current knowledge. This report is a summary of research conducted to examine the feasibility of controlling the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State by introducing chemical reagents and microbial nutrients. The experiment would allow the testing of concepts and hypotheses developed from fundamental research in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Subsurface Science Program. Furthermore, the achievement of such control is expected to have implications for in situ remediation of dispersed aqueous contaminants in the subsurface environment at DOE sites nationwide, and particularly at the Hanford Site. This interim report summarizes initial research that was conducted between July 1990 and October 1991

  11. Microbiological quality of Argentinian paprika.

    Melo González, María G; Romero, Stella M; Arjona, Mila; Larumbe, Ada G; Vaamonde, Graciela

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10 5 to 3.7×10 7 CFU/g. Coliform counts ranged from <10 to 8.1×10 4 CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. Fungal counts (including yeasts and molds) ranged between 2×10 2 and 1.9×10 5 CFU/g. These results showed a high level of microbial contamination, exceeding in several samples the maximum limits set in international food regulations. The study of the mycobiota demonstrated that Aspergillus was the predominant genus and Aspergillus niger (potential producer of ochratoxin A) the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (potential producer of aflatoxins). Other species of potential toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria tenuissima species group were encountered as part of the mycobiota of the paprika samples indicating a risk of mycotoxin contamination. A. westerdijkiae was isolated for the first time in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  13. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  14. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  15. Design and maintenance of subsurface gravel wetlands.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) evaluation of : a review of Subsurface Gravel Wetlands design and specifications used by the New Hampshire : Department of Transportation (NHDOT or Department). : Subsur...

  16. Component-based framework for subsurface simulations

    Palmer, B J; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

    2007-01-01

    Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow

  17. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  18. Groundwater colloids: Their mobilization from subsurface deposits. Final report

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this program has involved developing basic understandings of the mechanisms controlling the presence of colloidal phases in groundwaters. The presence of colloids in groundwater is extremely important in that they may enable the subsurface transport of otherwise immobile pollutants like plutonium or PCBs. The major findings of this work have included: (1) Sampling groundwaters must be performed with great care in order to avoid false positives; (2) Much of the colloidal load moving below ground derives from the aquifer solids themselves; and (3) The detachment of colloids from the aquifer solids occurs in response to changes in the groundwater solution chemistry

  19. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  20. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  1. Intelligent SUBsurface Quality : Intelligent use of subsurface infrastructure for surface quality

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Kuzniecow Bacchin, T.; Lafleur, F.; van de Ven, F.H.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Broere, W.; Laumann, S.J.; Klaassen, R.G.; Marinetti, C.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the urban renewal of (delta) metropolises and concentrates on the question how to design resilient, durable (subsurface) infrastructure in urban renewal projects using parameters of the natural system – linking in an efficient way (a) water cycle, (b) soil and subsurface

  2. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  3. THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE

    THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE. W.H. Holzapfel and A.N. Hail. Receipt of MS s.3.76. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of hetoria and. Animol and Dairv Science Reseorch Institute, Irene. OPSOMMING: DIE MIKROBIOLOGIE VAN SUID.AFRIKAANSE DROiWORS.

  4. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  5. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  6. Subsurface barrier verification technologies, informal report

    Heiser, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community is subsurface barriers. Some of the uses of subsurface barriers include surrounding and/or containing buried waste, as secondary confinement of underground storage tanks, to direct or contain subsurface contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area. To be most effective the barriers should be continuous and depending on use, have few or no breaches. A breach may be formed through numerous pathways including: discontinuous grout application, from joints between panels and from cracking due to grout curing or wet-dry cycling. The ability to verify barrier integrity is valuable to the DOE, EPA, and commercial sector and will be required to gain full public acceptance of subsurface barriers as either primary or secondary confinement at waste sites. It is recognized that no suitable method exists for the verification of an emplaced barrier's integrity. The large size and deep placement of subsurface barriers makes detection of leaks challenging. This becomes magnified if the permissible leakage from the site is low. Detection of small cracks (fractions of an inch) at depths of 100 feet or more has not been possible using existing surface geophysical techniques. Compounding the problem of locating flaws in a barrier is the fact that no placement technology can guarantee the completeness or integrity of the emplaced barrier. This report summarizes several commonly used or promising technologies that have been or may be applied to in-situ barrier continuity verification

  7. Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation

    S.Su

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M and O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations

  8. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  9. [A historical view of the specialty of clinical microbiology].

    Pérez, Evelio Perea; Álvarez, Rogelio Martín

    2010-10-01

    Clinical microbiology today is a well established specialty in Spain whose development has necessarily been linked to improvements in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Over time, clinical, teaching, and research structures have been organized around these diseases. In addition, a scientific society for specialists in infectious diseases (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica) has been set up, which in turn, publishes the journal ENFERMEDADES INFECCIOSAS Y MICROBIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA, and organizes congresses, meetings, working groups and a quality control program, etc. Clinical microbiologists will continue to be needed to meet future challenges (identification of new pathogenic microorganisms, methodological changes, diagnostic quality and speed, nosocomial infections, the development of antimicrobial resistance, etc.), which constitute a well-defined area of knowledge specific to our specialty. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    1997-01-01

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  11. Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria

    Romine, M.F.; Brockman, F.J.

    1993-04-01

    The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates

  12. MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual

    White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the open-quotes User's Guide and Referenceclose quotes companion document

  13. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  14. Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments

    Holmes, Dawn E.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'Guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll , Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2007-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants.

  15. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms. Implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    Banaszak, J.E.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, the way how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides is assessed. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. The way how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility is described. Why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions is explained. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. Development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions is described. Throughout, the key research needs are identified. (author)

  16. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs

  17. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  18. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 104 evaluation of microbiological purity of some brands of ...

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Microbiological purity, tetracycline, contaminants, bacterial load, fungal load, microbiological ... Just like food substances, pharmaceutical products .... Malaysia. Chlortetracycline a. Mar. 2005. Mar. 2008. Ghana b. Aug. 2005. Aug.

  20. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350... consists primarily of liquid or solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate...

  1. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...

    A mathematical model was developed to permit dynamic simulation of nitrogen interaction in a pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland receiving effluents from primary facultative pond. The system was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, which was provided with root zone depth of 75 cm. The root zone was ...

  3. Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil ...

    Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil competence and soil corrosivity at and engineering site location in Akungba-Akoko, ... The study concluded that the characteristics of the earth materials in the site would be favourable to normal engineering structures/materials that may be located on it.

  4. Microbiological Assessment of Commercially Available Quinine ...

    Erah

    Key words: Microbiological quality, quinine syrups, water for injection, pyrogen test. Received: 12 February ... pharmaceutical industry is indispensable, especially in ... Production of WFI or any other pharmaceutical products .... culture media.

  5. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    Dobbins, Joanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  6. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. ... of edible locally produced dry season leafy vegetables cultivated in south east Enugu, Nigeria ... Cross-seasonal analysis of bacteriological profile of water sources as a disease risk ...

  7. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  8. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  11. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  12. Final Technical Report. Origins of subsurface microorganisms: Relating laboratory microcosm studies to a geologic time scale; FINAL

    Kieft, Thomas; Amy, Penny S.; Phillips, Fred M.

    1998-01-01

    This project was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Deep Subsurface Science Program. It was part of a larger effort to determine the origins of subsurface microorganisms. Two hypotheses have been suggested for the origins of subsurface microorganisms: (1) microorganisms were deposited at the time of (or shortly after) geologic deposition of rocks and sediments (the in situ survival hypothesis), and (2) microorganisms have been transported from surface environments to subsurface rocks and sediments since the time of geologic deposition (transport hypothesis). These two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Depending on the geological setting, either one or both of these hypotheses may best explain microbial origins. Our project focused on the in situ survival hypothesis. We tested the hypothesis that microorganisms (individuals populations and communities) can survive long-term sequestration within subsurface sediments. Other objectives were to identify geologic conditions that favor long-term survival, identify physiological traits of microorganisms that favor long-term survival, and determine which groups of microorganisms are most likely to survive long-term sequestration in subsurface sediments. We tested this hypothesis using a combination of pure culture techniques in laboratory microcosms under controlled conditions and field experiments with buried subsurface sediments

  13. Medical microbiology training needs and trainee experience.

    Seale, Josephine; Elamin, Wael; Millar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Training in microbiology is continuing to evolve. Standardisation of this process has, in part, been achieved through the development of a training curriculum by the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath). A substantial proportion of microbiology training occurs through telephone consultations. To ascertain the content of these interactions and the extent to which the necessary skills outlined by the curriculum are attainable via these consultations. Records of telephone consultations made by microbiology registrars (SpR) on the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) over a 6 month period were analysed with regard to who initiated contact and the type of advice provided. An average of 426 SpR entries per month were made on the LIMS following telephone consultations. These consultations were predominantly initiated by fellow clinicians as opposed to the SpR. The majority (79%) of advice entailed guidance as to the use of antimicrobials which resulted in an alteration of the current regimen in 54% of cases. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the telephone consultations of microbiology trainees. It is concluded that although such interactions provide a means of attaining some of the competencies outlined by the RCPath curriculum, the bias towards antimicrobial advice reflects a discrepancy between the needs of the service users and the broad skill set advocated by the current microbiology training programme. Future modifications will need to take this into account to ensure both the training of SpRs and the microbiology service is fit for purpose.

  14. Hugo and Russell's pharmaceutical microbiology

    Denyer, S. P; Hugo, W. B

    2011-01-01

    ... Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell's publishing program has been merged with Wiley's global Scientific, Technical and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwel...

  15. Microbiologically influenced corrosion. Final report for fiscal year 1995

    Jones, D.A.; Amy, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious concern when considering measures to guard against long-term corrosion of waste package containers at Yucca Mountain. An experimental program has been initiated to gain a better fundamental understanding of MIC in repository environments. Some engineering objectives will be achieved during the investigation: a reproducible apparatus and procedure for electrochemical monitoring of MIC will be developed; the most aggressive combinations of bacteria will be determined, and the MIC resistance of various candidate alloys for the multipurpose container (MPC) will be measured

  16. Microbiologically influenced corrosion. Final report for fiscal year 1995

    Jones, D.A. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Amy, P.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-06-06

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious concern when considering measures to guard against long-term corrosion of waste package containers at Yucca Mountain. An experimental program has been initiated to gain a better fundamental understanding of MIC in repository environments. Some engineering objectives will be achieved during the investigation: a reproducible apparatus and procedure for electrochemical monitoring of MIC will be developed; the most aggressive combinations of bacteria will be determined, and the MIC resistance of various candidate alloys for the multipurpose container (MPC) will be measured.

  17. Microbial Influence on the Performance of Subsurface, Salt-Based Radioactive Waste Repositories. An Evaluation Based on Microbial Ecology, Bioenergetics and Projected Repository Conditions

    Swanson, J.S.; Reed, D.T.; Cherkouk, A.; Arnold, T.; Meleshyn, A.; Patterson, Russ

    2018-01-01

    For the past several decades, the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club has been supporting and overseeing the characterisation of rock salt as a potential host rock for deep geological repositories. This extensive evaluation of deep geological settings is aimed at determining - through a multidisciplinary approach - whether specific sites are suitable for radioactive waste disposal. Studying the microbiology of granite, basalt, tuff, and clay formations in both Europe and the United States has been an important part of this investigation, and much has been learnt about the potential influence of microorganisms on repository performance, as well as about deep subsurface microbiology in general. Some uncertainty remains, however, around the effects of microorganisms on salt-based repository performance. Using available information on the microbial ecology of hyper-saline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions and studies related to repository microbiology, this report summarises the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based radioactive waste repositories

  18. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  19. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  20. Enhancing active learning in microbiology through case based learning: experiences from an Indian medical school.

    Ciraj, A M; Vinod, P; Ramnarayan, K

    2010-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is an interactive student-centered exploration of real life situations. This paper describes the use of CBL as an educational strategy for promoting active learning in microbiology. CBL was introduced in the microbiology curriculum for the second year medical students after an orientation program for faculty and students. After intervention, the average student scores in CBL topics were compared with scores obtained in lecture topics. An attempt was also made to find the effect of CBL on the academic performance. Student and faculty perception on CBL were also recorded. In a cross sectional survey conducted to assess the effectiveness of CBL, students responded that, apart from helping them acquire substantive knowledge in microbiology, CBL sessions enhanced their analytic, collaborative, and communication skills. The block examination scores in CBL topics were significantly higher than those obtained for lecture topics. Faculty rated the process to be highly effective in stimulating student interest and long term retention of microbiology knowledge. The student scores were significantly higher in the group that used CBL, compared to the group that had not used CBL as a learning strategy. Our experience indicated that CBL sessions enhanced active learning in microbiology. More frequent use of CBL sessions would not only help the student gain requisite knowledge in microbiology but also enhance their analytic and communication skills.

  1. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    Blohm, M.; Hatch, W.E.; Hoekstra, P.; Porter, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Effective site characterization requires that many relevant geologic, hydrogeologic and biological properties of the subsurface be evaluated. A parameter that often directly influences chemical processes, ground water flow, contaminant transport, and biological activities is the lateral and vertical distribution of clays. The objective of the research an development under this contract is to improve non-invasive methods for detecting clay lenses. The percentage of clays in soils influences most physical properties that have an impact on environmental restoration and waste management. For example, the percentage of clays determine hydraulic permeability and the rate of contaminant migration, absorption of radioactive elements, and interaction with organic compounds. Therefore, improvements in non-invasive mapping of clays in the subsurface will result in better: characterization of contaminated sites, prediction of pathways of contaminant migration, assessment of risk of contaminants to public health if contaminants reach water supplies, design of remedial action and evaluation of alternative action

  2. Water Table Recession in Subsurface Drained Soils

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Yomota, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical drainage equations are intensively tested in many parts of humid and arid regions and are commonly used in drainage design. However, this is still a great concern in Japan as the drainage design is exclusively based on local experiences and empirical basis. There is a need therefore to evaluate the theoretical drainage equations under Japanese field conditions to recommend equations for design of subsurface drainage systems. This was the main motivation for this study. While drain...

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  4. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    R. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  6. Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design

    Linden, A.; Saunders, R.S.; Boutin, R.J.; Harrington, P.G.; Lachman, K.D.; Trautner, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report

  7. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial

  8. Modeling Subsurface Behavior at the System Level: Considerations and a Path Forward

    Geesey, G.

    2005-12-01

    The subsurface is an obscure but essential resource to life on Earth. It is an important region for carbon production and sequestration, a source and reservoir for energy, minerals and metals and potable water. There is a growing need to better understand subsurface possesses that control the exploitation and security of these resources. Our best models often fail to predict these processes at the field scale because of limited understanding of 1) the processes and the controlling parameters, 2) how processes are coupled at the field scale 3) geological heterogeneities that control hydrological, geochemical and microbiological processes at the field scale and 4) lack of data sets to calibrate and validate numerical models. There is a need for experimental data obtained at scales larger than those obtained at the laboratory bench that take into account the influence of hydrodynamics, geochemical reactions including complexation and chelation/adsorption/precipitation/ion exchange/oxidation-reduction/colloid formation and dissolution, and reactions of microbial origin. Furthermore, the coupling of each of these processes and reactions needs to be evaluated experimentally at a scale that produces data that can be used to calibrate numerical models so that they accurately describe field scale system behavior. Establishing the relevant experimental scale for collection of data from coupled processes remains a challenge and will likely be process-dependent and involve iterations of experimentation and data collection at different intermediate scales until the models calibrated with the appropriate date sets achieve an acceptable level of performance. Assuming that the geophysicists will soon develop technologies to define geological heterogeneities over a wide range of scales in the subsurface, geochemists need to continue to develop techniques to remotely measure abiotic reactions, while geomicrobiologists need to continue their development of complementary technologies

  9. Molecular analysis of deep subsurface bacteria

    Jimenez Baez, L.E.

    1989-09-01

    Deep sediments samples from site C10a, in Appleton, and sites, P24, P28, and P29, at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina were studied to determine their microbial community composition, DNA homology and mol %G+C. Different geological formations with great variability in hydrogeological parameters were found across the depth profile. Phenotypic identification of deep subsurface bacteria underestimated the bacterial diversity at the three SRS sites, since bacteria with the same phenotype have different DNA composition and less than 70% DNA homology. Total DNA hybridization and mol %G+C analysis of deep sediment bacterial isolates suggested that each formation is comprised of different microbial communities. Depositional environment was more important than site and geological formation on the DNA relatedness between deep subsurface bacteria, since more 70% of bacteria with 20% or more of DNA homology came from the same depositional environments. Based on phenotypic and genotypic tests Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.-like bacteria were identified in 85 million years old sediments. This suggests that these microbial communities might have been adapted during a long period of time to the environmental conditions of the deep subsurface

  10. Linking Chaotic Advection with Subsurface Biogeochemical Processes

    Mays, D. C.; Freedman, V. L.; White, S. K.; Fang, Y.; Neupauer, R.

    2017-12-01

    This work investigates the extent to which groundwater flow kinematics drive subsurface biogeochemical processes. In terms of groundwater flow kinematics, we consider chaotic advection, whose essential ingredient is stretching and folding of plumes. Chaotic advection is appealing within the context of groundwater remediation because it has been shown to optimize plume spreading in the laminar flows characteristic of aquifers. In terms of subsurface biogeochemical processes, we consider an existing model for microbially-mediated reduction of relatively mobile uranium(VI) to relatively immobile uranium(IV) following injection of acetate into a floodplain aquifer beneath a former uranium mill in Rifle, Colorado. This model has been implemented in the reactive transport code eSTOMP, the massively parallel version of STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases). This presentation will report preliminary numerical simulations in which the hydraulic boundary conditions in the eSTOMP model are manipulated to simulate chaotic advection resulting from engineered injection and extraction of water through a manifold of wells surrounding the plume of injected acetate. This approach provides an avenue to simulate the impact of chaotic advection within the existing framework of the eSTOMP code.

  11. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    Rishi Ram Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Gulf of Mexico with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen and allows qualitative detection of microbial activity irrespective of the predominant electron-accepting process. Because the method only requires samples frozen immediately after recovery, the assay can be used for identifying microbial activity in subsurface ecosystems without the need to preserve live material.We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and varies, dependent upon the predominant terminal electron acceptor. Lowest per-cell potential rates characterize the zone of nitrate reduction and highest per-cell potential rates occur in the methanogenic zone. Possible reasons for this relationship to predominant electron acceptor include (i increasing importance of fermentation in successively deeper biogeochemical zones and (ii adaptation of H2ases to successively higher concentrations of H2 in successively deeper zones.

  13. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Subsurface barrier feasibility evaluation: External review meeting report

    Lindberg, S.L.; Rouse, J.K.

    1994-12-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company -- Tank Waste Remediation System Division (TWRS) Program is evaluating subsurface barrier technologies for potential use in supporting remediation of the Hanford Tank Farms for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). An External Review Team (ERT) was assembled to perform an independent technical review of the work performed to-date supporting the evaluation process. A set of draft documents was forwarded to the ERT for their review, and a meeting was held August 10 through 12, 1994, to facilitate comments and resolutions. This document summarizes the meeting, the comments provided by the ERT, and the ongoing work to resolve the comments and support a pending decision by The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office; the Washington State Department of Ecology; and the US Environmental Protection Agency

  15. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  16. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  17. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    Rubin, S J

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distribution of viral isolates are similar to those reported from microbiology laboratories with separate virology laboratories directed by a full-time doctoral-level virologist. Our seven years' experience demonstrates that a microbiology laboratory without a full-time doctoral-level virologist can provide clinically useful virologic information.

  18. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  19. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic u...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy.......The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  20. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing.

    Didelot, Xavier; Bowden, Rory; Wilson, Daniel J; Peto, Tim E A; Crook, Derrick W

    2012-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here, we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by using next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties, such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. We predict that the application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow.

  1. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  2. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  3. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  4. The Microbiological@mind project: a public engagement initiative of Turin University bringing microbiology and health education into primary schools.

    Scalas, Daniela; Roana, Janira; Mandras, Narcisa; Cuccu, Sonia; Banche, Giuliana; Marra, Elisa Simona; Collino, Nicoletta; Piersigilli, Giorgia; Allizond, Valeria; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    2017-10-01

    Despite ongoing global efforts, antimicrobial resistance continues to threaten the treatment of an ever-increasing range of bacterial infections. There is substantial evidence that public education programs that foster microbial literacy amongst young school audiences may improve correct knowledge of specific health issues, such as prevention of microbial infections and responsible use of antibiotics. The aim of the Microbiological@mind project was to engage primary school students with the subject of microbiology, to promote both scientific interest and awareness towards correct behaviors that may ensure a safer lifestyle. Interactive workshops based on a full ''hands-on'' approach were carried out by an expert team from the University of Turin to over 1200 children aged 9-11 years at primary schools in Turin. A questionnaire (pre- and post-activity test) on the main topic (i.e. antibiotics) was used to assess project effectiveness. The workshops provided a useful means to strengthen the understanding of basic microbiology concepts amongst students. Students' baseline knowledge of antibiotics was quite low, as low percentages of correct answers on antibiotic action and use (5.0% and 12.1%, respectively) were found in the pre-activity tests. A significant increase (P teaching activity. Our findings support the idea that microbial literacy in early childhood through hands-on educational programs is of great importance to foster children's interest in science learning, and to provide young people with information about general and specific health-related issues, such as prudent antibiotic use, for a more responsible citizenship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Applications of flow cytometry in food microbiology

    Serrano Valerin, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of data about cytometry and its applications is performed to analyze the impact on food microbiology. The technique of flow cytometry is described and the use in various fields of microbiology is analyzed. Flow cytometry future could be implemented in many clinical laboratories and food, considering the cost / benefit test to be done, because at the moment it has a high cost. The existence of new fluorochromes and monoclonal antibodies enable that many intracellular and extracellular cell parameters are detected in the future. The technique can be developed in the country in few years considering that the technique has improved the sensitivity and specificity of many tests [es

  6. Manual de microbiología

    Montoya Campuzano, Olga Inés

    1999-01-01

    Resumen: el manual de microbiología general fue elaborado con el objetivo de proporcionarle al estudiante de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional, las técnicas básicas en microbiología, de interés para aquellos cursos que 10 requieren. El estudiante trabajara con los microorganismos (patógenos y no patógenos de importancia, en las áreas de asistencia técnica que le corresponde prestar como: calidad de agua, de alimentos, de Semen entre otras

  7. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training

    Antunes, Andre

    2015-12-23

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users\\' needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  9. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training.

    Antunes, André; Stackebrandt, Erko; Lima, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users' needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  11. An electrical resistivity-based method for investigation of subsurface structure

    Alves Meira Neto, A.; Litwin, D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Ferre, T. P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Resolving the spatial distribution of soil porosity within the subsurface is of great importance for understanding flow and transport within heterogeneous media. Additionally, porosity patterns can be associated with the availability of water and carbon dioxide that will drive geochemical reactions and constrain microbiological growth. The use of controlled experimentation has the potential to circumvent problems related to the external and internal variability of natural systems, while also allowing a higher degree of observability. In this study, we suggest an ERT-based method of retrieving porosity fields based on the application of Archie's law associated with an experimental procedure that can be used in laboratory-scale studies. We used a 2 cubic meter soil lysimeter, equipped with 238 electrodes distributed along its walls for testing the method. The lysimeter serves as a scaled-down version of the highly monitored artificial hillslopes at the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) located at Biosphere 2 - University of Arizona. The capability of the ERT system in deriving spatially distributed patterns of porosity with respect to its several sources of uncertainty was numerically evaluated. The results will be used to produce an optimal experimental design and for assessing the reliability of experimental results. This novel approach has the potential to further resolve subsurface heterogeneity within the LEO project, and highlight the use of ERT-derived results for hydro-bio-geochemical studies.

  12. Using Muons to Image the Subsurface.

    Bonal, Nedra [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cashion, Avery Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cieslewski, Grzegorz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dorsey, Daniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foris, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dreesen, Wendi [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States); Green, J. Andrew [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwellenbach, David [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Muons are subatomic particles that can penetrate the earth 's crust several kilometers and may be useful for subsurface characterization . The absorption rate of muons depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity, making them beneficial for subsurface investigation . Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. This work consists of three parts to address the use of muons for subsurface characterization : 1) assess the use of muon scattering for estimating density differences of common rock types, 2 ) using muon flux to detect a void in rock, 3) measure muon direction by designing a new detector. Results from this project lay the groundwork for future directions in this field. Low-density objects can be detected by muons even when enclosed in high-density material like lead, and even small changes in density (e.g. changes due to fracturing of material) can be detected. Rock density has a linear relationship with muon scattering density per rock volume when this ratio is greater than 0.10 . Limitations on using muon scattering to assess density changes among common rock types have been identified. However, other analysis methods may show improved results for these relatively low density materials. Simulations show that muons can be used to image void space (e.g. tunnels) within rock but experimental results have been ambiguous. Improvements are suggested to improve imaging voids such as tunnels through rocks. Finally, a muon detector has been designed and tested to measure muon direction, which will improve signal-to-noise ratio and help address fundamental questions about the source of upgoing muons .

  13. Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; McKinzie, II Billy John [Houston, TX

    2009-08-18

    A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

  14. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  15. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  16. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... point source diffusion. A ray source corresponds better to the light that refracts through the surface of a translucent material. Using this ray source, we are able to take the direction of the incident light ray and the direction toward the point of emergence into account. We use a dipole construction...

  17. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  18. Prediction of future subsurface temperatures in Korea

    Lee, Y.; Kim, S. K.; Jeong, J.; SHIN, E.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of climate change has been increasingly recognized because it has had the huge amount of impact on social, economic, and environmental aspect. For the reason, paleoclimate change has been studied intensively using different geological tools including borehole temperatures and future surface air temperatures (SATs) have been predicted for the local areas and the globe. Future subsurface temperatures can have also enormous impact on various areas and be predicted by an analytical method or a numerical simulation using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data of rocks. SATs have been measured at 73 meteorological observatories since 1907 in Korea and predicted at same locations up to the year of 2100. Measured SATs at the Seoul meteorological observatory increased by about 3.0 K from the year of 1907 to the present. Predicted SATs have 4 different scenarios depending on mainly CO2 concentration and national action plan on climate change in the future. The hottest scenario shows that SATs in Korea will increase by about 5.0 K from the present to the year of 2100. In addition, thermal diffusivity values have been measured on 2,903 rock samples collected from entire Korea. Data pretreatment based on autocorrelation analysis was conducted to control high frequency noise in thermal diffusivity data. Finally, future subsurface temperatures in Korea were predicted up to the year of 2100 by a FEM simulation code (COMSOL Multiphysics) using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data in Korea. At Seoul, the results of predictions show that subsurface temperatures will increase by about 5.4 K, 3.0 K, 1.5 K, and 0.2 K from the present to 2050 and then by about 7.9 K, 4.8 K, 2.5 K, and 0.5 K to 2100 at the depths of 10 m, 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m, respectively. We are now proceeding numerical simulations for subsurface temperature predictions for 73 locations in Korea.

  19. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  20. Functions and requirements for subsurface barriers used in support of single-shell tank waste retrieval

    Lowe, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Program includes project and program activities for receiving, storing, maintaining, treating, and disposing onsite, or packaging for offsite disposal, all Hanford tank waste. Hanford tank waste includes the contents of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), plus any new waste added to these facilities, and all encapsulated cesium and strontium stored onsite and returned from offsite users. A key element of the TWRS Program is retrieval of the waste in the SSTs. The waste stored in these underground tanks must be removed in order to minimize environmental, safety, and health risks associated with continuing waste storage. Subsurface barriers are being considered as a means to mitigate the effects of tank leaks including those occurring during SST waste retrieval. The functions to be performed by subsurface barriers based on their role in retrieving waste from the SSTs are described, and the requirements which constrain their application are identified. These functions and requirements together define the functional baseline for subsurface barriers

  1. Tetracycline Resistance in the Subsurface of a Poultry Farm: Influence of Poultry Wastes

    You, Y.; Ball, W. P.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered to be important man-made reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Using the electromagnetic induction (EMI) method of geophysical characterization, we measured the apparent subsurface electrical conductivity (ECa) at a CAFO site in order to assess the movement of pollutants associated with animal waste. The map of ECa and other available data suggest that (1) soil surrounding a poultry litter storage shed is contaminated by poultry waste, (2) a contamination plume in the subsurface emanates from that shed, and (3) the development of that plume is due to groundwater flow. We focused on understanding the spread of tetracycline resistance (Tc\\tiny R), because tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in food animal production and therefore probably used at our field site. Microbiological experiments show the presence of Tc\\tiny R bacteria in the subsurface and indicate higher concentrations in the top soil than in the aquifer. Environmental DNA was extracted to identify CAFO- associated Tc\\tiny R genes and to explore a link between the presence of Tc\\tiny R and CAFO practices. A "shot-gun" cloning approach is under development to target the most prevalent Tc\\tiny R gene. This gene will be monitored in future experiments, in which we will study the transmission of Tc\\tiny R to naive E.~coli under selective pressure of Tc. Experimental results will be used to develop a mathematical/numerical model in order to describe the transmission process and to subsequently make estimates regarding the large-scale spread of antibiotic resistance.

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  3. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Causative Organisms and Mechanisms

    2012-01-31

    enviromental composition as a potential method for reversing microbiologically influenced corrosion, Corrosion (NAC’E) International. Houston. Texas...International fellow and associate editor for Biofouling, The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research. J. Lee is a Materials and Corrosion Engineer

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of linolenic ...

    SWEET

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... Microbiological analysis revealed that the crude extracted oilseeds were pathogenic bacteria free and the lipolytic bacteria counted belonged to ... excitable membranes such as the brain and nervous ..... plasma cholesterol (Khosala and Sundram, 1996; Hunter.

  5. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  6. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  7. Biotechnology from Microbiology Perspective | Mendie | Nigerian ...

    Advances in DNA recombinant technology and genetic engineering have created novel cell forms with improved characteristics which have impacted positively on human lives. However, the applications of cloning to humans have been resented by many governments due to ethical issues involved. Other microbiological ...

  8. Basics of radiation microbiology for food protection

    Wills, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The microbiological basics of food poisoning, food spoilage, and ionizing energy treatments are presented. Factors influencing the microbial resistance of ionizing radiation, including the use of physical agents for combination treatments, are briefly reviewed, and parameters involved in dose selection are considered

  9. Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters ...

    Poor working conditions , frequent stock depletion of chemicals , lack of maintenance culture , lack of emergency preparedness and poor communication were also cited. The study has revealed that the microbiological quality of raw water was very poor but that water treatment was efficient in the majority of SWTPs studied ...

  10. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  11. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  13. Reasons for Suboptimal Learning in Medical Microbiology

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Medical microbiology presents a challenge to undergraduate students, mostly due to its extensive content and complexity of unfamiliar terminology. In addition to a narrative review of the literature, we report findings on students' motivation for and approach to learning in the Infections module of an undergraduate medical curriculum, and their…

  14. microbiological eva fermented african locust bea preservativ

    userpc

    They are also important prote supplement (Omafuvbe, 2002). Shelf life is th period of time during which the food produc was remain safe , be certain to retain desire microbiology, physical, chemical and senso characteristics and comply the nutritional dat when stored under conditions (temperature o handling) Kolapo et al., ...

  15. Next generation of microbiological risk assessment

    Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Bover-Cid, Sara; Dagnas, Stéphane; Ellouze, Mariem; Guillou, Sandrine; Nychas, George; O'Mahony, Cian; Pérez-Rodriguez, Fernando; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now

  16. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  17. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  18. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  19. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  20. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    Teufel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological meat quality, growth ...

    Beatriz

    2015-05-15

    May 15, 2015 ... and microbiological quality of sheep and goat meat and compares the .... of Rio Verde, GO and supervised by the Municipal Inspection Service (Serviço de ... blood, skin, guts, internal organs, feet (severed at the level of the.

  2. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    ... survival of indicator microorganisms in finished-products were decreased. But intensity of crust roasty aroma did not have the same profile. Therefore, process requirements for optimum microbiological shelf life and roasty aroma were different, which should be taken into account in designing sourdough baking processes.

  3. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  4. Processing, screening and microbiological characterization of ...

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained from the fresh stem of Laccosperma opacum (Rattan) found in coastal region of Niger Delta forest zones of West Africa was investigated to ascertain its microbiological standard for use as a potential pharmaceutical excipient. The product, coded LO-MCC, was prepared by treating ...

  5. Polar and Alpine Microbiology - Earth's Cryobiosphere

    Elster, Josef; Margesin, R.; Wagner, D.; Häggblom, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku fiw221. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diversity * Polar regions * Polar Microbiology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  6. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  7. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary ...

    2005-08-01

    Aug 1, 2005 ... February 2013 Downloaded from www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com. MaIN arTIClES. 10. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Robert L. Serafino Wania MBBS, MrCP, MSc (Trop Med). Pathophysiology. Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to one of.

  8. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  9. Image-based overlay measurement using subsurface ultrasonic resonance force microscopy

    Tamer, M. S.; van der Lans, M. J.; Sadeghian, H.

    2018-03-01

    Image Based Overlay (IBO) measurement is one of the most common techniques used in Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing to extract the overlay error values. The overlay error is measured using dedicated overlay targets which are optimized to increase the accuracy and the resolution, but these features are much larger than the IC feature size. IBO measurements are realized on the dedicated targets instead of product features, because the current overlay metrology solutions, mainly based on optics, cannot provide sufficient resolution on product features. However, considering the fact that the overlay error tolerance is approaching 2 nm, the overlay error measurement on product features becomes a need for the industry. For sub-nanometer resolution metrology, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is widely used, though at the cost of very low throughput. The semiconductor industry is interested in non-destructive imaging of buried structures under one or more layers for the application of overlay and wafer alignment, specifically through optically opaque media. Recently an SPM technique has been developed for imaging subsurface features which can be potentially considered as a solution for overlay metrology. In this paper we present the use of Subsurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) used for IBO measurement. We used SSURFM for imaging the most commonly used overlay targets on a silicon substrate and photoresist. As a proof of concept we have imaged surface and subsurface structures simultaneously. The surface and subsurface features of the overlay targets are fabricated with programmed overlay errors of +/-40 nm, +/-20 nm, and 0 nm. The top layer thickness changes between 30 nm and 80 nm. Using SSURFM the surface and subsurface features were successfully imaged and the overlay errors were extracted, via a rudimentary image processing algorithm. The measurement results are in agreement with the nominal values of the programmed overlay errors.

  10. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: User's guide

    White, M.D.; Oostrom, M.

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Technology Development, has requested the demonstration of remediation technologies for the cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated radionuclides within the soil and groundwater at arid sites. This demonstration program, called the VOC-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration Program (Arid-ID), has been initially directed at a volume of unsaturated and saturated soil contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. A principal subtask of the Arid-ID program involves the development of an integrated engineering simulator for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of various remediation technologies. The engineering simulator''s intended users include scientists and engineers who are investigating soil physics phenomena associated with remediation technologies. Principal design goals for the engineer simulator include broad applicability, verified algorithms, quality assurance controls, and validated simulations against laboratory and field-scale experiments. An important goal for the simulator development subtask involves the ability to scale laboratory and field-scale experiments to full-scale remediation technologies, and to transfer acquired technology to other arid sites. The STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator has been developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for modeling remediation technologies. Information on the use, application, and theoretical basis of the STOMP simulator theory and discussions on the governing equations, constitutive relations, and numerical solution algorithms for the STOMP simulator

  11. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: Application guide

    Nichols, W.E.; Aimo, N.J.; Oostrom, M.; White, M.D.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Technology Development, has requested the demonstration of remediation technologies for the cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated radionuclides within the soil and ground water at arid sites. This demonstration program, called the VOC-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstrated Program (Arid-ID), has been initially directed at a volume of unsaturated and saturated soil contaminated with carbon tetrachloride on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. A principal subtask of the Arid-ID program involves the development of an integrated engineering simulator for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of various remediation technologies. The engineering simulator''s intended users include scientists and engineers who are investigating soil physics phenomena associated with remediation technologies. Principal design goals for the engineering simulator include broad applicability, verified algorithms, quality assurance controls, and validated simulations against laboratory and field-scale experiments. An important goal for the simulator development subtask involves the ability to scale laboratory and field-scale experiments to full-scale remediation technologies, and to transfer acquired technology to other arid sites. The STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for modeling remediation technologies. Information on the use, application, and theoretical basis of the STOMP simulator are documented in three companion guide guides. This document, the Application Guide, provides a suite of example applications of the STOMP simulator

  12. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  13. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for medical...

  14. Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants

    Holliger, Christof; Gaspard, Sarra; Glod, Guy; Heijman, Cornelis; Schumacher, Wolfram; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Vazquez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Due to leakages, spills, improper disposal and accidents during transport, organic compounds have become subsurface contaminants that threaten important drinking water resources. One strategy to remediate such polluted subsurface environments is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria. It is often sufficient to supply the subsurface with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and aerobic treatments are still dominating. However, anaerobic processes have advantages such as low ...

  15. A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS) system for rapid roadway assessment.

    Lu, Yifeng; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Yinghong; McDaniel, J Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2013-05-08

    Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test.

  16. A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS System for Rapid Roadway Assessment

    Ming L. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test.

  17. Predictability of Subsurface Temperature and the AMOC

    Chang, Y.; Schubert, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    GEOS 5 coupled model is extensively used for experimental decadal climate prediction. Understanding the limits of decadal ocean predictability is critical for making progress in these efforts. Using this model, we study the subsurface temperature initial value predictability, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and its impacts on the global climate. Our approach is to utilize the idealized data assimilation technology developed at the GMAO. The technique 'replay' allows us to assess, for example, the impact of the surface wind stresses and/or precipitation on the ocean in a very well controlled environment. By running the coupled model in replay mode we can in fact constrain the model using any existing reanalysis data set. We replay the model constraining (nudging) it to the MERRA reanalysis in various fields from 1948-2012. The fields, u,v,T,q,ps, are adjusted towards the 6-hourly analyzed fields in atmosphere. The simulated AMOC variability is studied with a 400-year-long segment of replay integration. The 84 cases of 10-year hindcasts are initialized from 4 different replay cycles. Here, the variability and predictability are examined further by a measure to quantify how much the subsurface temperature and AMOC variability has been influenced by atmospheric forcing and by ocean internal variability. The simulated impact of the AMOC on the multi-decadal variability of the SST, sea surface height (SSH) and sea ice extent is also studied.

  18. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called ''data fusion,'' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site

  19. Dislocation model of a subsurface crack

    Yang, F.; Li, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A dislocation model of a subsurface crack parallel to the surface is presented. For tensile loading, the results agree with those of previous workers except that we studied the crack very close to the surface and found that K II (mode II stress intensity factor) approaches K I (mode I stress intensity factor) to within about 22% (K II =0.78K I ). (Note that K II is zero when the crack is far away from the surface). Using bending theory for such situations, it is found that both stress intensity factors are inversely proportional to the 3/2 power of the distance between the subsurface crack and the free surface. For shear loading, the crack faces overlap each other for the free traction condition. This indicates the failure of the model. However, there was no overlap for tensile loading even though the stresses in front of the crack oscillate somewhat when the crack is very close to the surface. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Atmospheric energy for subsurface life on Mars?

    Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    The location and density of biologically useful energy sources on Mars will limit the biomass, spatial distribution, and organism size of any biota. Subsurface Martian organisms could be supplied with a large energy flux from the oxidation of photochemically produced atmospheric H(2) and CO diffusing into the regolith. However, surface abundance measurements of these gases demonstrate that no more than a few percent of this available flux is actually being consumed, suggesting that biological activity driven by atmospheric H(2) and CO is limited in the top few hundred meters of the subsurface. This is significant because the available but unused energy is extremely large: for organisms at 30-m depth, it is 2,000 times previous estimates of hydrothermal and chemical weathering energy and far exceeds the energy derivable from other atmospheric gases. This also implies that the apparent scarcity of life on Mars is not attributable to lack of energy. Instead, the availability of liquid water may be a more important factor limiting biological activity because the photochemical energy flux can only penetrate to 100- to 1,000-m depth, where most H(2)O is probably frozen. Because both atmospheric and Viking lander soil data provide little evidence for biological activity, the detection of short-lived trace gases will probably be a better indicator of any extant Martian life.

  1. Emerge - A Python environment for the modeling of subsurface transfers

    Lopez, S.; Smai, F.; Sochala, P.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of subsurface mass and energy transfers often relies on specific codes that were mainly developed using compiled languages which usually ensure computational efficiency at the expense of relatively long development times and relatively rigid software. Even if a very detailed, possibly graphical, user-interface is developed the core numerical aspects are rarely accessible and the smallest modification will always need a compilation step. Thus, user-defined physical laws or alternative numerical schemes may be relatively difficult to use. Over the last decade, Python has emerged as a popular and widely used language in the scientific community. There already exist several libraries for the pre and post-treatment of input and output files for reservoir simulators (e.g. pytough). Development times in Python are considerably reduced compared to compiled languages, and programs can be easily interfaced with libraries written in compiled languages with several comprehensive numerical libraries that provide sequential and parallel solvers (e.g. PETSc, Trilinos…). The core objective of the Emerge project is to explore the possibility to develop a modeling environment in full Python. Consequently, we are developing an open python package with the classes/objects necessary to express, discretize and solve the physical problems encountered in the modeling of subsurface transfers. We heavily relied on Python to have a convenient and concise way of manipulating potentially complex concepts with a few lines of code and a high level of abstraction. Our result aims to be a friendly numerical environment targeting both numerical engineers and physicist or geoscientists with the possibility to quickly specify and handle geometries, arbitrary meshes, spatially or temporally varying properties, PDE formulations, boundary conditions…

  2. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition

  3. Contaminant geochemistry. Interactions and transport in the subsurface environment

    Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Yaron, Bruno [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research

    2008-07-01

    This book combines earth science, subsurface hydrology and environmental geochemistry, providing a comprehensive background for specialists interested in the protection and sustainable management of the subsurface environment. The reader is introduced to the chemistry of contaminants, which usually disturb the natural equilibrium in the subsurface as a result of human activity. The major focus of the book is on contaminant reactions in soil solutions, groundwater and porous media solid phases, accounting for their persistence and transformation in the subsurface, as they are transported from the land surface into groundwater. Discussions on selected case studies are provided. (orig.)

  4. Method of imaging the electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface

    Johnson, Timothy C.

    2017-09-26

    A method of imaging electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface containing metallic structures with known locations and dimensions is disclosed. Current is injected into the subsurface to measure electrical potentials using multiple sets of electrodes, thus generating electrical resistivity tomography measurements. A numeric code is applied to simulate the measured potentials in the presence of the metallic structures. An inversion code is applied that utilizes the electrical resistivity tomography measurements and the simulated measured potentials to image the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution and remove effects of the subsurface metallic structures with known locations and dimensions.

  5. Analysis of Microbiological and Physiochemical Properties of Top ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    2Medical Laboratory, Lonia Clinic and Maternity Ovwian Delta State ... ABSTRACT: The effect of disposing municipal waste on soil was evaluated by analyzing the microbiological and enzyme ..... Analysis Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological.

  6. The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review ...

    The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The topic on milk and dairy products deals with the livestock resource of the country with respect to the microbiological ...

  7. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  8. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of stainless steel in a nuclear waste facility

    Jenkins, C.F.; Doman, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Corrosion in stainless steel cooling water piping in a nuclear waste processing facility occurred during an extended system lay-up. The failure characteristics indicated microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). The corrosion occurred at welds as pinhole penetrations in the surfaces, which opened into large subsurface void formations. Corrosive attack started in the heat-affected zones of the assembly welds, usually adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching in the affected areas revealed that voids generally grew in the wrought material as uniform, general corrosion. Tunneling (wormholing) erosion was also present. Selective attack occurred within the two-phase weld filler zone. The result was a void wall that was rough and porous-appearing, a consequence of preferential attack on the austenite. The three-dimensional spongy surface was studied optically and with the scanning electron microscope

  9. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms appear to be maintained by the consumption of organic compounds derived from adjacent deposits. Sources of organic material serving as electron donors include lignite-rich Eocene sediments beneath the Texas coastal plain, organic-rich Cretaceous shales from the southwestern US, as well as Cretaceous clays containing organic materials and fermentative bacteria from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Additionally, highly diverse microbial communities occur in regions where a source of organic matter is not apparent but where igneous rock is present. Examples include the basalt-rich subsurface of the Columbia River valley and the granitic subsurface regions of Sweden and Canada. These subsurface microbial communities appear to be maintained by the action of lithotrophic bacteria growing on H2 that is chemically generated within the subsurface. Other deep-dwelling microbial communities exist within the deep sediments of oceans. These systems often rely on anaerobic metabolism and sulfate reduction. Microbial colonization extends to the depths below which high temperatures limit the ability of microbes to survive. Energy sources for the organisms living in the oceanic subsurface may originate as oceanic sedimentary deposits. In this review, each of these microbial communities is discussed in detail with specific reference to their energy sources, their observed growth patterns, and their diverse composition. This information is critical to develop further understanding of subsurface

  10. Microbiological aspects of safety in radioactive waste management

    Ershov, B.G.; Safonov, A.V.; Nazina, T.N.; Gorbunova, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    In long-term storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste, microbiological processes play an important, and in some cases a vital role. The article discusses the issues of microbiological processes in underground liquid LLW repositories and microbiological destruction of cemented radwaste. It is shown that biological additives to cement matrices can be used to effectively prevent the occurrence of microbiological processes, increasing reliability of engineering barriers that block release of radionuclides into the areas adjacent to the repositories [ru

  11. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mud-stone

    West, J.M.; Harrison, H.; Wragg, J.; Wagner, D.; Milodowski, A.E.; Turner, G.; Lacinska, A.; Holyoake, S.; Harrington, J.; Coombs, P.; Bateman, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Aoki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. It is well recognised that microbes live in a wide range of subsurface environments including potential geological repository host rocks; and their presence can have an impact on transport processes. Microbial activity in any environment is located on chemical or physical interfaces, usually within bio-films. Their impact on transport can be physical (e.g. altering porosity) and/or chemical (e.g. changing redox conditions or altering pH) often resulting in intracellular or extracellular mineral formation or degradation. Consequently, the significance of microbial activity on the transport properties of potential host rocks for geological repositories is now being investigated. This pilot study investigates changes in transport properties that are because of microbial activity in sedimentary mud-stone rock environments at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL) in northern Japan. The geological setting of the URL is summarised elsewhere. Geo-microbiological assessments of ground waters, from boreholes, previously drilled at Horonobe, have revealed the presence of a diverse indigenous microbiological ecosystem. The impacts of the presence of these microbes on the performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, using geo-microbiological data from Horonobe, has shown that denitrifying bacteria is likely to be the group of organisms with the greatest activity. Consequently, the impact of this group of organisms, specifically Pseudomonas denitrificans, on Horonobe rock transport properties, is the focus of this study. In brief, two experiments, one biotic and a 'control', were carried out using a flow-through column operated at a constant rate of fluid flow and under pressurised conditions. Changes in biological and chemical parameters were monitored throughout the experiment together with changes in confining pressure and temperature. The experiments were

  12. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) Lead Laboratory Providing Technical Assistance to the DOE Weapons Complex in Subsurface Contamination

    Wright, J. A. Jr.; Corey, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), a DOE-HQ EM-50 organization, is hosted and managed at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. SCFA is an integrated program chartered to find technology and scientific solutions to address DOE subsurface environmental restoration problems throughout the DOE Weapons Complex. Since its inception in 1989, the SCFA program has resulted in a total of 269 deployments of 83 innovative technologies. Until recently, the primary thrust of the program has been to develop, demonstrate, and deploy those remediation technology alternatives that are solutions to technology needs identified by the DOE Sites. Over the last several years, the DOE Sites began to express a need not only for innovative technologies, but also for technical assistance. In response to this need, DOE-HQ EM-50, in collaboration with and in support of a Strategic Lab Council recommendation directed each of its Focus Areas to implement a Lead Laboratory Concept to enhance their technical capabilities. Because each Focus Area is unique as defined by the contrast in either the type of contaminants involved or the environments in which they are found, the Focus Areas were given latitude in how they set up and implemented the Lead Lab Concept. The configuration of choice for the SCFA was a Lead-Partner Lab arrangement. Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) teamed with the SCFA as the Focus Area's Lead Laboratory. SRTC then partnered with the DOE National Laboratories to create a virtual consulting function within DOE. The National Laboratories were established to help solve the Nation's most difficult problems, drawing from a resource pool of the most talented and gifted scientists and engineers. Following that logic, SRTC, through the Lead-Partner Lab arrangement, has that same resource base to draw from to provide assistance to any SCFA DOE customer throughout the Complex. This paper briefly describes how this particular arrangement is organized and

  13. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Rautemaa-Richardson, R.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Dahlen, G.; Smith, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB)

  14. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  15. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  17. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    2011-11-01

    ...] Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The... cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest areas for the possible development of FDA guidance documents...

  18. Subsurface data visualization in Virtual Reality

    Krijnen, Robbert; Smelik, Ruben; Appleton, Rick; van Maanen, Peter-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Due to their increasing complexity and size, visualization of geological data is becoming more and more important. It enables detailed examining and reviewing of large volumes of geological data and it is often used as a communication tool for reporting and education to demonstrate the importance of the geology to policy makers. In the Netherlands two types of nation-wide geological models are available: 1) Layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and 2) Voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties per voxel. The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) provides an interactive web portal that delivers maps and vertical cross-sections of such layer-based and voxel models. From this portal you can download a 3D subsurface viewer that can visualize the voxel model data of an area of 20 × 25 km with 100 × 100 × 5 meter voxel resolution on a desktop computer. Virtual Reality (VR) technology enables us to enhance the visualization of this volumetric data in a more natural way as compared to a standard desktop, keyboard mouse setup. The use of VR for data visualization is not new but recent developments has made expensive hardware and complex setups unnecessary. The availability of consumer of-the-shelf VR hardware enabled us to create an new intuitive and low visualization tool. A VR viewer has been implemented using the HTC Vive head set and allows visualization and analysis of the GSN voxel model data with geological or hydrogeological units. The user can navigate freely around the voxel data (20 × 25 km) which is presented in a virtual room at a scale of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 meters. To enable analysis, e.g. hydraulic conductivity, the user can select filters to remove specific hydrogeological units. The user can also use slicing to cut-off specific sections of the voxel data to get a closer look. This slicing

  19. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  20. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  1. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomics and metagenomics in medical microbiology.

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, sequencing tools have evolved from laborious time-consuming methodologies to real-time detection and deciphering of genomic DNA. Genome sequencing, especially using next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the landscape of microbiology and infectious disease. This deluge of sequencing data has not only enabled advances in fundamental biology but also helped improve diagnosis, typing of pathogen, virulence and antibiotic resistance detection, and development of new vaccines and culture media. In addition, NGS also enabled efficient analysis of complex human micro-floras, both commensal, and pathological, through metagenomic methods, thus helping the comprehension and management of human diseases such as obesity. This review summarizes technological advances in genomics and metagenomics relevant to the field of medical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Álvarez Estévez, Marta; Reina González, Gabriel; Aguilera Guirao, Antonio; Rodríguez Martín, Carmen; García García, Federico

    2015-10-01

    This document attempts to update the main tasks and roles of the Clinical Microbiology laboratory in HIV diagnosis and monitoring. The document is divided into three parts. The first deals with HIV diagnosis and how serological testing has changed in the last few years, aiming to improve diagnosis and to minimize missed opportunities for diagnosis. Technological improvements for HIV Viral Load are shown in the second part of the document, which also includes a detailed description of the clinical significance of low-level and very low-level viremia. Finally, the third part of the document deals with resistance to antiretroviral drugs, incorporating clinical indications for integrase and tropism testing, as well as the latest knowledge on minority variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Logan, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M and O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents

  6. Longevity of magma in the near subsurface

    Marsh, B.D.; Resmini, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Small, sporadic occurrences of basaltic volcanism are particularly difficult to evaluate in terms of long term threat to mankind because of their short overall eruptive history. Insight into future eruptive vigor and possible subsurface magma storage may be furnished by studying the ages of crystals in the eruptive products themselves. In this paper, the authors do this by applying the method of crystal size distribution theory (CSD) to a stack of basaltic lavas within the Nevada test site; namely the Dome Mtn. lavas. Preliminary results suggest a pre-eruptive residence time of 10 - 20 years, decreasing with decreasing age of lava within the sequence. These times are similar to those found by M.T. Mangan for the 1959 Kilauea (Hawaii) eruptions, and may suggest a relatively vigorous magmatic system at this time some 8 m.y. ago. Work is progressing on a greatly expanded CSD analysis of the Dome Mtn. lavas

  7. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  8. Subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS).

    Zhang, Feng; Sautter, Ken; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2009-02-03

    Here we present a straightforward patterning technique for silicon: subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS). In this method, a stencil mask is placed above a silicon surface. Radio-frequency plasma oxidation of the substrate creates a pattern of thicker oxide in the exposed regions. Etching with HF or KOH produces very shallow or much higher aspect ratio features on silicon, respectively, where patterning is confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The oxidation process itself is studied under a variety of reaction conditions, including higher and lower oxygen pressures (2 and 0.5 Torr), a variety of powers (50-400 W), different times and as a function of reagent purity (99.5 or 99.994% oxygen). SOMS can be easily executed in any normal chemistry laboratory with a plasma generator. Because of its simplicity, it may have industrial viability.

  9. Acclimation of subsurface microbial communities to mercury

    de Lipthay, Julia R; Rasmussen, Lasse D; Øregaard, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    of mercury tolerance and functional versatility of bacterial communities in contaminated soils initially were higher for surface soil, compared with the deeper soils. However, following new mercury exposure, no differences between bacterial communities were observed, which indicates a high adaptive potential......We studied the acclimation to mercury of bacterial communities of different depths from contaminated and noncontaminated floodplain soils. The level of mercury tolerance of the bacterial communities from the contaminated site was higher than those of the reference site. Furthermore, the level...... of the subsurface communities, possibly due to differences in the availability of mercury. IncP-1 trfA genes were detected in extracted community DNA from all soil depths of the contaminated site, and this finding was correlated to the isolation of four different mercury-resistance plasmids, all belonging...

  10. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  11. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  12. Microbiological Quality Control of Probiotic Products

    Astashkina, A.P.; Khudyakova, L.I.; Kolbysheva, Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological quality control of probiotic products such as Imunele, Dannon, Pomogayka showed that they contain living cultures of the Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium genus in the amount of 107 CFU/ml, which corresponds to the number indicated on the label of products. It is identified that the survival rate of test-strains cultured with pasteurized products does not exceed 10%. The cell concentration of target-microorganisms was reduced by 20-45% after the interaction with living probiotic b...

  13. Radiation microbiology relevant to radiation processing

    Tallentire, A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: typical background studies involving laboratory models (measurement of radiation responses of different organisms, alone or on or in products; isolation of radiation resistant organisms from products and product environments; measurement of levels of preirradiation microbial contamination ('bioburden')); supplementary studies involving naturally occurring microbial contaminants (unit medical products; microbiological quality assurance; products in bulk; animal diet study). (U.K.)

  14. Microbiological Efficacy Test Methods of Disinfectants

    Şahiner, Aslı

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection process is required in every area where microbiological contamination and infection risk is present, especially in medical sector, food, veterinary and general common living areas hence many disinfectants and antiseptics are being produced for different purposes. Disinfectants are made up a large group of biocidal products. Depending on the chemical properties of active substances, targeted microorganisms may differ While some disinfectants are effective in a large spectrum, othe...

  15. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    Rubin, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distr...

  16. Marine Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions

    Chandramohan, D.

    Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions D. Chandramohan Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India Introduction The planet earth is believed to have formed about 4600 million years ago and life forms originated... and all-important tasks that include everything from pathogenesis to fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. An interesting question to be asked, therefore, is: has there been any realistic estimate of these bacteria on Earth? Now, for the first time, a...

  17. Subsurface material identification and sensor selection

    T, H.; Reghunadh, R.; Ramesh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    In India, most of the landslides occur during monsoon season and causes huge loss of life and property. Design of an early warning system for highly landslide prone area will reduce losses to a great extent. The in-situ monitoring systems needs deployment of several sensors inside a borehole for monitoring a particular slope. Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications (AmritaWNA), Amrita University has designed, developed and deployed a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for real time landslide monitoring using geotechnical instruments and sensors like rain gauge, moisture sensor, piezometer, strain gauge, tilt meter and geophone inside a Deep Earth Probe (DEP) at different locations. These sensors provide point measurements of the subsurface at a higher accuracy. Every landslide prone terrain is unique with respect to its geology, hydrological conditions, meteorological conditions, velocity of movement etc. The decision of installing different geotechnical instruments in a landslide prone terrain is a crucial step to be considered. Rain gauge, moisture sensor, and piezometer are usually used in clay rich areas to sense the moisture and pore pressure values. Geophone and Crack meter are instruments used in rocky areas to monitor cracks and vibrations associated with a movement. Inclinometer and Strain gauge are usually placed inside a casing and can be used in both rocky and soil areas. In order to place geotechnical instruments and sensors at appropriate places Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can be used. Variation in electrical resistivity values indicate the changes in composition, layer thickness, or contaminant levels. The derived true resistivity image can be used for identifying the type of materials present in the subsurface at different depths. We have used this method for identifying the type of materials present in our site at Chandmari (Sikkim). Fig 1 shows the typical resistivity values of a particular area in Chandmari site. The

  18. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM - BROWN & ROOT ENVIRONMENTAL

    The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS*) is an in-situ vacuum extraction/air sparging and bioremediation technology for the treatment of subsurface organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The technology, developed by Billings and Associates, Inc., and o...

  20. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  1. Geochemical characterization of subsurface sediments in the Netherlands

    Huisman, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, the Netherlands' subsurface is mainly used to obtain good quality drinking and industrial waters from the different aquifers. Due to the lack of space on the surface, increasing environmental problems and demand for energy, the subsurface will be used increasingly for other

  2. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  3. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Roger Skinner

    1992-01-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  4. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Skinner, Roger

    1992-07-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential.

  5. [Mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Martró Català, Elisa; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases are still a cause of high mortality and morbidity rates. Current microbiological diagnostic methods are based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolated microorganisms, which can be obtained in about 24-48 h. Given that the microbiological identification is of major importance for patient management, new diagnostic methods are needed in order to detect and identify microorganisms in a timely and accurate manner. Over the last few years, several molecular techniques based on the amplification of microbial nucleic acids have been developed with the aim of reducing the time needed for the identification of the microorganisms involved in different infectious processes. On the other hand, mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and consistent alternative to conventional methods for microorganism identification. This review describes the most widely used mass spectrometry technologies -matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF)-, both for protein and nucleic acid analysis, as well as the commercial platforms available. Related publications of most interest in clinical microbiology are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    Licina, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a topic that has gained considerable interest over the past decade, particularly in the oil production and nuclear power generation industries. Failures of stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys under conditions that would not be expected to be at all demanding such as during lay-up have been observed as a result of MIC. Failures in the time period between system construction and its operation are often associated with biological activity. Finally, MIC is generally associated with normally stagnant systems or systems which experience intermittent flow conditions. The diverse and redundant design philosophy of nuclear plants necessitates that a large number of systems are operated in this manner. Some of these systems are safety related while still others support safety related systems. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and all nuclear utilities have become increasingly concerned with MIC. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a review of the most current technology related to the fundamental aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, its diagnosis, and its control. This paper reviews how microbes can influence the electrochemical processes that influence and often control corrosion; ways that these processes (hence, MIC) may be monitored; and electrochemical methods for their control. Examples of the influence of microbiological activity on anodic and cathodic reactions on steels, stainless steels, and copper based alloys in both aerated and dearated environments are provided since the electrochemical effects can be significantly different for each combination. 45 refs

  7. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    Pedersen, K.

    2008-02-01

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  8. Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain

    Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteria isolated from water samples collected in a series of ground water springs have been isolated, enumerated, and identified from twenty six sites. Ten sites were sampled in Death Valley, California and sixteen sites were sampled in Ash Meadows, Nevada. Replicate samples were collected and tested from four locations. All water samples were collected in conjunction with the HRC chemistry group conducting ground water fingerprinting studies. The protocol for collection of samples, as described in the 3rd quarterly report, specified aseptic collection in sterile screw-capped containers and transportation on ice to the HRC microbiology laboratory. All samples were inoculated by spread plating onto R2A (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) bacterial culture medium. the R2A plates were then incubated at 28 degrees for 5--7 days and colonies wee counted with the aid of a grid template and magnifying lens

  9. Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain

    Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria isolated from ground water samples taken from 31 springs during 1993 were collected and processed according to procedures described in earlier reports. These procedures required aseptic collection of surface water samples in sterile screw-capped containers, transportation to the HRC microbiology laboratory, and culture by spread plating onto R2A medium. The isolates were further processed for identification using a gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes. This work generated a presumptive identification of 113 bacterial species distributed among 45 genera using a database obtained from Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, Delaware (MIDI). A preliminary examination of the FAME data was accomplished using cluster analysis and principal component analysis software obtained from MIDI. Typically, bacterial strains that cluster at less than 10 Euclidian distance units have fatty acid patterns consistent among members of the same species. Thus an organism obtained from one source can be recognized if it is isolated again from the same or any other source. This makes it possible to track the distribution of organisms and monitor environmental conditions or fluid transport mechanisms. Microorganisms are seldom found as monocultures in natural environments. They are more likely to be closely associated with other genera with complementary metabolic requirements. An understanding of the indigenous microorganism population is useful in understanding subtle changes in the environment. However, classification of environmental organisms using traditional methods is not ideal because differentiation of species with small variations or genera with very similar taxonomic characteristics is beyond the capabilities of traditional microbiological methods

  10. Nitrogen patterns in subsurface waters of the Yzeron stream: effect of combined sewer overflows and subsurface-surface water mixing.

    Aucour, A M; Bariac, T; Breil, P; Namour, P; Schmitt, L; Gnouma, R; Zuddas, P

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization subjects streams to increased nitrogen loads. Therefore studying nitrogen forms at the interface between urban stream and groundwater is important for water resource management. In this study we report results on water δ(18)O and nitrogen forms in subsurface waters of a stream (Yzeron, France). The sites studied were located upstream and downstream of combined sewer overflows (CSO) in a rural area and a periurban area, respectively. Water δ(18)O allowed us to follow the mixing of subsurface water with surface water. Dissolved organic nitrogen and organic carbon of fine sediment increased by 20-30% between rural and periurban subsurface waters in the cold season, under high flow. The highest nitrate levels were observed in rural subsurface waters in the cold season. The lowest nitrate levels were found in periurban subsurface waters in the warm season, under low flow. They corresponded to slow exchange of subsurface waters with channel water. Thus reduced exchange between surface and subsurface waters and organic-matter-rich input seemed to favor nitrate reduction in the downstream, periurban, subsurface waters impacted by CSO.

  11. A Search for Life in the Subsurface At Rio Tinto Spain, An Analog To Searching For Life On Mars.

    Stoker, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    . The MARTE project will simulate the search for subsurface life on Mars using a drilling system developed for future Mars flight to accomplish subsurface access. Augmenting the drill are robotic systems for extracting the cores from the drill head and performing analysis using a suite of instruments to understand the composition, mineralogy, presence of organics, and to search for life signatures in subsurface samples. A robotic bore-hole inspection system will characterize borehole properties in situ. A Mars drilling mission simulation including remote operation of the drilling, sample handling, and instruments and interpretation of results by a remote science team will be performed. This simulated mission will be augmented by manual methods of drilling, sample handling, and sample analysis to fully document the subsurface, prevent surface microbial contamination, identify subsurface biota, and compare what can be learned with robotically-operated instruments. The first drilling campaign in the MARTE project takes place in September 2003 and is focused on characterizing the microbiology of the subsurface at Rio Tinto using conventional drilling, sample handling and laboratory analysis techniques. Lessons learned from this "ground truth" drilling campaign will guide the development of robotic systems and instruments needed for searching for life underground on Mars.

  12. Accuracy of a self-collection kit for the microbiological study of the vaginal content

    Mauro Romero L. Passos

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of vaginal discharge is frequently performed in an empirical way, leading to inadequate treatment. This study tested the accuracy of a self-collection kit for microbiological study of the vaginal content. One hundred and forty-two women of Family Health Program units in Niterói and Piraí cities were enrolled in order to have their vaginal content studied. A brief explanation and a self-collection kit were provided in order to sample the vaginal content. The self-collection kit was composed of one empty plastic tube, two glass slides, a long handle cytobrush, an identification card and guideline notes. The vaginal sample was applied on the glass slides by the women and stained by Gram technique. A second sampling was done by the medical personnel. The microbiological diagnosis in a blinded analysis was made under optical microscopy. A validation diagnosis test was done taking the medical collection results as a gold standard. A total of 106 women had followed the protocol and were included in the study. Microbiological analysis was unsatisfactory in 12 cases (6 cases of self-collection material and 6 cases of medical collection. The microbiological analyses in the self-collection and in the medical collection material were respectively: bacterial vaginosis in 21.7% and 17.9%, non bacillar flora in 10.3% and 11.3%, vaginal trichomoniasis in 5.66% and 5.6%, candidiasis in 3.78% and 2.8% and a normal microbiota in 52.8% and 56.6%. The Kappa coefficient suggested a "very good correlation" of the microbiological results between the two methods of collection (K=0.7945. The self-collection kit provides samples for microbiological analysis of the vaginal microbiota as good as medical collection.

  13. Historical Perspective on Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) Success: Counting the Things That Really Count

    Wright, J. A. Jr.; Middleman, L. I.

    2002-02-27

    The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, (SCFA) is committed to, and has been accountable for, identifying and providing solutions for the most pressing subsurface contamination problems in the DOE Complex. The SCFA program is a DOE end user focused and problem driven organization that provides the best technical solutions for the highest priority problems. This paper will discuss in some detail specific examples of the most successful, innovative technical solutions and the DOE sites where they were deployed or demonstrated. These solutions exhibited outstanding performance in FY 2000/2001 and appear poised to achieve significant success in saving end users money and time. They also provide a reduction in risk to the environment, workers, and the public while expediting environmental clean up of the sites.

  14. Field Simulation of a Drilling Mission to Mars to Search for Subsurface Life

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms. In spite of its obvious advantages, robotic drilling for Mars exploration is in its technological infancy and has yet to be demonstrated in even a terrestrial field environment.

  15. The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight

    Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of

  16. Microbial processes in glaciers and permafrost. A literature study on microbiology affecting groundwater at ice sheet melting

    Hallbeck, Lotta

    2009-10-01

    of microorganisms, both aerobic and anaerobic. The oxygen concentration in the subsurface varies depending on whether the surface water has been transported over a long or short residence time. The pro-glacial environment including rivers and lakes, are also very microbiologically active. Recent research has demonstrated that microorganisms are more active than previously expected in permafrost environments. This research is increasing due to the effect of global warming on microbial activity in permanently frozen environments. The groundwater beneath the ice sheets and glaciers still needs to be explored. There will be increasing knowledge from the ongoing research project in Greenland (Greenland Analogue Project). The chemical composition of the groundwater and the subsurface microbiology is therefore still unknown

  17. Microbial processes in glaciers and permafrost. A literature study on microbiology affecting groundwater at ice sheet melting

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    of microorganisms, both aerobic and anaerobic. The oxygen concentration in the subsurface varies depending on whether the surface water has been transported over a long or short residence time. The pro-glacial environment including rivers and lakes, are also very microbiologically active. Recent research has demonstrated that microorganisms are more active than previously expected in permafrost environments. This research is increasing due to the effect of global warming on microbial activity in permanently frozen environments. The groundwater beneath the ice sheets and glaciers still needs to be explored. There will be increasing knowledge from the ongoing research project in Greenland (Greenland Analogue Project). The chemical composition of the groundwater and the subsurface microbiology is therefore still unknown

  18. Advanced core-analyses for subsurface characterization

    Pini, R.

    2017-12-01

    The heterogeneity of geological formations varies over a wide range of length scales and represents a major challenge for predicting the movement of fluids in the subsurface. Although they are inherently limited in the accessible length-scale, laboratory measurements on reservoir core samples still represent the only way to make direct observations on key transport properties. Yet, properties derived on these samples are of limited use and should be regarded as sample-specific (or `pseudos'), if the presence of sub-core scale heterogeneities is not accounted for in data processing and interpretation. The advent of imaging technology has significantly reshaped the landscape of so-called Special Core Analysis (SCAL) by providing unprecedented insight on rock structure and processes down to the scale of a single pore throat (i.e. the scale at which all reservoir processes operate). Accordingly, improved laboratory workflows are needed that make use of such wealth of information by e.g., referring to the internal structure of the sample and in-situ observations, to obtain accurate parameterisation of both rock- and flow-properties that can be used to populate numerical models. We report here on the development of such workflow for the study of solute mixing and dispersion during single- and multi-phase flows in heterogeneous porous systems through a unique combination of two complementary imaging techniques, namely X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The experimental protocol is applied to both synthetic and natural porous media, and it integrates (i) macroscopic observations (tracer effluent curves), (ii) sub-core scale parameterisation of rock heterogeneities (e.g., porosity, permeability and capillary pressure), and direct 3D observation of (iii) fluid saturation distribution and (iv) the dynamic spreading of the solute plumes. Suitable mathematical models are applied to reproduce experimental observations, including both 1D and 3D

  19. Microbiologic endodontic status of young traumatized tooth.

    Baumotte, Karla; Bombana, Antonio C; Cai, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic dental injuries could expose the dentin and, even the pulp, to the oral environment, making possible their contamination. The presence of microorganisms causes pulpal disease and further a tecidual clutter in the periradicular region. The therapy of periradicular pathosis is the consequence of a correct diagnoses which depends on the knowledge of the nature and complexity of endodontic infections. As there is no information on the microbiology of primary endodontic infection in young teeth, the aim of the current study was to investigate the microbiologic status of root canals from permanent young teeth with primary endodontic infection. Twelve patients with the need for endodontic treatment participated in the study. The selected teeth were uniradicular and had an incomplete root formation. They had untreated necrotic pulp. After the access preparation, nineteen microbiologic samples were obtained from the root canals with sterile paper points. Afterwards, the paper points were pooled in a sterile tube containing 2 ml of prereduced transport fluid. The samples were diluted and spread onto plates with selective medium for Enterococcus spp. and for yeast species and onto plates with non-selective medium. A quantitative analysis was performed. The mean number of cultivable bacterial cells in the root canals was 5.7 × 10(6). In four samples (21.05%) black pigmented species were recovered and the mean number of cells was 6.5 × 10(5). One specimen (5.25%) showed the growth of Enterococcus species and the mean number of cells in this case was of 1.5 × 10(4) . The results showed a root canal microbiota with similar design as seen in completely formed teeth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Lung abscess: update on microbiology and management.

    Yazbeck, Moussa F; Dahdel, Maher; Kalra, Ankur; Browne, Alexander S; Pratter, Melvin R

    2014-01-01

    A lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus in the lung as a result of a microbial infection, which leads to cavity formation and often a radiographic finding of an air fluid level. Patients with lung abscesses commonly present to their primary care physician or to the emergency department with "nonresolving pneumonia." Although, the incidence of lung abscess has declined since the introduction of antibiotic treatment, it still carries a mortality of up to 10%-20%. This article discusses in detail the up-to-date microbiology and the management of lung abscesses.

  1. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  2. Arrowsmith (1931 or Research in Microbiology

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This film is an adaptation of the novel by Sinclair Lewis, directed by John Ford. Despite the number of years passed since its debut (December 7, 1931, the movie continues to awaken interest. It shows an approximation of what was once the practice of medicine, microbiology and research in the first third of the 20th Century in the United States of America. In addition, it presents many aspects of what is research and who are the researchers; in respect to this, the film has clear educational values.

  3. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  4. CYSTIC FIBROSIS: MICROBIOLOGY AND HOST RESPONSE

    Zemanick, Edith T.

    2016-01-01

    THE EARLIEST DESCRIPTIONS OF LUNG DISEASE IN PEOPLE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) DEMONSTRATED THE INVOLVEMENT OF THREE INTERACTING PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN CF AIRWAYS: MUCUS OBSTRUCTION, INFLAMMATION, AND INFECTION. OVER THE PAST 7 DECADES, OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CF RESPIRATORY MICROBIOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION HAS EVOLVED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW TREATMENTS, WITH INCREASED LONGEVITY, AND WITH INCREASINGLY SOPHISTICATED LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. IN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLES OF INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION AND THEIR ROLES IN DRIVING LUNG DISEASE. WE WILL ALSO DISCUSS HOW THIS CONSTANTLY EVOLVING INFORMATION IS USED TO INFORM CURRENT THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES, MEASURES AND PREDICTORS OF DISEASE SEVERITY, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES. PMID:27469179

  5. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Legionnaire's Disease.

    Burillo, Almudena; Pedro-Botet, María Luisa; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Legionnaire's disease (LD) is the pneumonic form of legionellosis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the genus Legionella. Individuals become infected when they inhale aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella species. Forty years after the identification of Legionella pneumophila as the cause of the 1976 pneumonia outbreak in a hotel in Philadelphia, we have non-culture-based diagnostic tests, effective antibiotics, and preventive measures to handle LD. With a mortality rate still around 10%, underreporting, and sporadic outbreaks, there is still much work to be done. In this article, the authors review the microbiology, laboratory diagnosis, and epidemiology of LD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release.......05). Combination of L-J and ACS was superior to using these tests alone (p

  7. Diagnostic molecular microbiology: a 2013 snapshot.

    Fairfax, Marilynn Ransom; Salimnia, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Molecular testing has a large and increasing role in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. It has evolved significantly since the first probe tests were FDA approved in the early 1990s. This article highlights the uses of molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology, including "older," as well as innovative, probe techniques, qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR, highly multiplexed PCR panels, some of which use sealed microfluidic test cartridges, MALDI TOF, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Tests are grouped together by technique and target. Tests with similar roles for similar analytes are compared with respect to benefits, drawbacks, and possible problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbiology of Bartholin's Gland Abscess in Japan

    Tanaka, Kaori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Ninomiya, Mochiyoshi; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current epidemiology concerning the causative organisms for Bartholin's gland abscess in Japan. Microbiological examination of 224 cases showed positive results in 219 cases and negative results in 5 cases. Of all of the bacterial isolates, 307 and 118 were aerobes and anaerobes, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Of the anaerobes, the most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides species, followed by Prevotella species. The organisms related to respiratory infectious diseases, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, including resistant bacteria, were sometimes involved between 2000 and 2004. PMID:16081994

  9. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  10. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts.

    Horak, Rachel E A; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy

    2015-05-01

    A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.

  11. Starvation-survival of subsurface bacteria

    Magill, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of four subsurface isolates to survive starvation was examined and the results were compared to survival curves obtained for Escherichia coli B and Serratia marcescens. To examine the starvation-survival phenomenon further, several experimental parameters including nutritional history, initial cell density, growth phase, temperature of growth and starvation, and aeration. Nutritional history, initial cell density, and growth phases of the cells had some effect on the ability of these bacteria to survive whereas temperature and limited aeration had no effect under the conditions tested. No conditions were found where E. coli B or Serratia marcescens died rapidly or where less than 10% of the original cell number of viable cells remained. Because the apparent survival of these bacteria may be due to cryptic growth, cross-feeding experiments with 14 C-labeled cells and unlabeled cells were carried out with E. coli B and Pseudomonas Lula V. Leaked extracellular 14 C-compounds were not used for growth or maintenance energy, and were not taken up by either bacterium. Cryptic growth did not occur; the cells were truly starving under the experimental conditions used

  12. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site

  13. Fracture detection using subsurface electromagnetic techniques

    Zhou, Q.; Becker, A.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.; Lee, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Audio frequency subsurface electromagnetic (EM) techniques using cross-hole and in-hole arrays for fracture detection are evaluated numerically. The fracture zone is represented by a thin rectangular conductor with finite dimensions, embedded in a conductive host rock. Because of its practical advantages, the EM source considered in this study is a grounded vertical electrical dipole (G.V.E.D.) placed in a vertical bore hole. Three source-receiver configurations are considered. The first is the cross-hole configuration with the source and receiver moving parallel to each other in separate holes. The second configuration is a fixed source in one hole and a moving receiver in the other. Finally, the author also treat the case of a tandem source and receiver at fixed separation traversing a single hole. In all cases the conductive fracture zone is not intersected by either hole. Comparisons between the grounded electric dipole and the vertical magnetic dipole indicate clear advantages for the former

  14. Microbiologically influenced corrosion monitoring: Real world failures and how to avoid them

    Scott, P.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring for microbiologically influenced corrosion in industry commonly is practiced, but too often has failed to predict corrosion damage. Reports of failed monitoring seldom appear in the published literature, but hands-on experience and word-of-mouth communication indicate that the problem is widespread. The question of why so many monitoring programs are unsuccessful is investigated, and remedies for common problems are suggested. Failures can be attributed to three main causes: confusion over the goals of the monitoring program, inappropriate monitoring methods, and inadequate execution of the monitoring program.

  15. Water temperature data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in Batangas, Philippines from 2012-03-13 to 2015-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0163746)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data were collected by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) deployed at fixed climate survey...

  16. Subsurface Conditions Controlling Uranium Incorporation in Iron Oxides: A Redox Stable Sink

    Fendorf, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Toxic metals and radionuclides throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex pose a serious threat to ecosystems and to human health. Of particular concern is the redox-sensitive radionuclide uranium, which is classified as a priority pollutant in soils and groundwaters at most DOE sites owing to its large inventory, its health risks, and its mobility with respect to primary waste sources. The goal of this research was to contribute to the long-term mission of the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Program by determining reactions of uranium with iron (hydr)oxides that lead to long-term stabilization of this pervasive contaminant. The research objectives of this project were thus to (1) identify the (bio)geochemical conditions, including those of the solid-phase, promoting uranium incorporation in Fe (hydr)oxides, (2) determine the magnitude of uranium incorporation under a variety of relevant subsurface conditions in order to quantify the importance of this pathway when in competition with reduction or adsorption; (3) identify the mechanism(s) of U(VI/V) incorporation in Fe (hydr)oxides; and (4) determine the stability of these phases under different biogeochemical (inclusive of redox) conditions. Our research demonstrates that redox transformations are capable of achieving U incorporation into goethite at ambient temperatures, and that this transformation occurs within days at U and Fe(II) concentrations that are common in subsurface geochemical environments with natural ferrihydrites - inclusive of those with natural impurities. Increasing Fe(II) or U concentration, or initial pH, made U(VI) reduction to U(IV) a more competitive sequestration pathway in this system, presumably by increasing the relative rate of U reduction. Uranium concentrations commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments are often on the order of 1-10 μM, and groundwater Fe(II) concentrations can reach exceed 1 mM in reduced zones of the subsurface. The redox-driven U(V) incorporation

  17. Subsurface Conditions Controlling Uranium Incorporation in Iron Oxides: A Redox Stable Sink

    Fendorf, Scott [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Toxic metals and radionuclides throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex pose a serious threat to ecosystems and to human health. Of particular concern is the redox-sensitive radionuclide uranium, which is classified as a priority pollutant in soils and groundwaters at most DOE sites owing to its large inventory, its health risks, and its mobility with respect to primary waste sources. The goal of this research was to contribute to the long-term mission of the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Program by determining reactions of uranium with iron (hydr)oxides that lead to long-term stabilization of this pervasive contaminant. The research objectives of this project were thus to (1) identify the (bio)geochemical conditions, including those of the solid-phase, promoting uranium incorporation in Fe (hydr)oxides, (2) determine the magnitude of uranium incorporation under a variety of relevant subsurface conditions in order to quantify the importance of this pathway when in competition with reduction or adsorption; (3) identify the mechanism(s) of U(VI/V) incorporation in Fe (hydr)oxides; and (4) determine the stability of these phases under different biogeochemical (inclusive of redox) conditions. Our research demonstrates that redox transformations are capable of achieving U incorporation into goethite at ambient temperatures, and that this transformation occurs within days at U and Fe(II) concentrations that are common in subsurface geochemical environments with natural ferrihydrites—inclusive of those with natural impurities. Increasing Fe(II) or U concentration, or initial pH, made U(VI) reduction to U(IV) a more competitive sequestration pathway in this system, presumably by increasing the relative rate of U reduction. Uranium concentrations commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments are often on the order of 1-10 μM, and groundwater Fe(II) concentrations can reach exceed 1 mM in reduced zones of the subsurface. The redox-driven U(V) incorporation

  18. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere.

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L

    2016-05-15

    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  19. Subsurface microbial diversity in deep-granitic-fracture water in Colorado

    Sahl, J.W.; Schmidt, R.; Swanner, E.D.; Mandernack, K.W.; Templeton, A.S.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Smith, R.L.; Sanford, W.E.; Callaghan, R.L.; Mitton, J.B.; Spear, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    A microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on borehole water and a granite rock core from Henderson Mine, a >1,000-meter-deep molybdenum mine near Empire, CO. Chemical analysis of borehole water at two separate depths (1,044 m and 1,004 m below the mine entrance) suggests that a sharp chemical gradient exists, likely from the mixing of two distinct subsurface fluids, one metal rich and one relatively dilute; this has created unique niches for microorganisms. The microbial community analyzed from filtered, oxic borehole water indicated an abundance of sequences from iron-oxidizing bacteria (Gallionella spp.) and was compared to the community from the same borehole after 2 weeks of being plugged with an expandable packer. Statistical analyses with UniFrac revealed a significant shift in community structure following the addition of the packer. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis suggested that Nitrosomonadales dominated the oxic borehole, while PLFAs indicative of anaerobic bacteria were most abundant in the samples from the plugged borehole. Microbial sequences were represented primarily by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and a lineage of sequences which did not group with any identified bacterial division; phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of a novel candidate division. This "Henderson candidate division" dominated the clone libraries from the dilute anoxic fluids. Sequences obtained from the granitic rock core (1,740 m below the surface) were represented by the divisions Proteobacteria (primarily the family Ralstoniaceae) and Firmicutes. Sequences grouping within Ralstoniaceae were also found in the clone libraries from metal-rich fluids yet were absent in more dilute fluids. Lineage-specific comparisons, combined with phylogenetic statistical analyses, show that geochemical variance has an important effect on microbial community structure in deep, subsurface systems. Copyright ?? 2008, American Society for Microbiology

  20. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Farkas, J [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary); Zukal, E [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  1. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  2. Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits.

    Rosa, Damiana D; Dias, Manoela M S; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Reis, Sandra A; Conceição, Lisiane L; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.

  3. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  4. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  5. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  6. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  7. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Farkas, J.; Zukal, E.

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.) [de

  8. Recovery Act: Understanding the Impact of CO2 Injection on the Subsurface Microbial Community in an Illinois Basin CCS Reservoir: Integrated Student Training in Geoscience and Geomicrobiology

    Fouke, Bruce [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    An integrated research and teaching program was developed to provide cross--disciplinary training opportunities in the emerging field of carbon capture and storage (CCS) for geobiology students attending the University of Illinois Urbana-­Champaign (UIUC). Students from across the UIUC campus participated, including those from the departments of Geology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Animal Sciences and the Institute for Genomic Biology. The project took advantage of the unique opportunity provided by the drilling and sampling of the large-­scale Phase III CCS demonstration Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP) in the central Illinois Basin at nearby Decatur, Illinois. The IBPD is under the direction of the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS, located on the UIUC campus) and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). The research component of this project focused on the subsurface sampling and identification of microbes inhabiting the subsurface Cambrian-­age Mt. Simon Sandstone. In addition to formation water collected from the injection and monitoring wells, sidewall rock cores were collected and analyzed to characterize the cements and diagenetic features of the host Mt. Simon Sandstone. This established a dynamic geobiological framework, as well as a comparative baseline, for future studies of how CO2 injection might affect the deep microbial biosphere at other CCS sites. Three manuscripts have been prepared as a result of these activities, which are now being finalized for submission to top-­tier international peer-­reviewed research journals. The training component of this project was structured to ensure that a broad group of UIUC students, faculty and staff gained insight into CCS issues. An essential part of this training was that the UIUC faculty mentored and involved undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdocs and research scientists, at all stages of the project in order

  9. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  10. Broadband Counter-Wound Spiral Antenna for Subsurface Radar Applications

    Yong, Lim

    2003-01-01

    Subsurface radar also known as ground-penetrating radar is increasingly being used for the detection and location of buried objects such as mines and structure that are found within the upper regions...

  11. SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies’ (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

  12. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)

    The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System is an integrated technology used for attacking all phases of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in soil and groundwater. The SVVS technology promotes insitu remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with or-ga...

  13. SOLID OXYGEN SOURCE FOR BIOREMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Sodium percarbonate was encapsulated in poly(vinylidene chloride) to determine its potential as a slow-release oxygen source for biodegradation of contaminan ts in subsurface soils. In laboratory studies under aqueous conditions, the encapsulated sodium percarbonate was estimate...

  14. Molecular Simulation towards Efficient and Representative Subsurface Reservoirs Modeling

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the application of Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in modeling thermodynamics and flow of subsurface reservoir fluids. At first, MC molecular simulation is proposed as a promising method

  15. Sub-Surface Oil Monitoring Cruise (GU1002, EK60)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives were to evaluate ability of acoustic echosounder measurements to detect and localize a sub-surface plume of oil or related hydrocarbons released from the...

  16. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 1 (2004) ... ASYMPTOMATIC SIGNIFICANT BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ... TO PARASITISM AND THE IMPLICATION ON TREATMENT APPROACH ...

  17. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  18. An estimation of the electrical characteristics of planetary shallow subsurfaces with TAPIR antennas

    Le Gall, A.; Reineix, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Berthelier, J. J.; Ney, R.; Dolon, F.; Corbel, C.

    2006-06-01

    In the frame of the NETLANDER program, we have developed the Terrestrial And Planetary Investigation by Radar (TAPIR) imaging ground-penetrating radar to explore the Martian subsurface at kilometric depths and search for potential water reservoirs. This instrument which is to operate from a fixed lander is based on a new concept which allows one to image the various underground reflectors by determining the direction of propagation of the reflected waves. The electrical parameters of the shallow subsurface (permittivity and conductivity) need to be known to correctly determine the propagation vector. In addition, these electrical parameters can bring valuable information on the nature of the materials close to the surface. The electric antennas of the radar are 35 m long resistively loaded monopoles that are laid on the ground. Their impedance, measured during a dedicated mode of operation of the radar, depends on the electrical parameters of soil and is used to infer the permittivity and conductivity of the upper layer of the subsurface. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of the antenna impedance and shows that the frequency profile of the antenna complex impedance can be used to retrieve the geoelectrical characteristics of the soil. Comparisons between a numerical modeling and in situ measurements have been successfully carried over various soils, showing a very good agreement.

  19. Characterization of microbial communities in subsurface nuclear blast cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    Moser, Duane P; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-07-13

    This US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program's Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  20. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    Moser, Duane P.; Bruckner, Jim; Fisher, Jen; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program's Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H 2 and SO 4 2- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  1. Subsurface Sampling and Sensing Using Burrowing Moles

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for life on Mars will likely require accessing the subsurface since the Martian surface is both hostile to life and to preservation of biosignatures due to the cold dry conditions, the strong W environment, and the presence of strong oxidants. Systems are needed to probe beneath the sun and oxidant baked surface of Mars and return samples to the surface for analysis or to bring the instrument sensing underground. Recognizing this need, the European Space Agency incorporated a small subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 Mars lander. Had the 2003 landing been successful, the Mole would have collected samples from 1-1.5 m depth and delivered them to an organic analysis instrument on the surface. The de- vice called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), also measured soil mechanical and thermophysical properties. Constrained by the small mass and volume allowance of the Beagle lander, the PLUTO mole was a slender cylinder only 2 cm diameter and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device designed to collect samples and bring them to the surface for analysis by other instrument. The mass of the entire system including deployment mechanism and tether was 1/2 kg. sensor package underground to make in situ measurements. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM) is a larger Mole based on the PLUTO design but incorporating light collection optics that interface to a fiber optic cable in the tether that transmits light to a combined stimulated emission Raman Spectrometer and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) reflectance Spectrometer with sensitivity from 0.7 to 2.5 micrometers. This instrument is called the Dual Spectral Sensor and uses a Digital Array Scanning Interferometer as the sensor technology, a type of fourier transform interferometer that uses fixed element prisms and thus is highly rugged compared to a Michaelson interferometer. Due to the size limitations of an on-Mole instrument compartment, and the availability of a tether, the sensor head

  2. DWH MC 252: Subsurface Oil Transport

    Beegle-Krause, C. J.; Boyer, T.; Murray, D.

    2010-12-01

    , previous research and modeling were combined to tell the story of the DWH MC 252 from the subsurface perspective. The Comprehensive Deepwater Oil and Gas model (CDOG, Yapa and Xie, 2005), and the General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME, Beegle-Krause, 1999) were used with the NOAA Gulf of Mexico Model nowcast/forecast model to understand the 3D evolution of the subsurface spill. Model/observational comparisons are favorable, though limitations of the available models are apparent. Historical perspective on Thunder Horse (a deepwater well incident that was a dress-rehearsal for the DWH MC 252, Beegle-Krause and Walton, 2004), transitioning models from research to operations, and research needs will also be discussed.

  3. Subsurface structures of buried features in the lunar Procellarum region

    Wang, Wenrui; Heki, Kosuke

    2017-07-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission unraveled numbers of features showing strong gravity anomalies without prominent topographic signatures in the lunar Procellarum region. These features, located in different geologic units, are considered to have complex subsurface structures reflecting different evolution processes. By using the GRAIL level-1 data, we estimated the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies in several selected regions including such intriguing features. With the three-dimensional inversion technique, we recovered subsurface density structures in these regions.

  4. Method of solution mining subsurface orebodies to reduce restoration activities

    Hartman, G.J.

    1984-01-24

    A method of solution mining is claimed wherein a lixiviant containing both leaching and oxidizing agents is injected into the subsurface orebody. The composition of the lixiviant is changed by reducing the level of oxidizing agent to zero so that soluble species continue to be removed from the subsurface environment. This reduces the uranium level of the ground water aquifer after termination of the lixiviant injection.

  5. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  6. Programming

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  7. Programming

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  8. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  9. Coupled modelling of subsurface water flux for an integrated flood risk management

    T. Sommer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood events cause significant damage not only on the surface but also underground. Infiltration of surface water into soil, flooding through the urban sewer system and, in consequence, rising groundwater are the main causes of subsurface damage. The modelling of flooding events is an important part of flood risk assessment. The processes of subsurface discharge of infiltrated water necessitate coupled modelling tools of both, surface and subsurface water fluxes. Therefore, codes for surface flooding, for discharge in the sewerage system and for groundwater flow were coupled with each other. A coupling software was used to amalgamate the individual programs in terms of mapping between the different model geometries, time synchronization and data exchange. The coupling of the models was realized on two scales in the Saxon capital of Dresden (Germany. As a result of the coupled modelling it could be shown that surface flooding dominates processes of any flood event. Compared to flood simulations without coupled modelling no substantial changes of the surface inundation area could be determined. Regarding sewerage, the comparison between the influx of groundwater into sewerage and the loading due to infiltration by flood water showed infiltration of surface flood water to be the main reason for sewerage overloading. Concurrent rainfalls can intensify the problem. The infiltration of the sewerage system by rising groundwater contributes only marginally to the loading of the sewerage and the distribution of water by sewerage has only local impacts on groundwater rise. However, the localization of risk areas due to rising groundwater requires the consideration of all components of the subsurface water fluxes. The coupled modelling has shown that high groundwater levels are the result of a multi-causal process that occurs before and during the flood event.

  10. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  11. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  12. Subsurface geomicrobiology in a Mars terrestrial analogue, Río Tinto (SW, Spain)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Toril, E.; Rodríguez, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Sanz, J. L.; Díaz, E.; Stoker, C.

    2008-09-01

    Since its discovery, only few years ago, subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest [1]. From a fundamental point of view, it seeks to determine whether life can be sustained in the absence of radiation. From an astrobiological point of view, it is an interesting model for life in other planetary bodies, e.g., Mars, as well as early life on Earth. Río Tinto is an unusual extreme acidic environment due to its size (around 100 km), constant acidic pH (mean pH 2.3), high concentrations of heavy metals and high level of microbial diversity [2]. Río Tinto rises in the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt, one of the biggest sulfidic ore deposits in the world [3]. Today it is well stablished that the extreme characteristics of Río Tinto are not due to acid mine drainage from mining activity, as has been suggested in the past. To explore the hypothesis that a continuous underground reactor of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich sulfidic minerals of the Iberian Pyritic Belt is responsible for the extreme conditions found in the system, a drilling project has been developed to detect evidence of subsurface microbial activity and potential resources to support these microbial communities in situ (MARTE project) [4]. Here we report a search for subsurface life in volcanically hosted massive sulfidic deposits from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Aseptic core samples were obtained within and down-gradient from the massive sulfide deposits and formation water was sampled within the resulting bore holes. Microbial activity was detected in un-contaminated samples by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Aerobic iron- and sulfide- oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic denitrifying thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea have been identified. Potential energy fluxes detected in the system include oxidation of reduced iron and sulfur, or hydrogen gas coupled to nitrite, sulfate, ferric iron, inorganic

  13. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  14. A review of microbiological studies. Pt. 3

    Christofi, N.

    1991-03-01

    This report reviews the work carried out by countries, other than the UK, involved in nuclear waste disposal programmes, since 1978, concerning the role of microbial activity in nuclear waste isolation. In terms of research the UK and Switzerland appear to have been most active in fundamental site specific research and basic modelling. Overall, there is still a need to show unequivocally that microorganisms will be active in a real repository and it is recommended that any future studies work towards this area. Intermediate-level wastes (ILW) and low-level wastes (LLW) contain a high organic content which can, in addition to chemical and radiolytic attack, be degraded to radionuclide complexing agents creating problems of solubility and transport. If microbiological effects are significant, steps need to be taken to minimise these. At present there appears to be no evidence that microorganisms will have a long term effect on the stability of repositories for ILW and LLW. (Author)

  15. [Microbiology--laboratory examinations for bacterias].

    Hen, Renjun; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    As it has been required to identify pathogenic microbes in shorter times, simple and rapid methods have been developed and used. Here, we summarized the present situation of rapid diagnostic testing in clinical microbiology in Japan, and also presented our results on PBP2' detection. The rapid test kits available in Japan for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were described. Rapid examination methods are based mainly on immunologic reactions, which included slide agglutination using latex particle, immunochromatography and ELISA. Times required for the identification are 10 to 15 minutes. Moreover, rapid test kits employing PCR are also marketed. Further, we evaluated MRSA-LA "Seiken" which is a rapid detection kit for PBP2' produced by MRSA. The test was shown to be highly sensitive and specific. For the rapid identification of pathogenic microbes, simple and rapid test kits described here will be used more in clinical diagnosis.

  16. An expert system for microbiologically influenced corrosion

    Carney, C.E.; Licina, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a damage mechanism that can cause serious degradation of service water system components. MIC can be particularly insidious since damage can occur very quickly, even in environments otherwise resistant to corrosion. Plant operations or maintenance personnel or system engineers typically do not have sufficient expertise to predict when and where MIC may occur or what methods of treatment are effective. An expert system (MICPro) has been devised which provides a tool for utilities to predict where MIC will occur, which systems or components are most susceptible, how operating parameters may affect vulnerability, and how to implement corrective and preventative measures. The system is designed to be simple to use: required inputs are common system parameters and results are presented as numbers from 1 to 10 indicating the likelihood of damage due to the given input. In this paper the structure and operation of the system is described, and future refinements are discussed

  17. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  18. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical and force nanoscopy in microbiology.

    Xiao, Jie; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2016-10-26

    Microbial cells have developed sophisticated multicomponent structures and machineries to govern basic cellular processes, such as chromosome segregation, gene expression, cell division, mechanosensing, cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Because of the small cell sizes, subcellular structures have long been difficult to visualize using diffraction-limited light microscopy. During the last three decades, optical and force nanoscopy techniques have been developed to probe intracellular and extracellular structures with unprecedented resolutions, enabling researchers to study their organization, dynamics and interactions in individual cells, at the single-molecule level, from the inside out, and all the way up to cell-cell interactions in microbial communities. In this Review, we discuss the principles, advantages and limitations of the main optical and force nanoscopy techniques available in microbiology, and we highlight some outstanding questions that these new tools may help to answer.

  20. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  1. Mass spectrometry: a revolution in clinical microbiology?

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Espinal, Paula; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Messad, Nourredine; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert

    2013-02-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. The benefit of rapid reporting of identification and/or resistance of bacteria can greatly impact patient outcomes, with an improvement in the use of antibiotics, in the reduction of the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria and in mortality rates. Different techniques revolve around mass spectrometry (MS) technology: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESIMS), iPLEX MassArray system and other new evolutions combining different techniques. This report emphasizes the (r)evolution of these technologies in clinical microbiology.

  2. Microbiological and chemical transformations of argentatin B.

    Maatooq, Galal T

    2003-01-01

    Argentatin B is a naturally occurring tetracyclic triterpene isolated from Parthenium argentatum x P. tomentosa. It was microbiologically transformed to 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3alpha, 25-diol, (isoargentatin D), by Nocardia corallina var. taoka ATCC 31338, Mycobacterium species NRRL B3683 and Septomyxa affinis ATCC 6737. The later microbe also produced 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3beta, 25-diol (argentatin D) and 1, 2-didehydroargentatin B, (isoargentatin D). Sodium hydroxide converted argentatin B to argentatin D and isoargentatin D. Hydrochloric acid treatment gave cycloartan-25-ol-3, 24-dione. Cerium sulfate/sulfuric acid/aqueous methanol induced scission of the isopropanol moiety and provided an isomeric mixture of 24-methoxy-25-27-trinorargentatin B. Oxidation of this isomeric mixture with pyridinium chlorochromate, selectively, attacked the isomer with the equatorial proton at position-24 to give the corresponding lactone, 24-oxo-25-27-trinorargentatin B. The produced compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods.

  3. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  4. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis...... resulted in a simpler model without the biomass decay term. In order to test for model reduction and reproducibility of parameter estimates, a likelihood ratio test was employed. The limited reproducibility for these experiments implied that all 9 batch experiments could not be described by the same set...

  5. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  6. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  7. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  8. Microbiological decomposition of the organic radioactive waste

    Mukhin, I.V.; Smelov, V.S.; Borsenkov, I.A.; Belyaev, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work will determine the applicability of a microbiological oxidation as a replacement process of spent extractant reprocessing. In current 10 days exponential growth of microorganisms is observed, thus of the substratum inhibition is not observed at increase of the extractant concentration up to 6%. In an outcome of experiments in a periodic mode without a cultural solution renewal the degree of destruction diluent varied within the limits of 86-100%, TBP - 28-94% depending on a mode. In view of accumulated biomass a drop of quantity of organic substance in a system in 6 - 10 times was reached. The a-activity decontamination coefficient of water solution after removal biosuspension has made 210. (author)

  9. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  10. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  11. Microbiological changes associated with dental prophylaxis.

    Goodson, J Max; Palys, Michael D; Carpino, Elizabeth; Regan, Elizabeth O; Sweeney, Michael; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2004-11-01

    Despite the common application of dental prophylaxis as part of patient therapy, there is little reported that describes the microbiological impact of this treatment. The authors gave 20 healthy college-aged subjects three dental prophylaxes with a fluoride-containing prophylaxis paste during a two-week period and instructed them in oral hygiene. They evaluated the microbiological composition of dental plaque samples collected before and after treatment using DNA probe analysis. They analyzed 40 representative bacterial species in seven bacterial complexes by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay techniques. After three dental prophylaxes, the patients' mean Gingival Index score decreased from 0.82 to 0.77, the mean Plaque Index score decreased from 0.72 to zero, and the total number of bacteria per tooth decreased to approximately one-third of the original number. The authors computed two different measures of bacterial presence. The reduction in bacterial numbers was statistically significant and occurred in many species. Bacterial proportion (DNA percentage or percentage of the bacteria per tooth) did not change significantly. Greater reductions in bacterial count occurred in species that showed high numbers before treatment. The total bacterial count decreased by approximately 72 percent of its original level before prophylaxis was initiated. Professional dental prophylaxis did not target any particular bacteria or bacterial groups but removed bacteria nonspecifically and in proportion to their initial numbers. Repeated dental prophylaxes effect a reduction in bacterial amount that is commensurate with the initial amount, but they do does not alter composition. This suggests that mild gingivitis may be a bacterially nonspecific effect of plaque accumulation and emphasizes the need for regular plaque removal to maintain optimal gingival health.

  12. Mentor-mentee relationship in clinical microbiology.

    Opota, O; Greub, G

    2017-07-01

    Clinical microbiology is a field in constant evolution, with increasing technological opportunities and a growing emphasis on human and social issues. Maintaining knowledge and skills and anticipating future changes is challenging both for laboratory managers and for all the co-workers. Training and succession preparation represents a unique opportunity to adapt/prepare future generations according to the evolutions of the field. The aim of this review is to provide to clinical microbiologists a reflection on ongoing technological and social changes in their field and a deepening of the central role of preparing future generations to these changes through a fruitful mentor-mentee relationship. This narrative review relies on selected publications addressing mentor-mentee interactions in various academic fields, on interview with our colleagues and pairs, as well as on our personal experience. From the qualities and aspects that emerged as necessary for a productive mentor-mentee interaction, we selected and discuss five of them for the mentor: the role and responsibility, the positioning, the vision, the scientific credibility, and the moral credibility, as well as five for the mentee: creativity, flexibility, energy, responsibility, and self evaluation. This review emphasizes the importance of both the scientific and the ethical credibility of the mentor and the mentee as well as the importance of human and social values such as solidarity, equality, equity, respectfulness, and empathy, and might support mentor and mentee in the field of clinical microbiology and also in the field of infectious disease in their intent for a fruitful interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in

  15. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  16. Electrode Cultivation and Interfacial Electron Transport in Subsurface Microorganisms

    Karbelkar, A. A.; Jangir, Y.; Reese, B. K.; Wanger, G.; Anderson, C.; El-Naggar, M.; Amend, J.

    2016-12-01

    Continental subsurface environments can present significant energetic challenges to the resident microorganisms. While these environments are geologically diverse, potentially allowing energy harvesting by microorganisms that catalyze redox reactions, many of the abundant electron donors and acceptors are insoluble and therefore not directly bioavailable. Microbes can use extracellular electron transfer (EET) as a metabolic strategy to interact with redox active surfaces. This process can be mimicked on electrode surfaces and hence can lead to enrichment and quantification of subsurface microorganisms A primary bioelectrochemical enrichment with different oxidizing and reducing potentials set up in a single bioreactor was applied in situ to subsurface microorganisms residing in iron oxide rich deposits in the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Secondary enrichment revealed a plethora of classified and unclassified subsurface microbiota on both oxidizing and reducing potentials. From this enrichment, we have isolated a Gram-positive Bacillus along with Gram-negative Cupriavidus and Anaerospora strains (as electrode reducers) and Comamonas (as an electrode oxidizer). The Bacillus and Comamonas isolates were subjected to a detailed electrochemical characterization in half-reactors at anodic and cathodic potentials, respectively. An increase in cathodic current upon inoculation and cyclic voltammetry measurements confirm the hypothesis that Comamonas is capable of electron uptake from electrodes. In addition, measurements of Bacillus on anodes hint towards novel mechanisms that allow EET from Gram-positive bacteria. This study suggests that electrochemical approaches are well positioned to dissect such extracellular interactions that may be prevalent in the subsurface, while using physical electrodes to emulate the microhabitats, redox and geochemical gradients, and the spatially dependent interspecies interactions encountered in the subsurface. Electrochemical

  17. Microbiological Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of Ogi made from ...

    Microbiological evaluation and nutritional quality of ogi made from sorghum substituted with millet was carried out in this research work. A standard method was used for the proximate composition analysis and characterization of isolates was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Protein content was found to ...

  18. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology : present and future

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the

  19. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality (mesophylic and psychrotrophic aerobic plate counts), total. Vibrio species and common fish spoilage bacterial counts were performed. The results constantly showed ...

  20. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  1. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Welker (Martin); M. Erhard (Marcel); S. Chatellier (Sonia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractClinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been

  2. Microbiological and physico-chemical assessment of the quality of ...

    The domestic raw water sources in Nkonkobe and Gogogo were characterised by using both microbiological and standard physical methods to investigate the quality of the water at the sampling sites. For microbiological analysis, indicator bacteria namely, heterotrophic bacteria, total and faecal coliforms and for physical ...

  3. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    Problems with the safety and shelf life of export hake have been raised by the Namibian fishing industry. This prompted an investigation into the factors that may have an impact on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality ...

  4. Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food

    Reij, M.W.; Schothorst, van M.

    2000-01-01

    Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews

  5. External quality assessments for microbiologic diagnosis of diphtheria in Europe.

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-12-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Journal Home > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  7. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products

    Özdemir, Güven

    2015-01-01

    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  8. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    Van Halem, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal production wells. Other groundwater constituents, such as Mn, As and Sr were found to co-accumulate with Fe. Acid extraction and ESEM-EDX showed that Ca occurred together with Fe and by X-ray Powder Diffraction it was identified as calcite. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing the performance of microbiological safety cabinets used in microbiology laboratories in South Korea.

    Hwang, S H; Yi, T W; Cho, K H; Lee, I M; Yoon, C S

    2011-09-01

    To test a performance of the microbiological safety cabinets (MSCs) according to the type of MSCs in microbial laboratories. Tests were carried out to assess the performance of 31 MSCs in 14 different facilities, including six different biological test laboratories in six hospitals and eight different laboratories in three universities. The following tests were performed on the MSCs: the downflow test, intake velocity test, high-efficiency particulate air filter leak test and the airflow smoke pattern test. These performance tests were carried out in accordance with the standard procedures. Only 23% of Class II A1 (8), A2 (19) and unknown MSCs (4) passed these performance tests. The main reasons for the failure of MSCs were inappropriate intake velocity (65%), leakage in the HEPA filter sealing (50%), unbalanced airflow smoke pattern in the cabinets (39%) and inappropriate downflow (27%). This study showed that routine checks of MSCs are important to detect and strengthen the weak spots that frequently develop, as observed during the evaluation of the MSCs of various institutions. Routine evaluation and maintenance of MSCs are critical for optimizing performance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. Conclusions and clinical importance ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues......Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...

  11. In situ hydrogen consumption kinetics as an indicator of subsurface microbial activity

    Harris, S.H.; Smith, R.L.; Suflita, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There are few methods available for broadly assessing microbial community metabolism directly within a groundwater environment. In this study, hydrogen consumption rates were estimated from in situ injection/withdrawal tests conducted in two geochemically varying, contaminated aquifers as an approach towards developing such a method. The hydrogen consumption first-order rates varied from 0.002 nM h-1 for an uncontaminated, aerobic site to 2.5 nM h-1 for a contaminated site where sulfate reduction was a predominant process. The method could accommodate the over three orders of magnitude range in rates that existed between subsurface sites. In a denitrifying zone, the hydrogen consumption rate (0.02 nM h-1) was immediately abolished in the presence of air or an antibiotic mixture, suggesting that such measurements may also be sensitive to the effects of environmental perturbations on field microbial activities. Comparable laboratory determinations with sediment slurries exhibited hydrogen consumption kinetics that differed substantially from the field estimates. Because anaerobic degradation of organic matter relies on the rapid consumption of hydrogen and subsequent maintenance at low levels, such in situ measures of hydrogen turnover can serve as a key indicator of the functioning of microbial food webs and may be more reliable than laboratory determinations. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  12. Thaumarchaeal ammonium oxidation and evidence for a nitrogen cycle in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps

    Friedrich Wolfgang Gerbl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies had suggested the presence of ammonium oxidizing Thaumarchaeota as well as nitrite oxidizing Bacteria in the subsurface spring called Franz Josef Quelle (FJQ, a slightly radioactive thermal mineral spring with a temperature of 43.6 - 47oC near the alpine village of Bad Gastein, Austria. The microbiological consortium of the FJQ was investigated for its utilization of nitrogen compounds and the putative presence of a subsurface nitrogen cycle. Microcosm experiments made with samples from the spring water, containing planktonic microorganisms, or from biofilms, were used in this study. Three slightly different media, enriched with vitamins and trace elements, and two incubation temperatures (30 and 40oC, respectively were employed. Under aerobic conditions, high rates of conversion of ammonium to nitrite, as well as nitrite to nitrate were measured. Under oxygen-limited conditions nitrate was converted to gaseous compounds. Stable isotope probing with 15NH4Cl or (15NH42SO4 as sole energy sources revealed incorporation of 15N into community DNA. Genomic DNA as well as RNA were extracted from all microcosms. The following genes or fragments of genes were successfully amplified, cloned and sequenced by standard PCR from DNA extracts: Ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA, nitrite oxidoreductase subunits A and B (nxrA and nxrB, nitrate reductase (narG, nitrite reductase (nirS, nitric oxide reductases (cnorB and qnorB, nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ. Reverse transcription of extracted total RNA and real-time PCR suggested the expression of each of those genes. Nitrogen fixation (as probed with nifH and nifD was not detected. However, a geological origin of NH4+ in the water of the FJQ cannot be excluded, considering the silicate, granite and gneiss containing environment. The data suggested the operation of a nitrogen cycle in the subsurface environment of the FJQ.

  13. Thaumarchaeal ammonium oxidation and evidence for a nitrogen cycle in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps.

    Gerbl, Friedrich W; Weidler, Gerhard W; Wanek, Wolfgang; Erhardt, Angelika; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies had suggested the presence of ammonium oxidizing Thaumarchaeota as well as nitrite oxidizing Bacteria in the subsurface spring called Franz Josef Quelle (FJQ), a slightly radioactive thermal mineral spring with a temperature of 43.6-47°C near the alpine village of Bad Gastein, Austria. The microbiological consortium of the FJQ was investigated for its utilization of nitrogen compounds and the putative presence of a subsurface nitrogen cycle. Microcosm experiments made with samples from the spring water, containing planktonic microorganisms, or from biofilms, were used in this study. Three slightly different media, enriched with vitamins and trace elements, and two incubation temperatures (30 and 40°C, respectively) were employed. Under aerobic conditions, high rates of conversion of ammonium to nitrite, as well as nitrite to nitrate were measured. Under oxygen-limited conditions nitrate was converted to gaseous compounds. Stable isotope probing with (15)NH4Cl or ((15)NH4)2SO4as sole energy sources revealed incorporation of (15)N into community DNA. Genomic DNA as well as RNA were extracted from all microcosms. The following genes or fragments of genes were successfully amplified, cloned and sequenced by standard PCR from DNA extracts: Ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA), nitrite oxidoreductase subunits A and B (nxrA and nxrB), nitrate reductase (narG), nitrite reductase (nirS), nitric oxide reductases (cnorB and qnorB), nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ). Reverse transcription of extracted total RNA and real-time PCR suggested the expression of each of those genes. Nitrogen fixation (as probed with nifH and nifD) was not detected. However, a geological origin of NH(+) 4 in the water of the FJQ cannot be excluded, considering the silicate, granite and gneiss containing environment. The data suggested the operation of a nitrogen cycle in the subsurface environment of the FJQ.

  14. Groundwater Salinity Simulation of a Subsurface Reservoir in Taiwan

    Fang, H. T.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface reservoir is located in Chi-Ken Basin, Pescadores (a group islands located at western part of Taiwan). There is no river in these remote islands and thus the freshwater supply is relied on the subsurface reservoir. The basin area of the subsurface reservoir is 2.14 km2 , discharge of groundwater is 1.27×106m3 , annual planning water supplies is 7.9×105m3 , which include for domestic agricultural usage. The annual average temperature is 23.3oC, average moisture is 80~85%, annual average rainfall is 913 mm, but ET rate is 1975mm. As there is no single river in the basin; the major recharge of groundwater is by infiltration. Chi-Ken reservoir is the first subsurface reservoir in Taiwan. Originally, the water quality of the reservoir is good. The reservoir has had the salinity problem since 1991 and it became more and more serious from 1992 until 1994. Possible reason of the salinity problem was the shortage of rainfall or the leakage of the subsurface barrier which caused the seawater intrusion. The present study aimed to determine the leakage position of subsurface barrier that caused the salinity problem. In order to perform the simulation for different possible leakage position of the subsurface reservoir, a Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) is used to define soils layer data, hydro-geological parameters, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the generation of three dimension meshes. A three dimension FEMWATER(Yeh , 1996) numerical model was adopted to find the possible leakage position of the subsurface barrier and location of seawater intrusion by comparing the simulation of different possible leakage with the observations. 1.By assuming the leakage position in the bottom of barrier, the simulated numerical result matched the observation better than the other assumed leakage positions. It showed that the most possible leakage position was at the bottom of the barrier. 2.The research applied three dimension FEMWATER and GMS as an interface

  15. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    Halem, Doris van; Vet, Weren de; Verberk, Jasper; Amy, Gary; Dijk, Hans van

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Accumulated iron was not found to clog the well or aquifer after 12 years of subsurface iron removal. → 56-100% of accumulated iron hydroxides were found to be crystalline. → Subsurface iron removal favoured certain soil layers, either due to hydraulics or mineralogy. → Other groundwater constituents, such as manganese and arsenic were found to co-accumulate with iron. - Abstract: The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O 2 -rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+ , creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO 3 , showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in

  16. Soil Carbon Dioxide Production and Surface Fluxes: Subsurface Physical Controls

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    Soil respiration is a critical determinant of landscape carbon balance. Variations in soil temperature and moisture patterns are important physical processes controlling soil respiration which need to be better understood. Relationships between soil respi- ration and physical controls are typically addressed using only surface flux data but other methods also exist which permit more rigorous interpretation of soil respira- tion processes. Here we use a combination of subsurface CO_{2} concentrations, surface CO_{2} fluxes and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface envi- ronment to examine physical controls on soil CO_{2} production at four climate observatories in Eastern Canada. Results indicate that subsurface CO_{2} produc- tion is more strongly correlated to the subsurface thermal environment than the surface CO_{2} flux. Soil moisture was also found to have an important influence on sub- surface CO_{2} production, particularly in relation to the soil moisture - soil profile diffusivity relationship. Non-diffusive profile CO_{2} transport appears to be im- portant at these sites, resulting in a de-coupling of summertime surface fluxes from subsurface processes and violating assumptions that surface CO_{2} emissions are the result solely of diffusion. These results have implications for the study of soil respiration across a broad range of terrestrial environments.

  17. Integrated Surface/subsurface flow modeling in PFLOTRAN

    Painter, Scott L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Understanding soil water, groundwater, and shallow surface water dynamics as an integrated hydrological system is critical for understanding the Earth’s critical zone, the thin outer layer at our planet’s surface where vegetation, soil, rock, and gases interact to regulate the environment. Computational tools that take this view of soil moisture and shallow surface flows as a single integrated system are typically referred to as integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models. We extend the open-source, highly parallel, subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN to accommodate surface flows. In contrast to most previous implementations, we do not represent a distinct surface system. Instead, the vertical gradient in hydraulic head at the land surface is neglected, which allows the surface flow system to be eliminated and incorporated directly into the subsurface system. This tight coupling approach leads to a robust capability and also greatly simplifies implementation in existing subsurface simulators such as PFLOTRAN. Successful comparisons to independent numerical solutions build confidence in the approximation and implementation. Example simulations of the Walker Branch and East Fork Poplar Creek watersheds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee demonstrate the robustness of the approach in geometrically complex applications. The lack of a robust integrated surface/subsurface hydrology capability had been a barrier to PFLOTRAN’s use in critical zone studies. This work addresses that capability gap, thus enabling PFLOTRAN as a community platform for building integrated models of the critical zone.

  18. Considerations in the development of subsurface containment barrier performance standards

    Dunstan, S.; Zdinak, A.P.; Lodman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting subsurface barriers as an alternative remedial option for management of contamination problems at their facilities. Past cleanup initiatives have sometimes proven ineffective or extremely expensive. Economic considerations coupled with changing public and regulatory philosophies regarding remediation techniques makes subsurface barriers a promising technology for future cleanup efforts. As part of the initiative to develop subsurface containment barriers as an alternative remedial option, DOE funded MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to conduct a comprehensive review to identify performance considerations for the acceptability of subsurface barrier technologies as a containment method. Findings from this evaluation were intended to provide a basis for selection and application of containment technologies to address waste problems at DOE sites. Based on this study, the development of performance standards should consider: (1) sustainable low hydraulic conductivity; (2) capability to meet applicable regulations; (3) compatibility with subsurface environmental conditions; (4) durability and long-term stability; (5) repairability; and (6) verification and monitoring. This paper describes the approach for determining considerations for performance standards

  19. Peeking Beneath the Caldera: Communicating Subsurface Knowledge of Newberry Volcano

    Mark-Moser, M.; Rose, K.; Schultz, J.; Cameron, E.

    2016-12-01

    "Imaging the Subsurface: Enhanced Geothermal Systems and Exploring Beneath Newberry Volcano" is an interactive website that presents a three-dimensional subsurface model of Newberry Volcano developed at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Created using the Story Maps application by ArcGIS Online, this format's dynamic capabilities provide the user the opportunity for multimedia engagement with the datasets and information used to build the subsurface model. This website allows for an interactive experience that the user dictates, including interactive maps, instructive videos and video capture of the subsurface model, and linked information throughout the text. This Story Map offers a general background on the technology of enhanced geothermal systems and the geologic and development history of Newberry Volcano before presenting NETL's modeling efforts that support the installation of enhanced geothermal systems. The model is driven by multiple geologic and geophysical datasets to compare and contrast results which allow for the targeting of potential EGS sites and the reduction of subsurface uncertainty. This Story Map aims to communicate to a broad audience, and provides a platform to effectively introduce the model to researchers and stakeholders.

  20. Microbiological analyses of samples from the H-Area injection well test site

    Wilde, E.W.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial populations in well water from monitoring wells at the test site were one to three orders of magnitude higher than well water from the Cretaceous aquifer (used as dilution water for the tests) or from a control well adjacent to the test site facility. Coupons samples placed in monitoring and control wells demonstrated progressive adhesion by microbes to materials used in well construction. Samples of material scraped from test well components during abandonment of the test site project revealed the presence of a variety of attached microbes including iron bacteria. Although the injection wells at the actual remediation facility for the F- and H-Area seepage basins remediation project are expected to be subjected to somewhat different conditions (e.g. considerably lower iron concentrations) than was the case at the test site, the potential for microbiologically mediated clogging and fouling within the process should be considered. A sampling program that includes microbiological testing is highly recommended

  1. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H.; Lesperance, A.; Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area's (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE's technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders

  2. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States); Lesperance, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L. [EnvironIssues (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area`s (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE`s technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders.

  3. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    2011-11-21

    ... Multiplexed Microbiology Devices: Their clinical application and public health/clinical needs; inclusion of...] Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public... Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in the Federal Register of August 8...

  4. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  5. Geochemical behavior of uranium mill tailings leachate in the subsurface

    Brookins, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Leachate generated from surface disposal of acidic uranium mill tailings at Maybell, CO has impacted groundwater quality within the underlying mineralized Browns Park Formation. The extent of groundwater contamination, however, is located directly beneath the tailings impoundment. The milling process consisted of sulfuric acid extraction of uranium from the feed ore by a complex chemical leaching and precipitation process. Tailings leachate at the site contains elevated concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Mo, Ni, NO 3 , Se, U, and other solutes. From column leach tests, the concentrations of contaminants within tailings pore fluid are SO 4 >NH 4 >NO 3 >U>Se>Ni>As>Cd at pH 4.0. The carbonate buffering capacity of the tailings subsoil has decreased because of calcite dissolution in the presence of acidic leachate. Groundwater quality data, mineralogical and microbiological studies, and geochemical modeling suggest that As, NO 3 , Se, U and other solutes are being removed from solution through precipitation, adsorption, and denitrification processes under reducing conditions. Presence of hydrogen sulfide, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, dissolved organic, and abundant pyrite within the Browns Park Formations have maintained reducing conditions subjacent to the tailings impoundment. Groundwater is in close equilibrium with coffinite and uraninite, the primary U(IV) minerals extracted from the Browns Parks Formation. Denitrifying bacteria identified in this study catalyze redox reactions involving NO 3 . Subsequently, contaminant distributions of NO 3 decrease 1000 times beneath the tailings impoundment. Applying geochemical and biochemical processes occurring at Maybell provides an excellent model for in situ aquifer restoration programs considered at other uranium tailings and heavy-metal-mixed waste contaminated sites. (author) 4 figs., 4 tabs., 27 refs

  6. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    Verbiest, G. J., E-mail: Verbiest@physik.rwth-aachen.de [JARA-FIT and II. Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J., E-mail: Rost@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  7. Electrical Resistance Tomography for Subsurface Imaging. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    None

    2000-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) noninvasively maps the 3-D resistivity field in the subsurface. It can be used on a scale from feet to kilometers. The 3-D resistivity field can be used to infer subsurface hydrogeological features and provides good resolution mapping of confining layers of various types. ERT imaging has been used for real-time monitoring and process control of remediation processes such as soil heating, pump and treat, steam injection, electrokinetics, Dynamic Underground Stripping (TechID 7), Hydrous Pyrolysis/Oxidation (TechID 1519) and more. ERT can be deployed via rapid and inexpensive installation of electrodes using a Cone Penetrometer (TechID 243). Additional applications are described under TechID 140 (Tanks) and TechID 2120 (Injected Subsurface Barriers); see also the related technology TechID 2121 (EIT)

  8. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits.

  10. Microbiology and Outcomes of Peritonitis in Northern India

    Prasad, Kashi Nath; Singh, Kamini; Rizwan, Arshi; Mishra, Priyanka; Tiwari, Dinesh; Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an established treatment modality for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Peritonitis remains a serious complication in PD patients and an important cause of drop-out from the program. Types of pathogens and their drug resistance patterns may determine the outcome of peritonitis. The present study was undertaken to determine the microbiology of peritonitis in PD patients, antibiotic resistance in commonly isolated bacterial pathogens and clinical outcomes. ♦ Method: We enrolled 211 patients with ESRD undergoing PD who developed peritonitis during 2002 to 2011. PD fluids were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates was performed. ♦ Result: A total of 303 peritonitis episodes with an overall incidence of 0.41 episodes per patient-year were recorded. Gram-positive, gram-negative, fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ≥ 2 organisms were isolated from 102 (33.7%), 89 (29.4%), 41 (13.5%), 11 (3.6%) and five (1.6%) episodes respectively; 55 (18.2%) episodes were culture negative. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CONS) was the most common isolate. Catheter loss and hospital admission in gram-negative peritonitis were significantly higher than in gram-positive peritonitis (36/89 (40.4%) vs 20/102 (19.6%), p peritonitis due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci, ESBL- and MBL-producing bacteria. ♦ Conclusion: Emerging antimicrobial resistance calls for prompt diagnosis and aggressive empiric therapy based on the local sensitivity data. PMID:24584592

  11. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  12. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Clark, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-000111) (CRWMS M and O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M and O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the

  13. Enamel subsurface damage due to tooth preparation with diamonds.

    Xu, H H; Kelly, J R; Jahanmir, S; Thompson, V P; Rekow, E D

    1997-10-01

    In clinical tooth preparation with diamond burs, sharp diamond particles indent and scratch the enamel, causing material removal. Such operations may produce subsurface damage in enamel. However, little information is available on the mechanisms and the extent of subsurface damage in enamel produced during clinical tooth preparation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the mechanisms of subsurface damage produced in enamel during tooth preparation by means of diamond burs, and to examine the dependence of such damage on enamel rod orientation, diamond particle size, and removal rate. Subsurface damage was evaluated by a bonded-interface technique. Tooth preparation was carried out on two enamel rod orientations, with four clinical diamond burs (coarse, medium, fine, and superfine) used in a dental handpiece. The results of this study showed that subsurface damage in enamel took the form of median-type cracks and distributed microcracks, extending preferentially along the boundaries between the enamel rods. Microcracks within individual enamel rods were also observed. The median-type cracks were significantly longer in the direction parallel to the enamel rods than perpendicular to the rods. Preparation with the coarse diamond bur produced cracks as deep as 84 +/- 30 microns in enamel. Finishing with fine diamond burs was effective in crack removal. The crack lengths in enamel were not significantly different when the removal rate was varied. Based on these results, it is concluded that subsurface damage in enamel induced by tooth preparation takes the form of median-type cracks as well as inter- and intra-rod microcracks, and that the lengths of these cracks are sensitive to diamond particle size and enamel rod orientation, but insensitive to removal rate.

  14. Subsurface Event Detection and Classification Using Wireless Signal Networks

    Muhannad T. Suleiman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs. The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  15. Subsurface event detection and classification using Wireless Signal Networks.

    Yoon, Suk-Un; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Cheng, Liang; Pamukcu, Sibel; Suleiman, Muhannad T

    2012-11-05

    Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  16. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    W.J. Clark

    1999-06-28

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility

  17. [Microbiological studies in poultry meat production].

    Monov, G

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  18. (Microbiological studies in poultry meat production)

    Monov, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  19. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  20. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533