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Sample records for substrates microwave applications

  1. MgTiO3 filled PTFE composites for microwave substrate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Zhang, S.R.; Zhou, X.H.; Li, E.Z.

    2013-01-01

    MgTiO 3 filled PTFE composite substrates were fabricated for microwave circuit applications. The filler content in the PTFE matrix was varied from 30 to 70 wt%. Low loss MgTiO 3 ceramic powder was prepared by the solid state ceramic route. The phase formation of MgTiO 3 was studied by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology of the composites and dispersion of filler in the PTFE matrix was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Microwave dielectric properties of the composites with respect to filler loading were measured by stripline resonator method using Vector Network Analyzer. Different theoretical modeling approaches were used to predict the dielectric constant of PTFE ceramic composites with respect to filler loading. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion of the composites was investigated. Moisture absorption of the composites was found out conforming to IPC-TM-650 2.6.2. - Highlights: • We prepare MT/PTFE composite by cold pressing and hot treating. • Increasing MT will increase ε r , tan δ and moisture absorption. • Increasing MT will decrease thermal expansion coefficient. • MT/PTFE composite has an ε r of 4.3 and a tan δ of 0.00097 at 50 wt% filler loading. • MT/PTFE composite are promising candidates for microwave circuit applications

  2. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  3. Ultra-Fast Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Substrates for UV Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pimentel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, tracing and Whatman papers were used as substrates to grow zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures. Cellulose-based substrates are cost-efficient, highly sensitive and environmentally friendly. ZnO nanostructures with hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal under microwave irradiation using an ultrafast approach, that is, a fixed synthesis time of 10 min. The effect of synthesis temperature on ZnO nanostructures was investigated from 70 to 130 °C. An Ultra Violet (UV/Ozone treatment directly to the ZnO seed layer prior to microwave assisted synthesis revealed expressive differences regarding formation of the ZnO nanostructures. Structural characterization of the microwave synthesized materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The optical characterization has also been performed. The time resolved photocurrent of the devices in response to the UV turn on/off was investigated and it has been observed that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on Whatman paper substrate present a responsivity 3 times superior than the ones grown on tracing paper. By using ZnO nanorods, the surface area-to-volume ratio will increase and will improve the sensor sensibility, making these types of materials good candidates for low cost and disposable UV sensors. The sensors were exposed to bending tests, proving their high stability, flexibility and adaptability to different surfaces.

  4. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  5. Microwave flexible transistors on cellulose nanofibrillated fiber substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Hun Seo; Tzu-Hsuan Chang; Jaeseong Lee; Ronald Sabo; Weidong Zhou; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong; Zhenqiang Ma

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate microwave flexible thin-film transistors (TFTs) on biodegradable substrates towards potential green portable devices. The combination of cellulose nanofibrillated fiber (CNF) substrate, which is a biobased and biodegradable platform, with transferrable single crystalline Si nanomembrane (Si NM), enables the realization of truly...

  6. Microwave mixer technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Although microwave mixers play a critical role in wireless communication and other microwave applications employing frequency conversion circuits, engineers find that most books on this subject emphasize theoretical aspects, rather than practical applications. That's about to change with the forthcoming release of Microwave Mixer Technology and Applications. Based on a review of over one thousand patents on mixers and frequency conversion, authors Bert Henderson and Edmar Camargo have written a comprehensive book for mixer designers who want solid ideas for solving their own design challenges.

  7. Evaluating superconductors for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.; Bybokas, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly obvious that some of the earliest applications for high Tc superconductors will be in the microwave market. While this is a major opportunity for the superconductor community, it also represents a significant challenge. At DC or low frequencies a superconductor can be easily characterized by simple measurements of resistivity and magnetic susceptibility versus temperature. These parameters are fundamental to superconductor characterization and various methods exist for measuring them. The only valid way to determine the microwave characteristics of a superconductor is to measure it at microwave frequencies. It is for this reason that measuring microwave surface resistance has emerged as one of the most demanding and telling tests for materials intended for high frequency applications. In this article, the theory of microwave surface resistance is discussed. Methods for characterizing surface resistance theoretically and by practical implementation are described

  8. Microwave assisted facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver (RGO-Ag) nanocomposite and their application as active SERS substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, Heena; Kumar, Devender; Mahendia, Suman; Kumar, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    The present paper represents the facile and rapid synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver (RGO-Ag) nanocomposite with the help of microwave irradiation. The graphene oxide (GO) solution has been prepared in bulk using Hummer's method followed by microwave assisted in-situ reduction of GO and silver nitrate (AgNO_3) by hydrazine hydrate in a short spam of 5 min. The prepared nanocomposite has been characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV–Visible spectroscopy. TEM analysis shows that Ag nanoparticles with average size 32 nm are uniformly entangled with in RGO layers. The UV–Visible absorption spectrum of nanocomposite depicts the reduction of GO to RGO along with the formation of Ag nanoparticles with the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of Ag nanoparticles at 422 nm. The performance of prepared nanocomposite has been tested as the active Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate for Rhodamine 6G with detection limit 0.1 μM. - Highlights: • The RGO and RGO-Ag nanocomposite were synthesized with microwave irradiation. • Ag nanoparticles of average size 32 nm are uniformly entangled within RGO layers. • RGO itself is a florescence quencher with SERS detection limit 1 μM for R6G. • RGO-Ag nanocomposite show good SERS activity for R6G with detection limit 0.1 μM.

  9. Microwave assisted facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver (RGO-Ag) nanocomposite and their application as active SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Heena, E-mail: heenawadhwa1988@gmail.com; Kumar, Devender, E-mail: devkumsaroha@kuk.ac.in; Mahendia, Suman, E-mail: mahendia@gmail.com; Kumar, Shyam, E-mail: profshyam@gmail.com

    2017-06-15

    The present paper represents the facile and rapid synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver (RGO-Ag) nanocomposite with the help of microwave irradiation. The graphene oxide (GO) solution has been prepared in bulk using Hummer's method followed by microwave assisted in-situ reduction of GO and silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) by hydrazine hydrate in a short spam of 5 min. The prepared nanocomposite has been characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV–Visible spectroscopy. TEM analysis shows that Ag nanoparticles with average size 32 nm are uniformly entangled with in RGO layers. The UV–Visible absorption spectrum of nanocomposite depicts the reduction of GO to RGO along with the formation of Ag nanoparticles with the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of Ag nanoparticles at 422 nm. The performance of prepared nanocomposite has been tested as the active Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate for Rhodamine 6G with detection limit 0.1 μM. - Highlights: • The RGO and RGO-Ag nanocomposite were synthesized with microwave irradiation. • Ag nanoparticles of average size 32 nm are uniformly entangled within RGO layers. • RGO itself is a florescence quencher with SERS detection limit 1 μM for R6G. • RGO-Ag nanocomposite show good SERS activity for R6G with detection limit 0.1 μM.

  10. Joining of thermoplastic substrates by microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for joining two or more items having surfaces of thermoplastic material includes the steps of depositing an electrically-conductive material upon the thermoplastic surface of at least one of the items, and then placing the other of the two items adjacent the one item so that the deposited material is in intimate contact with the surfaces of both the one and the other items. The deposited material and the thermoplastic surfaces contacted thereby are then exposed to microwave radiation so that the thermoplastic surfaces in contact with the deposited material melt, and then pressure is applied to the two items so that the melted thermoplastic surfaces fuse to one another. Upon discontinuance of the exposure to the microwave energy, and after permitting the thermoplastic surfaces to cool from the melted condition, the two items are joined together by the fused thermoplastic surfaces. The deposited material has a thickness which is preferably no greater than a skin depth, .delta..sub.s, which is related to the frequency of the microwave radiation and characteristics of the deposited material in accordance with an equation.

  11. Nucleation of microwave plasma CVD diamond on molybdenum (Mo) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inderjeet, K.; Ramesh, S.

    2000-01-01

    Molybdenum is a metal, which is gaining increasing significance in industrial applications. The main use of Mo is as all alloying element added in small amounts to steel, irons and non- ferrous alloys in order to enhance the strength, toughness and wear resistance. Mo is also vastly being employed in the automotive and aircraft industries, mainly due to its low coefficient of friction. Diamond, on be other hand, is a unique material for innumerable applications because of its usual combination of physical and chemical properties. Several potential applications can be anticipated for diamond in many sectors including electronics, optics, as protective corrosion resistant coatings, cutting tools, etc. With the enhancement in science and technology, diamond microcrystals and thin films are now being produced from the vapour phase by a variety of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques; such as microwave plasma CVD. With such technology being made available, it is envisage that diamond-coated molybdenum would further enhance the performance and to open up new avenue for Mo in various industries. Therefore, it is the aim of the present work to study the nucleation and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface by employing microwave plasma CVD (MAPCVD). In the present work, diamond deposition was carried out in several stages by varying the deposition distance. The nucleation and growth rate were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the existence of diamond was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It has been found that the nucleation and growth rate of diamond particles were influenced by the deposition height between the substrate and plasma. Under the optimum condition, well defined diamond crystallites distributed homogeneously throughout the surface, could be obtained. Some of the important parameters controlling the deposition and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface are discussed. (author)

  12. New applications of microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Tokuzawa, T.

    2000-01-01

    Interferometry and reflectometry measure phase of the transparent or the reflected wave to derive the information on plasma density. Homodyne reflectometry for an interlock and transmissiometry for sheet plasma measurements could be another class of microwave diagnostics, which does not measure the phase. (author)

  13. Microwave materials for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cruickshank, David B

    2011-01-01

    This practical resource offers you an in-depth, up-to-date understanding of the use of microwave magnetic materials for cutting-edge wireless applications. The book discusses device applications used in wireless infrastructure base stations, point-to-point radio links, and a range of more specialized microwave systems. You find detailed discussions on the attributes of each family of magnetic materials with respect to specific wireless applications. Moreover, the book addresses two of the hottest topics in the field today - insertion loss and intermodulation. This comprehensive reference also

  14. Microwave integrated circuits for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), which incorporate all the elements of a microwave circuit on a single semiconductor substrate, offer the potential for drastic reductions in circuit weight and volume and increased reliability, all of which make many new concepts in electronic circuitry for space applications feasible, including phased array antennas. NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of MMICs for space applications. The first such circuits targeted for development were an extension of work in hybrid (discrete component) technology in support of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). It focused on power amplifiers, receivers, and switches at ACTS frequencies. More recent work, however, focused on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and emphasizes advanced materials in an effort to enhance efficiency, power handling capability, and frequency of operation or noise figure to meet the requirements of space systems.

  15. Using Multilayered Substrate Integrated Waveguide to Design Microwave Gain Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and experiment of a novel microwave gain equalizer based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technique. The proposed equalizer is formed by an SIW loaded by SIW resonators, which has very compact structure and can compensate for gain slope of microwave systems. Equivalent circuit analysis is given about the proposed structure for a better insight into the structure’s response. A Ku-Band equalizer with four SIW resonators is simulated and fabricated with a multilayer printed circuit board process. The measured results show good performance and agreement with the simulated results; an attenuation slope of −4.5 dB over 12.5–13.5 GHz is reached with a size reduction of 76%.

  16. Applications of high power microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.; Swegle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address a number of applications for HPM technology. There is a strong symbiotic relationship between a developing technology and its emerging applications. New technologies can generate new applications. Conversely, applications can demand development of new technological capability. High-power microwave generating systems come with size and weight penalties and problems associated with the x-radiation and collection of the electron beam. Acceptance of these difficulties requires the identification of a set of applications for which high-power operation is either demanded or results in significant improvements in peRFormance. The authors identify the following applications, and discuss their requirements and operational issues: (1) High-energy RF acceleration; (2) Atmospheric modification (both to produce artificial ionospheric mirrors for radio waves and to save the ozone layer); (3) Radar; (4) Electronic warfare; and (5) Laser pumping. In addition, they discuss several applications requiring high average power than border on HPM, power beaming and plasma heating

  17. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, S., E-mail: fujii.s.ap@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Department of Information and Communication System Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Okinawa College, Nago, Okinawa 905-2192 (Japan); Kawamura, S.; Maitani, M. M.; Suzuki, E.; Wada, Y. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Mochizuki, D. [Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Center for Energy and Environmental Science, Shinshu University, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  18. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  19. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  20. A magnetic nano-particle ink for tunable microwave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-12-19

    Inkjet printing or printing for realization of inexpensive and large area electronics has unearthed as an attractive fabrication technique. Though at present, mostly the metallic inks are printed on regular microwave substrates. In this paper, a fully printed multilayer fabrication process is demonstrated where the substrate is also realized through printing. A novel Fe2O3 based magnetic ink is used as a substrate while an in-house silver organo complex (SOC) ink is developed for metallic layers. Complete magnetostatic and microwave characterization of the ink is presented. At the end, a tunable patch antenna is shown as an application using the magnetic ink as the substrate. The antenna shows a tuning range of 12.5 % for a magnetic field strength of 3 kOe.

  1. Improving surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect using gold-coated hierarchical polystyrene bead substrates modified with postgrowth microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Clement; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2008-01-01

    We report a novel postgrowth microwave heating implementation by selectively modifying hierarchical polystyrene (PS) bead substrates coated with gold (Au) films to effectively improve the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect on the analytes. The SERS signal of probe molecule rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) on the microwave-treated Au-PS substrates can be improved by 10-fold, while the detection limit of Rh 6G in concentration can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the as-growth substrates. The high-quality SERS spectrum of saliva can also be acquired using the modified substrates, demonstrating the potential for the realization of the high-performance SERS substrates for biomedical applications.

  2. Microwave Tissue Ablation: Biophysics, Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an emerging treatment option for many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. During treatment, microwaves are applied directly to tissues to produce rapid temperature elevations sufficient to produce immediate coagulative necrosis. The engineering design criteria for each application differ, with individual consideration for factors such as desired ablation zone size, treatment duration, and procedural invasiveness. Recent technological developments in applicator cooling, power control and system optimization for specific applications promise to increase the utilization of microwave ablation in the future. This article will review the basic biophysics of microwave tissue heating, provide an overview of the design and operation of current equipment, and outline areas for future research for microwave ablation. PMID:21175404

  3. Enhancement of adhesion between carbon nanotubes and polymer substrates using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Kwak, Yoon Keun; Han, Chang-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the enhancement of adhesive strength between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and polymer substrates using microwave irradiation of 0-5 min duration at 2.45 GHz and 800 W. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images, ultraviolet-visible data and four-point probe sheet resistance measurement data indicate that microwave irradiation is effective for enhancement of adhesion between SWNTs and polymer substrates. SWNTs could be locally welded onto a polymer substrate due to their active response to microwave irradiation.

  4. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2008-01-01

    aperture radiometer technique, both yielding imaging capability without scanning. Typical applications of microwave radiometry concerning oceans are: sea salinity, sea surface temperature, wind speed and direction, sea ice detection and classification. However, in an attempt to measure properties...

  5. Precision microwave applicators and systems for plasma and materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmussen, J.; Garard, R.

    1988-01-01

    Modern applications of microwave energy have imposed new requirements upon microwave processing systems. Interest in energy efficiency, processing uniformity and control of process cycles has placed new design conditions upon microwave power oscillators, microwave systems and microwave applicator design. One approach of meeting new application requirements is the use of single-mode or controlled multimode applicators. The use of a single-mode applicator for plasma generation and materials processing will be presented. Descriptions of actual applicator designs for heating, curing, and processing of solid materials and the generations of high and low pressure discharges will be given. The impact of these applicators on the total microwave system including the microwave power source will be described. Specific examples of applicator and associated microwave systems will be detailed for the applications of (1) plasma thin film deposition and (2) the precision processing and diagnosis of materials. Methods of process control and diagnosis, control of process uniformity and process scale up are discussed

  6. Multiband rectenna for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okba, Abderrahim; Takacs, Alexandru; Aubert, Hervé; Charlot, Samuel; Calmon, Pierre-François

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a multiband rectenna (rectifier + antenna) suitable for the electromagnetic energy harvesting of the spill-over loss of microwave antennas placed on board of geostationary satellites. Such rectenna is used for powering autonomous wireless sensors for satellite health monitoring. The topology of the rectenna is presented. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed compact rectenna can harvest efficiently the incident electromagnetic energy at three different frequencies that are close to the resonant frequencies of the cross-dipoles implemented in the antenna array. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail

  8. Large microwave tunability of GaAs-based multiferroic heterostructure for applications in monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yajie; Gao Jinsheng; Vittoria, C; Harris, V G; Heiman, D

    2010-01-01

    Microwave magnetoelectric coupling in a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic/semiconductor multiferroic (MF) heterostructure, consisting of a Co 2 MnAl epitaxial film grown on a GaAs substrate bonded to a lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) crystal, is reported. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements were carried out at X-band under the application of electric fields. Results indicate a frequency tuning of 125 MHz for electric field strength of 8 kV cm -1 resulting in a magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 3.4 Oe cm kV -1 . This work explores the potential of electronically controlled MF devices for use in future monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  9. Baseplates in metallic matrix composites for power and microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiot, P.

    1997-01-01

    Baseplates for microelectronic devices in fields where transform environments are encountered, such as automotive or airborne must have some fundamental characteristics such as: high thermal conductivity, low density, good mechanical properties and a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) nearly equal to the microelectronic substrates and the components installed on the baseplates. Metallic matrix composites are very good candidates because they perfectly answer to those requirements. In this presentation, with some examples of electronic devices in power and microwave applications we will show the big interest to use this kind of material. (author)

  10. Microwave flash sintering of inkjet-printed silver tracks on polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perelaer, J.; Klokkenburg, M.; Hendriks, C.E.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave flash sintering of inkjet printed colloidal silver dispersions on thin polymer substrates was studied as a function of the antenna area and initial resistance. The presence of conductive antennae promotes nanoparticle sintering in predried ink lines. For dried nanoparticle inks connected

  11. Microwave RF antennas and circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a new concept for analyzing RF/microwave circuits, which includes RF/microwave antennas. The book is unique in its emphasis on practical and innovative microwave RF engineering applications. The analysis is based on nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and results. All conceptual RF microwave circuits and antennas are innovative and can be broadly implemented in engineering applications. Given the dynamics of RF microwave circuits and antennas, they are suitable for use in a broad range of applications. The book presents analytical methods for microwave RF antennas and circuit analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. The analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic differential equations and their bifurcations, and subsequently moving on to fixed point analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. Engineering applications include microwave RF circuits and antennas in a variety of topological structures, RFID ICs and antennas, micros...

  12. Precise microwave characterization of MgO substrates for HTS circuits with superconducting post dielectric resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazierska, Janina; Ledenyov, Dimitri; Jacob, Mohan V; Krupka, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    Accurate data of complex permittivity of dielectric substrates are needed for efficient design of HTS microwave planar circuits. We have tested MgO substrates from three different manufacturing batches using a dielectric resonator with superconducting parts recently developed for precise microwave characterization of laminar dielectrics at cryogenic temperatures. The measurement fixture has been fabricated using a SrLaAlO 3 post dielectric resonator with DyBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 end plates and silver-plated copper sidewalls to achieve the resolution of loss tangent measurements of 2 x 10 -6 . The tested MgO substrates exhibited the average relative permittivity of 9.63 and tanδ from 3.7 x 10 -7 to 2 x 10 -5 at frequency of 10.5 GHz in the temperature range from 14 to 80 K

  13. Precise microwave characterization of MgO substrates for HTS circuits with superconducting post dielectric resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazierska, Janina [Institute of Information Sciences and Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, P. Bag 11222 (New Zealand); Ledenyov, Dimitri [Electrical and Computer Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Q4811 (Australia); Jacob, Mohan V [Electrical and Computer Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Q4811 (Australia); Krupka, Jerzy [Instytut Mikroelektroniki i Optoelektroniki Politechniki Warszawskiej, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-01-01

    Accurate data of complex permittivity of dielectric substrates are needed for efficient design of HTS microwave planar circuits. We have tested MgO substrates from three different manufacturing batches using a dielectric resonator with superconducting parts recently developed for precise microwave characterization of laminar dielectrics at cryogenic temperatures. The measurement fixture has been fabricated using a SrLaAlO{sub 3} post dielectric resonator with DyBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} end plates and silver-plated copper sidewalls to achieve the resolution of loss tangent measurements of 2 x 10{sup -6}. The tested MgO substrates exhibited the average relative permittivity of 9.63 and tan{delta} from 3.7 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} at frequency of 10.5 GHz in the temperature range from 14 to 80 K.

  14. Application of Memristors in Microwave Passive Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Potrebic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent implementation of the fourth fundamental electric circuit element, the memristor, opened new vistas in many fields of engineering applications. In this paper, we explore several RF/microwave passive circuits that might benefit from the memristor salient characteristics. We consider a power divider, coupled resonator bandpass filters, and a low-reflection quasi-Gaussian lowpass filter with lossy elements. We utilize memristors as configurable linear resistors and we propose memristor-based bandpass filters that feature suppression of parasitic frequency pass bands and widening of the desired rejection band. The simulations are performed in the time domain, using LTspice, and the RF/microwave circuits under consideration are modeled by ideal elements available in LTspice.

  15. Application of microwave to drying and blanching of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Y.; Orikasa, T.; Shiina, T.; Sotome, I.; Isobe, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Tagawa, A.

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of microwave to the drying and blanching of tomatoes was examined. The changes of the drying rate and surface color were first measured and compared between drying by hot air (50degC) or microwave at three radiation powers. The drying rates using a microwave were higher than that using hot air. Both a constant-rate drying period and a falling-rate drying period were observed for each microwave radiation power. Compared to hot air drying, microwave drying resulted in an increase in lightness which is a preferable quality of tomatoes. Next, the changes in temperature, nutrients and surface color were measured and compared between blanching by microwave or boiling water. Microwave blanching required less time, resulted in higher retention of nutrients (ascorbic acid and lycopene) and caused less change in color in comparison with boiling water blanching. These results suggest that a microwave could be applied to drying and blanching tomatoes

  16. RF microwave circuit design for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L

    2012-01-01

    Provides researchers and engineers with a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling the newest IC technologies Revised and completely updated, RF/Microwave Circuit Design for Wireless Applications, Second Edition is a unique, state-of-the-art guide to wireless integrated circuit design that provides researchers and engineers with a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling even the newest IC technologies. It emphasizes practical design solutions for high-performance devices and circuitry, incorporating ample exa

  17. A miniaturized Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on Modified (Mg0.95Ca0.05TiO3 Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Mingzhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave miniaturized bandpass filter using (Mg0.95Ca0.05TiO3 (abbreviated as 95MCT hereafter ceramic substrate is investigated in the present paper. The paper studies the sintering and microwave dielectric properties of Al2O3, La2O3 and SiO2 co-doped 95MCT. The XRD pattern shows that a secondary phase MgTi2O5 is easily segregated in 95MCT ceramic, however, through co-doping it can be effectively suppressed, and the microwave dielectric properties, especially, the Qf value can be significantly improved. Through optimizing the co-doping ratio of Al2O3, La2O3 and SiO2, the sintering temperature of 95MCT ceramic can be lowered by 80°C, and the microwave dielectric properties can reach Qf=61856GHz and εr=19.84, which indicates the modified 95MCT ceramic have a great potential application in microwave communication devices. Based on this, we also designed a miniaturized microwave bandpass filter (BPF on modified 95MCT substrate. Through a full wave electromagnetic structure simulation, the results show that the center frequency of the BPF is 2.45GHz and the relative bandwidth is 4.09% with the insertion loss of less than 0.2dB in the whole bandpass.

  18. High quality silicon-based substrates for microwave and millimeter wave passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaroussi, Y.; Rack, M.; Saadi, A. A.; Scheen, G.; Belaroussi, M. T.; Trabelsi, M.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Porous silicon substrate is very promising for next generation wireless communication requiring the avoidance of high-frequency losses originating from the bulk silicon. In this work, new variants of porous silicon (PSi) substrates have been introduced. Through an experimental RF performance, the proposed PSi substrates have been compared with different silicon-based substrates, namely, standard silicon (Std), trap-rich (TR) and high resistivity (HR). All of the mentioned substrates have been fabricated where identical samples of CPW lines have been integrated on. The new PSi substrates have shown successful reduction in the substrate's effective relative permittivity to values as low as 3.7 and great increase in the substrate's effective resistivity to values higher than 7 kΩ cm. As a concept proof, a mm-wave bandpass filter (MBPF) centred at 27 GHz has been integrated on the investigated substrates. Compared with the conventional MBPF implemented on standard silicon-based substrates, the measured S-parameters of the PSi-based MBPF have shown high filtering performance, such as a reduction in insertion loss and an enhancement of the filter selectivity, with the joy of having the same filter performance by varying the temperature. Therefore, the efficiency of the proposed PSi substrates has been well highlighted. From 1994 to 1995, she was assistant of physics at (USTHB), Algiers . From 1998 to 2011, she was a Researcher at characterization laboratory in ionized media and laser division at the Advanced Technologies Development Center. She has integrated the Analog Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits team as Researcher since 2011 until now in Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Division at Advanced Technologies Development Center (CDTA), Algiers. She has been working towards her Ph.D. degree jointly at CDTA and Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Algiers, since 2012. Her research interest includes fabrication and characterization of microwave passive devices on porous

  19. Direct synthesis of multi-layer graphene film on various substrates by microwave plasma at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jae [Plasma Technology Research Center, 814-2 Osickdo-dong (SGFEZ), Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byung Wook; Kim, Tae Yoo; Lee, Jung Woo [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Ho; Choi, Yong Sup [Plasma Technology Research Center, 814-2 Osickdo-dong (SGFEZ), Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Il, E-mail: physein01@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Su Jeong, E-mail: suhsj@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    We introduce a possible route for vertically standing multi-layer graphene films (VMGs) on various substrates at low temperature by electron cyclone resonance microwave plasma. VMG films on various substrates, including copper sheet, glass and silicon oxide wafer, were analyzed by studying their structural, electrical, and optical properties. The density and temperature of plasma were measured using Cylindrical Langmuir probe analysis. The morphologies and microstructures of multi-layer graphene were characterized using field emission scattering electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectra measurement. The VMGs on different substrates at the same experimental conditions synthesized the wrinkled VMGs with different heights. In addition, the transmittance and electrical resistance were measured using ultra-violet visible near-infrared spectroscopy and 4 probe point surface resistance measurement. The VMGs on glass substrate obtained a transmittance of 68.8% and sheet resistance of 796 Ω/square, whereas the VMGs on SiO{sub 2} wafer substrate showed good sheet resistance of 395 Ω/square and 278 Ω/square. The results presented herein demonstrate a simple method of synthesizing of VMGs on various substrates at low temperature for mass production, in which the VMGs can be used in a wide range of application fields for energy storage, catalysis, and field emission due to their unique orientation. - Highlights: • We present for synthesis method of graphene at low temperature on various substrates. • We grow the graphene films at low temperature under of 432 °C. • Structural information of graphene films were studied upon Raman spectroscopy. • Inter-layer spacing of vertically standing graphene relies on synthesis time. • We measured a transmittance and a resistance for graphene films on difference substrate.

  20. Trends of microwave dielectric materials for antenna application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulong, T. A. T.; Osman, R. A. M.; Idris, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of a modern microwave communication system requires a high quality microwave dielectric ceramic material to be used as mobile and satellite communication. High permittivity of dielectric ceramics leads to fabrication of compact device for electronic components. Dielectric ceramics which used for microwave applications required three important parameters such as high or appropriate permittivity (ε_r), high quality factor (Q _f ≥ 5000 GH z) and good temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ_f). This paper review of various dielectric ceramic materials used as microwave dielectric materials and related parameters for antenna applications.

  1. Trends of microwave dielectric materials for antenna application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulong, T. A. T., E-mail: tuanamirahtuansulong@gmail.com; Osman, R. A. M., E-mail: rozana@unimap.edu.my [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Idris, M. S., E-mail: sobri@unimap.edu.my [Sustainable Engineering Research Cluster, School of Material Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Blok B, Taman Pertiwi Indah, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Rapid development of a modern microwave communication system requires a high quality microwave dielectric ceramic material to be used as mobile and satellite communication. High permittivity of dielectric ceramics leads to fabrication of compact device for electronic components. Dielectric ceramics which used for microwave applications required three important parameters such as high or appropriate permittivity (ε{sub r}), high quality factor (Q {sub f} ≥ 5000 GH z) and good temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ{sub f}). This paper review of various dielectric ceramic materials used as microwave dielectric materials and related parameters for antenna applications.

  2. Substrate-free microwave synthesis of graphene: experimental conditions and hydrocarbon precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dato, Albert [Applied Science and Technology Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Frenklach, Michael, E-mail: amdato@me.berkeley.edu, E-mail: myf@me.berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The effects of applied microwave power, gas flow rate and precursor composition on the substrate-free gas-phase synthesis of graphene were investigated. Graphene was produced through the delivery of ethanol droplets into argon plasmas, and a decrease in the flow rate of the gas used to generate the plasmas resulted in the formation of graphitic particles and bulk graphite structures. Carbonaceous soot particles were created by delivering isopropyl alcohol into the reactor, while no solid matter was created from methanol. Increasing the applied microwave power was found to have no effect on the structures of the synthesized materials. These findings indicated that the synthesis of graphene in the gas phase was the result of the slow inception and extremely fast growth of aromatic nuclei in the plasma afterglows.

  3. Microwave-assisted rock breaking modelling and application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monchusi, B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing development of novel mining methods, the CSIR has developed alternative methods to break rocks. In this case, we show the application of microwave energy to break narrow tabular ore bodies....

  4. Recent advances in processing and applications of microwave ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Vincent G.; Geiler, Anton; Chen Yajie; Yoon, Soack Dae; Wu Mingzhong; Yang, Aria; Chen Zhaohui; He Peng; Parimi, Patanjali V.; Zuo Xu; Patton, Carl E.; Abe, Manasori; Acher, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Next generation magnetic microwave devices will be planar, smaller, weigh less, and perform well beyond the present state-of-the-art. For this to become a reality advances in ferrite materials must first be realized. These advances include self-bias magnetization, tunability of the magnetic anisotropy, low microwave loss, and volumetric and weight reduction. To achieve these goals one must turn to novel materials processing methods. Here, we review recent advances in the processing of microwave ferrites. Attention is paid to the processing of ferrite films by pulsed laser deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, spin spray ferrite plating, screen printing, and compaction of quasi-single crystals. Conventional and novel applications of ferrite materials, including microwave non-reciprocal passive devices, microwave signal processing, negative index metamaterial-based electronics, and electromagnetic interference suppression are discussed.

  5. Microwires enabled metacomposites towards microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Qin, F.X. [Institute for Composites Science Innovation (InCSI), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Scarpa, F. [Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Carbonell, J. [Wave Phenomena Group, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ipatov, M.; Zhukova, V.; Zhukov, A.; Gonzalez, J [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian 20009 (Spain); Panina, L.V. [School of Novel Materials and Nanotechnology, National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Peng, H.X., E-mail: hxpengwork@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Composites Science Innovation (InCSI), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-10-15

    The work describes the microwave behavior of polymer composites containing parallel Fe-based and continuous/short-cut Co-based microwire arrays. A magnetic field-tunable metacomposite feature has been identified in the hybrid microwires composite containing 3 mm spaced Co-based wires and confirmed by the presence of transmission windows in the frequency band of 1–3.5 GHz. The magnetically tuned redshift-blueshift in the transmission window is due to the competing dynamic interactions between the different wires and the ferromagnetic resonance of the Fe-based microwires. When the Co-based inter-wire spacing is increased to 10 mm, dual-band transmission windows in the 1.5–3.5 GHz and 9–17 GHz bandwidths were observed. These transmission windows are likely induced by the ferromagnetic resonance of Fe-based wires and the long range dipolar resonance arising between Fe–Co wire couples. The hybridization of parallel Fe-based and short Co-based wires in the composites leads to a significant enhancement of the transmission window in the 1–6 GHz band due to the band-gap nature of the Co-based wires. The hybrid metacomposites containing microwires seem attractive in radio frequency identification application. - Highlights: • Three kinds of hybrid metacomposites containing microwires are fabricated. • Magnetic field-tunable double negative features are observed in 1–3.5 GHz. • Wave transmission enhancement adjacent to band-stop feature is obtained in 1–6 GHz. • Displayed physics are promising for radio frequency identification applications.

  6. Integration of semiconductor and ceramic superconductor devices for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopman, B.B.G.; Weijers, H.W.; Gao, J.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, H.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the very low-loss properties of ceramic superconductors high-performance microwave resonators and filters can be realized. The fact that these devices may be operated at liquid nitrogen temperature, facilitates the integration with semiconductor devices. Examples are bandpass amplifiers, microwave-operated SQUIDs combined with GaAs preamplifiers, detectors, and MOSFET low-frequency amplifiers. This paper discusses the design of such circuits on a single one inch alumina substrate using surface mount techniques. Furthermore data on circuits that have been realized in our laboratory will be presented

  7. Formation of silicides in a cavity applicator microwave system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.; Kim, H.C.; Alford, T.L.; Mayer, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Metal silicides of nickel and cobalt are formed in a cavity applicator microwave system with a magnetron power of 1200 W and a frequency of 2.45 GHz. X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and four-point-probe measurements are used to identify the silicide phase present and layer thicknesses. Additional processing confirmed that the products attained from heating by microwaves do not differ appreciably from those attained in heating by thermal processes. Materials properties are used to explain microwave power absorption and demonstrate how to tailor a robust process in which thin film reactions can be attained and specific products isolated

  8. Microwave imaging for plasma diagnostics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mase, A.; Kogi, Y.; Ito, N.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostic techniques such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and radiometry have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. Important plasma parameters were measured to clarify the physics issues such as stability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport. Recent advances in microwave and millimeter-wave technology together with computer technology have enabled the development of advanced diagnostics for visualization of 2D and 3D structures of plasmas. Microwave/millimeter-wave imaging is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. We report here on the representative microwave diagnostics and their industrial applications as well as application to magnetically-confined plasmas. (author)

  9. Application of HTSC-thin films in microwave bandpass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reveals unique performance capabilities of High-Temperature Superconducting Thin-Film (HTSCTFs) for possible applications in microwave bandpass filters (BPFs). Microwave filters fabricated with HTSCTFs have demonstrated lowest insertion loss, highest rejection, and sharpest skirt selectivity. Thin films of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO), Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) and Thallium Calcium Barium Copper Oxide (TCBCO) will be most attractive for filters

  10. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The microwave radiometer system measures, within its bandwidth, the naturally emitted radiation – the brightness temperature – of substances within its antenna’s field of view. Thus a radiometer is really a sensitive and calibrated microwave receiver. The radiometer can be a basic total power....../antenna size, and the problem: scanning antenna/space- craft stability. In many cases good compromises have been reached, as evident recalling the many successful missions throughout the recent 30 years. But in some cases the situation calls for special solutions, like the push-broom system or the synthetic...

  11. Microwave Technology--Applications in Chemical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave heating, being specific and instantaneous, is unique and has found a place for expeditious chemical syntheses. Specifically, the solvent-free reactions are convenient to perform and have advantages over the conventional heating protocols as summarized in the previous se...

  12. Present and future applications of analogue microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    Photonics may be even more suited for analog than for digital signal applications. Today, microwave photonics techniques are currently used in radio-over-fibre signal transmission and other commercial applications, but recent advances are widening the scope of application to new areas. The speakers...... will introduce present and emerging opportunities for analog photonics, among which microwave filters, arbitrary optical waveform control, THz radiation and UWB pulse generation. A panel discussion will contrast different views from company, academy and funding bodies, to identify the most promising ones...

  13. A Dual-Mode Microwave Applicator for Liver Tumor Thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Carolin; Schüßler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf; Bazrafshan, Babak; Hübner, Frank; Vogl, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The concept of a novel dual-mode microwave applicator for diagnosis and thermal ablation treatment of tumorous tissue is presented in this paper. This approach is realized by integrating a planar resonator array to, firstly, detect abnormalities by a relative dielectric analysis, and secondly, perform a highly localized thermal ablation. A further essential advantage is addressed by designing the applicator to be MRI compatible to provide a multimodal imaging procedure. Investigations for an appropriate frequency range lead to the use of much higher operating frequencies between 5 GHz and 10 GHz, providing a significantly lower power consumption for microwave ablation of only 20 W compared to commercial available applicators.

  14. The application of microwave photonic detection in quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenting; Zhuang, Yongyong; Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Duan, Chongdi

    2018-03-01

    Quantum communication has attracted much attention in recent years, provides an ultimate level of security, and uniquely it is one of the most likely practical quantum technologies at present. In order to realize global coverage of quantum communication networks, not only need the help of satellite to realize wide area quantum communication, need implementation of optical fiber system to realize city to city quantum communication, but also, it is necessary to implement end-to-end quantum communications intercity and wireless quantum communications that can be received by handheld devices. Because of the limitation of application of light in buildings, it needs quantum communication with microwave band to achieve quantum reception of wireless handheld devices. The single microwave photon energy is very low, it is difficult to directly detect, which become a difficulty in microwave quantum detection. This paper summarizes the mode of single microwave photon detection methods and the possibility of application in microwave quantum communication, and promotes the development of quantum communication in microwave band and quantum radar.

  15. Multiband Rectenna for Microwave Applications Rectenna

    OpenAIRE

    Okba , Abderrahim; Takacs , Alexandru; Aubert , Hervé; Charlot , Samuel; Calmon , Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper reports a multiband rectenna (rectifier + antenna) suitable for the electromagnetic energy harvesting of the spill-over loss of microwave antennas placed on board of geostationary satellites. Such rectenna is used for powering autonomous wireless sensors for satellite health monitoring. The topology of the rectenna is presented. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed compact rectenna can harvest efficiently the incident electromagnetic energy...

  16. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

  17. Growth, microstructure, and field-emission properties of synthesized diamond film on adamantane-coated silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N.; Chang Li

    2010-01-01

    Diamond nucleation on unscratched Si surface is great importance for its growth, and detailed understanding of this process is therefore desired for many applications. The pretreatment of the substrate surface may influence the initial growth period. In this study, diamond films have been synthesized on adamantane-coated crystalline silicon {100} substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from a gaseous mixture of methane and hydrogen gases without the application of a bias voltage to the substrates. Prior to adamantane coating, the Si substrates were not pretreated such as abraded/scratched. The substrate temperature was ∼530 deg. C during diamond deposition. The deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements provide definitive evidence for high-crystalline quality diamond film, which is synthesized on a SiC rather than clean Si substrate. Characterization through atomic force microscope allows establishing fine quality criteria of the film according to the grain size of nanodiamond along with SiC. The diamond films exhibit a low-threshold (55 V/μm) and high current-density (1.6 mA/cm 2 ) field-emission (FE) display. The possible mechanism of formation of diamond films and their FE properties have been demonstrated.

  18. Application of microwaves for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, investigation results of microwave heating application for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores made of moulding sands with thermosetting resins are presented. It was found that waste shell cores or shell moulds left after casting, separated from moulding sand, can be effectively incinerated. It was evidenced that microwave heating allows effective control of this process and its results. Incineration of waste moulds and cores made of commercial grades of resin-coated moulding sand using microwave heating was found to be an effective way of their utilisation. It was determined that the optimum burning time of these wastes (except those insufficiently disintegrated and not mixed with an activating agent is maximum 240 s at the used magnetron power of 650 W. It was noticed that proper disintegration of the wastes and use of suitable additives to intensify the microwave heating process guarantee significant reduction of the process time and its full stabilisation. Application of microwave heating for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores ensure substantial and measurable economic profits due to shorter process time and lower energy consumption.

  19. A Microwave Tunable Bandpass Filter for Liquid Crystal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiping; Jiang, Di; Liu, Yupeng; Yang, Yuanwang; Gan, Baichuan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel microwave continuously tunable band-pass filter, based on nematic liquid crystals (LCs), is proposed. It uses liquid crystal (LC) as the electro-optic material to mainly realize frequency shift at microwave band by changing the dielectric anisotropy, when applying the bias voltage. According to simulation results, it achieves 840 MHz offset. Comparing to the existing tunable filter, it has many advantages, such as continuously tunable, miniaturization, low processing costs, low tuning voltage, etc. Thus, it has shown great potentials in frequency domain and practical applications in modern communication.

  20. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  1. Microwave Photochemistry. Applications in Organic Synthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Relich, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 282-293 ISSN 1570-193X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : microwave * photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.406, year: 2011 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-79960013317&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=cirkva%2cv&sid=95rFucNho6qr5iGwVeMnh_W%3a150&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=21&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28cirkva%2cv%29&relpos=0&relpos=0&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(cirkva,v)

  2. Design of a Compact Wideband Antenna Array for Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puskely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, wideband antenna arrays aimed at microwave imaging applications and SAR applications operating at Ka band were designed. The antenna array feeding network is realized by a low-loss SIW technology. Moreover, we have replaced the large feed network comprised of various T and Y junctions by a simple broadband network of compact size to more reduce losses in the substrate integrated waveguide and also save space on the PCB. The designed power 8-way divider is complemented by a wideband substrate integrated waveguide to a grounded coplanar waveguide transition and directly connected to the antenna elements. The measured results of antenna array are consistent with our simulation. Obtained results of the developed array demonstrated improvement compared to previously developed binary feed networks with microstrip or SIW splitters.

  3. Theory and Design of Tunable and Reconfigurable Microwave Passive Components on Partially Magnetized Ferrite Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-01

    Typical microwave components such as antennas are large in size and occupy considerable space. Since multiple standards are utilized in modern day systems and thus multiple antennas are required, it is best if a single component can be reconfigured or tuned to various bands. Similarly phase shifters to provide beam scanning and polarization reconfigurable antennas are important for modern day congested wireless systems. Tunability of antennas or phase shifting between antenna elements has been demonstrated using various techniques which include magnetically tunable components on ferrite based substrates. Although this method has shown promising results it also has several issues due to the use of large external electromagnets and operation in the magnetically saturated state. These issues include the device being bulky, inefficient, non-integrable and expensive. In this thesis, we have tried to resolve the above mentioned issues of large size and large power requirement by replacing the large electromagnets with embedded bias windings and also by operating the ferrites in the partially magnetized state. New theoretical models and simulation methodology have been used to evaluate the performance of the microwave passive components in the partially magnetized state. A multilayer ferrite Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) tape system has been used to verify the performance experimentally. There exists a good agreement between the theoretical, simulation and measurement results. Tunable antennas with tuning range of almost 10 % and phase shifter with an FoM of 83.2/dB have been demonstrated in this work, however the major contribution is that this has been achieved with bias fields that are 90 % less than the typically reported values in the literature. Finally, polarization reconfigurability has also been demonstrated for a circular patch antenna using a low cost additive manufacturing technique. The results are promising and indicate that highly integrated

  4. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET

  5. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdi, M. R., E-mail: mrgaldi@unisa.it; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D., E-mail: dalbanese@unisa.it; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L., E-mail: ldimaio@unisa.it [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  6. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  7. The application of microwave techniques to temperature measurement in biotelemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glajchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of a microwave dielectric resonator for temperature measurement in Biotelemetry offers the advantage that a passive temperature telemeter can be used. The telemeter is powered by a source remote from the host creature, thus permitting greater miniaturisation of the implant than is possible with conventional techniques. This is essential, especially for application to small animals where the telemeter size and weight become critical. The design of the telemeter which is based upon a novel microwave technique, and the associated practical considerations are discussed. Included in this work is a criticism of initially promising ideas which after an in-depth investigation had to be disregarded. Although the transponder could not be built in its final form due to the unavailability of certain key materials, the transponder operation was tested and found to be successful. A specification of the transponder and transmitter requirements for a working system are included. A theoretical and experimental appraisal of dielectric resonators as miniature microwave filters, also forms a large part of this work. Dielectric resonators offer a significant volume reduction compared to air-filled metallic cavities, and simple coupling to microstrip combined with ease of tuning permits incorporation into Microwave Integrated Circuits. A computer program which can form the basis for a dielectric resonator filter design is provided, and some unusual results of tests on dielectric resonators are presented. It is believed that this will help to popularise and increase understanding of the dielectric resonator - which is an exciting, yet still emerging technology

  8. Fast surface modification by microwave assisted click reactions on silicon substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haensch, C.; Erdmenger, T.; Fijten, M.W.M.; Höppener, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used for the chemical modification of functional monolayers on silicon surfaces. The thermal and chemical stability of these layers was tested under microwave irradiation to investigate the possibility to use this alternative heating process for the surface

  9. Effect of Substrate Permittivity and Thickness on Performance of Single-Layer, Wideband, U-Slot Antennas on Microwave Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natarajan, V; Chatterjee, D

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents effects of substrate permittivity and thickness on the performance characteristics like impedance bandwidth, radiation efficiency and gain of a single-layer, wideband, U-slot antenna...

  10. Superconductivity applications for infrared and microwave devices; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 19, 20, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Heinen, Vernon O.

    1990-10-01

    Various papers on superconductivity applications for IR and microwave devices are presented. The individual topics addressed include: pulsed laser deposition of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films, patterning of high-Tc superconducting thin films on Si substrates, IR spectra and the energy gap in thin film YBa2Cu3O(7-delta), high-temperature superconducting thin film microwave circuits, novel filter implementation utilizing HTS materials, high-temperature superconductor antenna investigations, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors from Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films, Y-Ba-Cu0-O thin films as high-speed IR detectors, fabrication of a high-Tc superconducting bolometer, transition-edge microbolometer, photoresponse of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) granular and epitaxial superconducting thin films, fast IR response of YBCO thin films, kinetic inductance effects in high-Tc microstrip circuits at microwave frequencies.

  11. Correlation of morphology and barrier properties of thin microwave plasma polymer films on metal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, V.; Carpentier, J.; Grundmeier, G.

    2004-01-01

    The barrier properties of thin model organosilicon plasma polymers layers on iron are characterised by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Tailored thin plasma polymers of controlled morphology and chemical composition were deposited from a microwave discharge. By the analysis of the obtained impedance diagrams, the evolution of the water uptake φ, coating resistance and polymer capacitance with immersion time were monitored and the diffusion coefficients of the water through the films were calculated. The impedance data correlated well with the chemical structure and morphology of the plasma polymer films with a thickness of less than 100 nm. The composition of the films were determined by means of infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The morphology of the plasma polymer surface and the interface between the plasma polymer and the metal were characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It could be shown that, at higher pressure, the film roughness increases which is probably due to the adsorption of plasma polymer nanoparticles formed in the plasma bulk and the faster film growth. This leads to voids with a size of a few tens of nanometers at the polymer/metal interface. The film roughness increases from the interface to the outer surface of the film. By lowering the pressure and thereby slowing the deposition rate, the plasma polymers perfectly imitate the substrate topography and lead to an excellent blocking of the metal surface. Moreover, the ratio of siloxane bonds to methyl-silyl groups increases which implies that the crosslink density is higher at lower deposition rate. The EIS data consistently showed higher coating resistance as well as lower interfacial capacitance values and a better stability over time for the film deposited at slower pressure. The diffusion coefficient of water in thin and ultra-thin plasma

  12. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  13. Complementary HFET technology for wireless digital and microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F. [and others

    1996-09-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. Digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors has been shown to operate with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ. Power consumption is dominated by leakage currents of the p-channel FET, while performance is determined by the characteristics of 0.7 {mu}m gate length devices. As a microwave technology, the nJFET forms the basis of low-power cirucitry without any modification to the digital process. Narrow band amplification with a 0.7x100 {mu}m nJFET has been demonstrated at 2.1-2.4 GHz with gains of 8-10 dB at 1 mW power. These amplifiers showed a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. Next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {mu}m gate lengths have also been developed. Cutoff frequencies of 49 and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {mu}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable enhancements in both digital and microwave circuits.

  14. Progress on conformal microwave array applicators for heating chestwall disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Juang, T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Gaeta, C. J.; Schlorff, J. L.; Milligan, A. J.

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have reported the computer modeling, CAD design, and theoretical performance of single and multiple antenna arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor (DCC) square slot radiators driven at 915 and 433 MHz. Subsequently, practical CAD designs of microstrip antenna arrays constructed on thin and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material were reported which evolved into large Conformal Microwave Array (CMA) sheets that could wrap around the surface of the human torso for delivering microwave energy to large areas of superficial tissue. Although uniform and adjustable radiation patterns have been demonstrated from multiple element applicators radiating into simple homogeneous phantom loads, the contoured and heterogeneous tissue loads typical of chestwall recurrent breast cancer have required additional design efforts to achieve good coupling and efficient heating from the increasingly larger conformal array applicators used to treat large area contoured patient anatomy. Thus recent work has extended the theoretical optimization of DCC antennas to improve radiation efficiency of each individual aperture and reduce mismatch reflections, radiation losses, noise, and cross coupling of the feedline distribution network of large array configurations. Design improvements have also been incorporated into the supporting bolus structure to maintain effective coupling of DCC antennas into contoured anatomy and to monitor and control surface temperatures under the entire array. New approaches for non-invasive monitoring of surface and sub-surface tissue temperatures under each independent heat source are described that make use of microwave radiometry and flexible sheet grid arrays of thermal sensors. Efforts to optimize the clinical patient interface and move from planar rectangular shapes to contoured vest applicators that accommodate entire disease in a larger number of patients are summarized. By applying heat more uniformly to large areas of contoured anatomy

  15. [Application of microwave irradiation technology to the field of pharmaceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Bing; Shi, Nian-Qiu; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xing-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Microwaves can be directly transformed into heat inside materials because of their ability of penetrating into any substance. The degree that materials are heated depends on their dielectric properties. Materials with high dielectric loss are more easily to reach a resonant state by microwaves field, then microwaves can be absorbed efficiently. Microwave irradiation technique with the unique heating mechanisms could induce drug-polymer interaction and change the properties of dissolution. Many benefits such as improving product quality, increasing energy efficiency and reducing times can be obtained by microwaves. This paper summarized characteristics of the microwave irradiation technique, new preparation techniques and formulation process in pharmaceutical industry by microwave irradiation technology. The microwave technology provides a new clue for heating and drying in the field of pharmaceutics.

  16. Direct microwave annealing of SiC substrate for rapid synthesis of quality epitaxial graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cichoň, Stanislav; Macháč, P.; Fekete, Ladislav; Lapčák, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, Mar (2016), s. 441-448 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : graphene * SiC * microwave Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  17. Microwave sintering of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) based coatings deposited on metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Leparoux, S.; Liao, H.; Coddet, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of microwave (MW) sintering PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) based coatings was investigated. Three coatings were studied: pure PEEK, micron-SiC and nano-SiC particles filled (wt.10%) PEEK coatings. The results indicate that, for the two composite coatings, the SiC particles distributed in the polymer matrix, as a good MW susceptor, could be heated preferentially by MW radiation. Consequently, the polymer matrix was heated by these particles

  18. Application of Microwave Irradiation to Rapid Organic Inclusion Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Microwave irradiation has been used in chemical laboratories for moisture analysis and wet asking procedures of biological and geological materials for a number of years [1]. More recently the microwave irradiation also widely used for rapid organic synthesis [2]. However, there have not yet been any reports concerning the ultilisatioin of microwave ovens in the routine organic inclusion complex regularly in chemical research.

  19. Optical technology for microwave applications IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 28, 29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kay

    Among the topics discussed at the meeting are high-speed laser and electrooptical technologies, detectors and detector arrays, microwave delay lines, and photon-microwave interactions. In addition, optical link applications are discussed, along with electronic warfare receivers and acoustooptical signal processing. Emphasis is placed on laser diode technology, direct modulation of laser diodes, external electrooptical laser modulation techniques, and microwave fiber-optic delay lines. Attention is given to such optical link applications as multigigahertz links as well as to signal processing for phased-array antennas and channelized microwave receiver technologies.

  20. Slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers for applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi

    This thesis analyzes semiconductor optical amplifiers based slow and fast light effects with particular focus on the applications in microwave photonics. We conceive novel ideas and demonstrate a great enhancement of light slow down. Furthermore, by cascading several slow light stages, >360 degree...... microwave phase shifts over a bandwidth of several tens of gigahertz are achieved. These also satisfy the basic requirements of microwave photonic systems. As an application demonstration, a tunable microwave notch filter is realized, where slow light based phase shifters provide 100% fractional tuning over...

  1. Surface resistances of 5-cm-diameter YBCO films prepared by MOD for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, T.; Sohma, M.; Yamaguchi, I.; Tsukada, K.; Kondo, W.; Kamiya, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Mizuta, S.; Kumagai, T.

    2006-01-01

    Large-area high-T c superconducting films with low surface resistances R s are required for use in microwave applications such as band pass filters. In this paper, preparation of 5-cm-diameter YBCO films on LaAlO 3 (LAO) and CeO 2 -buffered sapphire (CbS) substrates by metalorganic deposition (MOD) using a fluorine-free coating solution and their superconducting properties are described. The optimum firing conditions for YBCO films greatly depend on the substrate materials; a heating rate at ramp as high as 200 deg. C /min is necessary for films on LAO whereas a lower heating rate, e.g., 20 deg. C /min, is required for films on CbS. Accordingly, the suitable furnace systems for these substrates have been varied. As a result, a YBCO film with high J c (77 K) of 2.7 MA/cm 2 and a low R s (12 GHz, 77 K) of 0.54 mΩ was prepared on LAO by using an infrared image furnace. On the other hand, a YBCO film with a higher J c (77 K) of 4.0 MA/cm 2 and the same R s (12 GHz, 77 K) of 0.54 mΩ was prepared on CbS by using a tube furnace

  2. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  3. Microwave Metamaterial Absorber for Non-Destructive Sensing Applications of Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies with significant sensitivity and non-destructive sensing capability for grain samples. This absorber is composed of cross-resonators periodically arranged on an ultrathin substrate, a sensing layer filled with grain samples, and a metal ground. The cross-resonator array is fabricated using the printed circuit board process on an FR-4 board. The performance of the proposed metamaterial is demonstrated with both full-wave simulation and measurement results, and the working mechanism is revealed through multi-reflection interference theory. It can serve as a non-contact sensor for food quality control such as adulteration, variety, etc. by detecting shifts in the resonant frequencies. As a direct application, it is shown that the resonant frequency displays a significant blue shift from 7.11 GHz to 7.52 GHz when the mass fraction of stale rice in the mixture of fresh and stale rice is changed from 0% to 100%. In addition, the absorber shows a distinct difference in the resonant absorption frequency for different varieties of grain, which also makes it a candidate for a grain classification sensor. The presented scheme could open up opportunities for microwave metamaterial absorbers to be applied as efficient sensors in the non-destructive evaluation of agricultural and food product quality.

  4. Application of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.; Truman, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is solved. Fourier transform techniques are used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system are included. The instability of the ill-posed Fredholm equation is examined and a restoration procedure is included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data.

  5. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  6. Design of a New ENG Metamaterial for S-Band Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISLAM Sikder Sunbeam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new metamaterial unit cell structure on FR-4 substrate material that shows resonance in the microwave S-Band frequency range and also shows negative permittivity at that frequency. The material shows better performances with two resonances and Double Negative characteristics if Rogers RT 6010 substrate material is used. In this design two separate split ring resonators is used. We have used the CST Microwave Studio simulation software to get the reflection and transmission parameters for this unit cell.

  7. Near-field microwave detection of corrosion precursor pitting under thin dielectric coatings in metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.; Zoughi, R.; Austin, R.; Wood, N.; Engelbart, R.

    2003-01-01

    Detection of corrosion precursor pitting on metallic surfaces under various coatings and on bare metal is of keen interest in evaluation of aircraft fuselage. Near-field microwave nondestructive testing methods, utilizing open-ended rectangular waveguides and coaxial probes, have been used extensively for detection of surface flaws in metals, both on bare metal and under a dielectric coating. This paper presents the preliminary results of using microwave techniques to detect corrosion precursor pitting under paint and primer, applique and on bare metal. Machined pits of 500 μm diameter were detected using open-ended rectangular waveguides at V-Band under paint and primer and applique, and on bare metal. Using coaxial probes, machined pits with diameters down to 150 μm on bare metal were also detected. Relative pit size and density were shown on a corrosion-pitted sample using open-ended rectangular waveguides at frequencies of 35 GHz to 70 GHz. The use of Boeing's MAUS TM scanning systems provided improved results by alleviating standoff variation and scanning artifact. Typical results of this investigation are also presented

  8. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse

  9. High microwave performance ion-implanted GaAs MESFETs on InP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Kato, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation was employed, for the first time, in fabricating GaAs MESFETs in undoped 2 μm thick GaAs epitaxial layers directly grown on InP substrates by low-pressure MOVPE. The Si-ion-implanted GaAs layer on InP substrates showed excellent electrical characteristics: a mobility of 4300 cm 2 /Vs with a carrier density of 2 x 10 17 cm -3 at room temperature. The MESFET (0.8 μm gate length) exhibited a current-gain cutoff frequency of 25 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation of 53 GHz, the highest values yet reported to GaAs MESFETs on InP substrates. These results demonstrate the high potential of ion-implanted MESFETs as electronic devices for high-speed InP-based OEICs. (author)

  10. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry

  11. Microwave heating application in calcination and SYNROC formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambashta, R.D.; Wattal, P.K.; Malav, R.K.; Mallik, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave for calcination of titanate based ceramic wasteform (SYNROC) is being reported for the first time in this paper. Although major constituents in SYNROC were non microwave active, the combination with microwave active constituents rendered the mixture calcinable. Calcine was sintered at 1150 degC under hot uniaxial conditions at an applied pressure of ∼30 MPa. XRD shows presence of major phases of SYNROC in the compacted sample. (author)

  12. Using microwave Doppler radar in automated manufacturing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.

    Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, manufacturers worldwide have used automation to improve productivity, gain market share, and meet growing or changing consumer demand for manufactured products. To stimulate further industrial productivity, manufacturers need more advanced automation technologies: "smart" part handling systems, automated assembly machines, CNC machine tools, and industrial robots that use new sensor technologies, advanced control systems, and intelligent decision-making algorithms to "see," "hear," "feel," and "think" at the levels needed to handle complex manufacturing tasks without human intervention. The investigator's dissertation offers three methods that could help make "smart" CNC machine tools and industrial robots possible: (1) A method for detecting acoustic emission using a microwave Doppler radar detector, (2) A method for detecting tool wear on a CNC lathe using a Doppler radar detector, and (3) An online non-contact method for detecting industrial robot position errors using a microwave Doppler radar motion detector. The dissertation studies indicate that microwave Doppler radar could be quite useful in automated manufacturing applications. In particular, the methods developed may help solve two difficult problems that hinder further progress in automating manufacturing processes: (1) Automating metal-cutting operations on CNC machine tools by providing a reliable non-contact method for detecting tool wear, and (2) Fully automating robotic manufacturing tasks by providing a reliable low-cost non-contact method for detecting on-line position errors. In addition, the studies offer a general non-contact method for detecting acoustic emission that may be useful in many other manufacturing and non-manufacturing areas, as well (e.g., monitoring and nondestructively testing structures, materials, manufacturing processes, and devices). By advancing the state of the art in manufacturing automation, the studies may help

  13. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi ... The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens ... analysis; application to waste treatment; polymer technology; ... of microwave heating in organic synthesis since the first contri-.

  14. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-12-02

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400-800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72-24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally.

  15. Application of microwave heating to a polyesterification plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komorowska-Durka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing microwave irradiation, a fundamentally different method of the energy transfer, to the chemical process units can potentially be advantageous compared to the conventional heating, inter alia due to the selective nature of interaction of the microwaves with the matter. This doctoral

  16. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  17. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  18. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  19. Microwave-induced electrostatic etching: generation of highly reactive magnesium for application in Grignard reagent formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kruijs, Bastiaan H P; Dressen, Mark H C L; Meuldijk, Jan; Vekemans, Jef A J M; Hulshof, Lumbertus A

    2010-04-07

    A detailed study regarding the influence of microwave irradiation on the formation of a series of Grignard reagents in terms of rates and selectivities has revealed that these heterogeneous reactions may display a beneficial microwave effect. The interaction between microwaves and magnesium turnings generates violent electrostatic discharges. These discharges on magnesium lead to melting of the magnesium surface, thus generating highly active magnesium particles. As compared to conventional operation the microwave-induced discharges on the magnesium surface lead to considerably shorter initiation times for the insertion of magnesium in selected substrates (i.e. halothiophenes, halopyridines, octyl halides, and halobenzenes). Thermographic imaging and surface characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed that neither selective heating nor a "specific" microwave effect was causing the reduction in initiation times. This novel and straightforward initiation method eliminates the use of toxic and environmentally adverse initiators. Thus, this initiation method limits the formation of by-products. We clearly demonstrated that microwave irradiation enables fast Grignard reagent formation. Therefore, microwave technology is promising for process intensification of Grignard based coupling reactions.

  20. Microwave propagation and remote sensing atmospheric influences with models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Pranab Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the problems they present. This reference offers a brief, elementary account of microwave propagation through the atmosphere and discusses radiometric applications in the microwave band used to characterize and model atmospheric constituents, which is also known as remote sensing. Summarizing the latest research results in the field, as well as radiometric models and measurement methods, this book covers topics including: Free sp...

  1. Slow and fast light effects and their applications to microwave photonics using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Salvador; Xue, Weiqi; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of the application of slow and fast light (SFL) techniques to the field of microwave photonics. Basic principles leading to the implementation of phase shifting and true time delay operations which are instrumental in this field are first considered. We then focus....... Finally, the main results obtained for several microwave photonic applications such as filtering, arbitrary waveform generation and optoelectronic scillators (OEOs)are reviewed, and other directions for future research in the field are discussed....

  2. Modeling of various kinds of applicators used for microwave hyperthermia based on the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camart, J.C.; Despretz, D.; Chive, M.; Pribetich, J. [Domaine Scientifique et Univ. de Villeneuve D`Ascq (France). Dept. Hyperfrequencies et Semiconducteurs

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the modeling using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method of interstitial and endocavitary applicators which have been designed and developed for microwave hyperthermia treatments controlled by microwave radiometry. For each kind of applicators, the numerical results are given concerning the reflection coefficient S{sub 11}, the power deposition, and the heating patterns. These results are compared with the measurements performed on phantom models of human tissues and show a good agreement. Possibilities of future developments are discussed.

  3. Measurements and removal of substrate effects on the microwave surface impedance of YBCO films on SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompeo, N [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Amaldi' and Unita CNISM, Universita Roma Tre, Via dellaVasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Muzzi, L [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Amaldi' and Unita CNISM, Universita Roma Tre, Via dellaVasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Galluzzi, V [ENEA-Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Marcon, R [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Amaldi' and Unita CNISM, Universita Roma Tre, Via dellaVasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Silva, E [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Amaldi' and Unita CNISM, Universita Roma Tre, Via dellaVasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    We reconsider the problem of the measurements of the microwave complex surface impedance in thin superconducting films deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. We perform measurements of the complex surface impedance Z{sub s}' = R{sub s}'+i{delta}X{sub s}' of thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films deposited by laser ablation on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The typical oscillations due to the strong temperature variation of the SrTiO{sub 3} permittivity are confirmed in R{sub s}' and observed in {delta}X{sub s}'. The effects of the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate are evident even well below the superconducting transition temperature of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}. Similarly to previous works, we describe the overall response in terms of impedance transformations. We extend the known results by (i) considering the measurements of the imaginary part (ii) comparing the measurements to the absolute dc resistivity measured on the same sample, and (iii) suggesting a method for measuring the intrinsic thin film surface impedance by adjusting the substrate impedance. To demonstrate the feasibility of microwave measurements of intrinsic properties of films grown onto SrTiO{sub 3} substrates, we check the proposed method by measuring the field dependent surface impedance before and after removal of the substrate resonance.

  4. Application of microwave irradiation to organic liquid phase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kun; Liu Hua; Ji Xuelin

    1994-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used in organic liquid phase reactions to significantly reduce the reaction time and improve the yield. The proposed mechanism, the development of techniques and reactions, such as Diels-Alder, ene, rearrangement reactions etc., are discussed

  5. Microwave field-efffect transistors theory, design, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Pengelly, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    This book covers the use of devices in microwave circuits and includes such topics as semiconductor theory and transistor performance, CAD considerations, intermodulation, noise figure, signal handling, S-parameter mapping, narrow- and broadband techniques, packaging and thermal considerations.

  6. Application of microwave assisted digestion in industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudyn, A.M.; Smith, R.G.; Gawlowski, E.

    1990-01-01

    Microwave assisted digestion plays an important role in speeding up acquisition of analytical data for industrial hygiene purposes. This paper will compare hot plate and microwave assisted digestion for the determination of elements in industrial samples (air sampling filters, dusts, ashes, paints) by the ICPAES technique. Also, the determination of radionuclides in environmental samples (soils, sediments, rocks) by alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy after the dissolution in a microwave oven will be presented. The results on the determination of elements in NIST standard reference materials and radionuclides in IAEA standards will be included. QC/QA protocols used in an occupational health laboratory setting will be discussed. Sample preparation using microwave assisted digestion proved not only to speed-up extraction of acid soluble elements, but also to achieve better recovery of some elements (Pb in paints) and give better reproducibility of determinations

  7. A software-radio front-end for microwave applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Streifinger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern communication, sensor and signal processing systems digitisation methods are gaining importance. They allow for building software configurable systems and provide better stability and reproducibility. Moreover digital front-ends cover a wider range of applications and have better performance compared with analog ones. The quest for new architectures in radio frequency front-ends is a clear consequence of the ever increasing number of different standards and the resulting task to provide a platform which covers as many standards as possible. At microwave frequencies, in particular at frequencies beyond 10 GHz, no direct sampling receivers are available yet. A look at the roadmap of the development of commercial analog-to-digital-converters (ADC shows clearly, that they can neither be expected in near future. We present a novel architecture, which is capable of direct sampling of band-limited signals at frequencies beyond 10 GHz by means of an over-sampling technique. The wellknown Nyquist criterion states that wide-band digitisation of an RF-signal with a maximum frequency ƒ requires a minimum sampling rate of 2 · ƒ . But for a band-limited signal of bandwidth B the demands for the minimum sampling rate of the ADC relax to the value 2 · B. Employing a noise-forming sigma-delta ADC architecture even with a 1-bit-ADC a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for many applications can be achieved. The key component of this architecture is the sample-and-hold switch. The required bandwidth of this switch must be well above 2 · ƒ . We designed, fabricated and characterized a preliminary demonstrator for the ISM-band at 2.4 GHz employing silicon Schottky diodes as a switch and SiGe-based MMICs as impedance transformers and comparators. Simulated and measured results will be presented.

  8. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within

  9. A reflexing electron microwave amplifier for rf particle accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rf-accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave power sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing-electron class of sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and has demonstrated operation from 800-MHz to 40-GHz. The pulse length appears to be limited by diode closure, and reflexing-electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. A design is presented for a reflexing electron microwave amplifier that is frequency and phase locked. In this design, the generated microwave power can be efficiently coupled to one or several accelerator loads. Frequency and phase-locking capability may permit parallel-source operation for higher power. The low-frequency (500-MHz to 10-GHz) operation at very high power required by present and proposed microwave particle accelerators makes an amplifier, based on reflexing electron phenomena, a candidate for the development of new accelerator power sources. (author)

  10. Slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides for applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip

    2009-01-01

    We review the theory of slow and fast light effects due to coherent population oscillations in semiconductor waveguides, and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. In order to satisfy the application requirement of 360º RF phase shift at differ......We review the theory of slow and fast light effects due to coherent population oscillations in semiconductor waveguides, and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. In order to satisfy the application requirement of 360º RF phase shift...

  11. MEMS-based transmission lines for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Fu, Jiahui; Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Huajuan; Lee, Jongchul

    2003-04-01

    This paper mainly presents a briefly review for recent progress in MEMS-based transmission lines for use in microwave and millimeterwave range. MEMS-based transmission lines including different transmission line structure such as membrane-supported microstrip line microstrip line, coplanar microshield transmission line, LIGA micromachined planar transmission line, micromachined waveguides and coplanar waveguide are discussed. MEMS-based transmission lines are characterized by low propagation loss, wide operation frequency band, low dispersion and high quality factor, in addition, the fabrication is compatible with traditional processing of integrated circuits (IC"s). The emergence of MEMS-based transmission lines provided a solution for miniaturizing microwave system and monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  12. Methodology of Neural Design: Applications in Microwave Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, an original methodology for the automatic creation of neural models of microwave structures is proposed and verified. Following the methodology, neural models of the prescribed accuracy are built within the minimum CPU time. Validity of the proposed methodology is verified by developing neural models of selected microwave structures. Functionality of neural models is verified in a design - a neural model is joined with a genetic algorithm to find a global minimum of a formulated objective function. The objective function is minimized using different versions of genetic algorithms, and their mutual combinations. The verified methodology of the automated creation of accurate neural models of microwave structures, and their association with global optimization routines are the most important original features of the paper.

  13. Microwave de-embedding from theory to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crupi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This groundbreaking book is the first to give an introduction to microwave de-embedding, showing how it is the cornerstone for waveform engineering. The authors of each chapter clearly explain the theoretical concepts, providing a foundation that supports linear and non-linear measurements, modelling and circuit design. Recent developments and future trends in the field are covered throughout, including successful strategies for low-noise and power amplifier design. This book is a must-have for those wishing to understand the full potential of the microwave de-embedding concept to achieve suc

  14. Novel materials, fabrication techniques and algorithms for microwave and THz components, systems and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Min

    This dissertation presents the investigation of several additive manufactured components in RF and THz frequency, as well as the applications of gradient index lens based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation system and broadband electronically beam scanning system. Also, a polymer matrix composite method to achieve artificially controlled effective dielectric properties for 3D printing material is studied. Moreover, the characterization of carbon based nano-materials at microwave and THz frequency, photoconductive antenna array based Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) near field imaging system, and a compressive sensing based microwave imaging system is discussed in this dissertation. First, the design, fabrication and characterization of several 3D printed components in microwave and THz frequency are presented. These components include 3D printed broadband Luneburg lens, 3D printed patch antenna, 3D printed multilayer microstrip line structure with vertical transition, THz all-dielectric EMXT waveguide to planar microstrip transition structure and 3D printed dielectric reflectarrays. Second, the additive manufactured 3D Luneburg Lens is employed for DOA estimation application. Using the special property of a Luneburg lens that every point on the surface of the Lens is the focal point of a plane wave incident from the opposite side, 36 detectors are mounted around the surface of the lens to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of a microwave signal. The direction finding results using a correlation algorithm show that the averaged error is smaller than 1º for all 360 degree incident angles. Third, a novel broadband electronic scanning system based on Luneburg lens phased array structure is reported. The radiation elements of the phased array are mounted around the surface of a Luneburg lens. By controlling the phase and amplitude of only a few adjacent elements, electronic beam scanning with various radiation patterns can be easily achieved

  15. Multicomponent doped barium strontium titanate thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu Legesse

    In recent years there has been enormous progress in the development of barium strontium titanate (BST) films for tunable microwave applications. However, the properties of BST films still remain inferior compared to bulk materials, limiting their use for microwave technology. Understanding the film/substrate mismatch, microstructure, and stoichiometry of BST films and finding the necessary remedies are vital. In this work, BST films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering method and characterized both analytically and electrically with the aim of optimizing their properties. The stoichiometry, crystal structure, and phase purity of the films were studied by varying the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) and total gas pressure (TGP) in the chamber. A better stoichiometric match between film and target was achieved when the TGP is high (> 30 mTorr). However, the O2/Ar ratio should be adjusted as exceeding a threshold of 2 mTorr in OPP facilitates the formation of secondary phases. The growth of crystalline film on platinized substrates was achieved only with a lower temperature grown buffer layer, which acts as a seed layer by crystallizing when the temperature increases. Concurrent Mg/Nb doping has significantly improved the properties of BST thin films. The doped film has shown an average tunability of 53%, which is only ˜8 % lower than the value for the undoped film. This drop is associated with the Mg ions whose detrimental effects are partially compensated by Nb ions. Conversely, the doping has reduced the dielectric loss by ˜40 % leading to a higher figure of merit. Moreover, the two dopants ensure a charge neutrality condition which resulted in significant leakage current reduction. The presence of large amounts of empty shallow traps related to Nb Ti localize the free carriers injected from the contacts; thus increase the device control voltage substantially (>10 V). A combinatorial thin film synthesis method based on co-sputtering of two BST

  16. Tailoring of the morphology and chemical composition of thin organosilane microwave plasma polymer layers on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmeier, G.; Thiemann, P.; Carpentier, J.; Shirtcliffe, N.; Stratmann, M

    2004-01-01

    The growth of thin microwave organosilicon plasma polymers on model zinc surfaces was investigated as a function of the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure during film deposition. The evolution of the topology of the film was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nano- and micro-roughness was investigated at the inner and the outer surfaces of the plasma polymers. A special etching procedure was developed to reveal the underside of the plasma polymer and thereby its inner surface. Rough films contained voids at the interface, which reduced the polymer/metal contact area. The increase in oxygen partial pressure led to a smoother film growth with a perfect imitation of the substrate topography at the interface. The chemical structure of the films was determined by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). ToF-SIMS at the outer and the inner surface of the plasma polymers showed that the density of methylsilyl groups increases in the outer surface layer of the plasma polymer and depends on the oxygen partial pressure. The chemical composition of the films could be altered to pure SiO{sub 2} without changing the morphology by using oxygen-plasma post-treatment. This was proved by means of IRRAS and AFM. Chemistry and topology of the films were correlated with the apparent water contact angle. It was found that a linear relationship exists between the nanoscopic roughness of the plasma polymer and the static contact angle of water. Superposition of a nanoscopic roughness of the metal surface and the nanoscopic roughness of methylsilyl-rich films led to ultra-hydrophobic films with water contact angles up to 160 deg.

  17. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P.; Nijas, C.M.; Joy, P.A.; Joseph, Joseph M.; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Thachil, Eby T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe 3 O 4 particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics

  18. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P. [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Nijas, C.M. [Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Joy, P.A. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Joseph, Joseph M. [Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Kuthirummal, Narayanan, E-mail: kuthirummaln@cofc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Thachil, Eby T., E-mail: ethachil@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics.

  19. A multifunctional microwave plasma reaction apparatus and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xizhang; Wu Qiang; Hu Zheng; Xu Hua; Miao Shui; Chen Yi

    2000-01-01

    A multifunctional apparatus for microwave plasma reaction has been set up, which can be used in the fields such as chemical synthesis, surface modification, and heterogeneous catalysis. The apparatus has laid an experimental foundation for new methods, new technologies, and new train of thoughts to be explored

  20. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis – Catalytic Applications in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of sustainable methods directed towards the synthesis of molecules is due to the heightened awareness and recognition of alternative eco-friendly and economical protocols that have minimum impact on environment. Among others, microwave (MW)-assisted methodology ha...

  1. Integration of semiconductor and ceramic superconductor devices for microwave applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopman, B.B.G.; Klopman, B.B.G.; Wijers, H.W.; Gao, J.; Gao, J.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Due to the very-low-loss properties of ceramic superconductors, high-performance microwave resonators and filters can be realized. The fact that these devices may be operated at liquid nitrogen temperature facilitates integration with semiconductor devices. Examples are bandpass amplifiers,

  2. Structural and optical properties of Ag-doped copper oxide thin films on polyethylene napthalate substrate prepared by low temperature microwave annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sayantan; Alford, T. L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA and School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2013-06-28

    Silver doped cupric oxide thin films are prepared on polyethylene naphthalate (flexible polymer) substrates. Thin films Ag-doped CuO are deposited on the substrate by co-sputtering followed by microwave assisted oxidation of the metal films. The low temperature tolerance of the polymer substrates led to the search for innovative low temperature processing techniques. Cupric oxide is a p-type semiconductor with an indirect band gap and is used as selective absorption layer solar cells. X-ray diffraction identifies the CuO phases. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements confirm the stoichiometry of each copper oxide formed. The surface morphology is determined by atomic force microscopy. The microstructural properties such as crystallite size and the microstrain for (-111) and (111) planes are calculated and discussed. Incorporation of Ag led to the lowering of band gap in CuO. Consequently, it is determined that Ag addition has a strong effect on the structural, morphological, surface, and optical properties of CuO grown on flexible substrates by microwave annealing. Tauc's plot is used to determine the optical band gap of CuO and Ag doped CuO films. The values of the indirect and direct band gap for CuO are found to be 2.02 eV and 3.19 eV, respectively.

  3. Synthesis of BiFeO3 thin films on single-terminated Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates by intermittent microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Velasco-Davalos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a simple and fast procedure to create arrays of atomically flat terraces on single crystal SrTiO3 (111 substrates and the deposition of ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films on such single-terminated surfaces. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in deionized water and ammonia solution selectively removes either (SrO34− or Ti4+ layers to ensure the same chemical termination on all terraces. Measured step heights of 0.225 nm (d111 and uniform contrast in the phase image of the terraces confirm the single termination in pure and Nb doped SrTiO3 single crystal substrates. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films were then deposited by the same microwave assisted hydrothermal process on Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates. Bi(NO33 and Fe(NO33 along with KOH served as the precursors solution. Ferroelectric behavior of the BiFeO3 films on Nb : SrTiO3 (100 substrates was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy.

  4. Green Chemistry: Effect of Microwave Irradiationon Synthesis of Chitosan for Biomedical Grade Applications of Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Setyawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave assisted chitosan synthesis as biodegradable material for biomedical application has been done. The purpose of this research is to synthesis of chitosan with high DD and low molecular weight using microwave energy, the study of reaction conditions include parameters of power and reaction time. Chitosan was prepared by deacetylation of chitin with 60% NaOH solution. Conventional method has been done by reflux for 90minutes, resulting chitosan with DD of 79.5%, 72.6% yields and molecular weight 6051 g/mol. Green chemistry method using microwave radiation at 800 Watts for 5 minutes has produced chitosan with highest DD, yield and molecular weight of 86%, 75% and 3797 g/mole respectively. Synthesis of Chitosan by microwave radiation method can save 10x electrical energy for the reaction, also rapidly and effectively to produce chitosan with low molecular weight compared to conventional methods

  5. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Neděla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While polymers are widely utilized materials in the biomedical industry, they are rarely used in an unmodified state. Some kind of a surface treatment is often necessary to achieve properties suitable for specific applications. There are multiple methods of surface treatment, each with their own pros and cons, such as plasma and laser treatment, UV lamp modification, etching, grafting, metallization, ion sputtering and others. An appropriate treatment can change the physico-chemical properties of the surface of a polymer in a way that makes it attractive for a variety of biological compounds, or, on the contrary, makes the polymer exhibit antibacterial or cytotoxic properties, thus making the polymer usable in a variety of biomedical applications. This review examines four popular methods of polymer surface modification: laser treatment, ion implantation, plasma treatment and nanoparticle grafting. Surface treatment-induced changes of the physico-chemical properties, morphology, chemical composition and biocompatibility of a variety of polymer substrates are studied. Relevant biological methods are used to determine the influence of various surface treatments and grafting processes on the biocompatibility of the new surfaces—mammalian cell adhesion and proliferation is studied as well as other potential applications of the surface-treated polymer substrates in the biomedical industry.

  6. Plasmonic crystal based solid substrate for biomedical application of SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Carlo F.; Mehn, Dora; Picciolini, Silvia; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Pellacani, Paola; Frangolho, Ana; Marchesini, Gerardo; Valsesia, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that combines the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the good sensitivity provided by the enhancement of the signal observed when a molecule is located on (or very close to) the surface of suitable nanostructured metallic materials. The availability of cheap, reliable and easy to use SERS substrates would pave the road to the development of bioanalytical tests that can be used in clinical practice. SERS, in fact, is expected to provide not only higher sensitivity and specificity, but also the simultaneous and markedly improved detection of several targets at the same time with higher speed compared to the conventional analytical methods. Here, we present the SERS activity of 2-D plasmonic crystals made by polymeric pillars embedded in a gold matrix obtained through the combination of soft-lithography and plasma deposition techniques on a transparent substrates. The use of a transparent support material allowed us to perform SERS detection from support side opening the possibility to use these substrates in combination with microfluidic devices. In order to demonstrate the potentialities for bioanalytical applications, we used our SERS active gold surface to detect the oxidation product of apomorphine, a well-known drug molecule used in Parkinson's disease which has been demonstrated being difficult to study by traditional HPLC based approaches.

  7. A magnetic nano-particle ink for tunable microwave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Vaseem, Mohammad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    fully printed multilayer fabrication process is demonstrated where the substrate is also realized through printing. A novel Fe2O3 based magnetic ink is used as a substrate while an in-house silver organo complex (SOC) ink is developed for metallic layers

  8. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  9. The applications of microwave energy to improve grindability and extraction of gold ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.H

    2000-10-01

    In this study, the applications of microwave energy in gold ore processing were investigated. An investigation of microwave heating characteristics indicated that the heating rate of an ore was not only related to the applied microwave field, but also to the mineralogy of the ore. Heating rate and the difference between the bulk temperature of an ore and the local temperature of high dielectric loss minerals increased with applied microwave power level, the content of high dielectric loss minerals, the particle size of the ore and the disseminated high dielectric loss minerals. The relationship between heating rate and surrounding environment is also discussed in this study. Investigations indicated that the microwave exposure could reduce the grindability of ores. For the Lihir gold ore, a decrease of 11% in the comparative grindability was obtained when it was exposed to 1500W microwave energy for 8 minutes. The decrease in grinding resistance resulted predominantly from the fractures induced by thermal stresses and differential thermal expansion of mineral phases during microwave heating. Experimental results showed that marcasite and pyrite could be decomposed into elemental sulphur and pyrrhotite-like Fe-S phases in an inert atmosphere, or oxidised into a porous hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in an air atmosphere when they were exposed to microwaves. Microwave power had a significant impact on the decomposition of pyrite and marcasite. Marcasite was more readily decomposed than pyrite at the same exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and X-ray diffraction results indicated that the alterations during microwave treatment were complex. Some intermediate products (e.g. Fe{sub (1-x)}S) were formed before the sulphides were completely oxidised into hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Oxidation developed from the surfaces into the cores of the microwaved particles. Metallic particles were also formed during microwave exposure. Lihir

  10. The applications of microwave energy to improve grindability and extraction of gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.H.

    2000-10-01

    In this study, the applications of microwave energy in gold ore processing were investigated. An investigation of microwave heating characteristics indicated that the heating rate of an ore was not only related to the applied microwave field, but also to the mineralogy of the ore. Heating rate and the difference between the bulk temperature of an ore and the local temperature of high dielectric loss minerals increased with applied microwave power level, the content of high dielectric loss minerals, the particle size of the ore and the disseminated high dielectric loss minerals. The relationship between heating rate and surrounding environment is also discussed in this study. Investigations indicated that the microwave exposure could reduce the grindability of ores. For the Lihir gold ore, a decrease of 11% in the comparative grindability was obtained when it was exposed to 1500W microwave energy for 8 minutes. The decrease in grinding resistance resulted predominantly from the fractures induced by thermal stresses and differential thermal expansion of mineral phases during microwave heating. Experimental results showed that marcasite and pyrite could be decomposed into elemental sulphur and pyrrhotite-like Fe-S phases in an inert atmosphere, or oxidised into a porous hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) in an air atmosphere when they were exposed to microwaves. Microwave power had a significant impact on the decomposition of pyrite and marcasite. Marcasite was more readily decomposed than pyrite at the same exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and X-ray diffraction results indicated that the alterations during microwave treatment were complex. Some intermediate products (e.g. Fe (1-x) S) were formed before the sulphides were completely oxidised into hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). Oxidation developed from the surfaces into the cores of the microwaved particles. Metallic particles were also formed during microwave exposure. Lihir gold ore, in which

  11. Application of Microwaves for Binder Content Assessment in Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in the sandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.

  12. GaN-based Power amplifiers for microwave applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Julián Moreno-Rubio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion about the design strategies of different kind of power amplifiers for RF/Microwave appli- cations, such as the tuned load power amplifier, class F, class F-1 and Doherty. Furthermore, it is shown the continuous wave characterization of the amplifiers above mentioned. A comparison between the obtained results, in terms of gain, efficiency and output power is presented.

  13. Study of additive manufactured microwave cavities for pulsed optically pumped atomic clock applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolderbach, C.; Moreno, W.; Ivanov, A. E.; Debogovic, T.; Pellaton, M.; Skrivervik, A. K.; de Rijk, E.; Mileti, G.

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of passive microwave components is of high interest for the cost-effective and rapid prototyping or manufacture of devices with complex geometries. Here, we present an experimental study on the properties of recently demonstrated microwave resonator cavities manufactured by AM, in view of their applications to high-performance compact atomic clocks. The microwave cavities employ a loop-gap geometry using six electrodes. The critical electrode structures were manufactured monolithically using two different approaches: Stereolithography (SLA) of a polymer followed by metal coating and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of aluminum. The tested microwave cavities show the desired TE011-like resonant mode at the Rb clock frequency of ≈6.835 GHz, with a microwave magnetic field highly parallel to the quantization axis across the vapor cell. When operated in an atomic clock setup, the measured atomic Rabi oscillations are comparable to those observed for conventionally manufactured cavities and indicate a good uniformity of the field amplitude across the vapor cell. Employing a time-domain Ramsey scheme on one of the SLA cavities, high-contrast (34%) Ramsey fringes are observed for the Rb clock transition, along with a narrow (166 Hz linewidth) central fringe. The measured clock stability of 2.2 × 10-13 τ-1/2 up to the integration time of 30 s is comparable to the current state-of-the-art stabilities of compact vapor-cell clocks based on conventional microwave cavities and thus demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  14. Permeation mechanisms of pulsed microwave plasma deposited silicon oxide films for food packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deilmann, Michael; Grabowski, Mirko; Theiss, Sebastian; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Silicon oxide barrier layers are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate as permeation barriers for food packaging applications by means of a low pressure microwave plasma. Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and oxygen are used as process gases to deposit SiO x coatings via pulsed low pressure plasmas. The layer composition of the coating is investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to show correlations with barrier properties of the films. The oxygen permeation barrier is determined by the carrier gas method using an electrochemical detector. The transition from low to high barrier films is mapped by the transition from organic SiO x C y H z layers to quartz-like SiO 1.7 films containing silanol bound hydrogen. A residual permeation as low as J = 1 ± 0.3 cm 3 m -2 day -1 bar -1 is achieved, which is a good value for food packaging applications. Additionally, the activation energy E p of oxygen permeation is analysed and a strong increase from E p = 31.5 kJ mol -1 for SiO x C y H z -like coatings to E p = 53.7 kJ mol -1 for SiO 1.7 films is observed by increasing the oxygen dilution of HMDSO:O 2 plasma. The reason for the residual permeation of high barrier films is discussed and coating defects are visualized by capacitively coupled atomic oxygen plasma etching of coated substrates. A defect density of 3000 mm -2 is revealed

  15. Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filters Employing Coaxial Stubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    Evanescent mode substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is one of the promising technologies for design of light-weight low-cost microwave components. Traditional realization methods used in the standard evanescent waveguide technology are often not directly applicable to SIW due to dielectric filli...... of the microwave filter are discussed. The approach is useful in applications where a sharp roll-off at the upper stop-band is required....

  16. Applications of fibrous substrates containing insolubilized phase change polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Tyrone L.; Bruno, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Incorporation of polyethylene glycols into fibrous substrates produces several improved functional properties when they are insolubilized by crosslinking with a methylolamide resin or by polyacetal formation by their reaction with glyoxal. The range of molecular weights of polyols that may be insolubilized is broad as are the curing conditions (0.25-10 min at 80-200C). Most representative fiber types and blends (natural and synthetic) and all types of fabric constructions (woven, nonwoven and knit) have been modified by incorporation of the bound polyols. The most novel property is the thermal adaptability of the modified substrates to many climatic conditions. This adaptability is due to the high latent heat of the crosslinked polyols that function as phase change materials, the hydrophilic nature of the crosslinked polymer and its enhanced thermal conductivity. Other enhanced properties imparted to fabrics include flex and flat abrasion, antimicrobial activity, reduced static charge, resistance to oily soils, resiliency, wind resistance and reduced lint loss. Applications commercialized in the U.S. and Japan include sportswear and skiwear. Several examples of electric sets of properties useful for specific end uses are given. In addition, other uses are biomedical horticultural, aerospace, indoor insulation, automotive interiors and components and packaging material.

  17. Applications of fibrous substrates containing insolubilized phase change polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Tyrone L.; Bruno, Joseph S.

    1993-02-01

    Incorporation of polyethylene glycols into fibrous substrates produces several improved functional properties when they are insolubilized by crosslinking with a methylolamide resin or by polyacetal formation by their reaction with glyoxal. The range of molecular weights of polyols that may be insolubilized is broad as are the curing conditions (0.25-10 min at 80-200C). Most representative fiber types and blends (natural and synthetic) and all types of fabric constructions (woven, nonwoven and knit) have been modified by incorporation of the bound polyols. The most novel property is the thermal adaptability of the modified substrates to many climatic conditions. This adaptability is due to the high latent heat of the crosslinked polyols that function as phase change materials, the hydrophilic nature of the crosslinked polymer and its enhanced thermal conductivity. Other enhanced properties imparted to fabrics include flex and flat abrasion, antimicrobial activity, reduced static charge, resistance to oily soils, resiliency, wind resistance and reduced lint loss. Applications commercialized in the U.S. and Japan include sportswear and skiwear. Several examples of electric sets of properties useful for specific end uses are given. In addition, other uses are biomedical horticultural, aerospace, indoor insulation, automotive interiors and components and packaging material.

  18. Optical technology for microwave applications V; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kay

    Consideration is given to light modulation technologies, wideband optical links, phased array antenna applications, radar and EW applications, and novel optoelectronic devices and technologies. Particular attention is given to wideband nonlinear optical organic external modulators, ultra-linear electrooptic modulators for microwave fiber-optic communications, coherent optical modulation for antenna remoting, a hybrid optical transmitter for microwave communication, a direct optical phase shifter for phased array systems, acoustooptic architectures for multidimensional phased-array antenna processing, generalized phased-array Bragg interaction in anisotropic crystals, analog optical processing of radio frequency signals, a wideband acoustooptic spectrometer, ring resonators for microwave optoelectronics, optical techniques for microwave monolithic circuit characterization, microwave control using a high-gain bias-free optoelectronic switch, and A/D conversion of microwave signals using a hybrid optical-electronic technique. (For individual items see A93-25727 to A93-25758)

  19. Application of microwave radiometers for wetlands and estuaries monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutko, A.; Haldin, A.; Novichikhin, E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the examples of experimental data obtained with airborne microwave radiometers used for monitoring of wetlands and estuaries located in coastal environments. The international team of researchers has successfully worked in Russia, Ukraine and USA. The data presented relate to a period of time between 1990 and 1995. They have been collected in Odessa Region, Black Sea coast, Ukraine, in Regions of Pittsville and Winfield, Maryland, USA, and in Region of St. Marks, Florida, USA. The parameters discussed are a soil moisture, depth to a shallow water table, vegetation index, salinity of water surface

  20. Applications of high power microwaves to atmospheric modification and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.

    1993-01-01

    The current state of proposals to use high power microwaves in the atmosphere is reviewed. HPM has been proposed to aid in the conservation of stratospheric ozone by partial breakdown, facilitating chemistry to eliminate chlorine. Another proposal is over-the-horizon radar using a partial breakdown area in the ionosphere. A key to any such effort is rapid diagnosis of the state of the atmosphere before, during and after intervention. Technology requirements of these modification and measurement proposals are reviewed. The elements of an atmospheric modification program are identified and political, economic and ideological factors are discussed

  1. Self-biased cobalt ferrite nanocomposites for microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannour, Abdelkrim, E-mail: abdelkrim.hannour@hotmail.com [LT2C Laboratory, Jean-Monnet University, 25 rue Dr. Rémy Annino, F-42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Vincent, Didier; Kahlouche, Faouzi; Tchangoulian, Ardaches [LT2C Laboratory, Jean-Monnet University, 25 rue Dr. Rémy Annino, F-42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7195, PECSA, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Oriented CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix, were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized nanocolloidal cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. Their magnetic behavior exhibits an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. This orientation allows high effective internal magnetic anisotropy that contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. The microwave studies reveal a ferromagnetic resonance at 46.5 and 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (Ansoft HFSS) simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Such nanocomposite is presented as one of the promising candidates for microwave devices (circulators, isolators, noise suppressors etc.). - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. • The nanocomposite obtained presents an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. • The high effective internal magnetic anisotropy contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. • The frequency ferromagnetic resonance ranges from 46.5 to 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. • We have obtained a good agreement between Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator simulations and experimental results.

  2. Self-biased cobalt ferrite nanocomposites for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannour, Abdelkrim; Vincent, Didier; Kahlouche, Faouzi; Tchangoulian, Ardaches; Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Oriented CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix, were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized nanocolloidal cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. Their magnetic behavior exhibits an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. This orientation allows high effective internal magnetic anisotropy that contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. The microwave studies reveal a ferromagnetic resonance at 46.5 and 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (Ansoft HFSS) simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Such nanocomposite is presented as one of the promising candidates for microwave devices (circulators, isolators, noise suppressors etc.). - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. • The nanocomposite obtained presents an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. • The high effective internal magnetic anisotropy contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. • The frequency ferromagnetic resonance ranges from 46.5 to 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. • We have obtained a good agreement between Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator simulations and experimental results

  3. Monotron and azimuthally corrugated: application to the high power microwaves generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Pedro Jose de

    2003-01-01

    The present document reports the activity of construction and initial operation of 6.7 GHz operation for high power microwave generation, the study on cylindrical resonators with azimuthally corrugated cross section, the determination of electrical conductivity of metallic materials and development of dielectric resonators for telecommunication applications

  4. Electrothermal System for Microwave Heating. Elements of Computer Aided Design of the Applicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Ovidiu Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within this study was elaborated a program made with Matlab software to design an applicator of parallelepiped shape for dielectric materialsprocessing in microwave field. The program calculates and posts transmission modes, the value of the power density and of the electric field in the dielectric.

  5. Characterizations of biodegradable epoxy-coated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film for flexible microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyi Mi; Chien-Hao Liu; Tzu-Husan Chang; Jung-Hun Seo; Huilong Zhang; Sang June Cho; Nader Behdad; Zhenqiang Ma; Chunhua Yao; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2016-01-01

    Wood pulp cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film is a novel recyclable and biodegradable material. We investigated the microwave dielectric properties of the epoxy coated-CNF thin film for potential broad applications in flexible high speed electronics. The characterizations of dielectric properties were carried out in a frequency range of 1–10 GHz. The dielectric...

  6. Design and application of multilayer monolithic microwave integrated circuit transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, S.B

    1999-07-01

    The design and performance of planar spiral transformers, using multilayer GaAs and silicon MMIC technology, are presented. This multilayer technology gives new opportunities for improving the performance of planar transformers, couplers and baluns. Planar transformers have high parasitic resistance and capacitance and low levels of coupling. Using multilayer technology these problems are overcome by applying a multilayer structure of three metal layers separated by two polyimide dielectric layers. The improvements gained by placing the conductors on different metal layers, and using conductors raised on polyimide layers for low capacitance, have been investigated. The circuits were fabricated using a novel experimental fabrication process, which uses entirely standard materials and techniques and is compatible with BJT's and silicon-germanium HBT's. The transformers were all characterised up to 20 GHz using RF-on-wafer measurements. They demonstrated good performance, considering the experimental nature of in-house multilayer technology and the difficulties in simulating these three-dimensional new geometries. With high resistivity substrates, the silicon components achieved virtually the same performance as their gallium arsenide counterparts. The transformers were then used in simulations of transformer-coupled HBT amplifier circuits, to demonstrate their capabilities. It was shown that these circuits present good performance compared to standard off-the shelf component circuits and are very promising for use in most multilayer MMIC applications. The structures were further used in coupling configurations, and applied in balun circuits and pushpull amplifiers. The spiral transformer coupler can operate at low frequencies without using up much chip area. In a balun configuration, the balun can compensate for coupling and phase imbalance and operates over 5 to 15 GHz. The spiral coupler does not always need multilayer processing, so the balun may be

  7. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW 3 dB coupler for K-Band applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nurehansafwanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a designed coupler by using Rogers RO4003C with thickness (h 0.508 mm and relative permittivity (εr 3.55. The four port network coupler operates in K-band (18-27 GHz and design by using substrate integrated waveguide (SIW method. The reflection coefficient and isolation coefficient of propose Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW coupler is below than -10 dB. Meanwhile the coupler requirements are phase shift 90° between coupled port and output. SIW are high performance broadband interconnects with excellent immunity to electromagnetic interference and suitable for use in microwave and communication electronics, as well as increase bandwidth systems. The designs of coupler are investigated using CST Microwave Studio simulation tool. This proposed couplers are varied from parameters that cover the frequency range (21 -24 GHz and better performance of scattering (S-parameter.

  8. Application of microwave ablation in treatment of solid space-occupying lesions in the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Lei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, many therapies for hepatic space-occupying lesions have emerged, such as surgical operation, chemotherapy, intervention, and biological therapy. In recent years, microwave technique for the treatment of hepatic space-occupying lesions has attracted more and more attention because of its small trauma, low expense, marked clinical effect, and few complications. This article reviews the advances in the application of microwave in the treatment of liver cancer, hepatic hemangioma, hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, and other benign hepatic space-occupying lesions.

  9. Application of Microwave Remote Sensing to Dynamic Testing of Stay-Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Gentile

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in radar techniques and systems have favoured the development of microwave interferometers, suitable for the non-contact vibration monitoring of large structures. The paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to the measurement of the vibration response in the stay-cables of cable-stayed bridges. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed technique were investigated by comparing the natural frequencies (and the cable tensions predicted from natural frequencies identified from radar data and the corresponding quantities obtained using more conventional techniques. The investigation, carried out on the cables of two different cable-stayed bridges, clearly highlights: (a the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing; (b the simplicity of use of the radar technique (especially when compared with conventional approaches and its effectiveness to simultaneously measuring the dynamic response of all the stay-cables of an array.

  10. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology for space communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Denis J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. For the more distant future pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other advanced III-V materials offer the possibility of MMIC subsystems well up into the millimeter wavelength region. All of these technology elements are in NASA's MMIC program. Their status is reviewed.

  11. Low-field microwave absorption and magnetoresistance in iron nanostructures grown by electrodeposition on n-type lightly doped silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, J.F. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa-UFV, Departamento de Física, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Figueiredo, L.C. [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Mendes, J.B.S. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa-UFV, Departamento de Física, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Morais, P.C. [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Automation, 430074 Wuhan (China); Araujo, C.I.L. de., E-mail: dearaujo@ufv.br [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigate magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystal structure in iron nanoclusters electrodeposited on lightly doped (100) n-type silicon substrates. Our goal is to investigate the spin injection and detection in the Fe/Si lateral structures. The samples obtained under electric percolation were characterized by magnetoresistive and magnetic resonance measurements with cycling the sweeping applied field in order to understand the spin dynamics in the as-produced samples. The observed hysteresis in the magnetic resonance spectra, plus the presence of a broad peak in the non-saturated regime confirming the low field microwave absorption (LFMA), were correlated to the peaks and slopes found in the magnetoresistance curves. The results suggest long range spin injection and detection in low resistive silicon and the magnetic resonance technique is herein introduced as a promising tool for analysis of electric contactless magnetoresistive samples. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition of Fe nanostructures on high resistive silicon substrates. • Spin polarized current among clusters through Si suggested by isotropic magnetoresistance. • Low field microwave absorption arising from the sample shape anisotropy. • Contactless magnetoresistive device characterization by resonance measurements.

  12. Substrate optimization for integrated circuit antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Alexopoulos, N. G.; Katehi, P. B.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Imaging systems in microwaves, millimeter and submillimeter wave applications employ printed circuit antenna elements. The effect of substrate properties is analyzed in this paper by both reciprocity theorem as well as integral equation approach for infinitesimally short as well as finite length dipole and slot elements. Radiation efficiency and substrate surface wave guidance is studied for practical substrate materials as GaAs, Silicon, Quartz and Duroid.

  13. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  14. Compact microwave re-entrant cavity applicator for plasma-assisted combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Wichman, Indrek S.; Lee, Tonghun; Grotjohn, Timothy A.; Asmussen, Jes

    2009-05-01

    The design and experimental operation of a compact microwave/rf applicator is described. This applicator operates at atmospheric pressure and couples electromagnetic energy into a premixed CH4/O2 flame. The addition of only 2-15 W of microwave power to a premixed combustion flame with a flame power of 10-40 W serves to extend the flammability limits for fuel lean conditions, increases the flame length and intensity, and increases the number density and mixture of excited radical species in the flame vicinity. The downstream gas temperature also increases. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements show gas rotational temperatures in the range of 2500-3600 K. At the higher input power of ≥10 W microplasma discharges can be produced in the high electric field region of the applicator.

  15. Compact microwave re-entrant cavity applicator for plasma-assisted combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Wichman, Indrek S.; Lee, Tonghun; Grotjohn, Timothy A.; Asmussen, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The design and experimental operation of a compact microwave/rf applicator is described. This applicator operates at atmospheric pressure and couples electromagnetic energy into a premixed CH 4 /O 2 flame. The addition of only 2-15 W of microwave power to a premixed combustion flame with a flame power of 10-40 W serves to extend the flammability limits for fuel lean conditions, increases the flame length and intensity, and increases the number density and mixture of excited radical species in the flame vicinity. The downstream gas temperature also increases. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements show gas rotational temperatures in the range of 2500-3600 K. At the higher input power of ≥10 W microplasma discharges can be produced in the high electric field region of the applicator.

  16. Compact microwave re-entrant cavity applicator for plasma-assisted combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemawan, Kadek W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Wichman, Indrek S.; Lee, Tonghun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Grotjohn, Timothy A.; Asmussen, Jes [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Center for Coatings and Laser Applications, Fraunhofer USA, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The design and experimental operation of a compact microwave/rf applicator is described. This applicator operates at atmospheric pressure and couples electromagnetic energy into a premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} flame. The addition of only 2-15 W of microwave power to a premixed combustion flame with a flame power of 10-40 W serves to extend the flammability limits for fuel lean conditions, increases the flame length and intensity, and increases the number density and mixture of excited radical species in the flame vicinity. The downstream gas temperature also increases. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements show gas rotational temperatures in the range of 2500-3600 K. At the higher input power of {>=}10 W microplasma discharges can be produced in the high electric field region of the applicator.

  17. Investigation and application of microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma physical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhaoxing; Sheng Yanya; Shi Yicai; Wen Haihu; Cao Xiaowen

    1991-06-01

    The evaporating deposition of Ti film and Cu film by using microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique was investigated. It deposition rate was about 50 nm/min and the temperature of the substrate was 50∼150 deg C. The thin amorphous films with strong adherent force were obtained. The sputtering deposition with ECR plasma was studied by employing higher plasma density and ionicity and negative substrate potential to make YBaCuO superconducting film. Its film was compact and amorphous with a thickness of 1.0 μm and the deposition rate was about 10 nm/min. The results show that this technique can initiate a high density and high ionicity plasma at lower gas pressure (10 -2 ∼10 -3 Pa). This plasma is the most suitable plasma source in thin film deposition process and surface treatment technique

  18. Design and thermometry of an intracavitary microwave applicator suitable for treatment of some vaginal and rectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.J.; Luk, K.H.; Jiang, H.B.; Chou, C.K.; Hwang, G.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of a modified coaxial cable as an intracavitary microwave applicator suitable for use in some vaginal and rectal cancers is presented. Thermometry is performed for microwave frequencies of 300, 400, 650, and 915 MHz. Temperature profiles in tissue phantoms were obtained with Vitek 101 temperature probes and thermography, and the data were compared with those obtained in dogs. The temperature profiles are dependent on the frequency of the microwaves and the insertion depth of the applicator. In addition, a lucite cylindrical spacer external to the applicator also altered the heating pattern. Therefore, with proper combinations of frequency, insertion depth, and spacer, the applicator can be used for heating tumors in some clinical situations. Two patients were treated with this intracavitary microwave applicator in conjunction with interstitial radiation therapy. Tolerance to such combined therapy was satisfactory in these preliminary trial treatments

  19. Edge coating apparatus with movable roller applicator for solar cell substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Luca; Abas, Emmanuel

    2012-12-04

    A non-contact edge coating apparatus includes an applicator for applying a coating material on an edge of a solar cell substrate and a control system configured to drive the applicator. The control system may drive the applicator along an axis to maintain a distance with an edge of the substrate as the substrate is rotated to have the edge coated with a coating material. The applicator may include a recessed portion into which the edge of the substrate is received for edge coating. For example, the applicator may be a roller with a groove. Coating material may be introduced into the groove for application onto the edge of the substrate. A variety of coating materials may be employed with the apparatus including hot melt ink and UV curable plating resist.

  20. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development. (paper)

  1. Infrastructure for the design and fabrication of MEMS for RF/microwave and millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerguizian, Vahe; Rafaf, Mustapha

    2004-08-01

    This article describes and provides valuable information for companies and universities with strategies to start fabricating MEMS for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave applications. The present work shows the infrastructure developed for RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS platforms, which helps the identification, evaluation and selection of design tools and fabrication foundries taking into account packaging and testing. The selected and implemented simple infrastructure models, based on surface and bulk micromachining, yield inexpensive and innovative approaches for distributed choices of MEMS operating tools. With different educational or industrial institution needs, these models may be modified for specific resource changes using a careful analyzed iteration process. The inputs of the project are evaluation selection criteria and information sources such as financial, technical, availability, accessibility, simplicity, versatility and practical considerations. The outputs of the project are the selection of different MEMS design tools or software (solid modeling, electrostatic/electromagnetic and others, compatible with existing standard RF/Microwave design tools) and different MEMS manufacturing foundries. Typical RF/Microwave and millimeter wave MEMS solutions are introduced on the platform during the evaluation and development phases of the project for the validation of realistic results and operational decision making choices. The encountered challenges during the investigation and the development steps are identified and the dynamic behavior of the infrastructure is emphasized. The inputs (resources) and the outputs (demonstrated solutions) are presented in tables and flow chart mode diagrams.

  2. Pressure dependence of morphology and phase composition of SiC films deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on cemented carbide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Shengwang, E-mail: bkdysw@yahoo.cn; Fan Pengwei; Tang Weizhong; Li Xiaojing; Hu Haolin; Hei Hongjun; Zhang Sikai; Lu Fanxiu

    2011-11-01

    SiC films were deposited on cemented carbide substrates by employing microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method using tetramethylsilane (Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}) diluted in H{sub 2} as the precursor. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scratching technique were used to characterize morphology, composition, phases present and adhesion of the films. Experimental results show that the deposition pressure has great influence on morphologies and phase composition of the films. In sequence, SiC films with a cauliflower-like microstructure, granular films with terrace-featured SiC particles coexisting with Co{sub 2}Si compound and clusters of nanometer SiC nanoplatelets appear as a function of the deposition pressure. In terms of plasma density and substrate temperature, this sequential appearance of microstructures of SiC films was explained. Adhesion tests showed that among the three types of films studied, the films with the terrace-featured SiC particles have relatively higher adhesion. Such knowledge will be of importance when the SiC films are used as interlayer between diamond films and cemented carbide substrates.

  3. Pressure dependence of morphology and phase composition of SiC films deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on cemented carbide substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shengwang; Fan Pengwei; Tang Weizhong; Li Xiaojing; Hu Haolin; Hei Hongjun; Zhang Sikai; Lu Fanxiu

    2011-01-01

    SiC films were deposited on cemented carbide substrates by employing microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method using tetramethylsilane (Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) diluted in H 2 as the precursor. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scratching technique were used to characterize morphology, composition, phases present and adhesion of the films. Experimental results show that the deposition pressure has great influence on morphologies and phase composition of the films. In sequence, SiC films with a cauliflower-like microstructure, granular films with terrace-featured SiC particles coexisting with Co 2 Si compound and clusters of nanometer SiC nanoplatelets appear as a function of the deposition pressure. In terms of plasma density and substrate temperature, this sequential appearance of microstructures of SiC films was explained. Adhesion tests showed that among the three types of films studied, the films with the terrace-featured SiC particles have relatively higher adhesion. Such knowledge will be of importance when the SiC films are used as interlayer between diamond films and cemented carbide substrates.

  4. A Review on Passive and Integrated Near-Field Microwave Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Subhajit; Jamal, Farabi Ibne

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review the advancement of passive and integrated microwave biosensors. The interaction of microwave with biological material is discussed in this paper. Passive microwave biosensors are microwave structures, which are fabricated on a substrate and are used for sensing biological materials. On the other hand, integrated biosensors are microwave structures fabricated in standard semiconductor technology platform (CMOS or BiCMOS). The CMOS or BiCMOS sensor technology offers a more compact sensing approach which has the potential in the future for point of care testing systems. Various applications of the passive and the integrated sensors have been discussed in this review paper. PMID:28946617

  5. Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the slowand fast light properties of a semiconductor waveguide device employing concatenated gain and absorber sections. This letter presents the experimental results as well as theoretical modeling. A large phase shift of 110 and a true-time delay of more than 150 ps are dem...... are demonstrated. The combination of amplitude and phase control of the modulated signal shows great promise for applications within microwave photonics....

  6. Arbitrary waveform generation based on Microwave Photonics Technology for Ultrawideband applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Galué, Vanessa Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    The herein presented Ph.D. dissertation finds its application niche in pulse generation for optical communication schemes, specifically for Ultrawideband (UWB) purposes. In this sense, as the requirements in terms of capacity and bandwidth per user in the field of broadband communication services continuously increase, different technological techniques such as hybrid wireless-optical approaches including UWB systems and close competitors like the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Acce...

  7. Elliptical metasurfaces for cloaking and antenna applications at microwave and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpourbernety, Hossein

    One of the interesting applications of metamaterials is the phenomenon of electromagnetic invisibility and cloaking, which implies the suppression of bistatic scattering width of a given object, independent of incident and observation angles. In this regard, diverse techniques have been proposed to analyze and design electromagnetic cloak structures, including transformation optics, anomalous resonance methods, transmission-line networks, and plasmonic cloaking, among others. A common drawback of all these methods is that they rely on bulk materials, which are difficult to realize in practice. To overcome this issue, the mantle cloaking method has been proposed, which utilizes an ultrathin metasurface that provides anti-phase surface currents to reduce the scattering dominant mode of a given object. Recently, an analytical model has been proposed to cloak dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects realized with printed and slotted arrays at microwave frequencies. At low-terahertz (THz) frequencies, one of the promising materials to realize the required metasurface is graphene. In this regard, a graphene monolayer, characterized by inductive reactance, has been proposed to cloak dielectric planar and cylindrical objects. Then, it has been shown that a metasurface made of graphene nanopatches owns dual capacitive/inductive inductance and can be used to cloak both dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects at low-THz frequencies. So far, planar and cylindrical dielectric and conducting structures have been studied. In our study, we have extended the concept and presented an accurate analytical approach to investigate the cloaking of two-dimensional (2-D) elliptical objects including infinite dielectric elliptical cylinders using graphene monolayer; metallic elliptical cylinders, and also, as a special case, 2-D metallic strips using a nanostructured graphene patch array at low-THz frequencies. We have also obtained the results for cloaking of ellipses at

  8. Microwave integrated circuit for Josephson voltage standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Toots, J.; Chang, C. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A microwave integrated circuit comprised of one or more Josephson junctions and short sections of microstrip or stripline transmission line is fabricated from thin layers of superconducting metal on a dielectric substrate. The short sections of transmission are combined to form the elements of the circuit and particularly, two microwave resonators. The Josephson junctions are located between the resonators and the impedance of the Josephson junctions forms part of the circuitry that couples the two resonators. The microwave integrated circuit has an application in Josephson voltage standards. In this application, the device is asymmetrically driven at a selected frequency (approximately equal to the resonance frequency of the resonators), and a d.c. bias is applied to the junction. By observing the current voltage characteristic of the junction, a precise voltage, proportional to the frequency of the microwave drive signal, is obtained.

  9. Topology optimization of metallic devices for microwave applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Mortensen, Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    is the skin depth, which calls for highly refined meshing in order to capture the physics. The skin depth problem has therefore prohibited the application of topology optimization to this class of problem. We present a design parameterization that remedies these numerical issues, by the interpolation...

  10. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100 deg. C, 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2 deg. C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  11. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100° C, 1300° C and 1500° C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2° C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  12. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  13. Carbon diffusion in uncoated and titanium nitride coated iron substrates during microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Manory, R.R.; Paterson, P.J.K.; Stuart, Sue-Anne

    1992-01-01

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the effectiveness of thin films of TiN as barriers to carbon diffusion during Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of diamond onto Fe substrates. Auger Depth Profiling was used to monitor the C concentration in the TiN layer, through the interface and into the substrate both before and after CVD diamond deposition. The results show that a layer of TiN only 250 Angstroems thick is sufficient to inhibit soot formation on the Fe surface and C diffusion into the Fe bulk. 14 refs., 4 figs

  14. Graphene/Poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) Nanocomposite: Potential Candidate for Supercapacitor and Microwave Absorbing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sumanta; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Dhibar, Saptarshi; Hatui, Goutam; Das, Tanya; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2015-09-01

    A simple and cost-effective in-situ chemical route to prepare the nanocomposites based on graphene and Poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [PPP] has been proposed. Introduction of graphene changes the morphology of copolymer from spherical to fiber like. Graphene/Poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [GPPP] nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance of 351 F/g and energy density of 124.8 Wh/Kg at 10 mV/s scan rate. The composite also obtained moderate specific capacitance retention of 66% after 500 cycles, which establish its potentiality as supercapacitor electrode materials. The composite also exhibited high electrical conductivity and superior microwave absorbing properties (maximum reflection loss is -29.97 dB). The absorption range corresponding to ≥ 90% absorption (or -10 dB) is 2.72 GHz which is excellent for the microwave absorbing applications.

  15. Shaping Microwave Fields Using Nonlinear Unsolicited Feedback: Application to Enhance Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hougne, Philipp; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2017-12-01

    Wave-front shaping has emerged over the past decade as a powerful tool to control wave propagation through complex media, initially in optics and more recently also in the microwave domain with important applications in telecommunication, imaging, and energy transfer. The crux of implementing wave-front shaping concepts in real life is often its need for (direct) feedback, requiring access to the target to focus on. Here, we present the shaping of a microwave field based on indirect, unsolicited, and blind feedback which may be the pivotal step towards practical implementations. With the example of a radio-frequency harvester in a metallic cavity, we demonstrate tenfold enhancement of the harvested power by wave-front shaping based on nonlinear signals detected at an arbitrary position away from the harvesting device.

  16. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR DENTAL APPLICATIONS SINTERED BY MICROWAVE HEATING

    OpenAIRE

    Presenda Barrera, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Zirconia has become a widely utilized structural ceramic material with important applications in dentistry due to its superb mechanical properties, biocompatibility, aesthetic characteristics and durability. Zirconia needs to be stabilized in the t-phase to obtain improved mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness. Fully dense yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) materials are normally consolidated through the energy-intensive processing of po...

  17. Nickel-doped (Zr0.8, Sn0.2)TiO4 for microwave and millimeter-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioachim, A.; Banciu, M.G.; Toacsan, M.I.; Nedelcu, L.; Ghetu, D.; Alexandru, H.V.; Stoica, G.; Annino, G.; Cassettari, M.; Martinelli, M.

    2005-01-01

    (Zr 0.8 , Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 ternary compounds (ZST) have been prepared by conventional solid-state reaction from raw materials. The effects of such sintering parameters as sintering temperature, sintering time, and NiO addition on structural and dielectric properties were investigated. The material exhibits a dielectric constant ε r ∼36.0 and high values of the product Qf of the intrinsic quality factor Q and the frequency f from 32,170 to 50,000 at microwave frequencies. The dielectric loss tan δ values of ZST ceramics are decreased by low-level doping of NiO, while the temperature coefficient of the resonance frequency τ f takes values in the range -2 to +4 ppm/ deg. C. Investigations on whispering gallery modes revealed low dielectric loss in millimetre-wave domain. An intrinsic quality factor of 480 was measured at 115.6 GHz. Dielectric resonators and substrates of ZST material were manufactured. The dielectric properties make the ZST material very attractive to microwave and millimeter-wave applications, such as dielectric resonators, filters, planar antennas, hybrid microwave integrated circuits, etc

  18. Application of dielectric constant measurement in microwave sludge disintegration and wastewater purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Petra Veszelovszki; Lemmer, Balázs; Keszthelyi-Szabó, Gábor; Hodúr, Cecilia; Beszédes, Sándor

    2018-05-01

    It has been numerously verified that microwave radiation could be advantageous as a pre-treatment for enhanced disintegration of sludge. Very few data related to the dielectric parameters of wastewater of different origins are available; therefore, the objective of our work was to measure the dielectric constant of municipal and meat industrial wastewater during a continuous flow operating microwave process. Determination of the dielectric constant and its change during wastewater and sludge processing make it possible to decide on the applicability of dielectric measurements for detecting the organic matter removal efficiency of wastewater purification process or disintegration degree of sludge. With the measurement of dielectric constant as a function of temperature, total solids (TS) content and microwave specific process parameters regression models were developed. Our results verified that in the case of municipal wastewater sludge, the TS content has a significant effect on the dielectric constant and disintegration degree (DD), as does the temperature. The dielectric constant has a decreasing tendency with increasing temperature for wastewater sludge of low TS content, but an adverse effect was found for samples with high TS and organic matter contents. DD of meat processing wastewater sludge was influenced significantly by the volumetric flow rate and power level, as process parameters of continuously flow microwave pre-treatments. It can be concluded that the disintegration process of food industry sludge can be detected by dielectric constant measurements. From technical purposes the applicability of dielectric measurements was tested in the purification process of municipal wastewater, as well. Determination of dielectric behaviour was a sensitive method to detect the purification degree of municipal wastewater.

  19. Easy access to heterobimetallic complexes for medical imaging applications via microwave-enhanced cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Desbois

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cu(I-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition, known as “click” reaction, has been applied to the synthesis of a range of triazole-linked porphyrin/corrole to DOTA/NOTA derivatives. Microwave irradiation significantly accelerates the reaction. The synthesis of heterobimetallic complexes was easily achieved in up to 60% isolated yield. Heterobimetallic complexes were easily prepared as potential MRI/PET (SPECT bimodal contrast agents incorporating one metal (Mn, Gd for the enhancement of contrast for MRI applications and one “cold” metal (Cu, Ga, In for future radionuclear imaging applications. Preliminary relaxivity measurements showed that the reported complexes are promising contrast agents (CA in MRI.

  20. Applications of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for water resources and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the application of microwave remote sensing for measuring soil moisture. Both passive and active systems have demonstrated the capability to measure soil moisture, and there have been a number of studies using aircraft and spaceborne data that have demonstrated its usefulness for agricultural and hydrologic applications. However, there are still several unresolved questions regarding the optimal instrument configuration and other target characteristics such as roughness and vegetation. In addition, the most likely disciplines for using these data, agriculture and hydrology, do not currently possess adequate models or procedures to use this new technology

  1. APPLICATION OF ο-TOLIDINE AS SUBSTRATE FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tolidine (OT) with H2O2. The oxidative product of OT with H2O2 was an azo substrate, which was electroactive and had a sensitive linear sweep voltammetric reductive peak at -0.52 V (vs. SCE) on hanging mercury drop working electrode ...

  2. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  3. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-10-10

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  4. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  5. An integrated continuous class-F-1 mode power amplifier design approach for microwave enhanced portable diagnostic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz, Azeem; Lees, Jonathan; Choi, Heungjae; Joshi, Lovleen Tina

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. This paper presents a novel technique for designing a microwave power delivery system targeted at compact and portable microwave-assisted diagnostic healthcare applications to help tackle the growing problem of anti-microbial resistance. The arrangement comprises a purpose-built cylindrical cavity resonator within which, the bacterial samples are exposed, driven by a high-efficiency 10-W GaN amplifier, critically coupled via a simple, adjustable internal loop antenna. The experim...

  6. Multilayer conformal applicator for microwave heating and brachytherapy treatment of superficial tissue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, T; Stauffer, P R; Neuman, D G; Schlorff, J L

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and perform preliminary functionality evaluations of a multilayer conformal applicator with provisions for thermal monitoring, tight conformity and simultaneous microwave heating and brachytherapy treatment of large-area contoured surfaces. The multilayer conformal applicator consists of thermal monitoring catheters for fibre-optic monitoring of skin temperatures, a waterbolus, a PCB microwave antenna array, a dielectric spacer for brachytherapy considerations, brachytherapy catheters for delivering HDR radiation and an inflatable air bladder for improving conformity to contoured surfaces. The applicator also includes an elastic attachment structure to hold the applicator securely in place on the patient. The conformity of the applicator to irregular surfaces was evaluated through CT imaging of the applicator fitted onto a life-sized human torso phantom. The fluid flow dynamics of the waterbolus, which impact the effectiveness of temperature control, were evaluated with thermometry during a 19 degrees C step change temperature of the circulating water. CT imaging showed improved conformity to the torso phantom surface following the application of gentle inward pressure from inflating the outer air bladder. Only a small number of 1-5 mm sized air gaps separated the conformal applicator and tissue surface. Thermometry testing of the bolus fluid flow dynamics demonstrated temperature uniformity within +/-0.82 degrees C across a 19 x 34 x 0.6 cm area bolus and +/-0.85 degrees C across a large 42 x 32 x 0.6 cm area bolus. CT scans of the applicator confirmed that the applicator conforms well to complex body contours and should maintain good conformity and positional stability even when worn on a mobile patient. Thermometry testing of two different waterbolus geometries demonstrated that uniform circulation and temperature control can be maintained throughout large, complex bolus shapes.

  7. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol Silver Nanoparticles Gel for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Hiep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to fabricate chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol/Ag nanoparticles (CPA gels with microwave-assistance for skin applications. Microwave irradiation was employed to reduce silver ions to silver nanoparticles and to crosslink chitosan (CS with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The presence of silver nanoparticles in CPA gels matrix was examined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The interaction of CS and PVA was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The release of silver ions was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The antimicrobial properties of CPA gels against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were investigated using agar diffusion method. Finally, the biocompatibility and wound-healing ability of the gels were studied using fibroblast cells (in vitro and mice models (in vivo. In conclusion, the results showed that CPA gels were successfully fabricated using microwave irradiation method. These gels can be applied to heal an open wound thanks to their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Acrylic Primer for Concrete Substrate Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study dealt with the properties of acrylic primer for concrete substrate using acrylic syrup, made from a methyl methacrylate monomer solution of terpolymers. Terpolymer systems consisting of methyl methacrylate (MMA, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA, and methacrylic acid (MAA with different chemical composition ratios of MMA and 2-EHA were synthesized through bulk polymerization using azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The terpolymer composition is characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, DSC, TGA, and SEM. The glass transition temperature and the thermal stability increased with increasing amounts of MMA in the terpolymer backbone. The effect of chemical composition of terpolymers on physicomechanical properties of primer films was investigated. However, increasing the amount of MMA in terpolymer backbone increased tensile and contact angle of primer films while elongation at break, water absorption, and bond strength are decreased. In particular, the primer syrup containing 65% 2-EHA has good bonding strength with concrete substrate around 1.1 MPa.

  9. High quality Y-type hexaferrite thick films for microwave applications by an economical and environmentally benign crystal growth technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Gillette, Scott; Su, Zhijuan; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Wolf, Jason; McHenry, Michael E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    Thick barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (i.e., Zn{sub 2}Y) films having thicknesses of ∼100 μm were epitaxially grown on MgO (111) substrates using an environmentally benign ferrite-salt mixture by vaporizing the salt. X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses showed (00l) crystallographic alignment with little in plane dispersion confirming epitaxial growth. Saturation magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 2.51 ± 0.1 kG with an out of plane magnetic anisotropy field H{sub A} of 8.9 ± 0.1 kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, as the peak-to-peak power absorption derivative at 9.6 GHz, was measured to be 62 Oe. These properties demonstrate a rapid, convenient, cost-effective, and nontoxic method of growing high quality thick crystalline ferrite films which could be used widely for microwave device applications.

  10. Modeling of microwave applicators with an excitation through the wave guide using TLM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Tijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a real microwave applicator with a wave guide used to launch the energy from the source into the cavity is analyzed using 3D TLM method. In order to investigate the influence of the positions and number of feed wave guides to the number of the resonant modes inside the cavity, obtained results are compared with analytical results and results obtained by using TLM software with an impulse excitation as well. TLM method is applied to the both empty and loaded rectangular metallic cavity, and a very good agreement between simulated and experimental results is achieved.

  11. Microwave system of the 7-10 MeV electron linear accelerator ALIN for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Iliescu, E.; Stirbet, M.; Oproiu, C.; Vintan, I.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed description of the Central Institute of Physics 10 MeV linear microwave system and its associated subsystems are presented. Methods of impedance matching to obtain maximum power transfer are described along with broadband design methods for transmission-line impedance transformers. Experimental results for such microwave devices are included. With respect to microwave device performances, simultaneous high efficiency and high power capability with reliability and long life at relatively low unit cost have only recently been achieved as typical device characteristics. Industrial, medical and scientific application of microwave electron accelerators have markedly influenced microwave research progress. Radiographic linear accelerators have grown substantially mainly during the past few years. Following this, the improvements of microwave device performances solicit our attention. The first electron therapy Linear Accelerator ALIN 10 marks a new stage in the development of such instrumentation. Its subsequent ALIN 15 is designed to produce a maximum energy of 18 MeV to widen its applicability in radiotherapy. In addition, a new electron linear accelerator of 8 MeV for nondestructive testing has been started. (author)

  12. Heating power at the substrate, electron temperature, and electron density in 2.45 GHz low-pressure microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, A.; Lo, J.; Thérèse, L.; Guillot, Ph.

    2018-01-01

    To control the temperature during a plasma treatment, an understanding of the link between the plasma parameters and the fundamental process responsible for the heating is required. In this work, the power supplied by the plasma onto the surface of a glass substrate is measured using the calorimetric method. It has been shown that the powers deposited by ions and electrons, and their recombination at the surface are the main contributions to the heating power. Each contribution is estimated according to the theory commonly used in the literature. Using the corona balance, the Modified Boltzmann Plot (MBP) is employed to determine the electron temperature. A correlation between the power deposited by the plasma and the results of the MBP has been established. This correlation has been used to estimate the electron number density independent of the Langmuir probe in considered conditions.

  13. Magnetic materials for mobile communication antennas substrate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liang, Difei; Li, Weijia; Pang, Chao

    2017-11-01

    In this work, 3Ba0.7Sr0.3O·2CoO·10.8Fe2O3 and Ba2Co2Fe12O22 had been fabricated successfully by conventional ceramic process. Crystallographic structure and electromagnetic properties of two kind of hexagonal ferrite with different sintering temperature were investigated. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Agilent-N5230A Network Analyzer were used to measure ferrite samples. The mobile phone antenna performance was analysed by HFSS. The results revealed that the main phase of two ferrite samples generated at lower temperature due to additive. The optimized parameters of ferrite are sintering temperature at 1000°C. And to emulate antenna model by HFSS find that Z-type and Y-type ferrite substrate can contribute to antenna frequency shifting, radiation efficiency were affected a little.

  14. A CMOS-compatible silicon substrate optimization technique and its application in radio frequency crosstalk isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chen; Liao Huailin; Huang Ru; Wang Yangyuan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon substrate optimization technique is proposed to achieve effective isolation. The selective growth of porous silicon is used to effectively suppress the substrate crosstalk. The isolation structures are fabricated in standard CMOS process and then this post-CMOS substrate optimization technique is carried out to greatly improve the performances of crosstalk isolation. Three-dimensional electro-magnetic simulation is implemented to verify the obvious effect of our substrate optimization technique. The morphologies and growth condition of porous silicon fabricated have been investigated in detail. Furthermore, a thick selectively grown porous silicon (SGPS) trench for crosstalk isolation has been formed and about 20dB improvement in substrate isolation is achieved. These results demonstrate that our post-CMOS SGPS technique is very promising for RF IC applications. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Advances in microwaves 7

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of the TEM mode, as well as the voltage breakdown of microwave antennas. The text also describes the theory and design considerations of single slotted-waveguide linear arrays and the techniques and theories that led to the achievement of wide bandwidths and ultralow noise temperatures for communication applications. The book will prove invaluable to microwave engineers.

  16. Preliminary findings from tests of a microwave applicator designed to treat Barrett's oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeson, S; Reeves, J W; Birch, M J; Swain, C P; Ikeda, K; Feakins, R M

    2005-01-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is considered to increase the risk of cancer 30-fold. Helical microwave antennas have been developed for ablative treatment of Barrett's. A microwave balloon applicator was tested in an initial animal study using adult white pigs. For treatment, a balloon filled with tissue-equivalent material encapsulated the antenna. A range of different treatment temperatures and durations was used to investigate a range of thermal ablations of the oesophageal epithelium. Eight animals were investigated, five non-survival and three with a 1-week survival period. The balloon was fitted with an array of temperature sensors, which gave an indication of the treatment in situ and allowed modifications to be performed in real time. Temperature data were recorded from all four quadrants of the balloon throughout and test sites were collected and analysed histologically. All experiments were successfully completed without perforation, serious adverse effects or death. Sites of discrete ulceration were induced in the survival tests, whereas the non-survival tests yielded little reproducible tissue modification. Results suggested that an activation temperature of ∼55 deg. C needed to be reached during the treatment for tissue damage to be induced. Once damage had been triggered the severity was related to the mean temperature attained during the treatment period. A mean temperature of 52 deg. C or more resulted in substantial damage, whilst a mean temperature of ∼50 deg. C resulted in the desired surface damage with sparing of subjacent tissues

  17. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  18. Microwave-heating synthesis and sensing applications of bright gold nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ding-Fei; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Xu [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: yxf@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish a microwave-heating method to synthesize protein-stabilized Au nanoclusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained Au nanoclusters show bright red fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Au nanoclusters can be used as efficient fluorescence probe for Cu{sup 2+} ion sensing. -- Abstract: A rapid microwave-heating method has been developed for the synthesis of bright Au nanoclusters by using bull serum albumin as the template in an aqueous environment. The reaction time needed is only 7.0 min, and the weight of the products at one batch can reach 15 g. The Au nanoclusters exhibit bright fluorescence at {approx}613 nm with quantum yield of {approx}6.0%. By adjusting the pH value, the products can be controlled to precipitate or re-disperse in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the Au nanoclusters have exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity in the determination of Cu{sup 2+} ions in water. These results suggest an efficient method for obtaining metal nanoclusters for the detection and sensing applications.

  19. Preliminary findings from tests of a microwave applicator designed to treat Barrett's oesophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeson, S [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Reeves, J W [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Birch, M J [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Swain, C P [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Ikeda, K [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Feakins, R M [Department of Histopathology, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-07

    Barrett's oesophagus is considered to increase the risk of cancer 30-fold. Helical microwave antennas have been developed for ablative treatment of Barrett's. A microwave balloon applicator was tested in an initial animal study using adult white pigs. For treatment, a balloon filled with tissue-equivalent material encapsulated the antenna. A range of different treatment temperatures and durations was used to investigate a range of thermal ablations of the oesophageal epithelium. Eight animals were investigated, five non-survival and three with a 1-week survival period. The balloon was fitted with an array of temperature sensors, which gave an indication of the treatment in situ and allowed modifications to be performed in real time. Temperature data were recorded from all four quadrants of the balloon throughout and test sites were collected and analysed histologically. All experiments were successfully completed without perforation, serious adverse effects or death. Sites of discrete ulceration were induced in the survival tests, whereas the non-survival tests yielded little reproducible tissue modification. Results suggested that an activation temperature of {approx}55 deg. C needed to be reached during the treatment for tissue damage to be induced. Once damage had been triggered the severity was related to the mean temperature attained during the treatment period. A mean temperature of 52 deg. C or more resulted in substantial damage, whilst a mean temperature of {approx}50 deg. C resulted in the desired surface damage with sparing of subjacent tissues.

  20. Application of microwaves in the denitration of nitric solutions of uranium and/or plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, C.A.; Adelfang, P.

    1990-01-01

    A method for the conversion of nitric solutions of uranium and/or plutonium that would be an alternative more economic and operatively simpler than the conventional processes is the direct denitration by means of microwaves and vacuum application. This conversion method has the following technical advantages: a) the process is simple, which allows a stable operation; b) neither the addition of chemical reagents nor the dilution of the starting solution are required, thereby the volume of residual liquids is small as compared with other processes; c) one fraction of the evaporation residues is nitric acid which can be reused. The development (on laboratory scale) of this conversion process was initiated. In this first stage, a description of the employed equipment is presented. An example of one of the evaporation and denitration batches and obtained products are fully described. The operative experience leads to deduce that the equipment is satisfactory, due to the following characteristics: 1) it permits an easy manipulation within the glove boxes; 2) the projections, coming out from the reactor, are retained completely; 3) the microwaves oven and the vacuum pump are effectively protected from the corrosive vapors. It is concluded that the employed experimental device is adequate to obtain the necessary materials for the reduction, pressing and sinterability studies. This equipment is adopted for the integral development of sintered pellets fabrication process. (Author) [es

  1. Microwave heating for thermoplastic composites - Could the technology be used for welding applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasinski, Anaïs; Tertrais, Hermine; Bechtel, Stéphane; Chinesta, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Welding primary structure thermoplastic composites parts is still an issue today, many technologies have been extensively studied: induction, ultrasonic, resistive welding, none is today entirely viable for this application due to various implementation reasons. On the other hand, microwave solutions are not very common in composites forming process, although being widespread in homes. Microwave (MW) technology relies on volumetric heating. Thermal energy is transferred from an electromagnetic field to materials that can absorb it at specific frequencies. Volumetric heating enables better process temperature control and less overall energy losses, which can results in shorter processing cycles and higher process efficiency. Nowadays, the main drawback of this technology is that the complex physics involved in the conversion of electromagnetic energy in thermal energy (heating) is not entirely understood and controlled for complex materials. In that work, the authors propose to look deeper in that way, first proposing a simulation tool, based on a coupling between a commercial code and a home made one, allowing the following of the electromagnetic field very precisely in the thickness of a laminate composite part, the last consisting of a stack of layers with different orientations, each layer made of a resin matrix and carbon fibers. Thermal fields are then computed and validated by experimental measurements. In a second part, the authors propose to look at a common welding case of a stringer, on a skin.

  2. Microwave Synthesized Monodisperse CdS Spheres of Different Size and Color for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rodríguez-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse CdS spheres of size of 40 to 140 nm were obtained by microwave heating from basic solutions. It is observed that larger CdS spheres were formed at lower solution pH (8.4–8.8 and smaller ones at higher solution pH (10.8–11.3. The color of CdS products changed with solution pH and reaction temperature; those synthesized at lower pH and temperature were of green-yellow color, whereas those formed at higher pH and temperature were of orange-yellow color. A good photovoltage was observed in CdS:poly(3-hexylthiophene solar cells with spherical CdS particles. This is due to the good dispersion of CdS nanoparticles in P3HT solution that led to a large interface area between the organic and inorganic semiconductors. Higher photocurrent density was obtained in green-yellow CdS particles of lower defect density. The efficient microwave chemistry accelerated the hydrolysis of thiourea in pH lower than 9 and produced monodisperse spherical CdS nanoparticles suitable for solar cell applications.

  3. Microwave energy transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1989-03-05

    Laying stress on the technological problems and effect on the environment of microwave energy transmission, recent scientific and engineering problems and related subjects are described. Because no fuel is required for the solar power generation, the power generation system can not be considered as an expensive one when the unit cost of energy is taken into consideration. Some of the important technological problems in the microwave energy transmission are accurate microwave beam control technology to receiving stations and improvement in the efficiency of transmission system. Microwave energy beam has effects on living bodies, communication, and plasma atmosphere of the earth. Microwave energy transmission using a space flyer unit is scheduled. Its objective is the development of microwave wireless transmission technology and the study of the correlation between high power microwave and ionosphere plasma. Experiments on such a small scale application as a microwave driven space ship to bring results seem also important. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  5. Microwave assisted preparation of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) for orthopedic applications: A novel solution to the exothermicity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huan; Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2013-01-01

    There are two interesting features of this paper. First, we report herein a novel microwave assisted technique to prepare phosphate based orthopedic cements, which do not generate any exothermicity during setting. The exothermic reactions during the setting of phosphate cements can cause tissue damage during the administration of injectable compositions and hence a solution to the problem is sought via microwave processing. This solution through microwave exposure is based on a phenomenon that microwave irradiation can remove all water molecules from the alkaline earth phosphate cement paste to temporarily stop the setting reaction while preserving the active precursor phase in the formulation. The setting reaction can be initiated a second time by adding aqueous medium, but without any exothermicity. Second, a special emphasis is placed on using this technique to synthesize magnesium phosphate cements for orthopedic applications with their enhanced mechanical properties and possible uses as drug and protein delivery vehicles. The as-synthesized cements were evaluated for the occurrences of exothermic reactions, setting times, presence of Mg-phosphate phases, compressive strength levels, microstructural features before and after soaking in (simulated body fluid) SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility responses. The major results show that exposure to microwaves solves the exothermicity problem, while simultaneously improving the mechanical performance of hardened cements and reducing the setting times. As expected, the cements are also found to be cytocompatible. Finally, it is observed that this process can be applied to calcium phosphate cements system (CPCs) as well. Based on the results, this microwave exposure provides a novel technique for the processing of injectable phosphate bone cement compositions. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted system for bone cement manufacturing • A solution to exothermicity problem of acid–base reaction based bone cement

  6. Microwave assisted preparation of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) for orthopedic applications: A novel solution to the exothermicity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: Huan.Zhou@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    There are two interesting features of this paper. First, we report herein a novel microwave assisted technique to prepare phosphate based orthopedic cements, which do not generate any exothermicity during setting. The exothermic reactions during the setting of phosphate cements can cause tissue damage during the administration of injectable compositions and hence a solution to the problem is sought via microwave processing. This solution through microwave exposure is based on a phenomenon that microwave irradiation can remove all water molecules from the alkaline earth phosphate cement paste to temporarily stop the setting reaction while preserving the active precursor phase in the formulation. The setting reaction can be initiated a second time by adding aqueous medium, but without any exothermicity. Second, a special emphasis is placed on using this technique to synthesize magnesium phosphate cements for orthopedic applications with their enhanced mechanical properties and possible uses as drug and protein delivery vehicles. The as-synthesized cements were evaluated for the occurrences of exothermic reactions, setting times, presence of Mg-phosphate phases, compressive strength levels, microstructural features before and after soaking in (simulated body fluid) SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility responses. The major results show that exposure to microwaves solves the exothermicity problem, while simultaneously improving the mechanical performance of hardened cements and reducing the setting times. As expected, the cements are also found to be cytocompatible. Finally, it is observed that this process can be applied to calcium phosphate cements system (CPCs) as well. Based on the results, this microwave exposure provides a novel technique for the processing of injectable phosphate bone cement compositions. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted system for bone cement manufacturing • A solution to exothermicity problem of acid–base reaction based bone cement

  7. Temperature dependent microwave performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on high-resistivity silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulkumaran, S.; Liu, Z.H.; Ng, G.I.; Cheong, W.C.; Zeng, R.; Bu, J.; Wang, H.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Tan, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of temperature (- 50 deg. C to + 200 deg. C) was studied on the DC and microwave characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) on high resistivity Si substrate for the first time. The AlGaN/GaN HEMTs exhibited a current-gain cut-off frequency (f T ) of 11.8 GHz and maximum frequency of oscillation (f max ) of 27.5 GHz. When compared to room temperature values, about 4% and 10% increase in f T and f max and 23% and 39.5% decrease in f T and f max were observed when measured at - 50 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively. The improvement of I D , g m f T , and f max at - 50 deg. C is due to the enhancement of 2DEG mobility and effective electron velocity. The anomalous drain current reduction in the I-V curves were observed at low voltage region at the temperature ≤ 10 deg. C but disappeared when the temperature reached ≥ 25 deg. C. A positive threshold voltage (V th ) shift was observed from - 50 deg. C to 200 deg. C. The positive shift of V th is due to the occurrence of trapping effects in the devices. The drain leakage current decreases with activation energies of 0.028 eV and 0.068 eV. This decrease of leakage current with the increase of temperature is due to the shallow acceptor initiated impact ionization

  8. Application and sensitivity investigation of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature equation, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind was solved. Fast Fourier Transform techniques were used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross-correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system were included. The instability of the Fredholm equation was then demonstrated and a restoration procedure was included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of Fast Fourier Transform techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data. Actual radiometric measurements of sea water are inverted using the restoration method, incorporating the advantages of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm for computations.

  9. Microwave mediated synthesis of nanostructured Co -WO_3 and CoWO_4 for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhilip Kumar, R.; Karuppuchamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Co-WO_3 and CoWO_4 nanopowders have been successfully obtained from microwave mediated process. The characterization of the prepared nanopowders was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The XRD pattern confirms the formation of orthorhombic and monoclinic phase of the as-synthesized and calcined samples, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the resultant powders reveals the formation of nanoporous morphology. The electrochemical performance of the Co-WO_3 and CoWO_4 coated electrodes was also investigated. The maximum specific capacitance of 45 F/g was achieved for the Co-WO_3 nanopowder. - Highlights: • Novel nano-sized Co-WO_3 and CoWO_4 materials have been prepared. • A new and simple solution growth technique was developed. • Co-WO_3 is a promising material for supercapacitor applications.

  10. Synthesis of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films on single-terminated Nb : SrTiO{sub 3} (111) substrates by intermittent microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Davalos, Ivan; Ambriz-Vargas, Fabian; Kolhatkar, Gitanjali; Thomas, Reji, E-mail: ruediger@emt.inrs.ca, E-mail: reji.thomas@emt.inrs.ca; Ruediger, Andreas, E-mail: ruediger@emt.inrs.ca, E-mail: reji.thomas@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    We report on a simple and fast procedure to create arrays of atomically flat terraces on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} (111) substrates and the deposition of ferroelectric BiFeO{sub 3} thin films on such single-terminated surfaces. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in deionized water and ammonia solution selectively removes either (SrO{sub 3}){sup 4−} or Ti{sup 4+} layers to ensure the same chemical termination on all terraces. Measured step heights of 0.225 nm (d{sub 111}) and uniform contrast in the phase image of the terraces confirm the single termination in pure and Nb doped SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal substrates. Multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} thin films were then deposited by the same microwave assisted hydrothermal process on Nb : SrTiO{sub 3} (111) substrates. Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} along with KOH served as the precursors solution. Ferroelectric behavior of the BiFeO{sub 3} films on Nb : SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy.

  11. Space evaluation of optical modulators for microwave photonic on-board applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Kernec, A.; Sotom, M.; Bénazet, B.; Barbero, J.; Peñate, L.; Maignan, M.; Esquivias, I.; Lopez, F.; Karafolas, N.

    2017-11-01

    Since several years, perspectives and assets offered by photonic technologies compared with their traditional RF counterparts (mass and volume reduction, transparency to RF frequency, RF isolation), make them particularly attractive for space applications [1] and, in particular, telecommunication satellites [2]. However, the development of photonic payload concepts have concurrently risen and made the problem of the ability of optoelectronic components to withstand space environment more and more pressing. Indeed, photonic components used in such photonic payloads architectures come from terrestrial networks applications in order to benefit from research and development in this field. This paper presents some results obtained in the frame of an ESA-funded project, carried out by Thales Alenia Space France, as prime contractor, and Alter Technology Group Spain (ATG) and Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), as subcontractors, one objective of which was to assess commercial high frequency optical intensity modulators for space use through a functional and environmental test campaign. Their potential applications in microwave photonic sub-systems of telecom satellite payloads are identified and related requirements are presented. Optical modulator technologies are reviewed and compared through, but not limited to, a specific figure of merit, taking into account two key features of these components : optical insertion loss and RF half-wave voltage. Some conclusions on these different technologies are given, on the basis of the test results, and their suitability for the targeted applications and environment is highlighted.

  12. The low-cost microwave plasma sources for science and industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, V. N.; Aleshin, S. N.; Ivanov, I. A.; Tikhonov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Microwave plasma torches proposed in the world market are built according to a scheme that can be called classical: power supply - magnetron head - microwave isolator with water load - reflected power meter - matching device - actual plasma torch - sliding short circuit. The total cost of devices from this list with a microwave generator of 3 kW in the performance, for example, of SAIREM (France), is about 17,000 €. We have changed the classical scheme of the microwave plasmathrone and optimised design of the waveguide channel. As a result, we can supply simple and reliable sources of microwave plasma (complete with our low-budget microwave generator up to 3 kW and a simple plasmathrone of atmospheric pressure) at a price from 3,000 €.

  13. The Nanofabrication and Application of Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS was discovered in 1974 and impacted Raman spectroscopy and surface science. Although SERS has not been developed to be an applicable detection tool so far, nanotechnology has promoted its development in recent decades. The traditional SERS substrates, such as silver electrode, metal island film, and silver colloid, cannot be applied because of their enhancement factor or stability, but newly developed substrates, such as electrochemical deposition surface, Ag porous film, and surface-confined colloids, have better sensitivity and stability. Surface enhanced Raman scattering is applied in other fields such as detection of chemical pollutant, biomolecules, DNA, bacteria, and so forth. In this paper, the development of nanofabrication and application of surface-enhanced Ramans scattering substrate are discussed.

  14. Pre-patterned ZnO nanoribbons on soft substrates for stretchable energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Wang, Yong; Tang, Rui; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-05-01

    Three pre-patterned ZnO nanoribbons in different configurations were studied in this paper, including (a) straight ZnO nanoribbons uniformly bonded on soft substrates that form sinusoidal buckles, (b) straight ZnO nanoribbons selectively bonded on soft substrates that form pop-up buckles, and (c) serpentine ZnO nanoribbons bonded on soft substrates via anchors. The nonlinear dynamics and random analysis were conducted to obtain the fundamental frequencies and to evaluate their performance in energy harvesting applications. We found that pop-up buckles and overhanging serpentine structures are suitable for audio frequency energy harvesting applications. Remarkably, almost unchanged fundamental natural frequency upon strain is achieved by properly patterning ZnO nanoribbons, which initiates a new and exciting direction of stretchable energy harvesting using nano-scale materials in audio frequency range.

  15. Optical technology for microwave applications VI and optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-23, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kay; Hendrickson, Brian M.

    The following topics related to optical technology for microwave applications are discussed: advanced acoustooptic devices, signal processing device technologies, optical signal processor technologies, microwave and optomicrowave devices, advanced lasers and sources, wideband electrooptic modulators, and wideband optical communications. The topics considered in the discussion of optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas include devices, signal processing, and antenna systems.

  16. Application of an antenna excited high pressure microwave discharge to compact discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kando, M; Fukaya, T; Ohishi, Y; Mizojiri, T; Morimoto, Y; Shido, M; Serita, T

    2008-01-01

    A novel type of high pressure microwave discharge has been investigated to feed the microwave power at the centre of the compact high pressure discharge lamps using the antenna effect. This method of microwave discharge is named as the antenna excited microwave discharge (AEMD). The 2.45 GHz microwave of around 50 W from the solid state microwave generator can sustain a stable plasma column in the small gap between a couple of antennas fitted on the compact lamp filled with discharge gases at a pressure higher than atmosphere. The AEMD has been applied to a compact metal halide lamp and an extremely high pressure mercury discharge lamp. As a result, the metal halide lamp showed high luminous efficacy of around 130 lm W -1 . The excellent lamp properties obtained here can be explained by the low heating loss at the antennas and the lamp wall. The profiles of the microwave electric field in the lamp and the microwave launcher have been numerically calculated to consider the microwave power supply into the lamp

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Some Nanometal Oxides Using Microwave Technique and Their Application to Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the synthesis of some nanometal oxides via microwave irradiation technique and their application to augment multifunctional properties of cotton fabric. Cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were prepared via a thiol-modification of cotton fabric samples and then dipped into the metal salt solutions precursors and transferred to the microwave oven. The surface morphology and quantitative analysis of the obtained modified cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with high energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX. The shape and distribution of nanometal oxide inside the fabric samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of cross-section fabric samples. The iron oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 15–20 nm, copper oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 25–30 nm, and cobalt oxide nanoparticles had a nanotube-like shape with a length of 100–150 nanometer and a diameter of ~58 nanometer, whereas the manganese oxide nanoparticles had a linear structure forming nanorods with a diameter of 50–55 nanometer and a length of 70–80 nanometers. Antibacterial activity was evaluated quantitatively against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, UV-protection activity was analyzed using UV-DRS spectroscopy, and flame retardation of prepared fabric samples was evaluated according to the limiting oxygen index (LOI. Results revealed that the prepared fabric sample containing nanometal oxide possesses improved antibacterial, LOI, and UV-absorbing efficiency. Moreover, the metal oxide nanoparticles did not leach out the fabrics by washing even after 30 laundering washing cycles.

  18. Application of Electron Accelerators in Conjunction with Microwave Sources in Medical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Craciun, G.; Manaila, E.; Ighigeanu, D.; Margaritescu, I.; Chirita, D.; Neagu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electron beams (EB) are presently used, in addition to the routine conventional radiotherapy techniques, for cancer specialized therapies (intensity modulated radiation therapy [1] and total body electron irradiation [2]), the irradiation of blood and blood components, vaccine preparation, and other. Microwaves (MW) are presently used for therapeutic applications in cardiology, urology, surgery, ophthalmology, cancer therapy, and others, and for diagnostic applications such as cancer detection, organ imaging, and more [3]. The reported data show that low dose-all body irradiation with ionizing as well as with nonionizing irradiation may enhance the tumoricidal effects of radiation or chemotherapy, overcome acquired drug resistance and can stimulate certain components of the immune system that may aid in destroying cancer cells. These data suggested that application of low-dose total body EB + MW irradiation in conjunction with chemotherapy could contribute by novel effects to the cancer therapies. In view of this argument two specifically designed radiation exposure devices (REDs) were carried out for separate, successive and simultaneous irradiation with EB of 6.23 MeV and MW of 2.45 GHz in vivo (RED-vivo) and in vitro (RED-vitro) for the following medical studies: 1) The effects of low-dose EB + MW total body irradiation without/with drugs administration on the C57 BL/6 mice bearing malignant melanoma (MM); 2) The effects of separate and simultaneous MW and EB irradiation on MM cells culture without/with drugs incubation and on human blood components (proteins and cells) irradiated in samples of integral blood from healthy donors and from donors with MM. Both REDs consist of the following units: 1) An accelerated EB source: ALIN-10 electron linear accelerator of 6.23 MeV and adjustable absorbed dose rate from 0.002 Gy s-1 up to 70 Gy s-1 (built in the NILPRP, Bucharest, Romania); 2) A special designed exposure chamber that permits inside separate, successive or

  19. Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nano tubes and Their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motshekga, S.C.; Pillai, S.K.; Ray, S.S.; Motshekga, S.C.; Ray, S.S.; Jalama, K.; Krause, Rui.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The study of coating carbon nano tubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nano tubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nano structures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of carbon nano tubes and metal/oxides is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nano electronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. The synthesis of these composites is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors. These techniques based on thermal heating can be time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, there is interest in microwave technology recently, where using microwaves represents an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating. This paper covers the synthesis and applications of carbon-nano tube-coated metal/oxides nanoparticles prepared by a microwave-assisted method. The reviewed studies show that the microwave-assisted synthesis of the composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time with uniform and well-dispersed nanoparticle formation.

  20. Recent Trends in the Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Motshekga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of coating carbon nanotubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nanotubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nanostructures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of carbon nanotubes and metal/oxides is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nanoelectronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. The synthesis of these composites is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors. These techniques based on thermal heating can be time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, there is interest in microwave technology recently, where using microwaves represents an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating. This paper covers the synthesis and applications of carbon-nanotube-coated metal/oxides nanoparticles prepared by a microwave-assisted method. The reviewed studies show that the microwave-assisted synthesis of the composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time with uniform and well-dispersed nanoparticle formation.

  1. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavity Filters: Miniaturization and New Materials for IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tomassoni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the current research trends in the field of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology, with particular emphasis on the issues related to the emerging applications in the framework of the Internet of Things (IoT and the fifth generation of mobile communication (5G. More specifically, different techniques adopted to miniaturize SIW cavities are described, with the aim of reducing the footprint of SIW components and filters. Moreover, the use of innovative materials, like paper, textile and 3D printed dielectric substrates, is presented and discussed, and the implementation of ecofriendly, wearable, and fully 3D structures is illustrated.

  2. Industrial applications of plasma, microwave and ultrasound techniques : nitrogen-fixation and hydrogenation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, V.; Cravotto, G.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Patil, B.S.; Lang, J.; Bonrath, W.

    2013-01-01

    The MAPSYN project (Microwave, Acoustic and Plasma assisted SYNtheses) aims at nitrogen-fixation reactions intensified by plasma catalysis and selective hydrogenations intensified by microwaves, possibly assisted by ultrasound. Energy efficiency is the key motif of the project and the call of the

  3. Microwave super-heated boiling of organic liquids: Origin, effect and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, F.; Esveld, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the state of the art of the microwave super-heated boiling phenomenon. When a liquid is heated by microwaves, the temperature increases rapidly to reach a steady temperature while refluxing. It happens that this steady state temperature can be up to 40 K higher than the boiling

  4. A New Compact Octagonal Shape Perfect Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new compact octagonal shape perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA design, numerical simulation, fabrication, and investigational verification of unit cell that is based on a simple structure are presented in this paper. The suggested structure comprised of three layers, in which interact to produce the plasmonic resonances. The finite-integration technique (FIT based Computer Simulation Technology (CST microwave electromagnetic simulator was utilized to examine the design parameters and conduct absorption analysis. The design structure exhibited peak absorption values as 99.64% and 99.95% at frequencies 8.08 GHz and 11.41 GHz, respectively. The absorption characteristics were analysed using the polarization angle of the structure, layer thickness, PMA with resistive load, and number of rings. An N5227A vector network analyser was used for the measurement. The measured results of the fabricated prototype were in good agreement with the simulation results. The suggested perfect absorber structure enables innumerable application aimed at X-band for applications like, defence, security, and stealth technology.

  5. Equivalent Electromagnetic Constants for Microwave Application to Composite Materials for the Multi-Scale Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fujisaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To connect different scale models in the multi-scale problem of microwave use, equivalent material constants were researched numerically by a three-dimensional electromagnetic field, taking into account eddy current and displacement current. A volume averaged method and a standing wave method were used to introduce the equivalent material constants; water particles and aluminum particles are used as composite materials. Consumed electrical power is used for the evaluation. Water particles have the same equivalent material constants for both methods; the same electrical power is obtained for both the precise model (micro-model and the homogeneous model (macro-model. However, aluminum particles have dissimilar equivalent material constants for both methods; different electric power is obtained for both models. The varying electromagnetic phenomena are derived from the expression of eddy current. For small electrical conductivity such as water, the macro-current which flows in the macro-model and the micro-current which flows in the micro-model express the same electromagnetic phenomena. However, for large electrical conductivity such as aluminum, the macro-current and micro-current express different electromagnetic phenomena. The eddy current which is observed in the micro-model is not expressed by the macro-model. Therefore, the equivalent material constant derived from the volume averaged method and the standing wave method is applicable to water with a small electrical conductivity, although not applicable to aluminum with a large electrical conductivity.

  6. Biomaterial Substrate-Mediated Multicellular Spheroid Formation and Their Applications in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ting-Chen; Wong, Chui-Wei; Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D) multicellular aggregates (spheroids), compared to the traditional 2D monolayer cultured cells, are physiologically more similar to the cells in vivo. So far there are various techniques to generate 3D spheroids. Spheroids obtained from different methods have already been applied to regenerative medicine or cancer research. Among the cell spheroids created by different methods, the substrate-derived spheroids and their forming mechanism are unique. This review focuses on the formation of biomaterial substrate-mediated multicellular spheroids and their applications in tissue engineering and tumor models. First, the authors will describe the special chitosan substrate-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) spheroids and their greater regenerative capacities in various tissues. Second, the authors will describe tumor spheroids derived on chitosan and hyaluronan substrates, which serve as a simple in vitro platform to study 3D tumor models or to perform cancer drug screening. Finally, the authors will mention the self-assembly process for substrate-derived multiple cell spheroids (co-spheroids), which may recapitulate the heterotypic cell-cell interaction for co-cultured cells or crosstalk between different types of cells. These unique multicellular mono-spheroids or co-spheroids represent a category of 3D cell culture with advantages of biomimetic cell-cell interaction, better functionalities, and imaging possibilities. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  8. Microwave and thermal curing of an epoxy resin for microelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, K. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Pavuluri, S.K.; Leonard, M.T.; Desmulliez, M.P.Y. [MIcroSystems Engineering Centre (MISEC), Institute of Signals, Sensors and Systems, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Arrighi, V., E-mail: v.arrighi@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Chemical Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal and microwave curing of a commercial epoxy resin EO1080 are compared. • Microwave curing increases cure rate and does not adversely affect properties. • The curing of EO1080 is generally autocatalytic but deviates at high conversion. • Microwave radiation has a more complex effect on curing kinetics. - Abstract: Microwave curing of thermosetting polymers has a number of advantages to natural or thermal oven curing and is considered a cost-effective alternative. Here we present a detailed study of a commercially available epoxy resin, EO1080. Samples that are thermally cured are compared to curing using a recently developed modular microwave processing system. For commercial purposes it is crucial to demonstrate that microwave curing does not adversely affect the thermal and chemical properties of the material. Therefore, the kinetics of cure and various post cure properties of the resin are investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis shows no significant difference between the conventionally and microwave cured samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to monitor the kinetics of the curing reaction, as well as determine the thermal and ageing properties of the material. As expected, the rate of curing is higher when using microwave energy and we attempt to quantify differences compared to conventional thermal curing. No change in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) is observed. For the first time, enthalpy relaxation measurements performed on conventional and microwave cured samples are reported and these indicate similar ageing properties at any given temperature under T{sub g}.

  9. Microwave and thermal curing of an epoxy resin for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, K.; Pavuluri, S.K.; Leonard, M.T.; Desmulliez, M.P.Y.; Arrighi, V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal and microwave curing of a commercial epoxy resin EO1080 are compared. • Microwave curing increases cure rate and does not adversely affect properties. • The curing of EO1080 is generally autocatalytic but deviates at high conversion. • Microwave radiation has a more complex effect on curing kinetics. - Abstract: Microwave curing of thermosetting polymers has a number of advantages to natural or thermal oven curing and is considered a cost-effective alternative. Here we present a detailed study of a commercially available epoxy resin, EO1080. Samples that are thermally cured are compared to curing using a recently developed modular microwave processing system. For commercial purposes it is crucial to demonstrate that microwave curing does not adversely affect the thermal and chemical properties of the material. Therefore, the kinetics of cure and various post cure properties of the resin are investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis shows no significant difference between the conventionally and microwave cured samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to monitor the kinetics of the curing reaction, as well as determine the thermal and ageing properties of the material. As expected, the rate of curing is higher when using microwave energy and we attempt to quantify differences compared to conventional thermal curing. No change in glass transition temperature (T g ) is observed. For the first time, enthalpy relaxation measurements performed on conventional and microwave cured samples are reported and these indicate similar ageing properties at any given temperature under T g

  10. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates: Structural Control and Application in Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhu-Yun; Peng, Fan; Zi, Yun-Peng; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2015-07-31

    Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5), while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7) and weak alkali (pH 9) condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates: Structural Control and Application in Protein Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Yun Cai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5, while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7 and weak alkali (pH 9 condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption.

  12. The first clinical application of planning software for laparoscopic microwave thermosphere ablation of malignant liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Eren

    2015-07-01

    Liver tumour ablation is an operator-dependent procedure. The determination of the optimum needle trajectory and correct ablation parameters could be challenging. The aim of this study was to report the utility of a new, procedure planning software for microwave ablation (MWA) of liver tumours. This was a feasibility study in a pilot group of five patients with nine metastatic liver tumours who underwent laparoscopic MWA. Pre-operatively, parameters predicting the desired ablation zones were calculated for each tumour. Intra-operatively, this planning strategy was followed for both antenna placement and energy application. Post-operative 2-week computed tomography (CT) scans were performed to evaluate complete tumour destruction. The patients had an average of two tumours (range 1-4), measuring 1.9 ± 0.4 cm (range 0.9-4.4 cm). The ablation time was 7.1 ± 1.3 min (range 2.5-10 min) at 100W. There were no complications or mortality. The patients were discharged home on post-operative day (POD) 1. At 2-week CT scans, there were no residual tumours, with a complete ablation demonstrated in all lesions. This study describes and validates pre-treatment planning software for MWA of liver tumours. This software was found useful to determine precisely the ablation parameters and needle placement to create a predicted zone of ablation. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  13. Observations of electron heating during 28 GHz microwave power application in proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Caneses, J. F.; Diem, S. J.; Green, D. L.; Kafle, N.; Rapp, J.; Proto-MPEX Team

    2018-02-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a variety of power systems to generate and deliver a high heat flux plasma onto the surface of material targets. In the experiments described here, a deuterium plasma is produced via a ˜100 kW, 13.56 MHz RF helicon source, to which ˜20 kW of 28 GHz microwave power is applied. The electron density and temperature profiles are measured using a Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic, and indicate that the electron density is centrally peaked. In the core of the plasma column, the electron density is higher than the cut-off density (˜0.9 × 1019 m-3) for the launched mixture of X- and O-mode electron cyclotron heating waves to propagate. TS measurements indicate electron temperature increases from ˜5 eV to ˜20 eV during 28 GHz power application when the neutral deuterium pressure is reduced below 0.13 Pa (˜1 mTorr.).

  14. Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1030.10 - Microwave Ovens Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting ...

  15. Application of microwave energy in the control of DPM, oxides of nitrogen and VOC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavkar, Sameer M.

    The emissions of DPM (diesel particulate matter), NOx (oxides of nitrogen), and toxic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine exhaust gases and other sources such as chemical process industry and manufacturing industry have been a great environmental and health concern. Most control technologies for these emissions require elevated temperatures. The use of microwave energy as a source of heat energy, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, the microwave energy was used as the energy source in three separate emission control processes, namely, the regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) for DPM control, the NOx reduction using a platinum catalyst, and the VOC destruction involving a ceramic based material. The study has demonstrated that microwave heating is an effective method in providing heat for the studied processes. The control efficiencies associated with the microwave-assisted processes have been observed to be high and acceptable. Further research, however, is required for the commercial use of these technologies.

  16. Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

  17. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of barium titanate nanoparticles for multi layered ceramic capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Sundararajan; Shanmugavel, Balasivanandha Prabu

    2011-01-01

    Barium titanate is a common ferroelectric electro-ceramic material having high dielectric constant, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. In this research work, nano-scale barium titanate powders were synthesized by microwave assisted mechano-chemical route. Suitable precursors were ball milled for 20 hours. TGA studies were performed to study the thermal stability of the powders. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX Analysis. Microwave and Conventional heating were performed at 1000 degrees C. The overall heating schedule was reduced by 8 hours in microwave heating thereby reducing the energy and time requirement. The nano-scale, impurity-free and defect-free microstructure was clearly evident from the SEM micrograph and EDX patterns. LCR meter was used to measure the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values at various frequencies. Microwave heated powders showed superior dielectric constant value with low dielectric loss which is highly essential for the fabrication of Multi Layered Ceramic Capacitors.

  18. Design of CPW-Fed Antenna with Defected Substrate for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A CPW-fed defected substrate microstrip antenna is proposed. The proposed antenna shows wideband applications by choosing suitable defected crown shaped substrate. Defected substrate also reduces the size of an antenna. The radiating patch of proposed antenna is taken in the form of extended U-shape. The space around the radiator is utilized by extending the ground plane on both sides of radiator. Simulation of proposed antenna is done on Ansoft’s High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS v. 14. Measured results are in good agreement with simulated results. The prototype is taken with dimensions 36 mm × 42 mm × 1.6 mm that achieves good return loss, constant group delay, and good radiation characteristics within the entire operating band from 4.5 to 13.5 GHz (9.0 GHz with 100% impedance bandwidth at 9.0 GHz centre frequency. Thus, the proposed antenna is applicable for C and X band applications.

  19. Dielectric properties of Zea mays kernels - studies for microwave power processing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, Emanoil; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves absorption in biological samples can be predicted by their specific dielectrical properties. In this paper, the dielectric properties ({epsilon}' and {epsilon}'') of corn (Zea mays) kernels in the 500 MHz - 20 GHz frequencies range are presented. A short analysis of the microwaves absorption process is also presented, in correlation with the specific thermal properties of the samples, measured by simultaneous TGA-DSC method.

  20. Fracturing of hard rocks by microwave treatment and potential applications in mechanised tunnelling

    OpenAIRE

    YANLONG ZHENG

    2018-01-01

    Extremely hard and abrasive rocks have posed great challenges to mechanical excavators such as tunnel boring machines and roadheaders by increasing the cutter wear and decreasing the penetration rates. Microwave treatment prior to mechanical rock breakage has been recognised as a promising technology. This PhD project measures/derives the dielectric properties of commonly encountered rocks and minerals and investigates the effect of microwave treatment on the physical and mechanical propertie...

  1. Advances in microwaves 3

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l

  2. Low-cost silver capped polystyrene nanotube arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; Mitchell, Micki; Burke, Micheal; Quinn, Aidan J; O'Riordan, Alan

    2014-05-02

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, simulation and characterization of dense arrays of freestanding silver capped polystyrene nanotubes, and demonstrate their suitability for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a rapid, low-cost and scalable way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodized alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that substrates are composed of a dense array of freestanding polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. SERS characterization of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ∼1.6 × 10(6), in agreement with 3D finite difference time domain simulations. Contact angle measurements of the substrates revealed super-hydrophobic properties, allowing pre-concentration of target analyte into a small volume. These super-hydrophobic properties of the samples are taken advantage of for sensitive detection of the organic pollutant crystal violet, with detection down to ∼400 ppt in a 2 μl aliquot demonstrated.

  3. Low-cost silver capped polystyrene nanotube arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; Mitchell, Micki; Burke, Micheal; Quinn, Aidan J; O’Riordan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, simulation and characterization of dense arrays of freestanding silver capped polystyrene nanotubes, and demonstrate their suitability for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a rapid, low-cost and scalable way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodized alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that substrates are composed of a dense array of freestanding polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. SERS characterization of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ∼1.6 × 10 6 , in agreement with 3D finite difference time domain simulations. Contact angle measurements of the substrates revealed super-hydrophobic properties, allowing pre-concentration of target analyte into a small volume. These super-hydrophobic properties of the samples are taken advantage of for sensitive detection of the organic pollutant crystal violet, with detection down to ∼400 ppt in a 2 μl aliquot demonstrated. (paper)

  4. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  5. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator: Modeling and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, G.; Sola, R.; Veronesi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator has been simulated numerically and performed with the aim of achieving the highest yields, energy efficiency and process reproducibility. The electromagnetic field modeling of the microwave system allowed to chose the proper experimental set-up and the materials more suitable for the application, minimising the reflected power and the risks of arcing. In all the experimental conditions tested, conversions of 3-5 g 1:1 atomic ratio Ni and Al powder compacts into NiAl ranged from 98.7% to 100%, requiring from 30 to 180 s with power from 500 to 1500 W. The optimisation procedure allowed to determine and quantify the effects of the main process variables on the ignition time, the NiAl yields and the specific energy consumption, leading to a fast, reproducible and cost-effective process of microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics

  6. Microwave Enhanced Reactive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic irradiation in form of microwaves (MW) has gathered the attention of the scientific community in recent years. MW used as an alternative energy source for chemical syntheses (microwave chemistry) can provide clear advantages over conventional heating methods in

  7. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  8. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  9. Adherence of diamond films on refractory metal substrates for thermionic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, B.H.; Ramalingam, M.L.; Adams, S.F.; Cloyd, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond films are currently being considered as electrical insulation material for application in the thermionic fuel element of a power producing nuclear reactor system. The function of the diamond insulator in this application is to electrically isolate the collector of each cell in the TFE from the coolant and outer sheath. Deposition of diamond films on plane surfaces of Si/SiO 2 have already been demonstrated to be quite effective. However, the diamond films on refractory metal surfaces tend to spall off in the process of deposition revealing an inefficient adherence characteristic between the film and the substrate. This paper is geared towards explaining this deficiency by way of selected experimentation and the use of analytical tools to predict uncertainties such as the mismatch in coefficient of expansion, micrographic study of the interface between the film and the substrate and X-ray diffraction spectra. The investigation of the adherence characteristics of several diamond films on Mo and Nb substrates revealed that there was an allowable stress that resulted in the formation of the critical thickness for the diamond film

  10. Estimating ecosystem iso/anisohydry using microwave satellite data and its applications in ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Guan, K.; Gentine, P.; Konings, A. G.; Bhattacharya, A.; Meinzer, F. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Xu, X.; Anderegg, W.; McDowell, N. G.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Long, D. G.; Good, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of iso/anisohydry describes the degree to which plants regulate their water status, operating from isohydric with strict stomatal closure to anisohydric with greater stomatal conductance under drying conditions. Though some species-level measures of iso/anisohydry exist at limited locations, ecosystem scale information is still largely unavailable. In this study, we use diurnal observations from active (Ku-Band backscatter from QuikSCAT) and passive (X-band Vegetation Optical Depth [VOD] from AMSR-E) microwave satellite data to estimate global ecosystem iso/anisohydry. The two independent estimates from radar backscatter and VOD show good agreement at low and mid-latitudes but diverge at high latitudes. Grasslands, croplands, wetlands, and open shrublands are more anisohydric, whereas evergreen broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests are more isohydric. The direct validation with upscaled in-situ species iso/anisohydry estimates indicates that the VOD estimates have much better agreement than the backscatter in terms of their iso/anisohydry metrics. The indirect validation suggests that both estimates are consistent with prior knowledge that vegetation water status of anisohydric ecosystems more closely tracks environmental fluctuations of water availability and demand than their isohydric counterparts. The ecosystem level iso/anisohydry can be applied to reveal new insights into spatio-temporal ecosystem response to droughts. We conducted a case study to demonstrate the potential application of iso/anisohydry. We find that during the 2011 drought in US, over the drought affected region in the southern US, isohydric ecosystems experienced larger decline in productivity (NDVI and GPP) than anisohydric ones. However, during the 2012 drought in central US, both isohydric and anisohydric ecosystems exhibited similar decline in productivity.

  11. Advances in microwaves 4

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 4 covers some innovations in the devices and applications of microwaves. This volume contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the application of microwave phasers and time delay elements as beam steering elements in array radars. The next chapter provides first an overview of the technical aspects and different types of millimeter waveguides, followed by a survey of their application to railroads. The last chapter examines the general mode of conversion properties of nonuniform waveguides, such as waveguide tapers, using converted Maxwell's equatio

  12. The construction and application of the AMSR-E global microwave emissivity database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijuan, Shi; Wenbo, Wu; Yubao, Qiu; Jingjing, Niu

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of terrestrial microwave radiation, and is the necessary input amount for inversion various geophysical parameters. We use brightness temperature of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and synchronous land surface temperature and atmospheric temperature-humidity profile data obtained from the MODIS which aboard on satellite AQUA the same as AMSR-E, to retrieved microwave emissivity under clear sky conditions. After quality control, evaluation and design, the global microwave emissivity database of AMSR-E under clear sky conditions is established. This database include 2002–2011 years, different regions, different surface coverage, dual-polarized, 6.9,10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5 and 89GHz, ascending and descending orbit, spatial resolution 25km, global 0.05 degrees, instantaneous and half-month averaged emissivity data. The database can provide the underlying surface information for precipitation algorithm, water-vapor algorithm, and long-resolution mode model (General Circulation Model (GCM) etc.). It also provides underlying surface information for the satellite simulator, and provides basic prior knowledge of land surface radiation for future satellite sensors design. The emissivity database or the fast emissivity obtained can get ready for climate model, energy balance, data assimilation, geophysical model simulation, inversion and estimates of the physical parameters under the cloud cover conditions

  13. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates Made by Oblique Angle Deposition: Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin On Chu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy presents a rapid, non-destructive method to identify chemical and biological samples with up to single molecule sensitivity. Since its discovery in 1974, the technique has become an intense field of interdisciplinary research, typically generating >2000 publications per year since 2011. The technique relies on the localised surface plasmon resonance phenomenon, where incident light can couple with plasmons at the interface that result in the generation of an intense electric field. This field can propagate from the surface from the metal-dielectric interface, so molecules within proximity will experience more intense Raman scattering. Localised surface plasmon resonance wavelength is determined by a number of factors, such as size, geometry and material. Due to the requirements of the surface optical response, Ag and Au are typical metals used for surface enhanced Raman applications. These metals then need to have nano features that improve the localised surface plasmon resonance, several variants of these substrates exist; surfaces can range from nanoparticles in a suspension, electrochemically roughened electrodes to metal nanostructures on a substrate. The latter will be the focus of this review, particularly reviewing substrates made by oblique angle deposition. Oblique angle deposition is the technique of growing thin films so that the material flux is not normal to the surface. Films grown in this fashion will possess nanostructures, due to the atomic self-shadowing effect, that are dependent mainly on the deposition angle. Recent developments, applications and highlights of surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by oblique angle deposition will be reviewed.

  14. Metallic substrate materials for thin film oxygen transport membranes for application in a fossil power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Y.; Baumann, S.; Sebold, D.; Meulenberg, W.A.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF) - IEF-1 Materials Synthesis and Processing

    2010-07-01

    La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}CO{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF58428) and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CO{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF5582) exhibit high oxygen permeability due to their high ionic and electronic conductivity. For this reason they are under discussion for application in oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) in zero-emission power plants using oxyfuel technology. A thin film membrane which can increase the oxygen flux is beneficial and a structural substrate is required. Two types of Ni-base alloys were studied as substrate material candidates with a number of advantages, such as high strength, high temperature stability, easy joining and similar thermal expansion coefficient to the selected perovskite materials. Chemical compositions and thermal expansion coefficients of Ni-base alloys were measured in this study. LSCF58428 and BSCF5582 layers were screen printed on Ni-based alloys and co-fired at high temperature in air. The microstructure and element analysis of samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDX). A Ni-base alloy, MCrAlY, with a high Al content was the most suitable substrate material, and showed better chemical compatibility with perovskite materials at high temperature than Hastelloy X, which is a chromia-forming Ni-base alloy. A reaction occurred between Sr in the perovskite and the alumina surface layers on MCr-AlY. However, the reaction zone did not increase in thickness during medium-term annealing at 800 C in air. Hence, it is expected that this reaction will not prevent the application of MCr-AlY as a substrate material. (orig.)

  15. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-06-01

    This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP) was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica . Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t -butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP). Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  16. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali M. Kulkarni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica. Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t-butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP. Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  17. Application of a plane-stratified emission model to predict the effects of vegetation in passive microwave radiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application to vegetation canopies of a coherent model for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through a stratified medium. The resulting multi-layer vegetation model is plausibly realistic in that it recognises the dielectric permittivity of the vegetation matter, the mixing of the dielectric permittivities for vegetation and air within the canopy and, in simplified terms, the overall vertical distribution of dielectric permittivity and temperature through the canopy. Any sharp changes in the dielectric profile of the canopy resulted in interference effects manifested as oscillations in the microwave brightness temperature as a function of canopy height or look angle. However, when Gaussian broadening of the top and bottom of the canopy (reflecting the natural variability between plants was included within the model, these oscillations were eliminated. The model parameters required to specify the dielectric profile within the canopy, particularly the parameters that quantify the dielectric mixing between vegetation and air in the canopy, are not usually available in typical field experiments. Thus, the feasibility of specifying these parameters using an advanced single-criterion, multiple-parameter optimisation technique was investigated by automatically minimizing the difference between the modelled and measured brightness temperatures. The results imply that the mixing parameters can be so determined but only if other parameters that specify vegetation dry matter and water content are measured independently. The new model was then applied to investigate the sensitivity of microwave emission to specific vegetation parameters. Keywords: passive microwave, soil moisture, vegetation, SMOS, retrieval

  18. Application of Microwave Irradiation and Heat to Improve Gliadin Detection and Ricin ELISA Throughput with Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. E. Garber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of microwave irradiation to accelerate the onset of equilibrium and improve ELISA performance was examined using ELISAs for the detection of the plant toxin ricin and gliadin. The ricin ELISA normally requires several one hour incubations at 37 °C, a total assay time of approximately five hours, and employs a complex buffer containing PBS, Tween-20®, and non-fat milk. Different energy levels and pulse designs were compared to the use of abbreviated incubation times at 37 °C for the detection of ricin in food. The use of microwave irradiation had no significant advantage over the application of heat using an oven incubator and performed worse with some foods. In contrast, a gliadin ELISA that relied on 30 min incubation steps at room temperature and a salt-based buffer performed better upon irradiation but also displayed improvement upon incubating the microtiter plate at 37 °C. Whether microwave irradiation was advantageous compared to incubation in an oven was inconclusive. However, by abbreviating the incubation time of the ricin ELISA, it was possible to cut the assay time to less than 2 hours and still display LOD values < 10 ppb and recoveries of 78%–98%.

  19. Development of anatomically and dielectrically accurate breast phantoms for microwave imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, M.; Lohfeld, S.; Ruvio, G.; Browne, J.; Krewer, F.; Ribeiro, C. O.; Inacio Pita, V. C.; Conceicao, R. C.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. In the United States alone, it accounts for 31% of new cancer cases, and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of deaths in American women. More than 184,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year resulting in approximately 41,000 deaths. Early detection and intervention is one of the most significant factors in improving the survival rates and quality of life experienced by breast cancer sufferers, since this is the time when treatment is most effective. One of the most promising breast imaging modalities is microwave imaging. The physical basis of active microwave imaging is the dielectric contrast between normal and malignant breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The dielectric contrast is mainly due to the increased water content present in the cancerous tissue. Microwave imaging is non-ionizing, does not require breast compression, is less invasive than X-ray mammography, and is potentially low cost. While several prototype microwave breast imaging systems are currently in various stages of development, the design and fabrication of anatomically and dielectrically representative breast phantoms to evaluate these systems is often problematic. While some existing phantoms are composed of dielectrically representative materials, they rarely accurately represent the shape and size of a typical breast. Conversely, several phantoms have been developed to accurately model the shape of the human breast, but have inappropriate dielectric properties. This study will brie y review existing phantoms before describing the development of a more accurate and practical breast phantom for the evaluation of microwave breast imaging systems.

  20. A feasibility study on the application of microwaves for online biofilm monitoring in the pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Nasser; Ju, Yang; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of microwave technique for online monitoring and evaluation of biofilms in the pipelines. A microwave vector network analyser and an in-house built transmitting and receiving coaxial-line transducer were employed to transmit microwave signals in the pipe. The brass pipe specimen was tested by adhering different volumes of polymeric tape layers onto its internal surface simulating the biofilm build-up. By taking the pipe as a circular waveguide of microwave, the frequency domain measurements were conducted in the 45–47 GHz range with TM 01 dominant wave mode. The permittivity of the biofilm-contained area has been expressed as a function of the resonance frequency after establishing the resonance condition in the waveguide. It was realized that the resonance frequencies experience systematic shifts with the growth of biofilm layer length and thickness. The effects of dielectric material properties and the volume of the added biofilm layer on the resonance frequency records were then explained using the cavity perturbation theory which confirmed the experimental findings. Measurement results indicated a high degree of sensitivity to the small amounts of introduced biofilm which proves the potential of the microwave technique for online biofilm monitoring in both closed-end and open-end terminal conditions. -- Highlights: • An online biofilm monitoring method in pipelines using microwaves is reported. • Time and frequency domain measurements conducted in the pipe as a waveguide. • Resonance frequencies show systematic shifts with the growth of biofilm layer. • Relationship of the biofilm volume and the resonance frequency changes is expressed. • Perturbation theory is used to explain the results

  1. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  2. Recent Progress in Fabrication and Applications of Superhydrophobic Coating on Cellulose-Based Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Gao, Shou-Wei; Cai, Jing-Sheng; He, Cheng-Lin; Mao, Jia-Jun; Zhu, Tian-Xue; Chen, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Ying; Meng, Kai; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Lai, Yue-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Multifuntional fabrics with special wettability have attracted a lot of interest in both fundamental research and industry applications over the last two decades. In this review, recent progress of various kinds of approaches and strategies to construct super-antiwetting coating on cellulose-based substrates (fabrics and paper) has been discussed in detail. We focus on the significant applications related to artificial superhydrophobic fabrics with special wettability and controllable adhesion, e.g., oil-water separation, self-cleaning, asymmetric/anisotropic wetting for microfluidic manipulation, air/liquid directional gating, and micro-template for patterning. In addition to the anti-wetting properties and promising applications, particular attention is paid to coating durability and other incorporated functionalities, e.g., air permeability, UV-shielding, photocatalytic self-cleaning, self-healing and patterned antiwetting properties. Finally, the existing difficulties and future prospects of this traditional and developing field are briefly proposed and discussed. PMID:28773253

  3. Superconducting microwave electronics at Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Leonard, Regis F.

    Over the last three years, NASA Lewis Research Center has investigated the application of newly discovered high temperature superconductors to microwave electronics. Using thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-delta and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Ox deposited on a variety of substrates, including strontium titanate, lanthanum gallate, lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide, a number of microwave circuits have been fabricated and evaluated. These include a cavity resonator at 60 GHz, microstrip resonators at 35 GHz, a superconducting antenna array at 35 GHz, a dielectric resonator at 9 GHz, and a microstrip filter at 5 GHz. Performance of some of these circuits as well as suggestions for other applications are reported.

  4. Superconducting Microwave Electronics at Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Leonard, Regis F.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last three years, NASA Lewis Research Center has investigated the application of newly discovered high temperature superconductors to microwave electronics. Using thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-delta and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Ox deposited on a variety of substrates, including strontium titanate, lanthanum gallate, lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide, a number of microwave circuits have been fabricated and evaluated. These include a cavity resonator at 60 GHz, microstrip resonators at 35 GHz, a superconducting antenna array at 35 GHz, a dielectric resonator at 9 GHz, and a microstrip filter at 5 GHz. Performance of some of these circuits as well as suggestions for other applications are reported.

  5. Bonding strength of glass-ceramic trabecular-like coatings to ceramic substrates for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Baino, Francesco; Pugno, Nicola M; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    A new approach based on the concepts of quantized fracture mechanics (QFM) is presented and discussed in this paper to estimate the bonding strength of trabecular-like coatings, i.e. glass-ceramic scaffolds mimicking the architecture of cancellous bone, to ceramic substrates. The innovative application of glass-derived scaffolds as trabecular-like coatings is proposed in order to enhance the osteointegration of prosthetic ceramic devices. The scaffolds, prepared by polymeric sponge replication, are joined to alumina substrates by a dense glass-ceramic coating (interlayer) and the so-obtained 3-layer constructs are investigated from micro-structural, morphological and mechanical viewpoints. In particular, the fracture strengths of three different crack propagation modes, i.e. glass-derived scaffold fracture, interface delamination or mixed fracture, are predicted in agreement with those of experimental mechanical tests. The approach proposed in this work could have interesting applications towards an ever more rational design of bone tissue engineering biomaterials and coatings, in view of the optimization of their mechanical properties for making them actually suitable for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. YIG: Bi2O3 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Magnetooptic and Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur-E-Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Y3Fe5O12-Bi2O3 composite thin films are deposited onto Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG substrates and their annealing crystallization regimes are optimized (in terms of both process temperatures and durations to obtain high-quality thin film layers possessing magnetic properties attractive for a range of technological applications. The amount of bismuth oxide content introduced into these nanocomposite-type films is controlled by adjusting the RF power densities applied to both Y3Fe5O12 and Bi2O3 sputtering targets during the cosputtering deposition processes. The measured material properties of oven-annealed YIG-Bi2O3 films indicate that cosputtering of YIG-Bi2O3 composites can provide the flexibility of application-specific YIG layers fabrication of interest for several existing, emerging, and also frontier technologies. Experimental results demonstrate large specific Faraday rotation (of more than 1°/µm at 532 nm, achieved simultaneously with low optical losses in the visible range and very narrow peak-to-peak ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of around ΔHpp= 6.1 Oe at 9.77 GHz.

  7. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  8. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Prabhash; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Harsh; Islam, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH 3 gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO 2 substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH 3 ) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc

  9. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Prabhash [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India); Tai, Nyan-Hwa [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Harsh [Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India); Islam, S.S., E-mail: safiul5996@gmail.com [Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  10. Film processing characteristics of nano gold suitable for conductive application on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ashish; Mandal, Saumen; Katiyar, Monica; Mohapatra, Yashowanta N.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of large number of studies and wide use of thiol encapsulated gold nanoparticles, the mechanism of their transformation to thin gold films for conductive applications is not as yet well understood. In order to understand and optimize the process of conversion of nanoparticle based ink for printing on plastic substrates, we synthesize and study thiolated Au nanoparticles, with average size of 2 nm, but with differing carbon chain length viz. butane (Au-C4), hexane (Au-C6) and octane (Au-C8). The link between the properties of Au nanoparticle and its transformation from nonconductive gold nanoparticle ink to conductive gold film is studied using a variety of techniques such as thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. A combined study of the shape of solution TGA and differential thermal analysis indicates occurrence of two distinct processes corresponding to disentanglement and debonding of thiol chains preceding the sintering of nanoparticles. The lowest sintering temperature is observed to be approximately 155 °C for chain length C4, and hence Au-C4 on polyethylene terephthalate substrates is studied in detail. Though XRD peaks of thick drop-cast films on polyethylene terephthalate substrate show increasing peak intensity with annealing temperature as expected, for spin coated thin films, in contrast, the peak intensity decreases with increase in annealing temperature. Electrical conductivity of the thin films is comparable to bulk gold after conversion, but decreases with increase in annealing temperature demonstrating the usefulness of insights obtained in the study for optimization of annealing schedules. - Highlights: ► Sintering of alkanethiol capped Au nanoparticles is chainlength dependent. ► Sintering temperature depends on thiol debonding. ► Butanethiol capped Au nanoparticles are the most suitable for flexible substrates.

  11. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of parameters for microwave heating of rare earth carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shaohua; Lin, Guo; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-09-01

    Microwave heating has been applied in the field of drying rare earth carbonates to improve drying efficiency and reduce energy consumption. The effects of power density, material thickness and drying time on the weight reduction (WR) are studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The results show that RSM is feasible to describe the relationship between the independent variables and weight reduction. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the model is in accordance with the experimental data. The optimum experiment conditions are power density 6 w/g, material thickness 15 mm and drying time 15 min, resulting in an experimental weight reduction of 73%. Comparative experiments show that microwave drying has the advantages of rapid dehydration and energy conservation. Particle analysis shows that the size distribution of rare earth carbonates after microwave drying is more even than those in an oven. Based on these findings, microwave heating technology has an important meaning to energy-saving and improvement of production efficiency for rare earth smelting enterprises and is a green heating process.

  12. Polyols from microwave liquefied bagasse and its application to rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Xianglin Zhai; Chung Hse; Todd Shupe; Hui Pan

    2015-01-01

    Bagasse flour (BF) was liquefied using bi-component polyhydric alcohol (PA) as a solventand phosphoric acid as a catalyst in a microwave reactor. The effect of BF to solvent ratio andreaction temperatures on the liquefaction extent and characteristics of liquefied products wereevaluated. The results revealed that almost 75% of the...

  13. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Two Active Cold Loads (ACLs) for microwave radiometer calibration, operating at X-band, are evaluated with respect to important stability parameters. Using a stable radiometer system as test bed, absolute levels of 77 K and 55 K are found. This paper identifies and summarizes potential challenges...

  14. Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: Synthetic Applications for Rapid Assembly of Nanomaterials and Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magic of microwave (MW) heating technique, termed as the Bunsen burner of the 21th Century, has emerged as valuable alternative in synthesis of organics, polymers, inorganics, and nanomaterials. Important innovations in MW-assisted chemistry now enable chemists to prepare cat...

  15. Microwave Sintering of Ceramic Materials for Industrial Application Final Report CRADA No. TC-1116-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tandon, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Callis, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The goal of this project was to develop the commercial capability in the US to sinter alumina oxide ceramic parts for the semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry. We planned to use the millimeter microwave (30 GHz) sintering system first developed by IAP in Russia.

  16. Microwave photonics shines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2011-12-01

    The combination of microwave photonics and optics has advanced many applications in defence, wireless communications, imaging and network infrastructure. Rachel Won talks to Jianping Yao from the University of Ottawa in Canada about the importance of this growing field.

  17. Application of the Microwave Discharge Modification of the Wilzbach Technique for the Tritium Labelling of some Organics of Biological Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosztonyi, T.

    1969-01-01

    The modification of the Wilzbach technique using microwave discharge has been routinely used in our laboratory for rapid tritium labellings. The applicability of the method and the effects of some of the reaction parameters were studied and published previously. The main advantage of the method is its simplicity and rapidity and the low extent of decomposition of the compound to be labelled during the reaction. Specific activities obtained, however, are not high enough for some investigations. In this paper the labelling of dihydrostreptomycine, tetracycline and antipyrine will be described

  18. Application of the Microwave Discharge Modification of the Wilzbach Technique for the Tritium Labelling of some Organics of Biological Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosztonyi, T

    1969-01-15

    The modification of the Wilzbach technique using microwave discharge has been routinely used in our laboratory for rapid tritium labellings. The applicability of the method and the effects of some of the reaction parameters were studied and published previously. The main advantage of the method is its simplicity and rapidity and the low extent of decomposition of the compound to be labelled during the reaction. Specific activities obtained, however, are not high enough for some investigations. In this paper the labelling of dihydrostreptomycine, tetracycline and antipyrine will be described.

  19. Low cost heterogenous catalyst from (Achatina Fulica) snail shell and its application for biodiesel conversion via microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Kurniastuti, E. A.; Basthiani, I. A.; Fakhri, A.

    2017-11-01

    Research on preparation of heterogenous catalyst from Achatina Fulica snail shell and its application biodiesel conversion has been investigation. Research aimed to obtain low cost and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production. The catalyst was prepared by grinding and calcining the snail shell at 900°C for 2 hours. The obtained solid was analysed by using XRD, SEM-EDX. FTIR, and also basicity measurement. Catalyst was used in the cenvertion of rice bran oil transesterification at varied volume of oil methanol ratio of 20-80 under microwave and reflux methode. The transesterification result were analyzed by using GCMS.

  20. Foreword to the Special Issue on the 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications (MicroRad 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, David M; Jackson, Thomas J.; Kim, Edward J.; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment (MicroRad 2010) was held in Washington, DC from March 1 to 4, 2010. The objective of MicroRad 2010 was to provide an open forum to report and discuss recent advances in the field of microwave radiometry, particularly with application to remote sensing of the environment. The meeting was highly successful, with more than 200 registrations representing 48 countries. There were 80 oral presentations and more than 100 posters. MicroRad has become a venue for the microwave radiometry community to present new research results, instrument designs, and applications to an audience that is conversant in these issues. The meeting was divided into 16 sessions (listed in order of presentation): 1) SMOS Mission; 2) Future Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Missions; 3) Theory and Physical Principles of Electromagnetic Models; 4) Field Experiment Results; 5) Soil Moisture and Vegetation; 6) Snow and Cryosphere; 7) Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Synergy; 8) Oceans; 9) Atmospheric Sounding and Assimilation; 10) Clouds and Precipitation; 11) Instruments and Advanced Techniques I; 12) Instruments and Advanced Techniques II; 13) Cross Calibration of Satellite Radiometers; 14) Calibration Theory and Methodology; 15) New Technologies for Microwave Radiometry; 16) Radio Frequency Interference.

  1. Improved field emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown on stainless steel substrate and its application in ionization gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Huzhong; Dong, Changkun; Li, Da

    2016-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on different substrates. Microstructures and field emission characteristics of the as-grown CNT arrays were investigated systematically, and its application in ionization gauge was also evaluated preliminarily. The results indicate that the as-grown CNT arrays are vertically well-aligned relating to the substrate surfaces, but the CNTs grown on stainless steel substrate are longer and more crystalline than the ones grown on silicon wafer substrate. The field emission behaviors of the as-grown CNT arrays are strongly dependent upon substrate properties. Namely, the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate has better field emission properties, including lower turn on and threshold fields, better emission stability and repeatability, compared with the one grown on silicon wafer substrate. The superior field emission properties of the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate are mainly attributed to low contact resistance, high thermal conductivity, good adhesion strength, etc. In addition, the metrological behaviors of ionization gauge with the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate as an electron source were investigated, and this novel cathode ionization gauge extends the lower limit of linear pressure measurement to 10-8 Pa, which is one order of magnitude lower than the result reported for the same of gauge with CNT cathode.

  2. The microwave thermal thruster and its application to the launch problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Kevin L. G.

    Nuclear thermal thrusters long ago bypassed the 50-year-old specific impulse (Isp) limitation of conventional thrusters, using nuclear powered heat exchangers in place of conventional combustion to heat a hydrogen propellant. These heat exchanger thrusters experimentally achieved an Isp of 825 seconds, but with a thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W) of less than ten they have thus far been too heavy to propel rockets into orbit. This thesis proposes a new idea to achieve both high Isp and high T/W The Microwave Thermal Thruster. This thruster covers the underside of a rocket aeroshell with a lightweight microwave absorbent heat exchange layer that may double as a re-entry heat shield. By illuminating the layer with microwaves directed from a ground-based phased array, an Isp of 700--900 seconds and T/W of 50--150 is possible using a hydrogen propellant. The single propellant simplifies vehicle design, and the high Isp increases payload fraction and structural margins. These factors combined could have a profound effect on the economics of building and reusing rockets. A laboratory-scale microwave thermal heat exchanger is constructed using a single channel in a cylindrical microwave resonant cavity, and new type of coupled electromagnetic-conduction-convection model is developed to simulate it. The resonant cavity approach to small-scale testing reveals several drawbacks, including an unexpected oscillatory behavior. Stable operation of the laboratory-scale thruster is nevertheless successful, and the simulations are consistent with the experimental results. In addition to proposing a new type of propulsion and demonstrating it, this thesis provides three other principal contributions: The first is a new perspective on the launch problem, placing it in a wider economic context. The second is a new type of ascent trajectory that significantly reduces the diameter, and hence cost, of the ground-based phased array. The third is an eclectic collection of data, techniques, and

  3. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shengren, E-mail: 785751053@qq.com; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2013-12-15

    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM{sub 01} mode into a circularly polarized TE{sub 11} mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  4. Microwave and X-Ray emission during a isentropic expansion and its application to solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    The gyro-synchrotron emission in microwaves and the free-free emission in X-rays of a plasma enclosed in a cylinder coincident with a magnetic force tube were calculated for an isentropic self-similar expansion, with plane and cylindrical symmetries. This expansion model was applied to a region of the low solar corona, and the results were compared to the emission observed in some simple solar events of low intensity. The calculations show satisfactory coincidence with the events in X-rays for energies around 10 29 ergs. The solar events analyzed in microwaves, which are not the same that were studied in X-rays, in general do not fit the theoretical results. The origin of the discrepancy is probably the formulation of the processes of emission applied to the expansion. (Author) [pt

  5. Internally gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators as an alternative to conventional radiofrequency and microwave ablation devices: An in vivo comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjörg, E-mail: Hansjoerg.rempp@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, Tübingen, 72076 (Germany); Voigtländer, Matthias [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Schenk, Martin [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Enderle, Markus D. [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Scharpf, Marcus [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Insitute of Pathology, Department on General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy, Liebermeisterstraße 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Greiner, Tim O. [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Neugebauer, Alexander [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To test the efficacy of internally CO{sub 2}-cooled radiofrequency (RF) ablation in vivo and to compare its effectiveness to a standard water-cooled RF probe and to a gas-cooled microwave (MW) device. Method and materials: 49 ablations were performed on 15 pigs under general anesthesia using 15G monopolar CO{sub 2}-cooled RF applicators, 17G monopolar water-cooled RF applicators and 15G internally CO{sub 2}-cooled microwave devices. The power of the MW device was 45 W, the current of the gas-cooled RF device was 1200–1600 mA. At the water-cooled RF probe, maximum power of 200 W was set. Ablation time was 15 min. The short and long axes of the ablation zone were measured. Histological analyses and NADH-staining were performed. The diameters and the ablation volumes were compared using an analysis of variance. Results: No spots of untreated tissue were observed close to the cooled needle track in any of the ablation zones. The largest short axis diameter was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm achieved with the gas-cooled monopolar applicator. With the water-cooled applicators, short axis diameter was significantly smaller, reaching 2.5 ± 0.4 cm. Gas-cooled MW probes achieved 2.9 ± 1.0 cm. The largest ablation volume was 31.5 ± 12 ml (gas-cooled RF), and the smallest was 12.7 ± 4 ml (water-cooled RF). Short/long axis ratio was largest for gas-cooled RF probes with 0.73 ± 0.08 versus 0.64 ± 0.04 for the water-cooled probes and 0.49 ± 0.25 for the microwave applicator. Conclusion: Gas-cooled RF applicators may have a higher potential for effective destruction of liver lesions than comparable water-cooled RF systems, and may be an alternative to standard RF and MW ablation devices.

  6. One-step microwave-assisted synthesis of water-dispersible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoclusters for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Ayyappan; Kalyani, S.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-10-01

    To realize magnetic hyperthermia as an alternate stand-alone therapeutic procedure for cancer treatment, magnetic nanoparticles with optimal performance, within the biologically safe limits, are to be produced using simple, reproducible and scalable techniques. Herein, we present a simple, one-step approach for synthesis of water-dispersible magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide by reducing of Fe2(SO4)3 in sodium acetate (alkali), poly ethylene glycol (capping ligand), and ethylene glycol (solvent and reductant) in a microwave reactor. The average size and saturation magnetization of the MNC's are tuned from 27 to 52 nm and 32 to 58 emu/g by increasing the reaction time from 10 to 600 s. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that each MNC composed of large number of primary Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesised MNCs show excellent colloidal stability in aqueous phase due to the adsorbed PEG layer. The highest SAR value of 215 ± 10 W/gFe observed in 52 nm size MNC at a frequency of 126 kHz and field of 63 kA/m suggest the potential use of these MNC in hyperthermia applications. This study further opens up the possibilities to develop metal ion-doped MNCs with tunable sizes suitable for various biomedical applications using microwave assisted synthesis.

  7. Continuous country-wide rainfall observation using a large network of commercial microwave links: Challenges, solutions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwala, Christian; Boose, Yvonne; Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Commercial microwave link (CML) networks have proven to be a valuable source for rainfall information over the last years. However, up to now, analysis of CML data was always limited to certain snapshots of data for historic periods due to limited data access. With the real-time availability of CML data in Germany (Chwala et al. 2016) this situation has improved significantly. We are continuously acquiring and processing data from 3000 CMLs in Germany in near real-time with one minute temporal resolution. Currently the data acquisition system is extended to 10000 CMLs so that the whole of Germany is covered and a continuous country-wide rainfall product can be provided. In this contribution we will elaborate on the challenges and solutions regarding data acquisition, data management and robust processing. We will present the details of our data acquisition system that we run operationally at the network of the CML operator Ericsson Germany to solve the problem of limited data availability. Furthermore we will explain the implementation of our data base, its web-frontend for easy data access and present our data processing algorithms. Finally we will showcase an application of our data in hydrological modeling and its potential usage to improve radar QPE. Bibliography: Chwala, C., Keis, F., and Kunstmann, H.: Real-time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 991-999, doi:10.5194/amt-9-991-2016, 2016

  8. Fundamental Properties and Practical Application of Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Gain Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information   if it does not display a currently valid OMB control... transmission line and an active volumetric metamaterial. These designs have been extended to THz frequency range. In addition, we have investigated the non...circuits,” IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, May 17-22, 2015. [7] Q. Tang, and H. Xin, “Stability of Tunnel Diode based Negative

  9. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-04-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices.

  10. Microwave technology for waste management applications: Treatment of discarded electronic circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Significant quantities of hazardous wastes are generated from a multitude of processes and products in today`s society. This waste inventory is not only very large and diverse, but is also growing at an alarming rate. In order to minimize the dangers presented by constituents in these wastes, microwave technologies are being investigated to render harmless the hazardous components and ultimately, to minimize their impact to individuals and the surrounding environment.

  11. Microwave Photochemistry IV: Preparation of the Electrodeless Discharge Lamps for Photochemical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Vlková, Leona; Relich, Stanislav; Hájek, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-2 (2006), s. 229-233 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4040110; GA ČR GA203/02/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : microwave photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp * uv/vis source Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2006

  12. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpande, Suresh S., E-mail: balpandes@rknec.edu [Ph.D.. Scholar, Department of Electronics Engineering Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur-13, (M.S.) (India); Pande, Rajesh S. [Professor, Department of Electronics Engineering Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur-13, (M.S.) (India)

    2016-04-13

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of

  13. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of harvester and

  14. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of

  15. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  16. Application of microwave air plasma in the destruction of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, S J; Quintero, M C; Rodero, A

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the destruction rate of a volatile waste destruction system based on a microwave plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Atmospheric air was used to maintain the plasma and was introduced by a compressor, which resulted in lower operating costs compared to other gases such as argon and helium. To isolate the output gases and control the plasma discharge atmosphere, the plasma was coupled to a reactor. The effect of the gas flow rate, microwave power and initial concentration of compound on the destruction efficiency of the system was evaluated. In this study, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride were used as representative volatile organic compounds to determine the destruction rate of the system. Based on the experimental results, at an applied microwave power less than 1000 W, the proposed system can reduce input concentrations in the ppmv range to output concentrations at the ppbv level. High air flow rates and initial concentrations produced energy efficiency values greater than 1000 g/kW h. The output gases and species present in the plasma were analysed by gas chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively, and negligible amounts of halogenated compounds resulting from the cleavage of C(2)HCl(3) and CCl(4) were observed. The gaseous byproducts of decomposition consisted mainly of CO(2), NO and N(2)O, as well as trace amounts of Cl(2) and solid CuCl. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Functionalization of biochar derived from lignocellulosic biomass using microwave technology for catalytic application in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, M.E.; Cea, M.; Reyes, D.; Romero-Hermoso, L.; Hidalgo, P.; Meier, S.; Benito, N.; Navia, R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar-based catalyst synthesis was feasible using microwave assistance (MW). • MW transesterification and esterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) was feasible. • The methyl ester yield can reach 75% in 15 min using the functionalized biochar. • WCO conversion via MW in successive cycles is feasible when the catalyst is washed. - Abstract: A study to produce an efficient catalyst to be used for biodiesel production was carried out introducing sulfonic groups in biochar using a microwave reactor. The transesterification reaction of waste cooking oils using the catalyst was also evaluated in a microwave reactor. The results showed that an increase in the temperature up to 140 °C during biochar sulfonation enhanced the SO 3 H content on the catalyst surface. These results were confirmed through FT-IR and XPS analyses. A reduction in the surface area of the biochar was observed during the sulfonation. An increase of SO 3 H groups on the biochar surface was responsible for a higher FAME yield close to 90%. The catalyst could be re-used for up to six cycles by washing with hexane.

  18. [Application of microwave technology in extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-kuan; Zhou, Mao; Liu, Yuan; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, optimization of the conditions of microwave technique in extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule in the condition of a pilot scale was carried out. First of all, through the single factor experiment investigation of various factors, the overall impact tendency and range of each factor were determined. Secondly, L9 (3(4)) orthogonal test optimization was used, and the contents of gallic acid in liquid, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, benzoyl paeoniflorin, amygdalin of the liquid medicine were detected. The extraction rate and comprehensive evaluation were calculated with the extraction effect, as the judgment basis. Theoptimum extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule by microwave technology was as follows: the ratio of liquid to solid was 6: 1 added to drinking water, the microwave power was 6 kW, extraction time was 20 min for 3 times. The process of the three batch of amplification through verification, the results are stable, and compared with conventional water extraction has the advantages of energy saving, time saving, high efficiency advantages. The above results show the optimum extracting technology of high efficiency, stable and feasible.

  19. Application of microwave digestion to the preparation of sediment samples for arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demesmay, C. [Lab. des Sciences Analytiques, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon I, Villeurbanne (France); Olle, M. [Service Central d`Analyse du CNRS, Vernaison (France)

    1997-04-01

    Several extraction procedures are described allowing arsenic speciation in sediments. The extraction of organometallic compounds such as dimethylarsinic acid or monomethylarsonic acid is quite simple since these compounds are stable in the different extraction media (HCl/ HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, ammonium oxalate) and are easily released independent of the extraction mode (magnetic stirring or microwave solubilization). Extraction yields are higher than 96% for these two arsenic forms. An HCl/HNO{sub 3} microwave solubilization procedure allows the quantitative solubilization of mineral arsenic, but the differentiation between the two oxidation states is not possible owing to the oxidation of As(III) to As(V). Extractions with orthophosphoric acid or ammonium oxalate allow the solubilization of mineral arsenic with extraction yields ranging from 90 to 95% and the differentiation between As(III) and As(V). Nevertheless, the amount of As(III) is underestimated owing to its partial oxidation. The usefulness and advantages of microwave solubilization compared with conventional extraction procedures are discussed. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Application of microwave air plasma in the destruction of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, S.J., E-mail: f62rugas@uco.es [Departamento de Fisica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Einstein, Planta Baja, Universidad de Cordoba (Spain); Quintero, M.C.; Rodero, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Einstein, Planta Baja, Universidad de Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the destruction rate of a volatile waste destruction system based on a microwave plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Atmospheric air was used to maintain the plasma and was introduced by a compressor, which resulted in lower operating costs compared to other gases such as argon and helium. To isolate the output gases and control the plasma discharge atmosphere, the plasma was coupled to a reactor. The effect of the gas flow rate, microwave power and initial concentration of compound on the destruction efficiency of the system was evaluated. In this study, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride were used as representative volatile organic compounds to determine the destruction rate of the system. Based on the experimental results, at an applied microwave power less than 1000 W, the proposed system can reduce input concentrations in the ppmv range to output concentrations at the ppbv level. High air flow rates and initial concentrations produced energy efficiency values greater than 1000 g/kW h. The output gases and species present in the plasma were analysed by gas chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively, and negligible amounts of halogenated compounds resulting from the cleavage of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CCl{sub 4} were observed. The gaseous byproducts of decomposition consisted mainly of CO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O, as well as trace amounts of Cl{sub 2} and solid CuCl.

  1. Development and application of a continuous fast microwave pyrolysis system for sewage sludge utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junwen; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Liangliang; Zhang, Yaning; Peng, Peng; Anderson, Erik; Ding, Kuan; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-05-01

    A continuous fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system was designed, fabricated, and tested with sewage sludge. The system is equipped with continuous biomass feeding, mixing of biomass and microwave absorbent, and separated catalyst upgrading. The effect of the sludge pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, and 600 °C) on the products yield, distribution and potentially energy recovery were investigated. The physical, chemical, and energetic properties of the raw sewage sludge and bio-oil, char and gas products obtained were analyzed using elemental analyzer, GC-MS, Micro-GC, SEM and ICP-OES. While the maximum bio-oil yield of 41.39 wt% was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, the optimal pyrolysis temperature for maximum overall energy recovery was 500 °C. The absence of carrier gas in the process may be responsible for the high HHV of gas products. This work could provide technical support for microwave-assisted system scale-up and sewage sludge utilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  3. Improved field emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown on stainless steel substrate and its application in ionization gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Yongjun, E-mail: wyjlxlz@163.com [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Huzhong [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, Changkun [Institute of Micro-Nano Structures and Optoelectronics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Li, Da [Division of Advanced Nanomaterials, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The high quality CNT arrays were successfully grown on conductive stainless steel substrates. • The CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate exhibited superior field emission properties. • A high vacuum level about 10–8 Pa was measured by resultant CNT-based ionization gauge. • The ionization gauge with CNT cathode demonstrated a high stability. - Abstract: Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on different substrates. Microstructures and field emission characteristics of the as-grown CNT arrays were investigated systematically, and its application in ionization gauge was also evaluated preliminarily. The results indicate that the as-grown CNT arrays are vertically well-aligned relating to the substrate surfaces, but the CNTs grown on stainless steel substrate are longer and more crystalline than the ones grown on silicon wafer substrate. The field emission behaviors of the as-grown CNT arrays are strongly dependent upon substrate properties. Namely, the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate has better field emission properties, including lower turn on and threshold fields, better emission stability and repeatability, compared with the one grown on silicon wafer substrate. The superior field emission properties of the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate are mainly attributed to low contact resistance, high thermal conductivity, good adhesion strength, etc. In addition, the metrological behaviors of ionization gauge with the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate as an electron source were investigated, and this novel cathode ionization gauge extends the lower limit of linear pressure measurement to 10{sup −8} Pa, which is one order of magnitude lower than the result reported for the same of gauge with CNT cathode.

  4. Optimization of a beam shaping bolus for superficial microwave hyperthermia waveguide applicators using a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaradas, J Carl; Sherar, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    Temperature inhomogeneity in hyperthermia treatments often limits the total thermal dose that can be delivered to the tumour region. To reduce such inhomogeneities, a prototype dynamically modifiable square array of saline-filled patches which attenuate microwave energy was developed for superficial treatments that use external microwave applicators. The array was situated inside the coupling water bolus that is often used with external applicators. The prototype has been previously tested clinically with promising results. A more complete theoretical analysis of the performance of this new bolus design and improvements to its design by modelling are presented here. The analysis was performed by performing five iterative simulations of the SAR pattern produced inside a tissue structure by a waveguide applicator with a water bolus containing the dynamic patch array attached. Between iterations the patch array configuration was modified in an attempt to improve the ability of the bolus to confine heating to an 'L'-shaped tumour region. These simulations were performed using the finite element method. The steady-state temperature profile was then computed using a finite element method based simulation of heat transfer that assumed a given applicator power level and water bolus temperature. Several iterations of these heat transfer simulations were performed with varying applicator power level and water bolus temperature to improve the confinement of heating to the target region. The analysis showed that the dynamic patch array should be capable of conforming heating to an 'L'-shaped target tumour region while limiting the heating to the surrounding normal tissue to an acceptable level

  5. Fabrication of chitosan-silver nanoparticle hybrid 3D porous structure as a SERS substrate for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gyeong-Bok; Kim, Ji-Hye; Burm, Jin Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    We propose a simple, low-cost, large-area, and functional surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for biomedical applications. The SERS substrate with chitosan-silver nanoparticles (chitosan-Ag NPs) hybrid 3D porous structure was fabricated simply by a one-step method. The chitosan was used as a template for the Ag NPs deposition. SERS enhancement by the chitosan-Ag NPs substrate was experimentally verified using rhodamine B as an analyte. Thiolated single stranded DNA was also measured for atopic dermatitis genetic markers (chemokines CCL17) at a low concentration of 5 pM. We successfully designed a novel SERS substrate with silver nanoparticle hybridized 3D porous chitosan that has the potential to become a highly sensitive and selective tool for biomedical applications.

  6. Design and Fabrication of Silicon-on-Silicon-Carbide Substrates and Power Devices for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammon P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of power electronic semiconductor devices are being developed for the benefit of space and terrestrial harsh-environment applications. 200-600 V lateral transistors and diodes are being fabricated in a thin layer of silicon (Si wafer bonded to silicon carbide (SiC. This novel silicon-on-silicon-carbide (Si/SiC substrate solution promises to combine the benefits of silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology (i.e device confinement, radiation tolerance, high and low temperature performance with that of SiC (i.e. high thermal conductivity, radiation hardness, high temperature performance. Details of a process are given that produces thin films of silicon 1, 2 and 5 μm thick on semi-insulating 4H-SiC. Simulations of the hybrid Si/SiC substrate show that the high thermal conductivity of the SiC offers a junction-to-case temperature ca. 4× less that an equivalent SOI device; reducing the effects of self-heating, and allowing much greater power density. Extensive electrical simulations are used to optimise a 600 V laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET implemented entirely within the silicon thin film, and highlight the differences between Si/SiC and SOI solutions.

  7. Deposition, characterization, and tribological applications of near-frictionless carbon films on glass and ceramic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryilmaz, O L; Johnson, J A; Ajayi, O O; Erdemir, A

    2006-01-01

    As an element, carbon is rather unique and offers a range of rare opportunities for the design and fabrication of zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional nanostructured novel materials and coatings such as fullerenes, nanotubes, thin films, and free-standing nano-to-macroscale structures. Among these, carbon-based two-dimensional thin films (such as diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC)) have attracted an overwhelming interest in recent years, mainly because of their exceptional physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and tribological properties. In particular, certain DLC films were found to provide extremely low friction and wear coefficients to sliding metallic and ceramic surfaces. Since the early 1990s, carbon has been used at Argonne National Laboratory to synthesize a class of novel DLC films that now provide friction and wear coefficients as low as 0.001 and 10 -11 -10 -10 mm 3 N -1 m -1 , respectively, when tested in inert or vacuum test environments. Over the years, we have optimized these films and applied them successfully to all kinds of metallic and ceramic substrates and evaluated their friction and wear properties under a wide range of sliding conditions. In this paper, we will provide details of our recent work on the deposition, characterization, and tribological applications of near-frictionless carbon films on glass and ceramic substrates. We will also provide chemical and structural information about these films and describe the fundamental tribological mechanisms that control their unusual friction and wear behaviour

  8. Tricobalt tetroxide nanoplate arrays on flexible conductive fabric substrate: Facile synthesis and application for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Goli; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-06-01

    Tricobalt tetroxide (Co3O4) nanoplate arrays (NPAs) were synthesized on flexible conductive fabric substrate (FCFs) by a facile two-electrode system based electrochemical deposition method, followed by a simple heat treatment process. Initially, cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) NPAs were electrochemically deposited on FCFs by applying an external voltage of -1.5 V for 30 min. Then, the Co3O4 NPAs on FCFs was obtained by thermal treatment of as-deposited Co(OH)2 NPAs on FCFs at 200 °C for 2 h. From the analysis of morphological and crystal properties, the Co3O4 NPAs were well integrated and uniformly covered over the entire surface of substrate with good crystallinity in the cubic phase. Additionally, the fabricated sample was directly used as a binder-free electrode to examine the feasibility for electrochemical supercapacitors using cyclic voltammetry and galvanic charge-discharge measurements in 1 M KOH electrolyte solution. The Co3O4 NPAs coated FCFs electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 145.6 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and an excellent rate capability after 1000 cycles at a current density of 3 A/g. This facile fabrication method for integrating the Co3O4 nanostructures on FCFs could be a promising approach for advanced flexible electronic and energy-storage device applications.

  9. Predictive modelling of the dielectric response of plasmonic substrates: application to the interpretation of ellipsometric spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliara, A.; Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.; Carles, R.; Respaud, M.; Makasheva, K.

    2018-03-01

    A predictive modelling of plasmonic substrates appropriate to read ellipsometric spectra is presented in this work. We focus on plasmonic substrates containing a single layer of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded in silica matrices. The model uses the Abeles matrix formalism and is based on the quasistatic approximation of the classical Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule, however accounting for the electronic confinement effect through the damping parameter. It is applied on samples elaborated by: (i) RF-diode sputtering followed by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and (ii) Low Energy Ion Beam Synthesis (LE-IBS), and represents situations with increasing degree of complexity that can be accounted for by the model. It allows extraction of the main characteristics of the AgNPs population: average size, volume fraction and distance of the AgNPs layer from the matrix free surface. Model validation is achieved through comparison with results obtained from transmission electron microscopy approving for its applicability. The advantages and limitations of the proposed model are discussed after eccentricity-based statistical analysis along with further developments related to the quality of comparison between the model-generated spectra and the experimentally-recorded ellipsometric spectra.

  10. Al203 thin films on Silicon and Germanium substrates for CMOS and flash memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Sundararaman; Dutta, Shibesh; Ramesh, Sivaramakrishnan; Prathapan, Ragesh; Sreehari G., S.

    2017-07-01

    As scaling of device dimensions has continued, it has become necessary to replace traditional SiO2 with high dielectric constant materials in the conventional CMOS devices. In addition, use of metal gate electrodes and Germanium substrates may have to be used in order to address leakage and mobility issues. Al2O3 is one of the potential candidates both for CMOS and as a blocking dielectric for Flash memory applications owing to its low leakage. In this study, the effects of sputtering conditions and post-deposition annealing conditions on the electrical and reliability characteristics of MOS capacitors using Al2O3 films on Si and Ge substrates with Aluminium gate electrodes have been presented. It was observed that higher sputtering power resulted in larger flat-band voltage (Vfb) shifts, more hysteresis, higher interface state density (Dit) and a poorer reliability. Wit was also found that while a short duration high temperature annealing improves film characteristics, a long duration anneal even at 800C was found to be detrimental to MOS characteristics. Finally, the electronic conduction mechanism in Al2O3 films was also studied. It was observed that the conduction mechanism varied depending on the annealing condition, thickness of film and electric field.

  11. Study on the paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence of theobromine, caffeine and theophylline and analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Dong; Yan-Li, Wei; Shao-Min, Shuang

    2003-05-01

    Paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of theobromine (TB), caffeine (CF) and theophylline (TP) were investigated. The method is based on fast speed quantitative filter paper as substrate and KI-NaAc as heavy atom perturber. Various factors affecting their RTP were discussed in detail. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear dynamic range, limit of detection (LOD), and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were 14.41˜576.54 ng per spot, 1.14 ng per spot, 4.8% for TB, 5.44˜699.08 ng per spot, 0.78 ng per spot, 1.56% for CF, 7.21˜360.34 ng per spot, 1.80 ng per spot, 3.80% for TP, respectively. The first analytical application for the determination of these compounds was developed. The recovery of standard samples added to commercial products chocolate, tea, coffee and aminophylline is in the range 92.80-106.08%. The proposed method was successfully applied to real sample analysis without separation.

  12. Overview and applicability of residual stress estimation of film-substrate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Tsung-Lin; Yang, Shin-Yueh; Chiang, Kuo-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses arising from thermal mismatch in layered structures rank among the major causes of mechanical failures in light-emitting diodes, integrated circuits, electronic packages, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Applying analytical solutions to predict or calculate residual stresses' magnitude and distribution in multilayer film-substrate system has been widely adopted by many researchers. These researches are based on multilayer theories of film-substrate systems, such as Suhir's formula, Stoney's equation, and extend Stoney's equations. To discuss and distinguish the characteristics of these approaches, finite element analysis numerical solutions and multilayer theory analytical solutions are compared and analyzed. This encompasses the theories' application spectrum as well as their prediction capability. In addition, this work not only discusses the theories' property and workability but also demonstrate the feasibility of the finite element method (FEM) and bilayer theories in experiment. The experimental result demonstrates that FEM is a reliable approach in predicting the mechanical behavior of multilayer structures. Hence, when calculating or predicting thin film stress using the aforementioned theories, the methodology proposed in this research can be employed to effectively validate the feasibility of these theories.

  13. Direct synthesis of porous NiO nanowall arrays on conductive substrates for supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Liu, Jingping; Ding, Ruimin; Ding, Hao; Feng, Yamin; Wei, Guangming; Huang, Xintang

    2011-01-01

    Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on flexible Fe-Co-Ni alloy have been successfully synthesized by using nullaginite (Ni 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 ) as precursor and investigated as supercapacitor electrodes. In details, we adopted a simple hydrothermal method to realize Ni 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 NWAs and examined their robust mechanical adhesion to substrate via a long-time ultrasonication test. Porous NiO NWAs were then obtained by a post-calcination towards precursors at 500 o C in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical properties of as-synthesized NiO NWAs were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge; porous NiO NWAs electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current densities, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with ∼93% specific capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These results suggest that as-made porous NiO NWAs electrode is a promising candidate for future thin-film supercapacitors and other microelectronic systems. -- Graphical abstract: Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on alloy substrate have been made using nullaginite as precursor and studied as supercapacitor electrodes. Porous nanowalls interconnected with each other resulting in the formation of extended-network architectures and exhibited excellent capacitor properties. NiO NWAs electrode delivered a capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current density, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Besides, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with ∼93% capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These remarkable results made it possible for mass production of NiO NWAs and future thin-film microelectronic applications. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Large-scale nullaginite (Ni 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 ) nanowall arrays (NWAs) have been synthesized on flexible alloy substrate by a facile hydrothermal method.

  14. Advances in microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    1967-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 2 focuses on the developments in microwave solid-state devices and circuits. This volume contains six chapters that also describe the design and applications of diplexers and multiplexers. The first chapter deals with the parameters of the tunnel diode, oscillators, amplifiers and frequency converter, followed by a simple physical description and the basic operating principles of the solid state devices currently capable of generating coherent microwave power, including transistors, harmonic generators, and tunnel, avalanche transit time, and diodes. The next ch

  15. A Novel Method for Preparation of Gold NanoBipyramids Using Microwave Irradiation and Its Application in Immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Trong Phat; Ngo, Vo Ke Thanh; Nguyen, Dang Giang; Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Uyen; Nghiem, Quoc Dat; Lam, Quang Vinh; Huynh, Thanh Dat

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted attention for producing smart sensing devices as diagnostic tools in biotechnological and medical applications, because they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than comparable gold nanorods. Normally, NBPs were synthesized using seed-mediated growth process at room temperature. In this report, our group describes a method for synthesising of NBPs using microwave irradiation with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide + silver nitrate (AgNO3) as capping agents. The advantages of this method are a highly effective approach to fast and uniform NBPs. The product was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction. As an application in quartz crystal microbalance immunosensors, NBPs is conjugated with the chloramphenicol antibodies for signal amplification to detect chloramphenicol residuals in the QCM system.

  16. Synthesis of Dendritic Silver Nanoparticles and Their Applications as SERS Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The silver nanoparticles are synthesized by electrodeposition in ultradilute Ag+ concentration electrolyte under high overpotential. The as prepared Ag nanoparticles, with the sizes ranging from 20 to 30 nm, are arrayed orderly and formed dendritic morphology. The formation of this special dendritic nanoparticle structure can be contributed to the relatively high growth rate and the preferential growth directions along 111 due to the high overpotential, as well as the relative small number of Ag+ ions arriving at the Ag crystal surface per unit time due to the ultradilute Ag+ concentration. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS experiments reveal that the as-prepared dendritic Ag nanoparticles possess high SERS properties and can be used as a candidate substrate for practical SERS applications to detect the Rhodamine 6G molecules.

  17. Substrate-Based Noble-Metal Nanomaterials: Shape Engineering and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajfathalian, Maryam

    Nanostructures have potential for use in state-of-the-art applications such as sensing, imaging, therapeutics, drug delivery, and electronics. The ability to fabricate and engineer these nanoscale materials is essential for the continued development of such devices. Because the morphological features of nanomaterials play a key role in determining chemical and physical properties, there is great interest in developing and improving methods capable of controlling their size, shape, and composition. While noble nanoparticles have opened the door to promising applications in fields such as imaging, cancer targeting, photothermal treatment, drug delivery, catalysis and sensing, the synthetic processes required to form these nanoparticles on surfaces are not well-developed. Herein is a detailed account on efforts for adapting established solution-based seed-mediated synthetic protocols to structure in a substrate-based platform. These syntheses start by (i) defining heteroepitaxially oriented nanostructured seeds at site-specific locations using lithographic or directed-assembly techniques, and then (ii) transforming the seeds using either a solution or vapor phase processing route to activate kinetically- or thermodynamically-driven growth modes, to arrive at nanocrystals with complex and useful geometries. The first series of investigations highlight synthesis-routes based on heterogeneous nucleation, where templates serve as nucleation sites for metal atoms arriving in the vapor phase. In the first research direction, the vapor-phase heterogeneous nucleation of Ag on Au was carried out at high temperatures, where the Ag vapor was sourced from a sublimating foil onto adjacent Au templates. This process transformed both the composition and morphology of the initial Au Wulff-shaped nanocrystals to a homogeneous AuAg nanoprism. In the second case, the vapor-phase heterogeneous nucleation of Cu atoms on Au nanocrystal templates was investigated by placing a Cu foil next

  18. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  19. Critical current density and microwave surface resistance of 5-cm-diameter YBCO films on LaAlO3 substrates prepared by MOD using an infrared image furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, T.; Kondo, W.; Yamaguchi, I.; Sohma, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Tsukada, K.; Mizuta, S.; Kumagai, T.

    2005-01-01

    Inductive critical current density (J c ) and microwave surface resistance (R s ) were investigated for 0.7-μm-thick epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (YBCO) films on 5-cm-diameter LaAlO 3 substrates prepared by a chemical solution-based metal organic deposition (MOD) process using an infrared image furnace. By varying the heating rate at ramp during the final heat treatment, we obtained various orientations of YBCO; the c- and a-axis orientation at a slower rate, i.e., 20-100 deg C/min while the pure c-axis orientation at a faster rate, 200 deg C/min. The c-axis-oriented YBCO films showed excellent superconducting properties; for example, a high inductive-J c (77 K) of 2.6 MA/cm 2 and low R s (12 GHz)'s of 0.24 and 0.52 mΩ at 50 and 77 K, respectively, by a sapphire rod resonator method. The c- and a-axis-oriented films exhibited a lower J c and a higher R s . It was found that the J c and R s values of MOD-derived YBCO films showed a strong correlation; approximately, R s is inversely proportional to J c . This correlation is in good agreement with a previous report by Ohshima et al. for sputtered-YBCO films on BaSnO 3 -buffered MgO substrates

  20. Development of Bioactive Ceramic Coating on Titanium Alloy substrate for Biomedical Application Using Dip Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.; Noranai, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive apatite, such as hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Its bioactivity provides direct bonding to the bone tissue. Because of its similarity in chemical composition to the inorganic matrix of bone, HA is widely used as implant materials for bone. Unfortunately, because of its poor mechanical properties,. this bioactive material is not suitable for load bearing applications. In this study, by the assistance of dip-coating technique, HA coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by employing hydrothermal derived HA powder. The produced coatings then were oven-dried at 130°C for 1 hour and calcined at various temperature over the range of 200-800°C for 1 hour. XRD measurement showed that HA was the only phase present in the coatings. However coatings calcined at 800°C comprised a mixture of HA and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). FTIR measurement showed the existence of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carbonate bands. PO4 - band became sharper and narrower with the increased of calcination temperature. FESEM observation showed that the coating is polycrystalline with individual particles of nano to submicron size and has an average particle size of 35 nm. The thickness of the coating are direcly propotional with the viscosity of coating slurry. It was shown that the more viscous coating slurry would produce a thicker ceramic coating. Mechanical properties of the coating were measured in term of adhesion strength using a Micro Materials Nano Test microscratch testing machine. The result revealed that the coating had a good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate.

  1. Application of gas-fired infra-red radiator to thermal disinfection of horticultural substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, M.; Osiński, A.

    1998-01-01

    The studies were carried out on heating horticultural substrate (moor peat - bark, 1:1 by volume) with a gas-fired infra-red radiator to destroy the pests and pathogens. Minimum distance between radiator and substrate surface was determined considering assumed time of heating. Dynamics of substrate heating was determined depending on its layer thickness and kind of surface under substrate layer; black rubber, ground steel sheet and aluminium foil were used as the surface. Considerable decreasing of infra-red radiation penetrability through the substrate layer above 7 mm thick was found as well as an significant effect of the radiation reflected from the surface under substrate layer on the intensity of its heating. It was also stated that heating horticultural substrates with the gas-fired infra-red radiator enables to rise the temperature of thin substrate layer up to 70 degree of C within relatively short time [pl

  2. Substrates with green manure compost and leaf application of biofertilizer on seedlings of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Muniz Barbosa Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Substrates and fertilization are fundamental for seedling production, which well nourished can produce earlier and are more resistant to stresses. Animal manures are often used in non-industrialized substrates with good results, but their costs are increasing. Other residues may be used for plant nutrition, in substrates or in leaf fertilization. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrates prepared with green manure composts and the leaf application of biofertilizer on the formation of yellow passion fruit seedlings. A greenhouse experiment was conducted between December 2009 and February 2010, with a split-plot random block design. Plots received or not leaf application of supermagro biofertilizer. Subplots consisted of different substrates: soil; soil + cattle manure; soil + cattle manure composted with black oats straw; soil + cattle manure composted with ryegrass straw; soil + cattle manure composted with turnip straw; and soil + cattle manure composted with vetch straw. There were three dates of leaf fertilization: 10, 25 and 40 days after emergence (DAE. At 50 DAE plants were collected for evaluation of growth and accumulation of biomass and nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn and Zn. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test. The substrate soil + cattle manure promoted higher stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, root length and volume and nutrient accumulation. Among substrates with green manure composts, those prepared with black oats and turnip straw outranked the others. The use of leaf biofertilizer showed diverse results on seedling formation, being beneficial when combined to substrates with black oats composted straw, and prejudicial when combined to soil + cattle manure and soil + turnip composted straw substrates. The accumulation of nutrients by the seedlings occurred in the following order: K>Ca>N>Mg>P>Zn>Cu=Mn.

  3. Efficient Substrate Noise Coupling Verification and Failure Analysis Methodology for Smart Power ICs in Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moursy , Yasser; Zou , Hao; Khalil , Raouf; Iskander , Ramy; Tisserand , Pierre; Ton , Dieu-My; Pasetti , Giuseppe; Louërat , Marie-Minerve

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a methodology to analyze the substrate noise coupling and reduce their effects in smart power integrated circuits. This methodology considers the propagation of minority carriers in the substrate. Hence, it models the lateral bipolar junction transistors that are layout dependent and are not modeled in conventional substrate extraction tools. It allows the designer to simulate substrate currents and check their effects on circuits functionality. The...

  4. Microwave heating processing as alternative of pretreatment in second-generation biorefinery: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa Ma.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave heating pretreatment for lignocellulosic material. • Fundament of lignocellulosic material fractionation using microwave irradiation. • Energy consumption in microwave pretreatments and microwave reactors description. • Microwave heating as pretreatment in a biorefinery concept. - Abstract: The development of a feasible biorefinery is in need of alternative technologies to improve lignocellulosic biomass conversion by the suitable use of energy. Microwave heating processing (MHP) is emerging as promising unconventional pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs). MHP applied as pretreatment induces LCMs breakdown through the molecular collision caused by the dielectric polarization. Polar particles movement generates a quick heating consequently the temperatures and times of process are lower. In this way, MHP has positioned as green technology in comparison with other types of heating. Microwave technology represents an excellent option to obtain susceptible substrates to enzymatic saccharification and subsequently in the production of bioethanol and high-added compounds. However, it is still necessary to study the dielectric properties of materials, and conduct economic studies to achieve development in pilot and industrial scale. This work aims to provide an overview of recent progress and alternative configurations for combining the application of microwave technology on the pretreatment of LCMs in terms of biorefinery.

  5. Microwave-assisted synthesis of porous nickel cobaltite with different morphologies in ionic liquid and their application in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Hoa; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    A facile and one-step strategy was used to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) and 2D mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo_2O_4) rods and sheets, which are conducted in a mixture of ionic liquid and water under microwave irradiation. The as-prepared product electrode exhibited high specific capacitance (879 F g"−"1 at 0.5 A g"−"1) and excellent cycling stability (only ca. 4.7% loss after 1500 cycles), suggesting its promising application as an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors. The high performance capacitance is mainly attributed to its binary electroactive surface area of Co and Ni species, and its fast electron and ion transport of the mesoporous structure. - Highlights: • NiCo_2O_4 nanostructures were efficiently prepared in ionic liquid under microwave irradiation. • The as-prepared electrode exhibited high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability. • The method reported here is a green and fast route suitable for synthesis of nanomaterials.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of porous nickel cobaltite with different morphologies in ionic liquid and their application in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Van Hoa [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Nha Trang University, 2 Nguyen Dinh Chieu, Nha Trang (Viet Nam); Shim, Jae-Jin, E-mail: jjshim@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A facile and one-step strategy was used to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) and 2D mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) rods and sheets, which are conducted in a mixture of ionic liquid and water under microwave irradiation. The as-prepared product electrode exhibited high specific capacitance (879 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}) and excellent cycling stability (only ca. 4.7% loss after 1500 cycles), suggesting its promising application as an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors. The high performance capacitance is mainly attributed to its binary electroactive surface area of Co and Ni species, and its fast electron and ion transport of the mesoporous structure. - Highlights: • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures were efficiently prepared in ionic liquid under microwave irradiation. • The as-prepared electrode exhibited high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability. • The method reported here is a green and fast route suitable for synthesis of nanomaterials.

  7. Rapid synthesis of tin oxide nanostructures by microwave-assisted thermal oxidation for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadungdhitidhada, S.; Ruankham, P.; Gardchareon, A.; Wongratanaphisan, D.; Choopun, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work nanostructures of tin oxides were synthesized by a microwave-assisted thermal oxidation. Tin precursor powder was loaded into a cylindrical quartz tube and further radiated in a microwave oven. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and x-ray diffractometer. The results showed that two different morphologies of SnO2 microwires (MWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained in one minute of microwave radiation under atmospheric ambient. A few tens of the SnO2 MWs with the length of 10-50 µm were found. Some parts of the MWs were decorated with the SnO2 NPs. However, most of the products were SnO2 NPs with the diameter ranging from 30-200 nm. Preparation under loosely closed system lead to mixed phase SnO-SnO2 NPs with diameter of 30-200 nm. The single-phase of SnO2 could be obtained by mixing the Sn precursor powders with CuO2. The products were mostly found to be SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and MWs. The diameter of SnO2 NWs was less than 50 nm. The SnO2 NPs, MWs, and NWs were in the cassiterite rutile structure phase. The SnO NPs was in the tetragonal structure phase. The growth direction of the SnO2 NWs was observed in (1 1 0) and (2 2 1) direction. The ethanol sensor performance of these tin oxide nanostructures showed that the SnO-SnO2 NPs exhibited extremely high sensitivity. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  8. Mg-doped hydroxyapatite nanoplates for biomedical applications: A surfactant assisted microwave synthesis and spectroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vijay Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Birendra Nath; Parkash, Om; Kumar, Devendra; Rai, Shyam Bahadur

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave irradiation technique: employed for the synthesis of Mg-HAp nanoplates. • Surfactant (EDTA) assisted synthesis of Mg-HAp. • FT-IR and Raman analysis of functional groups of Mg-HAp. - Abstract: Nanoplates of Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HAp) were derived successfully and rapidly via microwave irradiation technique. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the hard tissues and main inorganic component in mammals. Different nanostructures of HAp exist in different parts of human bone but nanorods are very common due to its intrinsic nature to grow in rode-like structure under physiological as well as under applied ambient conditions in laboratory. On the addition of Mg at very low level (0.06 mol%) in pure HAp results the formation of 2-D plate-like nanostructures rather than rod-like which is the matter of interest. In this attempt our efforts have been focused on the study of effect of Mg incorporation on structural and spectroscopic properties of HAp prepared via microwave irradiation technique. This technique is preferred due to several advantages viz. very fast as well as homogeneous heating, time/energy saving and eco-friendliness. The calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ⋅4H 2 O)) as a source of calcium, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ⋅6H 2 O) as a source of magnesium, disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH 2 PO 4 ⋅2H 2 O) as a source of phosphorous and sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetate (NaEDTA) as a surfactant were used as starting reagents. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pellets were employed to adjust the pH value of final solution. The solution of fixed pH value was kept into the microwave oven generating waves of frequency 2.45 GHz (water absorption frequency) and power 750 W for 8 min. The precipitate thus obtained was washed, centrifuged and then dried at 100 °C for 2 h. Dried powder was then calcined at 700 °C for 2 h. The bright white powder thus obtained was characterized structurally using X-ray diffraction and

  9. Mg-doped hydroxyapatite nanoplates for biomedical applications: A surfactant assisted microwave synthesis and spectroscopic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vijay Kumar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhattacharjee, Birendra Nath; Parkash, Om [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, Devendra, E-mail: devendra.cer@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Rai, Shyam Bahadur, E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Microwave irradiation technique: employed for the synthesis of Mg-HAp nanoplates. • Surfactant (EDTA) assisted synthesis of Mg-HAp. • FT-IR and Raman analysis of functional groups of Mg-HAp. - Abstract: Nanoplates of Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HAp) were derived successfully and rapidly via microwave irradiation technique. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the hard tissues and main inorganic component in mammals. Different nanostructures of HAp exist in different parts of human bone but nanorods are very common due to its intrinsic nature to grow in rode-like structure under physiological as well as under applied ambient conditions in laboratory. On the addition of Mg at very low level (0.06 mol%) in pure HAp results the formation of 2-D plate-like nanostructures rather than rod-like which is the matter of interest. In this attempt our efforts have been focused on the study of effect of Mg incorporation on structural and spectroscopic properties of HAp prepared via microwave irradiation technique. This technique is preferred due to several advantages viz. very fast as well as homogeneous heating, time/energy saving and eco-friendliness. The calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅4H{sub 2}O)) as a source of calcium, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O) as a source of magnesium, disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O) as a source of phosphorous and sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetate (NaEDTA) as a surfactant were used as starting reagents. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pellets were employed to adjust the pH value of final solution. The solution of fixed pH value was kept into the microwave oven generating waves of frequency 2.45 GHz (water absorption frequency) and power 750 W for 8 min. The precipitate thus obtained was washed, centrifuged and then dried at 100 °C for 2 h. Dried powder was then calcined at 700 °C for 2 h. The bright white powder thus obtained was characterized

  10. Microwave systems applications in deep space telecommunications and navigation - Space Exploration Initiative architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Justin R.; Hastrup, Rolf C.; Bell, David J.

    1992-06-01

    The general support requirements of a typical SEI mission set, along with the mission operations objectives and related telecommunications, navigation, and information management (TNIM) support infrastructure options are described. Responsive system architectures and designs are proposed, including a Mars orbiting communications relay satellite system and a Mars-centered navigation capability for servicing all Mars missions. With the TNIM architecture as a basis, key elements of the microwave link design are proposed. The needed new technologies which enable these designs are identified, and current maturity is assessed.

  11. The microwave era is just beginning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, P.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave energy applicators in curing rubber products and in ceramic manufacture are enunciated by some of the participants at the First Australian Symposium on Microwave Power Applications held in February 1989 at Wollongong. The advantages and disadvantages of microwave heating over conventional methods are stated

  12. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi

    2015-01-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  13. Ag Nanorods-Oxide Hybrid Array Substrates: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, benefitting from the sufficient sensitivity, high specificity, nondestructive, and rapid detection capability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS technique, numerous nanostructures have been elaborately designed and successfully synthesized as high-performance SERS substrates, which have been extensively exploited for the identification of chemical and biological analytes. Among these, Ag nanorods coated with thin metal oxide layers (AgNRs-oxide hybrid array substrates featuring many outstanding advantages have been proposed as fascinating SERS substrates, and are of particular research interest. The present review provides a systematic overview towards the representative achievements of AgNRs-oxide hybrid array substrates for SERS applications from diverse perspectives, so as to promote the realization of real-world SERS sensors. First, various fabrication approaches of AgNRs-oxide nanostructures are introduced, which are followed by a discussion on the novel merits of AgNRs-oxide arrays, such as superior SERS sensitivity and reproducibility, high thermal stability, long-term activity in air, corrosion resistivity, and intense chemisorption of target molecules. Next, we present recent advances of AgNRs-oxide substrates in terms of practical applications. Intriguingly, the recyclability, qualitative and quantitative analyses, as well as vapor-phase molecule sensing have been achieved on these nanocomposites. We further discuss the major challenges and prospects of AgNRs-oxide substrates for future SERS developments, aiming to expand the versatility of SERS technique.

  14. Monotron and azimuthally corrugated: application to the high power microwaves generation; Monotron e cavidades azimutalmente corrugadas: aplicacao a geracao de microondas de alta potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Pedro Jose de

    2003-07-01

    The present document reports the activity of construction and initial operation of 6.7 GHz operation for high power microwave generation, the study on cylindrical resonators with azimuthally corrugated cross section, the determination of electrical conductivity of metallic materials and development of dielectric resonators for telecommunication applications.

  15. Rapid synthesis of flower shaped Cu_2ZnSnS_4 nanoparticles by microwave irradiation for solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohd Zubair; Khare, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Single phase Cu_2ZnSnS__4 (CZTS) nanoparticles have been synthesized by the microwave-assisted solution method in a one step process. Structural, morphological and optical characterizations of the CZTS nanoparticles have been carried out. X-ray diffraction confirms the single phase formation of CZTS nanoparticles with kesterite structure. SEM confirms the homogenous distribution of CZTS nanoparticles flower like assemblies. High resolution TEM image confirms the good crystallinity of the CZTS nanoparticles with the average grain size ~20 nm. The CZTS nanoparticles have strong optical absorption in the visible region with direct band gap as ~1.6 eV which is optimal for photovoltaic application

  16. An application of nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry to isotope dilution analysis of selenium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Toshihiro [Hitachi Instruments Engineering Co. Ltd., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun; Morita, Masatoshi; Okumoto, Toyoharu; Oishi, Konosuke

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry was studied for its applicability to the isotope dilution analysis of selenium in biological samples. Spectroscopic interference by calcium, which is present in high concentrations in biological samples, was investigated. No detectable background spectrum was observed for the major selenium isotopes of {sup 78}Se and {sup 80}Se. No detectable interferences by sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on the isotope ratio {sup 80}Se/{sup 78}Se were observed up to concentration of 200 mg/ml. The method was applied to the analysis of selenium in biological reference materials of marine organisms. The results showed good agreement between the certified and found values. (author).

  17. Applications of power beaming from space-based nuclear power stations. [Laser beaming to airplanes; microwave beaming to ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.; Hertzberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    Power beaming from space-based reactor systems is examined using an advanced compact, lightweight Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR). Closed Brayton power conversion efficiencies in the range of 30 to 40% can be achieved with turbines, with reactor exit temperatures on the order of 2000/sup 0/K and a liquid drop radiator to reject heat at temperatures of approx. 500/sup 0/K. Higher RBR coolant temperatures (up to approx. 3000/sup 0/K) are possible, but gains in power conversion efficiency are minimal, due to lower expander efficiency (e.g., a MHD generator). Two power beaming applications are examined - laser beaming to airplanes and microwave beaming to fixed ground receivers. Use of the RBR greatly reduces system weight and cost, as compared to solar power sources. Payback times are a few years at present prices for power and airplane fuel.

  18. Radiation characteristics of a coaxial waveguide with eccentric inner conductor for application in hyperthermia and microwave reflex therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Herschmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the radiation characteristics of a contact emitter conceived for application in hyperthermia and microwave reflex therapy. It is important to analyse the distribution of power density in the near field area, as the radiator's therapeutic sphere of activity is localized here. The contact emitter is a coaxial radiator with an eccentric course of the inner conductor. According to Huygens principle, a theoretical view of the near field radiation characteristics is made by determining the equivalent current densities in the emitter aperture. It is shown that by an eccentric shift of the inner conductor, an almost isotropic near field radiation pattern and power density can be achieved. For this, the electromagnetic field in the emitter aperture is determined by using a Bipolar coordinate system. This calculation considers only the fundamental TEM mode of the contact emitter. Besides the theoretical results near and far fields are simulated using the programme system Ansoft HFSS.

  19. Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, David H

    1999-01-04

    The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.

  20. Antenne Design for 24 GHz and 60 GHz Emerging Microwave Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F.; Dolmans, W.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this project integrated antennas on a LAMP3 substrate for automotive radar systems at 24 GHz and wireless networks at 60 GHz have been designed. The most severe requirements on the antennas were the large bandwidth, which can not be met with conventional patch antennas. A tapered slot antenna and

  1. Application of a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Wisner, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for applying a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate for the creation of a robust, high temperature catalyst system for use in decomposing propellants, particularly hydrogen peroxide propellants, for use in propulsion systems. The method begins by forming a prepared substrate material consisting of a metallic inner substrate and a bound layer of a noble metal intermediate. Alternatively, a bound ceramic coating, or frit, may be introduced between the metallic inner substrate and noble metal intermediate when the metallic substrate is oxidation resistant. A high-activity catalyst slurry is applied to the surface of the prepared substrate and dried to remove the organic solvent. The catalyst layer is then heat treated to bind the catalyst layer to the surface. The bound catalyst layer is then activated using an activation treatment and calcinations to form the high-activity catalyst system.

  2. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RECTANGULAR MPA USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATE MATERIALS FOR WLAN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Aravindraj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rectangular microstrip patch antenna (MPA is designed using different substrate materials for analyzing the performance of the MPA. Alumina (Al2O3, Bakelite, Beryllium oxide (BeO, Gallium Arsenide (GaAs, RT-Duroid and Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 are the six different substrate used in the design. The size of the rectangular microstrip patch antenna varies according to the dielectric constant of substrate materials used. The operating frequency taken for this analysis is 5.8 GHz. The proposed design provides the study on the performance of rectangular microstrip patch antenna for different substrate materials using the same frequency. This study conveys that which substrate material provides better performance. Moreover, this comparative study conveys that which substrate material provides better performance. The simulation parameters are investigated using HFSS.

  3. Microwave undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1986-03-01

    The theory of a microwave undulator utilizing a plane rectangular waveguide operating in the TE/sub 10n/ mode and other higher order modes is presented. Based on this, a possible undulator configuration is analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the microwave undulator represents a viable option for undulator wavelength down to about 1 cm where peak voltage and available microwave power considerations limit effectiveness. 4 refs., 4 figs

  4. A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.

  5. Application of microwave sensor technology in cardiovascular disease for plaque detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Arteriosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality. Improved methods for vascular plaque detection allow early diagnose and better therapeutic options. Present diagnostic tools require intense technical expenditure and diminish value of modern screening methods. Our group developed an microwave sensor for on-site detection of plaque formation in arterial vessels. The sensor is an oscillator working around 27 GHz which is coupled to a microstrip stub line. The final flexible polyimid interposer has a length of 38 cm, a width of 1.2 mm and a thickness of 200 μm. Because of its minimal size the interposer completed a catheter with a diameter of 8F ready for further clinical use in cardiology and heart surgery.

  6. Microwave Synthesis of Nearly Monodisperse Core/Multishell Quantum Dots with Cell Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hengyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report in this article the microwave synthesis of relatively monodisperse, highly crystalline CdSe quantum dots (QDs overcoated with Cd0.5Zn0.5S/ZnS multishells. The as-prepared QDs exhibited narrow photoluminescence bandwidth as the consequence of homogeneous size distribution and uniform crystallinity, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A high photoluminescence quantum yield up to 80% was measured for the core/multishell nanocrystals. Finally, the resulting CdSe/Cd0.5Zn0.5S/ZnS core/multishell QDs have been successfully applied to the labeling and imaging of breast cancer cells (SK-BR3.

  7. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid for Adsorption-Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Saiha Omar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on synthesis of zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO nanocomposites in the presence of diethylenetriamine (DETA via a facile microwave method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the nanocomposites correspond to the ZnO hexagonal phase wurtzite structure. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM images revealed that the ZnO nanorods, with an average length : diameter ratio of 10, were successfully deposited on the rGO sheets. Under the irradiation of sunlight, the nanocomposites showed enhanced adsorption-photocatalysis by more than twofold and photocurrent response by sixfold compared to the ZnO. The excellent photoactivity performance of the nanocomposites is contributed by smaller ZnO nanorod and the presence of rGO that acts as a photosensitizer by transferring electrons to the conduction band of ZnO within the nanocomposite during sunlight illumination.

  8. An algorithm to remove fringe jumps and its application to microwave reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Kawahata, K.; Shinohara, K.

    1997-01-01

    In some plasma discharges, the phase measured by microwave reflectometry has many fringe (2π radians) jumps. A new algorithm to detect and remove fringe jumps has been developed, and applied to the data in the JIPP TII-U tokamak. Using this algorithm, quantitative properties of fringe jumps, and their effects on the analysis of phase fluctuations are investigated. It was found that the occurrence of fringe jumps obeys a Poisson process, and the time scale of jumps is distributed over a wide range. Fringe jumps affect mainly the low-frequency components of phase fluctuations. Comparison of the phase corrected by the algorithm and the phase calculated from the time smoothed signals indicates that time smoothing (or frequency filtering) is an effective way to obtain information concerning the macroscopic density profile. Fringe jump and phase runaway can be phenomenologically explained by the distribution of the complex amplitude of the reflected wave. (author)

  9. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%, which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  10. A Reconfigurable Metal-Plasma Yagi-Yuda Antenna for Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Mansutti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the work originally presented at the European Microwave Conference (EuMC about a reconfigurable hybrid metal-plasma Yagi-Uda antenna operating at 1.55 GHz: this antenna consists of metallic reflector and active element and two plasma directors. The conference work showed through full-wave numerical simulations (CST Microwave Studio how it is possible to achieve reconfigurability with respect to the gain by turning on/off the plasma discharges. However the model that was used to represent the plasma discharges was quite ideal, so one comment that was provided questioned the actual possibility of achieving reconfigurability in a real system. Consequently we performed extensive measurements of different plasma discharges and thanks to the collected data, we noticed some important differences between the full-wave numerical model of the plasma that we used in the conference paper and the actual plasma discharges that were generated in the experimental setup: the dielectric vessel and the metallic electrodes used respectively to confine and generate the plasma have an influence on the radiation pattern of the antenna and so they must be included in the design procedure; the cylindrical plasma discharge is much easier to realize when the cylinder diameter is at least 3mm; and finally the collision frequency of the plasma in realistic cases is pretty higher than the one adopted in our previous work. Therefore this work presents a feasibility study of a more detailed and realistic model of our antenna with respect to the plasma discharges. We will show that reconfigurability can still be achieved through a proper design of the overall antenna, thus paving the way to an actual realization of the proposed reconfigurable Yagi-Uda.

  11. Snowfall Rate Retrieval Using Passive Microwave Measurements and Its Applications in Weather Forecast and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Yan, Banghua; Zavodsky, Bradley; Zhao, Limin; Dong, Jun; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has also been developed. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. It employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derives the probability of snowfall. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model. A method adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The SFR products are being used mainly in two communities: hydrology and weather forecast. Global blended precipitation products traditionally do not include snowfall derived from satellites because such products were not available operationally in the past. The ATMS and AMSU/MHS SFR now provide the winter precipitation information for these blended precipitation products. Weather forecasters mainly rely on radar and station observations for snowfall forecast. The SFR products can fill in gaps where no conventional snowfall data are available to forecasters. The products can also be used to confirm radar and gauge snowfall data and increase forecasters' confidence in their prediction.

  12. Tunable microwave absorbing nano-material for X-band applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Imran; Naseem, Shahzad; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Khan, M.A.; Niaz, Shanawer; Rana, M.U.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rare earth elements substitution in Sr_1_._9_6RE_0_._0_4Co_2Fe_2_7_._8_0Mn_0_._2O_4_6 (RE=Ce, Gd, Nd, La and Sm) X-type hexagonal ferrites prepared by using sol gel autocombustion method was studied. The XRD and FTIR analysis show the single phase of the prepared material. The lattice constants a (Å) and c (Å) varies with the additives. The particle size measured by Scherer formula for all the samples varies in the range of 54–100 nm and confirmed by the TEM analysis. The average grain size measured by SEM analysis lies in the range of 0.672–1.01 µm for all the samples. The Gd-substituted ferrite has higher value of coercivity (526.06 G) among all the samples which could be a good material for longitudinal recording media. The results also indicate that the Gd-substituted sample has maximum reflection loss of −25.2 dB at 11.878 GHz, can exhibit the best microwave absorption properties among all the substituted samples. Furthermore, the minimum value of reflection loss shifts towards the lower and higher frequencies with the substitution of rare earth elements which confirms that the microwave absorption properties can be tuned with the substitution of rare earth elements in pure ferrites. The peak value of attenuation constant at higher frequency agrees well the reflection loss data. - Highlights: • A series of X-type hexagonal ferrites were prepared by sol–gel method. • The XRD analysis showed that the X-type hexagonal structure. • The c/a ratio of these samples falls in the range of X-type hexagonal ferrites. • FTIR spectra confirms single hexagonal phase. • The magnetic properties vary with the substitution of rare earth elements. • The Gd-doped sample exhibits maximum absorption properties and coercivity.

  13. Design and analysis of planar spiral resonator bandstop filter for microwave frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motakabber, S. M. A.; Shaifudin Suharsono, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    In microwave frequency, a spiral resonator can act as either frequency reject or acceptor circuits. A planar logarithmic spiral resonator bandstop filter has been developed based on this property. This project focuses on the rejection property of the spiral resonator. The performance analysis of the exhibited filter circuit has been performed by using scattering parameters (S-parameters) technique in the ultra-wideband microwave frequency. The proposed filter is built, simulated and S-parameters analysis have been accomplished by using electromagnetic simulation software CST microwave studio. The commercial microwave substrate Taconic TLX-8 has been used to build this filter. Experimental results showed that the -10 dB rejection bandwidth of the filter is 2.32 GHz and central frequency is 5.72 GHz which is suitable for ultra-wideband applications. The proposed design has been full of good compliance with the simulated and experimental results here.

  14. Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection heating autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the application of two forms of heating for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection heating and microwave heating processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave heating processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave heating processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  16. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasri, R., E-mail: subasri@arci.res.in; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO{sub 2} as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes.

  17. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasri, R.; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO_2 as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes

  18. Atomically Thin Mica Flakes and Their Application as Ultrathin Insulating Substrates for Graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Wojtaszek, Magdalena; Tombros, Nikolaos; Agrait, Nicolas; van Wees, Bart J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás

    2011-01-01

    By mechanical exfoliation, it is possible to deposit atomically thin mica flakes down to single-monolayer thickness on SiO(2)/Si wafers. The optical contrast of these mica flakes on top of a SiO(2)/Si substrate depends on their thickness, the illumination wavelength, and the SiO(2) substrate

  19. A microwave-assisted solution combustion synthesis to produce europium-doped calcium phosphate nanowhiskers for bioimaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Darcy E; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-09-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles possessing fluorescent properties offer attractive possibilities for multifunctional bioimaging and/or drug and gene delivery applications. Many of the limitations with current imaging systems center on the properties of the optical probes in relation to equipment technical capabilities. Here we introduce a novel high aspect ratio and highly crystalline europium-doped calcium phosphate nanowhisker produced using a simple microwave-assisted solution combustion synthesis method for use as a multifunctional bioimaging probe. X-ray diffraction confirmed the material phase as europium-doped hydroxyapatite. Fluorescence emission and excitation spectra and their corresponding peaks were identified using spectrofluorimetry and validated with fluorescence, confocal and multiphoton microscopy. The nanowhiskers were found to exhibit red and far red wavelength fluorescence under ultraviolet excitation with an optimal peak emission of 696 nm achieved with a 350 nm excitation. Relatively narrow emission bands were observed, which may permit their use in multicolor imaging applications. Confocal and multiphoton microscopy confirmed that the nanoparticles provide sufficient intensity to be utilized in imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave assisted rapid growth of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanosheet networks for ethanol chemical sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hazmi, Faten [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21569 (Saudi Arabia); Umar, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadumar786@gmail.com [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Dar, G.N. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Al-Sayari, S.A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21569 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajry, A. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Kim, S.H. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Tuwirqi, Reem M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21569 (Saudi Arabia); Alnowaiserb, Fowzia [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-04-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile microwave-assisted synthesis and characterizations of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanosheet networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ethanol sensor based on (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanosheet networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good sensitivity ({approx}3.991 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and lower detection limit (5 {mu}M). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research opens a way to utilize Mg(OH){sub 2} nanostructures for chemical sensors applications. - Abstract: This paper reports a facile microwave-assisted synthesis of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanosheet networks and their utilization for the fabrication of efficient ethanol chemical sensor. The synthesized nanosheets networks were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties using various analysis techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed morphological and structural investigations reveal that the synthesized (Mg(OH){sub 2}) products are nanosheet networks, grown in high density, and possessing hexagonal crystal structure. The optical band gap of as-synthesized Mg(OH){sub 2} nanosheet networks was examined by UV-Vis absorption spectrum, and found to be 5.76 eV. The synthesized nanosheet networks were used as supporting matrices for the fabrication of I-V technique based efficient ethanol chemical sensor. The fabricated ethanol sensor based on nanosheet networks exhibits good sensitivity ({approx}3.991 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and lower detection limit (5 {mu}M), with linearity (R = 0.9925) in short response time (10.0 s). This work demonstrate that the simply synthesized Mg(OH){sub 2} nanosheet networks can effectively be used for the fabrication of efficient ethanol chemical sensors.

  1. Design strategy for a tunable antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite LTCC substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2014-07-01

    Typical microwave simulators cannot accurately predict the behavior of an antenna on a partially magnetized substrate as they assume the substrate to be in fully saturate state. In this work, a new simulation strategy aided by theoretical analysis, is presented to model a tunable patch antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite substrate through a combination of magnetostatic and microwave simulators. An antenna prototype is fabricated in Ferrite LTCC medium to verify the partially magnetized state simulations. The measured results are in close agreement with the simulations, contrary to the case where the substrate is assumed to be in saturation. The prototype designed for 13 GHz exhibits a tuning range of 10 % making it highly suitable for tunable and reconfigurable wireless applications.

  2. Design strategy for a tunable antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite LTCC substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif; Bray, Joey R.

    2014-01-01

    Typical microwave simulators cannot accurately predict the behavior of an antenna on a partially magnetized substrate as they assume the substrate to be in fully saturate state. In this work, a new simulation strategy aided by theoretical analysis, is presented to model a tunable patch antenna on a partially magnetized ferrite substrate through a combination of magnetostatic and microwave simulators. An antenna prototype is fabricated in Ferrite LTCC medium to verify the partially magnetized state simulations. The measured results are in close agreement with the simulations, contrary to the case where the substrate is assumed to be in saturation. The prototype designed for 13 GHz exhibits a tuning range of 10 % making it highly suitable for tunable and reconfigurable wireless applications.

  3. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou Chongwu

    2011-01-01

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ DC /σ Op , for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ TE . Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  4. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-06-17

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ(DC)/σ(Op), for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ(TE). Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  5. Phase-coded microwave signal generation based on a single electro-optical modulator and its application in accurate distance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Ge, Xiaozhong; Gao, Bindong; Pan, Shilong

    2015-08-24

    A novel scheme for photonic generation of a phase-coded microwave signal is proposed and its application in one-dimension distance measurement is demonstrated. The proposed signal generator has a simple and compact structure based on a single dual-polarization modulator. Besides, the generated phase-coded signal is stable and free from the DC and low-frequency backgrounds. An experiment is carried out. A 2 Gb/s phase-coded signal at 20 GHz is successfully generated, and the recovered phase information agrees well with the input 13-bit Barker code. To further investigate the performance of the proposed signal generator, its application in one-dimension distance measurement is demonstrated. The measurement accuracy is less than 1.7 centimeters within a measurement range of ~2 meters. The experimental results can verify the feasibility of the proposed phase-coded microwave signal generator and also provide strong evidence to support its practical applications.

  6. Thermal Flow and Structure Stability Analyses of High Power Waterload for 2450 MHz microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, S. W.; Kim, H. J.; Wang, S. J.; Kim, J. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on analyzing the internal flow dynamics in the waterload by changing the inlet and outlet locations and adding guide pipeline to the inlet. The internal flow field simulation is done with CFX tool to compare the water flow velocity and temperature distributions in the waterload. The waterload absorbs RF power, converts it to thermal power, and increases the water temperature so that heat could be quickly removed by the water injection. And it is installed on the end of transmission line and is used to absorb reflected RF power. High power waterload with cone-shaped quartz is designed for 10-30 kW power handling at 2450 MHz microwave system. The thermal flow and structural stability analysis for the 2450 MHz waterload is done using ANSYS and the results are presented in this work. Relocation of the inlet and addition of the guide pipeline in the simulation shows a decrease in the localized maximum water temperature and increased water velocity around the heat source. It is also shown that the modified waterload is structurally more stable

  7. Application of microwave cell system in calibration of electromagnetic field meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Kassem, I.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to improve radiation measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) through realizing tests and calibrations of measurement devices by intercomparison within the microwaves (MW) range according to EMF wave cell properties. Actually, the calibration facility in electromagnetic field is not available in Syria; therefore, realizing an experimental system for electromagnetic field radiometer calibration is very important at national level. This study showed the possibility of using EMF wave cell in intercomparison of electromagnetic field radiometers in order to achieve a direct calibration via standard radiometer. The EMF wave cell properties were studied and the homogeneity of its EMF was tested using the EF Cube probe. Results showed that the field homogeneity inside the cell is good and the variation of electric field strength, within the comparison position, is less than 10% of measured values. It was recognized that the probe form and dimensions influence the comparison results; and measurement results showed that it's possible to achieve comparison in the working domain of EMF wave cell (10 - 3000 MHz) with a relative deviation of result values between 10% and 30% according to the measurement device and frequency range. Development of comparison process in order to obtain accurate results needs to improve mechanical supports of tested probes and to introduce a correction factor related to studied probe form and dimensions. From another side, it is better to carry out measurements at frequencies around the central frequency, and not close to frequency range borders, of the EMF wave cell working frequency domain. (author)

  8. Microwave plasma synthesis of Si/Ge and Si/WSi2 nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Nils; Schneider, Tom; Stötzel, Julia; Stein, Niklas; Weise, Claudia; Wlokas, Irenäus; Schierning, Gabi; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2015-08-01

    The utilization of microwave-based plasma systems enables a contamination-free synthesis of highly specific nanoparticles in the gas phase. A reactor setup allowing stable, long-term operation was developed with the support of computational fluid dynamics. This paper highlights the prospects of gas-phase plasma synthesis to produce specific materials for bulk thermoelectrics. Taking advantage of specific plasma reactor properties such as Coulomb repulsion in combination with gas temperatures considerably higher than 1000 K, spherical and non-aggregated nanoparticles of multiple compositions are accessible. Different strategies towards various nanostructured composites and alloys are discussed. It is shown that, based on doped silicon/germanium alloys and composites, thermoelectric materials with zT values up to almost unity can be synthesized in one step. First experimental results concerning silicon/tungsten silicide thermoelectrics applying the nanoparticle-in-alloy idea are presented indicating that this concept might work. However, it is found that tungsten silicides show a surprising sinter activity more than 1000 K below their melting temperature.

  9. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using Convolutional Neural Networks: Application to Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, B.

    2018-04-01

    A empirical model is established to analyse the daily retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwave remote sensing using convolutional neural networks (CNN). Soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle. However, with the rapidly increasing of the acquiring technology for remotely sensed data, it's a hard task for remote sensing practitioners to find a fast and convenient model to deal with the massive data. In this paper, the AMSR-E brightness temperatures are used to train CNN for the prediction of the European centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF) model. Compared with the classical inversion methods, the deep learning-based method is more suitable for global soil moisture retrieval. It is very well supported by graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration, which can meet the demand of massive data inversion. Once the model trained, a global soil moisture map can be predicted in less than 10 seconds. What's more, the method of soil moisture retrieval based on deep learning can learn the complex texture features from the big remote sensing data. In this experiment, the results demonstrates that the CNN deployed to retrieve global soil moisture can achieve a better performance than the support vector regression (SVR) for soil moisture retrieval.

  10. Thermal Flow and Structure Stability Analyses of High Power Waterload for 2450 MHz microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seon, S. W.; Kim, H. J.; Wang, S. J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. N. [KRF, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study is focused on analyzing the internal flow dynamics in the waterload by changing the inlet and outlet locations and adding guide pipeline to the inlet. The internal flow field simulation is done with CFX tool to compare the water flow velocity and temperature distributions in the waterload. The waterload absorbs RF power, converts it to thermal power, and increases the water temperature so that heat could be quickly removed by the water injection. And it is installed on the end of transmission line and is used to absorb reflected RF power. High power waterload with cone-shaped quartz is designed for 10-30 kW power handling at 2450 MHz microwave system. The thermal flow and structural stability analysis for the 2450 MHz waterload is done using ANSYS and the results are presented in this work. Relocation of the inlet and addition of the guide pipeline in the simulation shows a decrease in the localized maximum water temperature and increased water velocity around the heat source. It is also shown that the modified waterload is structurally more stable.

  11. SOIL MOISTURE RETRIEVAL USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS: APPLICATION TO PASSIVE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A empirical model is established to analyse the daily retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwave remote sensing using convolutional neural networks (CNN. Soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle. However, with the rapidly increasing of the acquiring technology for remotely sensed data, it's a hard task for remote sensing practitioners to find a fast and convenient model to deal with the massive data. In this paper, the AMSR-E brightness temperatures are used to train CNN for the prediction of the European centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF model. Compared with the classical inversion methods, the deep learning-based method is more suitable for global soil moisture retrieval. It is very well supported by graphics processing unit (GPU acceleration, which can meet the demand of massive data inversion. Once the model trained, a global soil moisture map can be predicted in less than 10 seconds. What's more, the method of soil moisture retrieval based on deep learning can learn the complex texture features from the big remote sensing data. In this experiment, the results demonstrates that the CNN deployed to retrieve global soil moisture can achieve a better performance than the support vector regression (SVR for soil moisture retrieval.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for lighting and dye removal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijays_phy@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Gohain, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Som, S.; Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Bezuindenhoudt, B.C.B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Swart, Hendrik C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report on the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) via the microwave-assisted technique. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were annealed at 500 °C for three hours. The ZnO NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic techniques. XRD results confirmed the formation of as-synthesized ZnO powder oriented along the (101) direction. The Kubelka–Munk function has been employed to determine the band gap of the ZnO powder. ZnO powder has been studied by photoluminescence (PL) before and after annealing to identify the emission of defects in the visible range. The intensity of the PL emission has decreased after annealing. The synthesized ZnO samples were also studied for methyl orange dye removal from waste water. It has been found that the as-synthesized ZnO shows better adsorption behaviour as compared to the annealed sample.

  13. Synthesis of zinc oxide by microwave hydrothermal method for application to transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, Max Rocha [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, Mateus José C. [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, Davy [DME/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus – I, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, Guilherme Leocárdio, E-mail: guilhermelucena@cchsa.ufpb.br [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, João Bosco L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus I, 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, Lucianna [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment using two different mineralization agents (NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH), and were evaluated as catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The XRD patterns indicated the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite phase in both samples. SEM analysis showed completely different morphologies based on the mineralization agent employed. The ZnO nanostructures synthesized with NaOH (ZONa5 and ZONa5P) presented plate-like agglomerates, resulting in a quasi-spherical morphology, whereas the materials synthesized with NH{sub 4}OH (ZONH5 and ZONH5P) presented a flower-like morphology. The ZONa5P sample showed an activity of 77.82% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol. - Highlights: • ZnO was synthesized by MH method in only 5 min. • The powders morphology is completely influenced by mineralization agent. • ZONa5P showed activity of 77.82% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel.

  14. Synthesis of zinc oxide by microwave hydrothermal method for application to transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, Max Rocha; Oliveira, Mateus José C.; Keyson, Davy; Lucena, Guilherme Leocárdio; Oliveira, João Bosco L.; Gama, Lucianna

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment using two different mineralization agents (NaOH and NH 4 OH), and were evaluated as catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The XRD patterns indicated the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite phase in both samples. SEM analysis showed completely different morphologies based on the mineralization agent employed. The ZnO nanostructures synthesized with NaOH (ZONa5 and ZONa5P) presented plate-like agglomerates, resulting in a quasi-spherical morphology, whereas the materials synthesized with NH 4 OH (ZONH5 and ZONH5P) presented a flower-like morphology. The ZONa5P sample showed an activity of 77.82% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol. - Highlights: • ZnO was synthesized by MH method in only 5 min. • The powders morphology is completely influenced by mineralization agent. • ZONa5P showed activity of 77.82% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel.

  15. A Series-Fed Linear Substrate-Integrated Dielectric Resonator Antenna Array for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series-fed linear substrate-integrated dielectric resonator antenna array (SIDRAA is presented for millimeter-wave applications, in which the substrate-integrated dielectric resonator antenna (SIDRA elements and the feeding structure can be codesigned and fabricated using the same planar process. A prototype 4 × 1 SIDRAA is designed at Ka-band and fabricated with a two-layer printed circuit board (PCB technology. Four SIDRAs are implemented in the Rogers RT6010 substrate using the perforation technique and fed by a compact substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW through four longitudinal coupling slots within the Rogers RT5880 substrate. The return loss, radiation patterns, and antenna gain were experimentally studied, and good agreement between the measured and simulated results is observed. The SIDRAA example provides a bandwidth of about 10% around 34.5 GHz for 10 dB return loss and stable broadside radiation patterns with the peak gain of 10.5–11.5 dBi across the band.

  16. Superconductivity applications for infrared and microwave devices II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    Topics discussed include thin-film technology, microwave transmission lines and resonators, microwave devices and circuits, infrared detectors and bolometers, and superconducting junctions. Papers are presented on possible enhancement in bolometric response using free-standing film of YBa2Cu3O(x), aging and surface instability in high-Tc superconductors, epitaxial Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin films on LaAlO3 and their microwave device properties, the performance of stripline resonators using sputtered YBCO films, and a coplanar waveguide microwave filter of YBa2Cu3O7. Attention is also given to the performance characteristics of Y-Ba-Cu-O microwave superconducting detectors, high-Tc bolometer developments for planetary missions, infrared detectors from YBaCuO thin films, high-temperature superconductor junction technology, and submillimeter receiver components using superconducting tunnel junctions. (For individual items see A93-27244 to A93-27248)

  17. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  18. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhard V, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet's cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm 2 . In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm 2 have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm 2 . These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm 2 are also available

  19. Application of microwaves for microbial load reduction in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G Chengaiyan; Sowbhagya, H Bogegowda; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-09-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is exposed to microbial contamination which could potentially create public health risk and also rejection of consignments in the export market due to non-adherance to microbial safety standards. The present study investigates the use of microwave (MW) radiation for microbial load reduction in black pepper and analyses the effect on quality. Black pepper was exposed to MWs at two different power levels (663 and 800 W) at an intensity of 40 W g(-1) for different time intervals (1-15 min) and moisture content (110 and 260 g kg(-1) on a wet basis). The exposure of black pepper to MWs at 663 W for 12.5 min was found to be sufficient to reduce the microbial load to the permissible level suggested by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the European Spice Association. The retention of volatile oil, piperine and resin was 91.3 ± 0.03, 87.6 ± 0.02 and 90.7 ± 0.05%, respectively, in MW-treated black pepper. The final moisture content after MW treatment was found to be 100 ± 1 g kg(-1) for black pepper containing initial moisture of 260 ± 3 g kg(-1) . These results suggest that MW heating can be effectively used for microbial load reduction of black pepper without a significant loss in product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Improved electrical properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles for microwave application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rabia [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University, D. I. Khan (Pakistan); Hussain Gul, Iftikhar, E-mail: iftikhar.gul@scme.nust.edu.pk [Thermal Transport Laboratory (TTL), Materials Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology - NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zarrar, Muhammad [Thermal Transport Laboratory (TTL), Materials Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology - NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Anwar, Humaira [Islamabad Model College for Girls G-10/2, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan Niazi, Muhammad Bilal [Department of Chemicals Engineering, SCME, NUST, H-12 Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Azim [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University, D. I. Khan (Pakistan)

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites with formula Cd{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5), have been synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation technique. Electrical, morphological and Structural properties of the samples have been studied using DC electrical resistivity and Impedance analyzer, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM have been used to study the structural parameters such as measured density, lattice constant, X-ray density, crystallite size and morphology of the synthesized nano-particles. Debye–Scherrer formula has been used for the estimation of crystallite sizes. The estimated crystallite sizes were to be 15–19±2 nm. Hopping length of octahedral and tetrahedral sites have been calculated using indexed XRD data. The porosity and lattice constant increased as Cd{sup 2+}concentration increases. DC electrical resistivity was performed using two probe technique. The decrease of resistivity with temperature confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. The dielectric properties variation has been studied at room temperature as a function of frequency. Variation of dielectric properties from 100 Hz to 5 MHz has been explained on the basis of Maxwell and Wagner’s model and hoping of electrons on octahedral sites. To separates the grains boundary and grains of the system Cd{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} the impedance analysis were performed. - Highlights: • Preparation of homogeneous, spherical and single phase well crystallized cobalt ferrites. • A simple and economical PEG assisted wet chemical co-precipitation method has been used. • Increased in DC electrical resistivity and activation energy. • Decease in dielectric constant used for microwave absorber. • AC conductivity of Cd{sup 2+} substituted Co-ferrites increases.

  1. Improved electrical properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles for microwave application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rabia; Hussain Gul, Iftikhar; Zarrar, Muhammad; Anwar, Humaira; Khan Niazi, Muhammad Bilal; Khan, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites with formula Cd x Co 1−x Fe 2 O 4 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5), have been synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation technique. Electrical, morphological and Structural properties of the samples have been studied using DC electrical resistivity and Impedance analyzer, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM have been used to study the structural parameters such as measured density, lattice constant, X-ray density, crystallite size and morphology of the synthesized nano-particles. Debye–Scherrer formula has been used for the estimation of crystallite sizes. The estimated crystallite sizes were to be 15–19±2 nm. Hopping length of octahedral and tetrahedral sites have been calculated using indexed XRD data. The porosity and lattice constant increased as Cd 2+ concentration increases. DC electrical resistivity was performed using two probe technique. The decrease of resistivity with temperature confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. The dielectric properties variation has been studied at room temperature as a function of frequency. Variation of dielectric properties from 100 Hz to 5 MHz has been explained on the basis of Maxwell and Wagner’s model and hoping of electrons on octahedral sites. To separates the grains boundary and grains of the system Cd x Co 1−x Fe 2 O 4 the impedance analysis were performed. - Highlights: • Preparation of homogeneous, spherical and single phase well crystallized cobalt ferrites. • A simple and economical PEG assisted wet chemical co-precipitation method has been used. • Increased in DC electrical resistivity and activation energy. • Decease in dielectric constant used for microwave absorber. • AC conductivity of Cd 2+ substituted Co-ferrites increases.

  2. Diamond film deposition on WC–Co and steel substrates with a CrN interlayer for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The most renowned property of diamond is its exceptional hardness. By depositing diamond films on tungsten carbide (WC–Co) and steel substrates, the hardness of diamond can be combined with the toughness of these materials, resulting in an excellent wear resistance material for tribological applications. However, poor adhesion of diamond coating on these substrates leads to a lesser lifetime for the diamond coated tools than expected. The prime reasons for the lack of proper adhesion are the preferential formation of graphitic layer at the interface due to the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and the interfacial residual stresses due to the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of diamond (1.5  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) and WC–Co (5.2  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) or steel (12  ×  10 −6 K −1 ). In this review, we discuss the possibility of using a Cr–N interlayer as a diffusion barrier to prevent the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and also to relax the interfacial residual stresses to some extent to enhance the adhesion of diamond coatings on these substrates. An overview of the most pertinent results of the last two decades, including the recent progress is introduced. We describe in detail how the Cr–N interlayer with the desired properties is fabricated. We give a concise overview of diamond deposition process, including the methods to vary the grain size from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline, which are suitable for some tribological applications. We describe in detail on surface and interface analysis, residual stress measurements, assessment adhesion strength and tribological performance of diamond coated WC–Co and steel substrates using various characterization techniques. We conclude by highlighting the current progress and future perspectives of diamond coatings on these substrates for tribological applications. (topical review)

  3. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  4. Effect of drying methods with the application of vacuum microwaves on the bioactive compounds, color, and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Oszmiański, Jan

    2009-02-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of vacuum-microwave drying (240, 360, and 480 W) in the production process of dehydrated strawberry and to compare and contrast the quality of these dehydrated strawberries in terms of their polyphenol compounds, concentration of some heat liable components, and color to that of freeze-dried, convective, and vacuum-dried strawberry. Thus, the effect of vacuum-microwave drying and other drying methods on the antioxidant activity of berries was evaluated. Whole fresh and dried fruits were assessed for phenolics (anthocyanins, flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (all parameters were calculated on a dry matter basis). Analysis of data shows that ellagic acid and flavanol changes were affected by drying techniques and cultivar. Drying destroyed anthocyanins, flavanols, and ascorbic acid, and there was a significant decrease in antioxidant activity. The most striking result was that conventional and vacuum drying decreased antioxidant activity in both cultivars, whereas contradictory results were found for vacuum-microwave processed strawberry. This study has demonstrated that vacuum-microwave drying, especially at 240 W, can produce high-quality products, with the additional advantage of reduced processing times, compared to other processes such as freeze-drying.

  5. Incorporation of multilayered silver nanoparticles into polymer brushes as 3-dimensional SERS substrates and their application for bacteria detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiang-Dong; Tian, Ting; Chu, Li-Qiang, E-mail: chuliqiang@tust.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • POEGMA/AgNPs composite film prepared via the in-stacking method is employed as 3D SERS substrate. • Control over POEGMA chain length is achieved via SI-ATRP method. • Influence of POEGMA chain length and in-stacking process on SERS performance is investigated. • The 3D SERS substrate is used for the ultrasensitive detection of ATP and S. aureus. - Abstract: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors have been extensively studied for ultrasensitive detection of diverse chemical or biological analytes. Facile fabrication of highly sensitive SERS substrates is believed to be of crucial importance in these analytical applications. In this regard, the preparation of 3-dimensional (3D) SERS substrates are explored via the incorporation of multilayered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into poly (oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes by repeating the immersion-rinsing-drying steps for different lengths of time (i.e., the so-called in-stacking method). The POEGMA brushes of different chain lengths are synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with various reaction time. The resulting POEGMA/AgNP nanocomposites are characterized by FE-SEM, UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy. FE-SEM and UV–vis results indicate that the AgNPs are successfully incorporated into the POEGMA brushes with a 3D configuration. The nanocomposite films are employed as SERS substrates for the detection of a Raman reporter molecule (i.e., 4-aminothiophenol), giving rise to an enhancement factor of up to 1.29 × 10{sup 7} and also having relatively good uniformity and reproducibility. The obtained 3D SERS substrates are also used for the detection of a typical gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus. The limit of detection is found to be as low as ca. 8 CFU/mL.

  6. Neutron polarizing Fe-Al supermirror on a Si crystal substrate and its applications for thermal and cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syromyatnikov, V.G.; Shchebetov, A.F.; Soroko, Z.N.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for an Fe-Al neutron polarizing supermirror on a Si crystal substrate with an antireflecting Cd layer. The polarizing efficiency of this supermirror is P≥qslant0.8 for the range of glancing angles θ/λ=0.25-1.7 /nm and P≥qslant0.95 for θ/λ=0.34-1.7 /nm. Some applications of this supermirror for thermal and cold neutrons are considered. ((orig.))

  7. Hybrid Microwave Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    A team associated with a Federal Laboratory, academia, and industry has been actively developing new microwave technology for treatment and remediation of a variety of potentially hazardous materials for almost a decade. This collaboration has resulted in unique equipment and processes with potential applicability to many fields, including disposition of electronic circuitry and components, medical wastes, radioactive materials and recycling of used tires

  8. Effectiveness of anchovy substrate application on decreasing acid solubility of Sprague Dawley rats’ tooth enamel (in vivo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triputra, F.; Puspitawati, R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    Anchovies (Stolephorus insularis), a natural resource of Indonesia, contain fluoride in the form of CaF2 and can function as a fluoridation material to prevent dental caries. The aim of this study is to study the effectiveness of anchovy substrate, through food or topical application, in decreasing the acid solubility of tooth enamel. This research used 14 Sprague Dawley rats as subjects divided into the following 5 groups: baseline, experimental feeding, experimental smearing, and their negative controls. After 15 days of anchovy substrate application, lower incisors were extracted and the acid solubility of enamel was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using a stereo microscope and a Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester. Analysis of enamel surface destruction and enamel surface microscopic hardness shifting after a 60 sec application of H2PO4 (50% concentration) resulted in a decrease in acid solubility of enamel treated with anchovy substrate. This result can be seen with both the chewing and smearing method. S. insularis can be used as an alternative material for fluoridation.

  9. The fabrication and application of patterned Si(001) substrates with ordered pits via nanosphere lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peixuan; Fan Yongliang; Zhong Zhenyang

    2009-01-01

    A new scalable approach has been developed for fabricating large-scale pit patterns with controllable periodicity on Si(001) substrates. The fabrication processes start with self-assembling a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) spheres on hydrogenated Si(001) substrates. A novel net-like mask in combination of the Au pattern thermally evaporated in between the PS spheres and the Au-catalyzed SiO 2 around them is naturally formed. After selective etching of Si by KOH solution, two-dimensionally ordered pits with a periodicity equal to the diameter of the PS spheres in the range from micrometers to less than 100 nm can be obtained. The shape of the pits can be modulated by controlling the chemical etching time. Such pit-patterned Si substrates facilitate the formation of ordered Si-based nanostructures, such as ordered self-assembled GeSi quantum dots, by deposition of Ge using molecular beam epitaxy.

  10. Polymer substrates for flexible photovoltaic cells application in personal electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znajdek, K.; Sibiński, M.; Strąkowska, A.; Lisik, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of polymeric materials for flexible substrates in photovoltaic (PV) structures that could be used as power supply in the personal electronic systems. Four types of polymers have been elected for testing. The first two are the most specialized and heat resistant polyimide films. The third material is transparent polyethylene terephthalate film from the group of polyesters which was proposed as a cheap and commercially available substrate for the technology of photovoltaic cells in a superstrate configuration. The last selected polymeric material is a polysiloxane, which meets the criteria of high elasticity, is temperature resistant and it is also characterized by relatively high transparency in the visible light range. For the most promising of these materials additional studies were performed in order to select those of them which represent the best optical, mechanical and temperature parameters according to their usage for flexible substrates in solar cells.

  11. The development and characterization of sol-gel substrates for chemical and optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kevin William

    1998-12-01

    The sol gel process can be used to make monolithic porous glass for various scientific and engineering uses. The porosity of the material imparts a large surface area which is advantageous in applications such as catalyst supports or in the study of surface mediated chemical reactions. The chemical stability and transparency of the porous glass also make it suitable for use in the emerging field of optical sensors. In this study fluoride catalysis is used to produce sol gel monoliths with pore radii of up to 400 Angstroms, four times larger than any previously reported using conventional drying techniques. Gel monoliths with pore radii of 200 Angstroms were found to have the best combination of surface area, pore volume and optical transparency. Typical monoliths have surface areas of 150 m2/g and pore volumes of 1.60 cm3/g with good transparency. The monoliths are chemically stable, have good mechanical strength and can be easily rehydrated without cracking. The substrates are also suitable for sintering into dense high purity silica glass with little tendency towards foaming. An in-depth study of the catalytic effect of fluoride on the sol gel process is also included. It has been theorized that fluoride serves to expand the coordination sphere of the silicon center making it more subject to nucleophilic attack. In this work an ion-specific fluoride electrode is used to monitor free fluoride concentrations in HF catalyzed sols while silicic acid is added in the form of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). It is found that fluoride is rapidly bound by the silicic acid in a ratio of four to one, indicating the formation of silicon tetrafluoride. A concurrent decrease in pH suggests that a pentacoordinate species is formed that is more stable than previously thought. A polymerization mechanism is proposed that explains the hydrophobicity of fluoride catalyzed gels and the difficulty in retaining structural fluoride in fluoride catalyzed sol gel glasses. Finally, several

  12. Novel microwave-synthesis of Cu nanoparticles in the absence of any stabilizing agent and their antibacterial and antistatic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria, E-mail: roxy@dcci.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Antonetti, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.antonetti@ns.dcci.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Marracci, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.marracci@ing.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Energia, dei Sistemi, del Territorio e delle, Costruzioni, Università di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Piccinelli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.piccinelli@univr.it [Laboratorio di Chimica dello Stato Solido, DB, Università di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Tellini, Bernardo, E-mail: bernardo.tellini@ing.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Energia, dei Sistemi, del Territorio e delle, Costruzioni, Università di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56125 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-01

    For the first time, copper nanoparticles were synthesized under microwave (MW) irradiation in the absence of any stabilizing agent. A 2-step synthetic approach was adopted working in basic ethanol solution and then ascorbic acid was added as a reducing reagent in the second step. The obtained copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, XRPD and TEM analysis. UV–vis spectra show an absorption peak at about 580–590 nm, typical of the plasma resonance of copper nanoparticles and XRPD analysis reveals that the complete reduction to metallic copper was reached at the end of the second step. Average sizes in the range 7–15 nm were ascertained through TEM microscopy. These copper nanoparticles are suitable for antibacterial and antistatic applications. The bactericidal effect was investigated in relation to the diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests on calf crust leather sample and an interesting antibacterial activity was verified against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans). Moreover, this treated leather showed encouraging antistatic behavior: in particular, equivalent circuital parameters were estimated via an impedance spectroscopy technique to have a first evaluation of the charge dissipation activity by volume conduction.

  13. Gyrotron: an application of the relativistic bunching of electrons to the generation of intense millimeter microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.

    1986-01-01

    The cyclotron maser or gyrotron is capable of generating high power microwaves at millimeter wave frequencies for applications in fusion heating, radar astronomy and communications. Analytic and numerical simulation models are developed that describe the behavior of these devices under realistic laboratory conditions including the effects of circuit geometry, beam thermal spread, and mode competition. In Chapter 2, a generalized linear theory for the gyrotron is presented in the form of an integro-differential equation that can be solved within various circuit geometries thus describing gyro-amplifiers, gyro-oscillatory and gyroklystrons. In Chapter 3 a complete description of a finite size electromagnetic particle simulation model is presented that describes gyrotrons operating in a TE/sub mn/ waveguide mode. In Chapter 4 simulations and theoretical analysis are made of gyrotron amplifiers operating in the TE/sub 01/ mode. In Chapter 5 the linear eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies of gyrotron oscillators are examined. In Chapter 6 the experimental development of a GHz gyrotron is presented. Theoretical and numerical predictions of oscillation thresholds and efficiencies compare favorably with experimental data

  14. Industrial application of the decomposition of CO2 . NOx by large flow atmospheric microwave plasma LAMP employed in motorcar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil; Niwa, Syunta; Morii, Yoshinari; Ikezawa, Shunjiro

    2012-10-01

    In order to decompose CO2 . NOx [1], we have developed the large flow atmospheric microwave plasma; LAMP [2]. It is very important to apply it for industrial innovation, so we have studied to apply the LAMP into motorcar. The characteristics of the developed LAMP are that the price is cheap and the decomposition efficiencies of CO2 . NOx are high. The mechanism was shown as the vertical configuration between the exhaust gas pipe and the waveguide was suitable [2]. The system was set up in the car body with a battery and an inverter. The battery is common between the engine and the inverter. In the application of motorcar, the flow is large, so the LAMP which has the merits of large flow, high efficient decomposition, and cheap apparatus will be superior.[4pt] [1] H. Barankova, L. Bardos, ISSP 2011, Kyoto.[0pt] [2] S. Ikezawa, S. Parajulee, S. Sharma, A. Pandey, ISSP 2011, Kyoto (2011) pp. 28-31; S. Ikezawa, S. Niwa, Y. Morii, JJAP meeting 2012, March 16, Waseda U. (2012).

  15. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  16. Nanostructured Silver Substrates With Stable and Universal SERS Properties: Application to Organic Molecules and Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waurisch C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanostructured silver films have been prepared by thermal deposition on silicon, and their properties as SERS substrates investigated. The optimal conditions of the post-growth annealing of the substrates were established. Atomic force microscopy study revealed that the silver films with relatively dense and homogeneous arrays of 60–80-nm high pyramidal nanoislands are the most efficient for SERS of both organic dye and inorganic nanoparticles analytes. The noticeable enhancement of the Raman signal from colloidal nanoparticles with the help of silver island films is reported for the first time.

  17. Microwave dielectric properties of low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics for LTCC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jian-Li; Fu, Zhi-Fen; Liu, Peng; Wang, Bing; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure gives the Q × f and τ_f of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics sintered at various temperatures with different LiF contents. Addition of LiF enhanced the sinterability and optimized the microwave dielectric properties of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics. The excellent microwave dielectric properties (ε_r = 15.8, Q × f = 64,500 GHz, and τ_f = −0.2 ppm/°C) of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics sintered at 850 °C illustrated that LiF is a simple effective sintering aids for Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics. Such sample was compatible with Ag electrodes, suitable for the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications. - Highlights: • Temperature stability of Li_2TiO_3 ceramics were improved by doping MgO. • The low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics are fabricated. • LiF liquid phase reduced sintering temperature of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics to 850 °C. • The low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics possess well microwave dielectric properties. • The sample was compatible with Ag electrodes and suitable for LTCC applications. - Abstract: We fabricated the low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics doped with LiF by a conventional solid-state route, and investigated systematically their sintering characteristics, microstructures and microwave dielectric properties. The results showed that temperature stability of Li_2TiO_3 ceramics were improved by doping MgO. Well microwave dielectric properties for Li_2TiO_3–13 wt%MgO (LTM) ceramics with ε_r = 16.4, Q × f = 87,500 GHz, and τ_f = −1.2 ppm/°C were obtained at 1325 °C. Furthermore, addition of LiF enhanced the sinterability and optimized the microwave dielectric properties of LTM ceramics. A typically sample of LTM-4 wt%LiF ceramics with optimum dielectric properties (ε_r = 15.8, Q × f = 64,500 GHz, and τ_f = −0.2 ppm/°C) were achieved at 850 °C for 4 h. Such sample was compatible with Ag electrodes, suitable for the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications.

  18. The application of computer color matching techniques to the matching of target colors in a food substrate: a first step in the development of foods with customized appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sandra; Golding, Matt; Archer, Richard H

    2012-06-01

    A predictive color matching model based on the colorimetric technique was developed and used to calculate the concentrations of primary food dyes needed in a model food substrate to match a set of standard tile colors. This research is the first stage in the development of novel three-dimensional (3D) foods in which color images or designs can be rapidly reproduced in 3D form. Absorption coefficients were derived for each dye, from a concentration series in the model substrate, a microwave-baked cake. When used in a linear, additive blending model these coefficients were able to predict cake color from selected dye blends to within 3 ΔE*(ab,10) color difference units, or within the limit of a visually acceptable match. Absorption coefficients were converted to pseudo X₁₀, Y₁₀, and Z₁₀ tri-stimulus values (X₁₀(P), Y₁₀(P), Z₁₀(P)) for colorimetric matching. The Allen algorithm was used to calculate dye concentrations to match the X₁₀(P), Y₁₀(P), and Z₁₀(P) values of each tile color. Several recipes for each color were computed with the tile specular component included or excluded, and tested in the cake. Some tile colors proved out-of-gamut, limited by legal dye concentrations; these were scaled to within legal range. Actual differences suggest reasonable visual matches could be achieved for within-gamut tile colors. The Allen algorithm, with appropriate adjustments of concentration outputs, could provide a sufficiently rapid and accurate calculation tool for 3D color food printing. The predictive color matching approach shows potential for use in a novel embodiment of 3D food printing in which a color image or design could be rendered within a food matrix through the selective blending of primary dyes to reproduce each color element. The on-demand nature of this food application requires rapid color outputs which could be provided by the color matching technique, currently used in nonfood industries, rather than by empirical food

  19. High power microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2016-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...

  20. Varactor-tuned Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Acar, Öncel; Dong, Yunfeng

    Evanescent mode waveguides allow for more compact microwave component design in comparison to the traditional fundamental mode waveguide technology. Evanescent waveguides can be integrated into a dielectric substrate in order to further reduce the mass and volume. Unfortunately, traditional...... realization methods used in the standard evanescent waveguides are often not directly applicable to substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology due to dielectric filling and small height of the waveguide. In this work, one of the realization methods of evanescent waveguides using lumped elements...... is considered. In contrast to other methods described in the literature, it avoids etching split ring resonators in the metal layer of the SIW. The filters presented here use varactors as tuning elements. The varactors (as well as DC decoupling circuits) are mounted on the surface of PCB bringing the lower...

  1. Pigment-cellulose nanofibril composite and its application as a separator-substrate in printed supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvinen, Katariina; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Keränen, Janne T.; Sievänen, Jenni; Vartiainen, Jari; Hellén, Erkki; Lupo, Donald; Tuukkanen, Sampo

    2015-11-01

    Pigment-cellulose nanofibril (PCN) composites were manufactured in a pilot line and used as a separator-substrate in printed graphene and carbon nanotube supercapacitors. The composites consisted typically of 80% pigment and 20% cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). This composition makes them a cost-effective alternative as a substrate for printed electronics at high temperatures that only very special plastic films can nowadays stand. The properties of these substrates can be varied within a relatively large range by the selection of raw materials and their relative proportions. A semi-industrial scale pilot line was successfully used to produce smooth, flexible, and nanoporous composites, and their performance was tested in a double functional separator-substrate element in supercapacitors. The nanostructural carbon films printed on the composite worked simultaneously as high surface area active electrodes and current collectors. Low-cost supercapacitors made from environmentally friendly materials have significant potential for use in flexible, wearable, and disposable low-end products. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. PDMS as a sacrificial substrate for SU-8-based biomedical and microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jasbir N; Kaminska, Bozena; Gray, Bonnie L; Gates, Byron D

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new fabrication process utilizing polydimethylesiloxane (PDMS) as a sacrificial substrate layer for fabricating free-standing SU-8-based biomedical and microfluidic devices. The PDMS-on-glass substrate permits SU-8 photo patterning and layer-to-layer bonding. We have developed a novel PDMS-based process which allows the SU-8 structures to be easily peeled off from the substrate after complete fabrication. As an example, a fully enclosed microfluidic chip has been successfully fabricated utilizing the presented new process. The enclosed microfluidic chip uses adhesive bonding technology and the SU-8 layers from 10 µm to 450 µm thick for fully enclosed microchannels. SU-8 layers as large as the glass substrate are successfully fabricated and peeled off from the PDMS layer as single continuous sheets. The fabrication results are supported by optical microscopy and profilometry. The peel-off force for the 120 µm thick SU-8-based chips is measured using a voice coil actuator (VCA). As an additional benefit the release step leaves the input and the output of the microchannels accessible to the outside world facilitating interconnecting to the external devices

  3. Modeling of InP HBTs in Transferred-Substrate Technology for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Rudolph, Matthias; Jensen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling of InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in transferred substrate (TS) technology is investigated. At first, a direct parameter extraction methodology dedicated to III-V based HBTs is employed to determine the small-signal equivalent circuit parameters from...

  4. Potential energy surfaces of adsorbates on periodic substrates: Application of the Morse theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pick, Štěpán

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 045403-1-5 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : adsorbed layers * Morse potential * potential energy surfaces * substrates Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  5. Copper and CuNi alloys substrates for HTS coated conductor applications protected from oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra, M; Diaz, J; Xuriguera, H; Chimenos, J M; Espiell, F [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy, Univ. of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Miralles, L [Lab. d' Investigacio en Formacions Geologiques. Dept. of Petrology, Geochemistry and Geological Prospecting, Univ. of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Pinol, S [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Copper is an interesting substrate for HTS coated conductors for its low cost compared to other metallic substrates, and for its low resistivity. Nevertheless, mechanical properties and resistance to oxidation should be improved in order to use it as substrate for YBCO deposition by non-vacuum techniques. Therefore, different cube textured CuNi tapes were prepared by RABIT as possible substrates for deposition of high critical current density YBCO films. Under the optimised conditions of deformation and annealing, all the studied CuNi alloys (2%, 5%, and 10% Ni) presented (100) left angle 001 right angle cube texture which is compatible for YBCO deposition. Textured CuNi alloys present higher tensile strength than pure copper. Oxidation resistance of CuNi tapes under different oxygen atmospheres was also studied by thermogravimetric analysis and compared to pure copper tapes. Although the presence of nickel improves mechanical properties of annealed copper, it does not improve its oxidation resistance. However, when a chromium buffer layer is electrodeposited on the tape, oxygen diffusion is slowed down. Chromium is, therefore, useful for protecting copper and CuNi alloys from oxidation although its recrystallisation texture, (110), is not suitable for coated conductors. (orig.)

  6. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of Te-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods and nanosheets and their characterizations for bone cement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I S; Shkir, Mohd; AlFaify, S; Ganesh, V; Zahran, H Y; Kilany, Mona

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the authors have fabricated the nanorods and nanosheets of pure and Te-doped HAp with different Te concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24wt%) by microwave-assisted technique at low temperature. The crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters are calculated. FE-SEM study confirms that the fabricated nanostructures are nanorods of diameter about 10nm in undoped and at low concentration of Te doping. However, at and higher concentration, it becomes nanosheets of about 5nm thickness. X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman studies shows that the prepared products are of HAp and Te has been successfully incorporated. From EDX the Ca/P molar ratio of the pure HAp is about 1.740, while this ratio for 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 wt% Te doped is about 1.53, 1.678, 1.724, 1.792, respectively. Crystallite size was found to be increased with Te doping from 15nm to 62nm. The value of dielectric constant is found to be enhanced at higher concentrations of Te. The values of linear absorption coefficient were also determined and show that the prepared material with Te doping is more absorbable than pure and will be highly applicable in radiation detection applications. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential of pure and Te doped HAp was examined against some Gram- negative and positive bacteria and fungi by agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of Te doped HAp is stronger than that of pure HAp where it exhibited the highest activity against Bacillus subtilis>Candida albicans>Shigella dysenteriae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Substrate dependent physical properties of evaporated CdO thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Anuradha; Chander, S.; Patel, S.L. [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India); Rangra, K.J. [Sensors and Transducers Group, CSIR-CEERI, Pilani-333031 (India); Dhaka, M.S., E-mail: msdhaka75@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Substrate dependent physical properties of CdO thin films are carried out. • XRD patterns reveal that the films have cubic structure of space group Fm3m. • Optical direct band gap is found to vary with the substrates. • SEM images show that the films are compact and homogeneous. • I–V characteristics show ohmic behavior of the deposited CdO films. - Abstract: In this study, CdO thin films were grown by e-beam evaporation technique on glass, indium tin oxide (ITO), fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and silicon (Si) wafer. The deposited films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and source meter (current–voltage) for structural, optical, surface morphological, elemental and electrical analysis, respectively. The films have single phase of cubic structure (space group Fm3m) with (200) preferred orientation. The structural parameters viz. inter-planar spacing, grain size, lattice constant, internal strain and dislocation density are calculated and found to vary with the nature of the substrates. The optical band gap was found in the range 2.24–3.95 eV and strongly dependents on the substrates. The SEM analysis shows that the films are compact, homogeneous and have granular structure without any defects like pin holes and cracks. The EDS spectra confirmed the presence of cadmium (Cd) and oxygen (O) in the films deposited on different substrates. The current–voltage characteristics of the films show ohmic behavior.

  8. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  9. Passive Microwave Components and Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    State-of-the-art microwave systems always require higher performance and lower cost microwave components. Constantly growing demands and performance requirements of industrial and scientific applications often make employing traditionally designed components impractical. For that reason, the design...... and development process remains a great challenge today. This problem motivated intensive research efforts in microwave design and technology, which is responsible for a great number of recently appeared alternative approaches to analysis and design of microwave components and antennas. This book highlights...... techniques. Modelling and computations in electromagnetics is a quite fast-growing research area. The recent interest in this field is caused by the increased demand for designing complex microwave components, modeling electromagnetic materials, and rapid increase in computational power for calculation...

  10. Development of novel series and parallel sensing system based on nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Te-Wei

    With the advance of nanofabrication, the capability of nanoscale metallic structure fabrication opens a whole new study in nanoplasmonics, which is defined as the investigation of photon-electron interaction in the vicinity of nanoscale metallic structures. The strong oscillation of free electrons at the interface between metal and surrounding dielectric material caused by propagating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) enables a variety of new applications in different areas, especially biological sensing techniques. One of the promising biological sensing applications by surface resonance polariton is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which significantly reinforces the feeble signal of traditional Raman scattering by at least 104 times. It enables highly sensitive and precise molecule identification with the assistance of a SERS substrate. Until now, the design of new SERS substrate fabrication process is still thriving since no dominant design has emerged yet. The ideal process should be able to achieve both a high sensitivity and low cost device in a simple and reliable way. In this thesis two promising approaches for fabricating nanostructured SERS substrate are proposed: thermal dewetting technique and nanoimprint replica technique. These two techniques are demonstrated to show the capability of fabricating high performance SERS substrate in a reliable and cost efficient fashion. In addition, these two techniques have their own unique characteristics and can be integrated with other sensing techniques to build a serial or parallel sensing system. The breakthrough of a combination system with different sensing techniques overcomes the inherent limitations of SERS detection and leverages it to a whole new level of systematic sensing. The development of a sensing platform based on thermal dewetting technique is covered as the first half of this thesis. The process optimization, selection of substrate material

  11. Modeling microwave/electron-cloud interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattes, M; Sorolla, E; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the separate codes BI-RME and ECLOUD or PyECLOUD, we are developing a novel joint simulation tool, which models the combined effect of a charged particle beam and of microwaves on an electron cloud. Possible applications include the degradation of microwave transmission in telecommunication satellites by electron clouds; the microwave-transmission techniques being used in particle accelerators for the purpose of electroncloud diagnostics; the microwave emission by the electron cloud itself in the presence of a magnetic field; and the possible suppression of electron-cloud formation in an accelerator by injecting microwaves of suitable amplitude and frequency. A few early simulation results are presented. (author)

  12. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs

  13. Microwave plasmatrons for giant integrated circuit processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrin, A.B.

    2000-02-01

    A method for calculating the interaction of a powerful microwave with a plane layer of magnetoactive low-pressure plasma under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance is presented. In this paper, the plasma layer is situated between a plane dielectric layer and a plane metal screen. The calculation model contains the microwave energy balance, particle balance, and electron energy balance. The equation that expressed microwave properties of nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is found. The numerical calculations of the microwave-plasma interaction for a one-dimensional model of the problem are considered. Applications of the results for microwave plasmatrons designed for processing giant integrated circuits are suggested.

  14. Water-soluble Microwave-exfoliated Graphene Nanosheet/Platinum Nanoparticle Composite and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Peng; Chang, Ya-Huei; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Su, Haijun; Feng, Shien-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a facile and scalable aqueous process including mild oxidative intercalation, microwave exfoliation, ultrasonication, drying and Ar-annealing is developed to synthesize the water-soluble microwave-exfoliated graphene (MEG)/platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) composite, which has a relative low defect level and can be readily dispersed in deionized water without adding surfactants. This low cost synthesis method is applicable in many systems, such as supercapacitors, thermal storage, lithium battery and Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An efficiency of 6.69% for the MEG/PtNPs composite deposited on ITO PEN as flexible counter electrode (CE) for DSSCs has been obtained, higher than the control device made by PVP-Pt as flexible CE

  15. Fabrication of Si3N4 thin films on phynox alloy substrates for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankernath, V.; Naidu, K. Lakshun; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Padmanabhan, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Thin films of Si3N4 are deposited on Phynox alloy substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the films was varied between 80-150 nm by increasing the duration of deposition from 1 to 3 h at a fixed power density and working pressure. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the Si3N4 films had crystallized inspite of the substrates not being heated during deposition. This was confirmed using selected area electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy also. It is postulated that a low lattice misfit between Si3N4 and Phynox provides energetically favourable conditions for ambient temperature crystallization. The hardness of the films is of the order of 6 to 9 GPa.

  16. Wet-chemical passivation of atomically flat and structured silicon substrates for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, H.; Rappich, J.; Korte, L.; Sieber, I.; Conrad, E.; Schmidt, M.; Hübener, K.; Polte, J.; Hauschild, J.

    2008-04-01

    Special sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of differently oriented silicon to prepare very smooth silicon interfaces with excellent electronic properties on mono- and poly-crystalline substrates. Surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations were utilised to develop wet-chemical smoothing procedures for atomically flat and structured surfaces, respectively. Hydrogen-termination as well as passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological processing. Compared to conventional pre-treatments, significantly lower micro-roughness and densities of surface states were achieved on mono-crystalline Si(100), on evenly distributed atomic steps, such as on vicinal Si(111), on silicon wafers with randomly distributed upside pyramids, and on poly-crystalline EFG ( Edge-defined Film-fed- Growth) silicon substrates. The recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces prepared on c-Si substrates with randomly distributed upside pyramids was markedly reduced by an optimised wet-chemical smoothing procedure, as determined by PL measurements. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/c-Si(p)/Al) with textured c-Si substrates the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current Isc, fill factor and efficiency η. The scatter in the cell parameters for measurements on different cells is much narrower, as compared to conventional pre-treatments, indicating more well-defined and reproducible surface conditions prior to a-Si:H emitter deposition and/or a higher stability of the c-Si surface against variations in the a-Si:H deposition conditions.

  17. Fabrication, characterization and electrocatalytic application of a lead dioxide electrode with porous titanium substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenli; Kong, Haishen; Lin, Haibo; Lu, Haiyan; Huang, Weimin; Yin, Jian; Lin, Zheqi; Bao, Jinpeng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, PbO 2 electrode was prepared on porous Ti/SnO 2 –Sb 2 O 5 substrate (denoted as 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode), and its electrochemical properties were investigated in detail. The electrodeposition mechanism of 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) result showed that the 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode possessed porous structure when it was electrodeposited for time less than 30 min. The 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode prepared for 10 min had more active sites than the lead dioxide electrode electrodeposited on planar titanium substrate (denoted as 2D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode) and its electrochemical porosity is about 54%. The embedded structure between porous Ti/SnO 2 –Sb 2 O 5 substrate and PbO 2 coating increased the stability of 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode. The service life of 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode was about 350 h which was much longer than 2D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode. What's more, 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode had better electrocatalytic activity towards phenol degradation than 2D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode. - Highlights: • 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode was prepared on a porous titanium substrate. • The electrochemical active surface area was investigated. • The activity of 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode towards phenol oxidation was investigated. • 3D-Ti/PbO 2 electrode shows superior electrocatalytic activity.

  18. InAs quantum wires on InP substrate for VCSEL applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lamy , Jean-Michel; Paranthoën , Cyril; Levallois , Christophe; Nakkar , Abdulhadi; Folliot , Hervé; Dehaese , Olivier; Le Corre , Alain; Loualiche , Slimane; Castany , Olivier; Dupont , Laurent

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Quantum dash based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) on InP substrate are presented. Single and close stacking layers were successfully grown with molecular beam epitaxy. Optimized quantum dash layers exhibit a strong polarized 1.55 µm photoluminescence along the [1-10] crystallographic axis. Continuous wave laser emission is demonstrated at room temperature for the first time on a quantum dash VCSEL structure on InP susbtrate. The quantum dash VCSEL lase...

  19. Organic against inorganic electrodes grown onto polymer substrates for flexible organic electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logothetidis, S.; Laskarakis, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging topics in the area of organic electronic devices is the growth of transparent electrodes onto flexible polymeric substrates that will be characterized by enhanced conductivity in combination with high optical transparency. An essential aspect for these materials is their synthesis and/or microstructure which define the transparency, the stability and the interfacial chemistry which in turn determine the performance and stability of the organic electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaics, etc. In this work, we will discuss the latest advances in the growth of organic (e.g. PEDOT:PSS) and inorganic (e.g. zinc oxide-ZnO, indium tin oxide-ITO) conductive materials and their deposition onto flexible polymeric substrates. We will compare the optical, structural, nano-mechanical and nano-topographical properties of the inorganic and organic materials and we investigate the effect of their structure on their properties and functionality. In the case of the organic conductive materials, we will discuss the effects of PEDOT:PSS weight ratios and the various spin speeds on their optical and electrical properties. Furthermore, in the case of ZnO the growth mechanisms, interface phenomena, crystallinity and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown onto polymer and hybrid (inorganic-organic) flexible substrates will be also discussed.

  20. Anaerobic solid state fermentation of cellulosic substrates with possible application to cellulase production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevoorde, L; Verstraete, W

    1987-08-01

    A solid state fermentation process was developed for the conversion of straw and cellulose under anaerobic conditions by a mixed culture of cellulolytic and methanogenic organisms. The bioconversion rate and efficiency were compared under mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) and thermophilic (55/sup 0/C) conditions. Cellulolytic activity was assayed in terms of sugar and overall soluble organic matter (chemical oxygen demand, COD) production. Maximum conversion rates were obtained under thermophilic conditions, i.e. 8.4 g and 14.2 g COD/kg.d, respectively, when wheat straw and cellulose were used as substrates. The cellulolytic activity of the reactor contents (23% dry matter), measured under substrate excess conditions, amounted to 50 g COD/kg.d. As a comparison, the activity of rumen contents (15 % dry matter) measured by the same assay amounted to 150 g COD/kg . d. The anaerobic cellulases appeared to be substrate bound. This and the relative low activity levels attained, limit the perspectives of producing cellulase enzymes by this type of process.

  1. Microwave processing in MOX fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, G.K.; Malav, R.K.; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The prominent aspect of the microwave heating technique applications in nuclear material processing is its eco-friendly status. It is envisaged that no active liquid waste will be generated from microwave processing. AFFF has fabricated the (U, Pu) 2 O mixed oxide fuels for PHWRs, BWRs and PFBR. AFFF is also working for the AHWR fuel cycle. The present paper summarises about the process experiments, instrumental development, results, and future applications of microwave heating technique. (author)

  2. Microwave Sensors for Breast Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2018-02-23

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among females, early diagnostic methods with suitable treatments improve the 5-year survival rates significantly. Microwave breast imaging has been reported as the most potential to become the alternative or additional tool to the current gold standard X-ray mammography for detecting breast cancer. The microwave breast image quality is affected by the microwave sensor, sensor array, the number of sensors in the array and the size of the sensor. In fact, microwave sensor array and sensor play an important role in the microwave breast imaging system. Numerous microwave biosensors have been developed for biomedical applications, with particular focus on breast tumor detection. Compared to the conventional medical imaging and biosensor techniques, these microwave sensors not only enable better cancer detection and improve the image resolution, but also provide attractive features such as label-free detection. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent important achievements in microwave sensors for biomedical imaging applications, with particular focus on breast cancer detection. The electric properties of biological tissues at microwave spectrum, microwave imaging approaches, microwave biosensors, current challenges and future works are also discussed in the manuscript.

  3. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of Te-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods and nanosheets and their characterizations for bone cement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, I.S. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronics Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Metallurgical Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Shkir, Mohd, E-mail: shkirphysics@gmail.com [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronics Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S.; Ganesh, V. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronics Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia); Zahran, H.Y. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronics Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Metallurgical Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Kilany, Mona [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Microbiology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the authors have fabricated the nanorods and nanosheets of pure and Te-doped HAp with different Te concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 wt%) by microwave-assisted technique at low temperature. The crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters are calculated. FE-SEM study confirms that the fabricated nanostructures are nanorods of diameter about 10 nm in undoped and at low concentration of Te doping. However, at and higher concentration, it becomes nanosheets of about 5 nm thickness. X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman studies shows that the prepared products are of HAp and Te has been successfully incorporated. From EDX the Ca/P molar ratio of the pure HAp is about 1.740, while this ratio for 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 wt% Te doped is about 1.53, 1.678, 1.724, 1.792, respectively. Crystallite size was found to be increased with Te doping from 15 nm to 62 nm. The value of dielectric constant is found to be enhanced at higher concentrations of Te. The values of linear absorption coefficient were also determined and show that the prepared material with Te doping is more absorbable than pure and will be highly applicable in radiation detection applications. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential of pure and Te doped HAp was examined against some Gram- negative and positive bacteria and fungi by agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of Te doped HAp is stronger than that of pure HAp where it exhibited the highest activity against Bacillus subtilis > Candida albicans > Shigella dysenteriae. - Highlights: • The crystallinity was found to be enhanced and so the crystal size with Te doping. • The enhancement in the relative permittivity was observed at some concentrations. • The linear absorption coefficient was found to be enhanced by Te doping. • Te doped HAp may be used for radiation shielding applications in medical. • The antimicrobial activity was found to be enhanced with Te

  4. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of Te-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods and nanosheets and their characterizations for bone cement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahia, I.S.; Shkir, Mohd; AlFaify, S.; Ganesh, V.; Zahran, H.Y.; Kilany, Mona

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the authors have fabricated the nanorods and nanosheets of pure and Te-doped HAp with different Te concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 wt%) by microwave-assisted technique at low temperature. The crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters are calculated. FE-SEM study confirms that the fabricated nanostructures are nanorods of diameter about 10 nm in undoped and at low concentration of Te doping. However, at and higher concentration, it becomes nanosheets of about 5 nm thickness. X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman studies shows that the prepared products are of HAp and Te has been successfully incorporated. From EDX the Ca/P molar ratio of the pure HAp is about 1.740, while this ratio for 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 wt% Te doped is about 1.53, 1.678, 1.724, 1.792, respectively. Crystallite size was found to be increased with Te doping from 15 nm to 62 nm. The value of dielectric constant is found to be enhanced at higher concentrations of Te. The values of linear absorption coefficient were also determined and show that the prepared material with Te doping is more absorbable than pure and will be highly applicable in radiation detection applications. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential of pure and Te doped HAp was examined against some Gram- negative and positive bacteria and fungi by agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of Te doped HAp is stronger than that of pure HAp where it exhibited the highest activity against Bacillus subtilis > Candida albicans > Shigella dysenteriae. - Highlights: • The crystallinity was found to be enhanced and so the crystal size with Te doping. • The enhancement in the relative permittivity was observed at some concentrations. • The linear absorption coefficient was found to be enhanced by Te doping. • Te doped HAp may be used for radiation shielding applications in medical. • The antimicrobial activity was found to be enhanced with Te

  5. X-BAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED RECTENNAS FOR MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuexia; Xu Junshu; Xu Deming; Xu Changlong

    2008-01-01

    Circularly polarized rectennas operating at X-band are studied in this paper. The quasi-square patches fed by aperture coupling are used as the circularly polarized receiving antennas,which are easily matched and integrated with the circuits of rectennas. The double-layer structure not only minimizes the size of the rectennas but also decreases the effects of the circuits on the antenna. The receiving elements have broader bandwidth and higher gain than the single-layer patches.Two rectennas operating at 10GHz are designed, fabricated and measured. The voltage of 3.86V on a load of 200Ωis measured and a high RF-DC conversion efficiency of 75% is obtained at 9.98GHz. It is convenient for this kind of rectennas to form large arrays for high power applications.

  6. Surface Effects and Challenges for Application of Piezoelectric Langasite Substrates in Surface Acoustic Wave Devices Caused by High Temperature Annealing under High Vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Marietta; Rane, Gayatri K; Kirbus, Benjamin; Menzel, Siegfried B; Gemming, Thomas

    2015-12-19

    Substrate materials that are high-temperature stable are essential for sensor devices which are applied at high temperatures. Although langasite is suggested as such a material, severe O and Ga diffusion into an O-affine deposited film was observed during annealing at high temperatures under vacuum conditions, leading to a damage of the metallization as well as a change of the properties of the substrate and finally to a failure of the device. Therefore, annealing of bare LGS (La 3 Ga 5 SiO 14 ) substrates at 800 ∘ C under high vacuum conditions is performed to analyze whether this pretreatment improves the suitability and stability of this material for high temperature applications in vacuum. To reveal the influence of the pretreatment on the subsequently deposited metallization, RuAl thin films are used as they are known to oxidize on LGS at high temperatures. A local study of the pretreated and metallized substrates using transmission electron microscopy reveals strong modification of the substrate surface. Micro cracks are visible. The composition of the substrate is strongly altered at those regions. Severe challenges for the application of LGS substrates under high-temperature vacuum conditions arise from these substrate damages, revealing that the pretreatment does not improve the applicability.

  7. Surface Effects and Challenges for Application of Piezoelectric Langasite Substrates in Surface Acoustic Wave Devices Caused by High Temperature Annealing under High Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Seifert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Substrate materials that are high-temperature stable are essential for sensor devices which are applied at high temperatures. Although langasite is suggested as such a material, severe O and Ga diffusion into an O-affine deposited film was observed during annealing at high temperatures under vacuum conditions, leading to a damage of the metallization as well as a change of the properties of the substrate and finally to a failure of the device. Therefore, annealing of bare LGS (La 3 Ga 5 SiO 14 substrates at 800 ∘ C under high vacuum conditions is performed to analyze whether this pretreatment improves the suitability and stability of this material for high temperature applications in vacuum. To reveal the influence of the pretreatment on the subsequently deposited metallization, RuAl thin films are used as they are known to oxidize on LGS at high temperatures. A local study of the pretreated and metallized substrates using transmission electron microscopy reveals strong modification of the substrate surface. Micro cracks are visible. The composition of the substrate is strongly altered at those regions. Severe challenges for the application of LGS substrates under high-temperature vacuum conditions arise from these substrate damages, revealing that the pretreatment does not improve the applicability.

  8. Microwave and pulsed power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Microwave and Pulsed Power Engineering Thrust Area is responsible for developing the short-term and long-term engineering resources required to support the growing microwave and pulsed power engineering requirements of several LLNL Programs. The responsibility of this Thrust Area is to initiate applicable research and development projects and to provide capabilities and facilities to permit engineers involved in these and other programs to make significant contributions. In this section, the principal projects are described: dielectric failure prediction using partial discharge analysis, coating dielectrics to increase surface flashover potential, and the microwave generator experiment

  9. Circularly polarized microwaves for magnetic resonance study in the GHz range: Application to nitrogen-vacancy in diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrózek, M.; Rudnicki, D. S.; Gawlik, W.; Mlynarczyk, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create time-dependent magnetic fields of controlled polarization is essential for many experiments with magnetic resonance. We describe a microstrip circuit that allows us to generate strong magnetic field at microwave frequencies with arbitrary adjusted polarization. The circuit performance is demonstrated by applying it to an optically detected magnetic resonance and Rabi nutation experiments in nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond. Thanks to high efficiency of the proposed microstrip circuit and degree of circular polarization of 85%; it is possible to address the specific spin states of a diamond sample using a low power microwave generator. The circuit may be applied to a wide range of magnetic resonance experiments with a well-controlled polarization of microwaves

  10. APPLICATION OF 6-NITROCOUMARIN AS A SUBSTRATE FOR THE FLUORESCENT DETECTION OF NITROREDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Denise Ottonelli Stopiglia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sporothrix schenckii is a thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus causing a subcutaneous mycosis, sporotrichosis. Nitrocoumarin represents a fluorogenic substrate class where the microbial nitroreductase activity produces several derivatives, already used in several other enzyme assays. The objective of this study was the analysis of 6-nitrocoumarin (6-NC as a substrate to study the nitroreductase activity in Sporothrix schenckii. Methods Thirty-five samples of S. schenckii were cultivated for seven, 14 and 21 days at 35 °C in a microculture containing 6-nitrocoumarin or 6-aminocoumarin (6-AC dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide or dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control, for posterior examination under an epifluorescence microscope. The organic layer of the seven, 14 and 21-day cultures was analyzed by means of direct illumination with 365 nm UV light and by means of elution on G silica gel plate with hexane:ethyl acetate 1:4 unveiled with UV light. Results All of the strains showed the presence of 6-AC (yellow fluorescence and 6-hydroxylaminocoumarin (blue fluorescence in thin layer chromatography, which explains the green fluorescence observed in the fungus structure. Conclusion The nitroreductase activity is widely distributed in the S. schenckii complex and 6-NC is a fluorogenic substrate of easy access and applicability for the nitroreductase activity detection.

  11. Direct high-frequency modulation of VCSELs and applications in fibre optic RF and microwave links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Christina; Gustavsson, Johan; Haglund, Asa; Modh, Peter; Bengtsson, Joergen

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication networks there is an increasing demand for efficient and cost-effective transmission and distribution of RF signals. Fibre optic RF links, employing directly modulated semiconductor lasers, provide many of the desired characteristics for such distribution systems and in the search for cost-effective solutions, the vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is of interest. It has therefore been the purpose of this work to investigate whether 850 nm VCSELs fulfil basic performance requirements for fibre optic RF links operating in the low-GHz range. The performance of single- and multimode oxide confined VCSELs has been compared, in order to pin-point limitations and to find the optimum design. Fibre optic RF links using VCSELs and multimode fibres have been assembled and evaluated with respect to performance characteristics of importance for wireless communication systems. We have found that optimized single-mode VCSELs provide the highest performance and that links using such VCSELs and high-bandwidth multimode fibres satisfy the requirements in a number of applications, including cellular systems for mobile communication and wireless local area networks

  12. State of the art and prospective of large scale applications of YBCO thick films grown on metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Vincenzo

    1997-09-01

    In the framework of the high temperature superconducting materials, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) shows very interesting intrinsic superconducting transport properties at temperature higher than the liquid nitrogen temperature. These properties are very important in large scale applications: transport of energy, magnets, transformers, etc. Unfortunately the potential of this material cannot be achieved today, since it is very difficult to manufacture YBCO based tapes or cables. In the last years several groups have tried to overcome the problems with new fabrication techniques. In the present report the state of the art and the prospective in the field of YBCO film fabrication on metallic substrates are presented

  13. Novel Low Loss Wide-Band Multi-Port Integrated Circuit Technology for RF/Microwave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Goverdhanam, Kavita; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, novel low loss, wide-band coplanar stripline technology for radio frequency (RF)/microwave integrated circuits is demonstrated on high resistivity silicon wafer. In particular, the fabrication process for the deposition of spin-on-glass (SOG) as a dielectric layer, the etching of microvias for the vertical interconnects, the design methodology for the multiport circuits and their measured/simulated characteristics are graphically illustrated. The study shows that circuits with very low loss, large bandwidth, and compact size are feasible using this technology. This multilayer planar technology has potential to significantly enhance RF/microwave IC performance when combined with semi-conductor devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  14. Handbook of RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components

    CERN Document Server

    Smolskiy, Sergey M; Kochemasov, Victor N

    2012-01-01

    This unique and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics of active and passive RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range of application areas, from communications and information sciences, to avionics, space, and military engineering. This practical book presents descriptions and clear examples and of the best materials and products used in the field, including laminates, prepregs, substrates; microstrip, coaxial and wa

  15. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Bonded to Solid Graphite Substrates: Thermal Analysis for Future Device Cooling Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty T. Quinton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are known for high thermal conductivity and have potential use as nano-radiators or heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the thermal performance of carpet-like arrays of vertically aligned CNTs on solid graphite substrates with the idea of investigating their behavior as a function of carpet dimensions and predicting their performance as thermal interface material (TIM for electronic device cooling. Vertically aligned CNTs were grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG substrate, which creates a robust and durable all-carbon hierarchical structure. The multi-layer thermal analysis approach using Netzsch laser flash analysis system was used to evaluate their performance as a function of carpet height, from which their thermal properties can be determined. It was seen that the thermal resistance of the CNT array varies linearly with CNT carpet height, providing a unique way of decoupling the properties of the CNT carpet from its interface. This data was used to estimate the thermal conductivity of individual multi-walled nanotube strands in this carpet, which was about 35 W/m-K. The influence of CNT carpet parameters (aerial density, diameter, and length on thermal resistance of the CNT carpet and its potential advantages and limitations as an integrated TIM are discussed.

  16. Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin Blocking Efficiency on Epoxy-Functionalized Substrates for Microarray Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yung-Shin; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    Microarrays provide a platform for high-throughput characterization of biomolecular interactions. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of microarrays, surface blocking is required to minimize the nonspecific interactions between analytes and unprinted yet functionalized surfaces. To block amine- or epoxy-functionalized substrates, bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most commonly used blocking reagents because it is cheap and easy to use. Based on standard protocols from microarray manufactories, a BSA concentration of 1% (10 mg/mL or 200 μM) and reaction time of at least 30 min are required to efficiently block epoxy-coated slides. In this paper, we used both fluorescent and label-free methods to characterize the BSA blocking efficiency on epoxy-functionalized substrates. The blocking efficiency of BSA was characterized using a fluorescent scanner and a label-free oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) microscope. We found that (1) a BSA concentration of 0.05% (0.5 mg/mL or 10 μM) could give a blocking efficiency of 98%, and (2) the BSA blocking step took only about 5 min to be complete. Also, from real-time and in situ measurements, we were able to calculate the conformational properties (thickness, mass density, and number density) of BSA molecules deposited on the epoxy surface. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Dehalogenation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) by Nucleofile Reactants at the Presence of Ionic Liquids and under Application of Microwaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, P.; Kaštánek, František; Hájek, Milan; Sobek, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2011), s. 59-64 ISSN 1790-7632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nucleophilic substitution * ionic liqiud * microwaves Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2011

  18. Modeling and design of a capacitive microwave power sensor for X-band applications based on GaAs technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Liao, Xiaoping

    2012-05-01

    In the work, modeling and design of a capacitive microwave power sensor employing the MEMS plate with clamped-clamped and free-free edges are presented. A novel analytical model of the sensor is established in detail. Through the function of mode shapes presented, the natural frequency can be solved by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. And based on the generalized coordinate introduced, the displacement of the plate with the irradiation of microwave power can be solved. Furthermore, the sensitivity for the power is also derived. Then the detailed consideration of the design and simulation of the microwave characteristic of the sensor are also presented. The linearly graded ground planar in the coplanar waveguide is employed to avoid step discontinuity. The fabrication process is compatible with GaAs MMIC technology completely, also described in detail. The measurement of the proposed sensor indicates a sensitivity of 7.2 fF W-1 and superior return and insertion losses (S11 and S21), less than -22.16 dB and -0.25 dB, respectively, up to 12 GHz, suggesting that it can be available for microwave power detecting in the X-band frequency range.

  19. Modeling and design of a capacitive microwave power sensor for X-band applications based on GaAs technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yan; Liao, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    In the work, modeling and design of a capacitive microwave power sensor employing the MEMS plate with clamped–clamped and free–free edges are presented. A novel analytical model of the sensor is established in detail. Through the function of mode shapes presented, the natural frequency can be solved by the Rayleigh–Ritz method. And based on the generalized coordinate introduced, the displacement of the plate with the irradiation of microwave power can be solved. Furthermore, the sensitivity for the power is also derived. Then the detailed consideration of the design and simulation of the microwave characteristic of the sensor are also presented. The linearly graded ground planar in the coplanar waveguide is employed to avoid step discontinuity. The fabrication process is compatible with GaAs MMIC technology completely, also described in detail. The measurement of the proposed sensor indicates a sensitivity of 7.2 fF W −1 and superior return and insertion losses (S 11 and S 21 ), less than −22.16 dB and −0.25 dB, respectively, up to 12 GHz, suggesting that it can be available for microwave power detecting in the X-band frequency range. (paper)

  20. Integrated Microwave Photonic Isolators: Theory, Experimental Realization and Application in a Unidirectional Ring Mode-Locked Laser Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn J.R. Heck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated microwave photonic isolator is presented. It is based on the timed drive of a pair of optical modulators, which transmit a pulsed or oscillating optical signal with low loss, when driven in phase. A signal in the reverse propagation direction will find the modulators out of phase and, hence, will experience high loss. Optical and microwave isolation ratios were simulated to be in the range up to 10 dB and 20 dB, respectively, using parameters representative for the indium phosphide platform. The experimental realization of this device in the hybrid silicon platform showed microwave isolation in the 9 dB–22 dB range. Furthermore, we present a design study on the use of these isolators inside a ring mode-locked laser cavity. Simulations show that unidirectional operation can be achieved, with a 30–50-dB suppression of the counter propagating mode, at limited driving voltages. The potentially low noise and feedback-insensitive operation of such a laser makes it a very promising candidate for use as on-chip microwave or comb generators.

  1. A wafer-level multi-chip module process with thick photosensitive benzocyclobutene as the dielectric for microwave application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jiajie; Sun, Xiaowei; Luo, Le

    2011-01-01

    A wafer-level microwave multi-chip module (MMCM) packaging process is presented. Thick photosensitive-benzocyclobutene (photo-BCB) polymer (about 25 µm/layer) is used as the dielectric for its simplified process and the capability of obtaining desirable electrical, chemical and mechanical properties at high frequencies. The MMCM packaging structure contains a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip embedded in a lossy-silicon wafer, a microwave band-pass filter (BPF) and two layers of BCB/Au interconnection. Key processes of fabrication are described in detail. The non-uniformity of BCB film and the sidewall angle of the via-holes for inter-layer connection are tested. Via-chains prepared by metal/BCB multilayer structures are tested through the Kelvin test structure to investigate the resistances of inter-layer connection. The average value is measured to be 73.5 mΩ. The electrical characteristic of this structure is obtained by a microwave transmission performance test from 15 to 30 GHz. The measurement results show good consistency between the bare MMIC die and the packaged die in the test frequency band. The gain of the MMIC chip after packaging is better than 18 dB within the designed operating frequency range (from 23 to 25 GHz). When the packaged MMIC chip is connected to a BPF, the maximum gain is still measured to reach 11.95 dB at 23.8 GHz

  2. Microwave-assisted modulated synthesis of zirconium-based metal–organic framework (Zr-MOF) for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium-based metal–organic framework (Zr-MOF) was synthesized using a microwave-assisted modulated method in a short reaction time of 5 min. The Zr-MOF material was highly crystalline with well-defined octahedral shaped crystals, and it exhibited...

  3. The effect of anchovy substrate application to fluor retention rate on Sprague Dawley rat tooth email (in vivo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrina, S.; Puspitawati, R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    Usage of anchovies (Stolephorus insularis), which contain a high fluoride concentration in a CaF2 compound, needs to be examined as a topical fluoridative agent. Aim: To study the effects of an anchovy substrate application, either by chewing or smearing, in increasing fluoride retention of enamel. Fourteen Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: baseline, experimental (feeding and smearing), and negative controls. After 15 days, lower incisor teeth were extracted and fluoride retention on the enamel surface was measured using EDX. Data were analyzed by the independent samples t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. There was a significant increase in fluoride retention on enamel from the experimental groups compared to the negative control group (p < 0.05). Fluoride retention levels of the experimental feeding group (6.823%) were slightly higher than those of the experimental smearing group (6.783%), though the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Anchovy substrate application, either by chewing or smearing, increases fluoride retention on tooth enamel.

  4. Modifying the characteristics of carbon nanotubes grown on metallic substrates for ultracapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenicek, D. P., E-mail: djenicek@mit.edu; Kassakian, J. G. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); McCarthy, A. [Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based ultracapacitor electrodes and provides quantitative results, showing that total electrode surface area—and, correspondingly, the total cell capacitance—is highly sensitive to the amount of catalyst material deposited prior to CNT growth. We deposit between 0.6 and 1.0 nm of iron catalyst on metallic (tungsten) substrates and synthesized vertically aligned CNT forests directly by thermal chemical vapor deposition. A capacitance maximum is observed with electrodes prepared with 0.8 nm of catalyst. Geometrical arguments based on average CNT diameter and areal density are used to corroborate this result. The CNTs' differential capacitance is found to be independent of their areal density, mean diameter, length, and the amount of catalyst used to grow them.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY PASSIVE SHIELDING APPLICATION USING MAGNETIC AQUEOUS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR ASHIKIN MOHD RASHID

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns on Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electromagnetic Field (EMF exposure have been elongated since the last few decades. Electrical substations and high tension rooms in commercial buildings were among the contributing factors emanating ELF magnetic fields. This paper discussed various shielding methods conventionally used in mitigating the ELF exposure. Nevertheless, the standard methods were found to be impractical and incapable of meeting currents shielding demands. In response to that, remarkable researches were conducted in effort to invent novel methods which is more convenient and efficient such as magnetic aqueous shielding or paint, textiles and papers shielding. A magnetic aqueous substrate, Manganese Zinc Ferrite was used as shielding material. The magnetic field and flux distribution inside the aqueous magnetic material are evaluated to optimize shielding against ELFEMF exposure, as to mitigate its exposure.

  6. High emittance black nickel coating on copper substrate for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Soniya, E-mail: jrf0013@isac.gov.in; Pillai, Anju M., E-mail: anjum@isac.gov.in; Rajendra, A., E-mail: rajendra@isac.gov.in; Sharma, A.K., E-mail: aks@isac.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • High emittance black nickel coating is obtained on copper substrate. • The effect of various process parameters on IR emittance is studied systematically. • Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance black nickel coating. • Coating obtained using the finalized parameters exhibited an emittance of 0.83. • SEM and EDAX are used for coating characterization. - Abstract: Black nickel, an alloy coating of zinc and nickel, is obtained on copper substrate by pulse electrodeposition from a modified Fishlock bath containing nickel sulphate, nickel ammonium sulphate, zinc sulphate and ammonium thiocyanate. A nickel undercoat of 4–5 μm thickness is obtained using Watts bath to increase the corrosion resistance and adhesion of the black nickel coating. The effect of bath composition, temperature, solution pH, current density and plating time on the coating appearance and corresponding infra-red emittance of the coating is investigated systematically. Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance space worthy black nickel coating to improve the heat radiation characteristics. The effect of the chemistry of the plating bath on the coating composition was studied using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) of the coatings. The 5–6 μm thick uniform jet black zinc–nickel alloy coating obtained with optimized process exhibited an emittance of 0.83 and an absorbance of 0.92. The zinc to nickel ratio of black nickel coatings showing high emittance and appealing appearance was found to be in the range 2.3–2.4.

  7. Application of synchrotron through-the-substrate microdiffraction to crystals in polished thin sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron through-the-substrate X-ray microdiffraction technique (tts-μXRD is extended to the structural study of microvolumes of crystals embedded in polished thin sections of compact materials [Rius, Labrador, Crespi, Frontera, Vallcorba & Melgarejo (2011. J.Synchrotron Rad. 18, 891–898]. The resulting tts-μXRD procedure includes some basic steps: (i collection of a limited number of consecutive two-dimensional patterns (frames for each randomly oriented crystal microvolume; (ii refinement of the metric from the one-dimensional diffraction pattern which results from circularly averaging the sum of collected frames; (iii determination of the reciprocal lattice orientation of each randomly oriented crystal microvolume which allows assigning the hkl indices to the spots and, consequently, merging the intensities of the different frames into a single-crystal data set (frame merging; and (iv merging of the individual crystal data sets (multicrystal merging to produce an extended data set suitable for structure refinement/solution. Its viability for crystal structure solution by Patterson function direct methods (δ recycling and for accurate single-crystal least-squares refinements is demonstrated with some representative examples from petrology in which different glass substrate thicknesses have been employed. The section of the crystal microvolume must be at least of the same order of magnitude as the focus of the beam (15 × 15 µm in the provided examples. Thanks to its versatility and experimental simplicity, this methodology should be useful for disciplines as disparate as petrology, materials science and cultural heritage.

  8. Microwave solidification project overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  9. Microwave solidification project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included

  10. Microwave firing of MnZn-ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakaloudi, V.; Papazoglou, E.; Zaspalis, V.T.

    2004-01-01

    Microwave firing is evaluated in comparison to conventional firing for MnZn-ferrites. For otherwise identical conditions, microwave firing results to higher densities and coarser microstructures. Initial magnetic permeability values (25 kHz, 25 deg. C, <0.1 mT) after conventional firing are approximately 5000, but the corresponding values after microwave firing are approximately 6000. Unlike the conventional firing process, the final density after microwave firing is increased by increasing the prefiring temperature. As appears from the results of this study, microwave firing could be in principle a promising MnZn-ferrite firing technology for materials to be used in high magnetic permeability applications. No advantages of microwave firing are evident for materials intended to be used in high field power applications

  11. Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films and their reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Binbing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy images. After the simulation of the E-field intensity distribution around the silver NPs in NaCMC film, the Raman scattering enhancement factors (EFs) of these films were then investigated with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecule as a SERS reporter. Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in the microwave assisted synthesized Ag–NaCMC film, although it maintained an EF as only 1.11 × 10 8 . The reproducible SERS signal of the Ag–NaCMC film is particularly attractive and this microwave assisted in situ reduction method is suitable for the production of excellent substrate for biosensor application. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films was successfully fulfilled by a low-cost microwave method. • More uniform silver nanoparticles were observed in Ag–NaCMC film synthesized by microwave. • Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in microwave synthesized Ag–NaCMC film. - Abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by

  12. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  13. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology

  14. Microwave to millimeter-wave electrodynamic response and applications of semiconductor nanostructures: LDRD project 67025 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaner, Eric Arthur; Lee, Mark; Averitt, R. D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Highstrete, Clark; Taylor, A. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Padilla, W. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, S. James (University of California Santa Barbara)

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies, based on semiconductor light emitting devices, have the potential to reduce worldwide electricity consumption by more than 10%, which could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on imported energy and improve energy security. The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white SSL and could cover a wide spectral range from the deep UV to the infrared. For this LDRD program, we have investigated the synthesis of single-crystalline III-nitride nanowires and heterostructure nanowires, which may possess unique optoelectronic properties. These novel structures could ultimately lead to the development of novel and highly efficient SSL nanodevice applications. GaN and III-nitride core-shell heterostructure nanowires were successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on two-inch wafer substrates. The effect of process conditions on nanowire growth was investigated, and characterization of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanowires was also performed.

  15. Application of spatial time domain reflectometry measurements in heterogeneous, rocky substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C.; Scheuermann, A.; Arnold, S.; Baumgartl, T.

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of soil moisture across depths using sensors is currently limited to point measurements or remote sensing technologies. Point measurements have limitations on spatial resolution, while the latter, although covering large areas may not represent real-time hydrologic processes, especially near the surface. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of elongated soil moisture probes—spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR)—and to describe transient soil moisture dynamics of unconsolidated mine waste rock materials. The probes were calibrated under controlled conditions in the glasshouse. Transient soil moisture content was measured using the gravimetric method and STDR. Volumetric soil moisture content derived from weighing was compared with values generated from a numerical model simulating the drying process. A calibration function was generated and applied to STDR field data sets. The use of elongated probes effectively assists in the real-time determination of the spatial distribution of soil moisture. It also allows hydrologic processes to be uncovered in the unsaturated zone, especially for water balance calculations that are commonly based on point measurements. The elongated soil moisture probes can potentially describe transient substrate processes and delineate heterogeneity in terms of the pore size distribution in a seasonally wet but otherwise arid environment.

  16. New fluorimetric assay of horseradish peroxidase using sesamol as substrate and its application to EIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Arakawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Horseradish peroxidase (HRP is generally used as a label enzyme in enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The procedure used for HRP detection in EIA is critical for sensitivity and precision. This paper describes a novel fluorimetric assay for horseradish peroxidase (HRP using sesamol as substrate. The principle of the assay is as follow: sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxy phenol is reacted enzymatically in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to produce dimeric sesamol. The dimer is fluorescent and can be detected sensitively at ex. 347 nm, em. 427 nm.The measurable range of HRP was 1.0×10−18 to 1.0×10−15 mol/assay, with a detection limit of 1.0×10−18 mol/assay. The coefficient of variation (CV, n=8 was examined at each point on the standard curve, with a mean CV percentage of 3.8%. This assay system was applied to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH EIA using HRP as the label enzyme. Keywords: Sesamol, Fluorescence, Enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH

  17. New fluorimetric assay of horseradish peroxidase using sesamol as substrate and its application to EIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Nakabayashi, Shigeo; Ohno, Ken-Ichi; Maeda, Masako

    2012-04-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is generally used as a label enzyme in enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The procedure used for HRP detection in EIA is critical for sensitivity and precision. This paper describes a novel fluorimetric assay for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using sesamol as substrate. The principle of the assay is as follow: sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxy phenol) is reacted enzymatically in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to produce dimeric sesamol. The dimer is fluorescent and can be detected sensitively at ex. 347 nm, em. 427 nm. The measurable range of HRP was 1.0×10 -18 to 1.0×10 -15  mol/assay, with a detection limit of 1.0×10 -18  mol/assay. The coefficient of variation (CV, n =8) was examined at each point on the standard curve, with a mean CV percentage of 3.8%. This assay system was applied to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) EIA using HRP as the label enzyme.

  18. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Alessandra; Pizzeghello, Diego; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality. In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures) treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole), with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days). FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI) and ester-linked method (EL). The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2) values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time. Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides.

  19. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cardinali

    Full Text Available In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality.In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole, with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days. FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI and ester-linked method (EL.The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2 values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time.Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides.

  20. Review on Microwave-Matter Interaction Fundamentals and Efficient Microwave-Associated Heating Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Wenlong; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-01-01

    Microwave heating is rapidly emerging as an effective and efficient tool in various technological and scientific fields. A comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of microwave–matter interactions is the precondition for better utilization of microwave technology. However, microwave heating is usually only known as dielectric heating, and the contribution of the magnetic field component of microwaves is often ignored, which, in fact, contributes greatly to microwave heating of some aqueous electrolyte solutions, magnetic dielectric materials and certain conductive powder materials, etc. This paper focuses on this point and presents a careful review of microwave heating mechanisms in a comprehensive manner. Moreover, in addition to the acknowledged conventional microwave heating mechanisms, the special interaction mechanisms between microwave and metal-based materials are attracting increasing interest for a variety of metallurgical, plasma and discharge applications, and therefore are reviewed particularly regarding the aspects of the reflection, heating and discharge effects. Finally, several distinct strategies to improve microwave energy utilization efficiencies are proposed and discussed with the aim of tackling the energy-efficiency-related issues arising from the application of microwave heating. This work can present a strategic guideline for the developed understanding and utilization of the microwave heating technology. PMID:28773355

  1. Application of Microwave Methods for Characterization of NEG Coatings and Obstacle Detection in Accelerator Beam-pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Seebacher, David

    2009-01-01

    In many particle accelerators, including the LHC at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, NEG coatings are used to improve vacuum performance. In other particle accelerators there have been hints that those coatings could have a relevant impact on the beam coupling impedance, however the data available is contradictory. To clarify the possible impact of NEG coatings the electromagnetic properties have been measured. The measurements have been carried out by means of cavity perturbation method. The second part of this thesis deals with the microwave waveguide reflectometer developed at CERN several years ago, which is used as part of the quality assurance test program for the LHC assembly. To ensure optimum operation and to avoid an expensive removal of any foreign object from inside the LHC beam-screen after its completion, microwave reflectometry is performed. Until now several objects have been found by means of reflectometry, but so far neither precise data about the reflections of different...

  2. Off-axis sputter deposition of YBa2Cu3O7 thin films for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, L.H.; Bagley, B.G.; Feldmann, W.L.; Barner, J.B.; Shokoohi, F.; Miceli, P.; Wilkens, B.J.; Fathy, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 were grown in situ by off-axis sputter deposition for microwave device fabrication. These ∼1 cm 2 films, which are reproducible, exhibit midpoint T c 's of 89--90.5 K as measured by ac susceptibility, ion channeling yields of 4.7%--6%, and c-axis rocking-curve half-widths of 0.5 degree, even with a rich microstructure as seen by scanning electron microscopy. Two films were photodefined into miniature X-band microwave bandpass filters. These narrow-band filters (0.5% bandwidth) exhibited 4.4-and 4.5-dB insertion losses at 77 K and 9.25 GHz, with little temperature dependence below 80 K

  3. Application of microwave radiometer and wind profiler data in the estimation of wind gust associated with intense convective weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P W; Wong, K H

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the wind gusts associated with intense convective weather could be obtained using empirical relationships such as GUSTEX based on radiosonde measurements. However, such data are only available a couple of times a day and may not reflect the rapidly changing atmospheric condition in spring and summer times. The feasibility of combining the thermodynamic profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer and wind profiles given by radar wind profilers in the continuous estimation of wind gusts is studied in this paper. Based on the results of a 4-month trial of a microwave radiometer in Hong Kong in 2004, the estimated and the actual gusts are reasonably well correlated. It is also found that the wind gusts so estimated provide better indications of the strength of squalls compared with those based on radiosonde measurements and with a lead time of about one hour

  4. Green and microwave synthesis of SrAl2O4 nanoparticles by application of pomegranate juice: study and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi-Madvaar, Ramin; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Fazelirad, Hamid

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, a green method was applied for the synthesis of SrAl2O4 nanostructures with the aid of microwave irradiation and pomegranate juice. SrAl2O4 nanocrystals were obtained when the raw materials were irradiated with 720-900 W for 6-10 min and then calcinated at 550 °C for 5 h. Using pomegranate juice as a dispersion and stabilizing agent, SrAl2O4 nanoparticles have been made with better properties in view of morphology and particle size. Also, the effect of some parameters affecting synthesis process such as microwave power and reaction time on the morphology and particle size of product was studied and optimized. X-ray diffraction and field emission-scanning electron microscopy were used to study and characterize the manufactured SrAl2O4 nanoparticles.

  5. III/V nano ridge structures for optical applications on patterned 300 mm silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunert, B.; Guo, W.; Mols, Y.; Pantouvaki, M.; Van Campenhout, J.; Langer, R.; Barla, K. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Tian, B.; Wang, Z.; Shi, Y.; Van Thourhout, D. [Photonics Research Group, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, 9052 Gent (Belgium)

    2016-08-29

    We report on an integration approach of III/V nano ridges on patterned silicon (Si) wafers by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Trenches of different widths (≤500 nm) were processed in a silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layer on top of a 300 mm (001) Si substrate. The MOVPE growth conditions were chosen in a way to guarantee an efficient defect trapping within narrow trenches and to form a box shaped ridge with increased III/V volume when growing out of the trench. Compressively strained InGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells with 19% indium were deposited on top of the fully relaxed GaAs ridges as an active material for optical applications. Transmission electron microcopy investigation shows that very flat quantum well (QW) interfaces were realized. A clear defect trapping inside the trenches is observed whereas the ridge material is free of threading dislocations with only a very low density of planar defects. Pronounced QW photoluminescence (PL) is detected from different ridge sizes at room temperature. The potential of these III/V nano ridges for laser integration on Si substrates is emphasized by the achieved ridge volume which could enable wave guidance and by the high crystal quality in line with the distinct PL.

  6. Rational growth of semi-polar ZnO texture on a glass substrate for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B.; Ma, M. J.; Ye, Y. H.; Lu, J. G.; He, H. P.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2013-02-01

    Semi-polar ZnO films with surface texture were grown on glass substrates via pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) through Co-Ga co-doping. Oxygen pressure (PO2) was found to have significant effects on the structural and optical properties of the Zn(Co, Ga)O (ZCGO) films. A self-textured film with (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) preferred orientation (PO) was achieved by varying the growth conditions including a crucial narrow PO2 window and growth time. A possible mechanism underlying the PO evolution and the final texture of the films was proposed, which can be attributed to the collaboration of the doping effect and the PO2-dependent evolutionary selection process, in which certain grains can have increased vertical growth rate with respect to the substrate surface through interplane diffusion. Moreover, the growth of undoped pure ZnO films proceeded by using the (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) ZCGO film as a buffer layer. The ZnO layers retained a semi-polar characteristic with improved crystallinity and better optical quality. The epitaxy-like orientation of ZnO layers grown on (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) ZCGO films has applications in the development of semi-polar ZnO-based light-emitting diodes.

  7. A Statistical Analysis of Laser Ablated Ba(Sub 0.50)Sr(Sub 0.50)TiO(Sub 3)/LaAlO(Sub 3) Films for Microwave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, R. R.; Varaljay, N. C.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Miranda, F. A.; Mueller, C. M.; VanKeuls, F. W.; Kim, J.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is constructing a 616 element scanning phased array antenna using thin film Ba(sub x)Sr(sub 1-x)TiO(sub 3) based phase shifters. A critical milestone is the production of 616 identical phase shifters at 19 GHz with [asymptotically equal to]4 dB insertion loss and at least 337.5 deg phase shift with 3 percent bandwidth. It is well known that there is a direct relationship between dielectric tuning and loss due to the Kramers-Kronig relationship and that film crystallinity and strain, affected by the substrate template, play an important role. Ba(sub 0.50)Sr(sub 0.50)TiO (sub 3) films, nominally 400 nm thick, were deposited on 48 0.25 mm thick, 5 cm diameter LaAlO(sub 3) wafers. Although previous results suggested that Mn-doped films on MgO were intrinsically superior in terms of phase shift per unit loss, for this application phase shift per unit length was more important. The composition was selected as a compromise between tuning and loss for room temperature operation (e.g. crystallinity progressively degrades for Ba concentrations in excess of 30 percent). As a prelude to fabricating the array, it was necessary to process, screen, and inventory a large number of samples. Variable angle ellipsometry was used to characterize refractive index and film thickness across each wafer. Microstructural properties of the thin films were characterized using high resolution X-ray diffractometry. Finally, prototype phase shifters and resonators were patterned on each wafer and RE probed to measure tuning as a function of dc bias voltage as well as peak (0 field) permittivity and unloaded Q. The relationship among film quality and uniformity and performance is analyzed. This work presents the first statistically relevant study of film quality and microwave performance and represents a milestone towards commercialization of thin ferroelectric films for microwave applications.

  8. Direct Write Printing on Thin and Flexible Substrates for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Beth

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the work done on direct-write printing conductive traces for a flexible detector application. A Repeatability Plan was established to define detector requirements, material and printer selections, printing facilities, and tests to verify requirements are met. Designs were created for the detector, and printed using an aerosol jet printer. Testing for requirement verification is ongoing.

  9. Active and passive component embedding into low-cost plastic substrates aimed at smart system applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauwe, M.; Vandecasteele, B.; Baets, J. de; Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.

    2013-01-01

    The technology development for a low-cost, roll-to-roll compatible chip embedding process is described in this paper. Target applications are intelligent labels and disposable sensor patches. Two generations of the technology are depicted. In the first version of the embedding technology, the chips

  10. Multimodal sensing and imaging technology by integrated scanning electron, force, and nearfield microwave microscopy and its application to submicrometer studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hänßler, Olaf C.

    2018-01-01

    The work covers a multimodal microscope technology for the analysis, manipulation and transfer of materials and objects in the submicrometer range. An atomic force microscope (AFM) allows imaging of the surface topography and a Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) detects electromagnetic properties, both operating in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The described technology demonstrator allows to observe the region-of-interest live with the SEM, while at the same time a characterization w...

  11. Application of o-tolidine as substrate for the electrochemical determination of hemoglobin or hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper hemoglobin (Hb was used to catalyze the oxidative reaction of ο-tolidine (OT with H2O2. The oxidative product of OT with H2O2 was an azo substrate, which was electroactive and had a sensitive linear sweep voltammetric reductive peak at -0.52 V (vs. SCE on hanging mercury drop working electrode (HMDE in pH 5.0 Britton-Robinson (B-R solution. The conditions of Hb catalytic reaction and voltammetric detection were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical behaviour of the oxidative product was carefully investigated and the electrode process of the product on mercury electrode was proposed. Based on the increase of the reductive peak current of the oxidative product with the concentration of the H2O2 or Hb, a new electrochemical method for the determination of trace amount of H2O2 or Hb was proposed. The calibration graph had a linear range of 6.0 x 10-8 to 4.0 x 10-5 M for H2O2 and 1.0 x 10-9 to 7.0 x 10-7 M for Hb with the detection limit of 1.0 x 10-8 M H2O2 and 5.0 x 10-10 M Hb (3σ, respectively. This new proposed method was further attempted to determine the content of H2O2 in fresh rainwater with satisfactory results.

  12. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  13. Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles for high performance supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiong; Miao, Wang; Li, Chen; Sun, Xianzhong; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei, E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by the microwave-assisted reflux. • The microwave reaction duration was only 5 min. • A specific capacitance of 329 F g{sup −1} was obtained for birnessite-type MnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the microwave-assisted reflux as short as 5 min. The microstructure and morphology of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the as-prepared MnO{sub 2} as an electrode material for supercapacitor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, and a high specific capacitance of 329 F g{sup −1} was achieved at a current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1}. The specific capacitance retention was 92% after 1000 cycles at 2 A g{sup −1}, suggesting that it is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  14. Preparation of a Carbon Doped Tissue-Mimicking Material with High Dielectric Properties for Microwave Imaging Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang-Wen Lan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the oil-in-gelatin based tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs doped with carbon based materials including carbon nanotube, graphene ink or lignin were prepared. The volume percent for gelatin based mixtures and oil based mixtures were both around 50%, and the doping amounts were 2 wt %, 4 wt %, and 6 wt %. The effect of doping material and amount on the microwave dielectric properties including dielectric constant and conductivity were investigated over an ultra-wide frequency range from 2 GHz to 20 GHz. The coaxial open-ended reflection technology was used to evaluate the microwave dielectric properties. Six measured values in different locations of each sample were averaged and the standard deviations of all the measured dielectric properties, including dielectric constant and conductivity, were less than one, indicating a good uniformity of the prepared samples. Without doping, the dielectric constant was equal to 23 ± 2 approximately. Results showed with doping of carbon based materials that the dielectric constant and conductivity both increased about 5% to 20%, and the increment was dependent on the doping amount. By proper selection of doping amount of the carbon based materials, the prepared material could map the required dielectric properties of special tissues. The proposed materials were suitable for the phantom used in the microwave medical imaging system.

  15. Observations of Ball-Lightning-Like Plasmoids Ejected from Silicon by Localized Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sztucki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental characterization of plasmoids (fireballs obtained by directing localized microwave power (<1 kW at 2.45 GHz onto a silicon-based substrate in a microwave cavity. The plasmoid emerges up from the hotspot created in the solid substrate into the air within the microwave cavity. The experimental diagnostics employed for the fireball characterization in this study include measurements of microwave scattering, optical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Various characteristics of these plasmoids as dusty plasma are drawn by a theoretical analysis of the experimental observations. Aggregations of dust particles within the plasmoid are detected at nanometer and micrometer scales by both in-situ SAXS and ex-situ SEM measurements. The resemblance of these plasmoids to the natural ball-lightning (BL phenomenon is discussed with regard to silicon nano-particle clustering and formation of slowly-oxidized silicon micro-spheres within the BL. Potential applications and practical derivatives of this study (e.g., direct conversion of solids to powders, material identification by breakdown spectroscopy (MIBS, thermite ignition, and combustion are discussed.

  16. Fast microwave assisted pyrolysis of biomass using microwave absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Du, Zhenyi; Xie, Qinglong; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhu, Rongbi; Lin, Xiangyang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    A novel concept of fast microwave assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) in the presence of microwave absorbents was presented and examined. Wood sawdust and corn stover were pyrolyzed by means of microwave heating and silicon carbide (SiC) as microwave absorbent. The bio-oil was characterized, and the effects of temperature, feedstock loading, particle sizes, and vacuum degree were analyzed. For wood sawdust, a temperature of 480°C, 50 grit SiC, with 2g/min of biomass feeding, were the optimal conditions, with a maximum bio-oil yield of 65 wt.%. For corn stover, temperatures ranging from 490°C to 560°C, biomass particle sizes from 0.9mm to 1.9mm, and vacuum degree lower than 100mmHg obtained a maximum bio-oil yield of 64 wt.%. This study shows that the use of microwave absorbents for fMAP is feasible and a promising technology to improve the practical values and commercial application outlook of microwave based pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gas Discharge Produced by Strong Microwaves of Nanosecond Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikharev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the investigation of nanosecond microwave discharge are reviewed. Nanosecond microwave discharge is a new branch of gas discharge physics. The paper lists base types of microwave generators used to produce nanosecond discharge and classifies the discharges relative to their base parameters: the way the discharge gets localized in a limited space, amplitude and frequency of microwave field, gas pressure, duration of microwave pulses. The laboratory experiments performed and the new effects which appear in nanosecond microwave discharge are briefly summarized. Different applications of such a discharge are analyzed on the basis of the experimental modelling. (author)

  18. Review of Microwave Photonics Technique to Generate the Microwave Signal by Using Photonics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastav, Akash

    2017-12-01

    Microwave photonics system provides high bandwidth capabilities of fiber optic systems and also contains the ability to provide interconnect transmission properties, which are virtually independent of length. The low-loss wide bandwidth capability of optoelectronic systems makes them attractive for the transmission and processing of microwave signals, while the development of high-capacity optical communication systems has required the use of microwave techniques in optical transmitters and receivers. These two strands have led to the development of the research area of microwave photonics. So, we can considered microwave photonics as the field that studies the interaction between microwave and optical waves for applications such as communications, radars, sensors and instrumentations. In this paper we have thoroughly reviewed the microwave generation techniques by using photonics technology.

  19. Stabilisation of spent mushroom substrate for application as a plant growth-promoting organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Fabiana S; Tatti, Enrico; Abram, Florence; Wilson, Jude; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat. However, SMS is often regarded as not being stable and/or mature, which hampers its wide use for crop production. Here, we demonstrate the stabilisation of SMS and its subsequent use as organic fertiliser and partial peat replacement in horticulture. The stabilisation was performed in a laboratory-scale composting system, with controlled temperature and aeration. Physical and chemical parameters were monitored during composting and provided information on the progress of the process. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content was found to be the most reliable parameter to predict SMS stability. In situ oxygen consumption indicated the main composting phases, reflecting major changes in microbial activity. The structure of the bacterial community was also found to be a potential predictor of stability, as the compositional changes followed the composting progress. By contrast, the fungal community did not present clear successional process along the experiment. Maturity and quality of the stabilised SMS were assessed in a horticultural growing trial. When used as the sole fertiliser source, SMS was able to support Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) growth and significantly improved grass yield with a concentration-dependent response, increasing grass biomass up to 300%, when compared to the untreated control. In summary, the results indicated that the method employed was efficient in

  20. Microwave power engineering generation, transmission, rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    1968-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 1: Generation, Transmission, Rectification considers the components, systems, and applications and the prevailing limitations of the microwave power technology. This book contains four chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic concept and developments of microwave power technology. The second chapter deals with the development of the main classes of high-power microwave and optical frequency power generators, such as magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, klystrons, beam plasma amplifiers, crossed-field noise sources, triodes, lasers. The third

  1. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  2. Understanding the microwave annealing of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaochao Fu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Though microwave annealing appears to be very appealing due to its unique features, lacking an in-depth understanding and accurate model hinder its application in semiconductor processing. In this paper, the physics-based model and accurate calculation for the microwave annealing of silicon are presented. Both thermal effects, including ohmic conduction loss and dielectric polarization loss, and non-thermal effects are thoroughly analyzed. We designed unique experiments to verify the mechanism and extract relevant parameters. We also explicitly illustrate the dynamic interaction processes of the microwave annealing of silicon. This work provides an in-depth understanding that can expedite the application of microwave annealing in semiconductor processing and open the door to implementing microwave annealing for future research and applications.

  3. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Rolling circle amplification (RCA generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  4. A Synthesizable Multicore Platform for Microwave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Active microwave imaging techniques such as radar and tomography are used in a wide range of medical, industrial, scientific, and military applications. Microwave imaging devices emit radio waves and process their reflections to reconstruct an image. However, data processing remains a challenge...

  5. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  6. Immobilization of Fab' fragments onto substrate surfaces: A survey of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor; Thompson, Michael

    2015-08-15

    Antibody immobilization onto surfaces has widespread applications in many different fields. It is desirable to bind antibodies such that their fragment-antigen-binding (Fab) units are oriented away from the surface in order to maximize analyte binding. The immobilization of only Fab' fragments yields benefits over the more traditional whole antibody immobilization technique. Bound Fab' fragments display higher surface densities, yielding a higher binding capacity for the analyte. The nucleophilic sulfide of the Fab' fragments allows for specific orientations to be achieved. For biosensors, this indicates a higher sensitivity and lower detection limit for a target analyte. The last thirty years have shown tremendous progress in the immobilization of Fab' fragments onto gold, Si-based, polysaccharide-based, plastic-based, magnetic, and inorganic surfaces. This review will show the current scope of Fab' immobilization techniques available and illustrate methods employed to minimize non-specific adsorption of undesirables. Furthermore, a variety of examples will be given to show the versatility of immobilized Fab' fragments in different applications and future directions of the field will be addressed, especially regarding biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave processing for ceramic materials in microsystem technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.

    2002-11-01

    In this study, the applicability of microwaves for sintering of monolithic ceramics and ceramic microcomponents was investigated. Experiments with 2.45 GHz and 30 GHz microwaves were conducted and contrasted to conventional thermal processing. The advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing were then assessed. Nanoscale zirconia and sub-micron lead-zirconate-titanate electroceramics were selected for the evaluation. (orig.)

  8. Study On The Application Of Nutrient Immobilized Hydrogel As A Substrate For Hydroponics Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Thu Ha; Le Quang Luan; Nguyen Thi Nu; Nguyen Thi Vang; Phan Dinh Thai Son; Nguyen Quang Khanh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is preparation of a nutrient hydrogel from CMC by irradiation for hydroponics culture. The hydrogel with different swelling prepared from CMC combined with PAM, nutrient and alginate by gamma-Co-60 irradiation. The hydrogel prepared by irradiation of the component with 20% CMC, 20% PAM, 1% alginate and nutrients at 15 kGy was suitable for the growth and development of plants. In particularly, the hydrogel showed a positive effect on germination ratio of seeds, the growth of 14 days seedling and the growth of lettuce and Chinese mustard in hydroponics cultivation. The hydrogel was completely collapsed after 5 weeks use in a hydroponics culture. The hydrogel showed a promising for application in hydroponics culture, a new technique for production of high yield and high quality vegetables. (NHA)

  9. Application of Thermal Network Model to Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronic Package Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ishizuka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing demand to have smaller and lighter electronic circuits which have greater complexity, multifunctionality, and reliability. High-density multichip packaging technology has been used in order to meet these requirements. The higher the density scale is, the larger the power dissipation per unit area becomes. Therefore, in the designing process, it has become very important to carry out the thermal analysis. However, the heat transport model in multichip modules is very complex, and its treatment is tedious and time consuming. This paper describes an application of the thermal network method to the transient thermal analysis of multichip modules and proposes a simple model for the thermal analysis of multichip modules as a preliminary thermal design tool. On the basis of the result of transient thermal analysis, the validity of the thermal network method and the simple thermal analysis model is confirmed.

  10. Highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active Au nanostructures prepared by simple electrodeposition: origin of surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity and applications as electrochemical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhee; Ahn, Miri; Kim, Jongwon

    2013-05-24

    The fabrication of effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates has been the subject of intensive research because of their useful applications. In this paper, dendritic gold (Au) rod (DAR) structures prepared by simple one-step electrodeposition in a short time were examined as an effective SERS-active substrate. The SERS activity of the DAR surfaces was compared to that of other nanostructured Au surfaces with different morphologies, and its dependence on the structural variation of DAR structures was examined. These comparisonal investigations revealed that highly faceted sharp edge sites present on the DAR surfaces play a critical role in inducing a high SERS activity. The SERS enhancement factor was estimated to be greater than 10(5), and the detection limit of rhodamine 6G at DAR surfaces was 10(-8)M. The DAR surfaces exhibit excellent spot-to-spot and substrate-to-substrate SERS enhancement reproducibility, and their long-term stability is very good. It was also demonstrated that the DAR surfaces can be effectively utilized in electrochemical SERS systems, wherein a reversible SERS behavior was obtained during the cycling to cathodic potential regions. Considering the straightforward preparation of DAR substrates and the clean nature of SERS-active Au surfaces prepared in the absence of additives, we expect that DAR surfaces can be used as cost-effective SERS substrates in analytical and electrochemical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MOCVD with gas phase composition control for the growth of high quality YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolf, J.

    1997-01-01

    The MOCVD growth technique has demonstrated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin films with adequate transport properties (T c >90 K, J c > x 10 6 A cm -2 , R s p /C v ) and the species concentrations. After determining the correlation between gas phase and solid phase composition this technique enables the reproducible growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin films by MOCVD with composition very close to 123. Further refinement of growth temperature, total pressure, oxygen partial pressure and total flow rates has produced films with excellent properties. Smooth surface morphology with a low density of outgrowths ( 4 cm -2 ), narrow XRD rocking curve peaks FWHM c =92 K), low surface resistance (device R s <350 μΩ at 77 K, 10 GHz) have been demonstrated using this growth concept. Special focus was placed on optimization of the performance of a microwave test device which serves as a process control monitor of the suitability of these films for passive microwave applications. (orig.)

  12. Microwave synthesis of high-quality and uniform 4 nm ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals for application in energy storage and nanomagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Suchomski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocrystals with a narrow size distribution hold promise for many applications in different areas ranging from biomedicine to electronics and energy storage. Herein, the microwave-assisted sol–gel synthesis and thorough characterization of size-monodisperse zinc ferrite nanoparticles of spherical shape is reported. X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy all show that the material is both chemically and phase-pure and adopts a partially inverted spinel structure with Fe3+ ions residing on tetrahedral and octahedral sites according to (Zn0.32Fe0.68tet[Zn0.68Fe1.32]octO4±δ. Electron microscopy and direct-current magnetometry confirm the size uniformity of the nanocrystals, while frequency-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate the presence of a superspin glass state with a freezing temperature of about 22 K. Furthermore, as demonstrated by galvanostatic charge–discharge tests and ex situ X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, the as-prepared zinc ferrite nanocrystals can be used as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, showing little capacity fade – after activation – over hundreds of cycles. Overall, in addition to the good material characteristics, it is remarkable that the microwave-based synthetic route is simple, easily reproducible and scalable.

  13. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201 I. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  14. Microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene and their electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangyin; Jiang San Ping; Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Microwave polyol method is efficient to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. → SnO 2 /graphene is more efficient than graphene for supercapacitor. → PtRu/graphene is more active than commercial PtRu/C for methanol oxidation. - Abstract: An effective synthesis strategy of hybrid metal (PtRu)/metal oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles on graphene nanocomposites is developed using a microwave-assisted one-pot reaction process. The mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water is used as both solvent and reactant. In the reaction system for the synthesis of SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite, EG not only reduces graphene oxide (GO) to graphene, but also results in the formation of SnO 2 facilitated by the presence of a small amount of water. On the other hand, in the reaction system for preparation of PtRu/graphene nanocomposites, EG acts as solvent and reducing agent for reduction of PtRu nanoparticles from their precursors and reduction of graphene from graphene oxide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations confirm the feasibility of the microwave-assisted reaction system to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and to form SnO 2 or PtRu nanoparticles. The as-synthesized SnO 2 /graphene hybrid composites show a much higher supercapacitance than the pure graphene, and the as-prepared PtRu/graphene show much better electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation compared to the commercial E-TEK PtRu/C electrocatalysts.

  15. Application of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic and fulvic acids from marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaris-Hortas, Vanessa; Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic substances (humic acid, HA, and fulvic acid, FA) from marine sediments has been checked. Extractions were performed by using 20 mL of sodium hydroxide at 0.1 M (two repeated extractions) after an ultrasound-assisted acid pre-treatment of samples to remove the carbonate fraction (ultrasound power at 17 kHz, 10 mL of 6.0 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min). After separation of HA and FA fractions by acidifying with 6 M HCl, the FA fraction (supernatant) was purified by passing the solution through a column of Amberlite XAD-8. Both HA and FA extracts were measured by UV-visible spectrophotometry. All variables affecting the extraction process (sodium hydroxide concentration and volume, ramp and hold times, temperature and number of repeated extractions) have been screened by using a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as multivariate approach. The variables temperature and number of repeated extractions were the most significant factors (P = 95%) affecting the extraction of both FA and HA from marine sediments. These two variables have led optimum values of 150 deg. C and two repeated extractions. The developed method has been found precise (R.S.D.s of 9% for HA and 12% for FA, for 11 determinations) and its results were comparable in terms of elemental (C, H and N) composition to those obtained after applying methods based on mechanical stirring and ultrasounds assisting. However, higher HA and FA concentrations than those obtained after conventional stirring and ultrasound irradiation were obtained when applying microwave energy. This means a higher efficiency of microwave energy than ultrasounds or mechanical stirring to extract HA and FA fractions from marine sediments. The method was finally applied to different surface marine sediments from the Ria de Arousa estuary

  16. The dynamics of highly excited hydrogen atoms in microwave fields: Application of the Floquet picture of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holthaus, M.

    1990-04-01

    The study of short-time phenomena in strongly interacting quantum systems requires on the theoretical side the development of methods, which are both non-perturbative and 'dynamical', which thus regard the change of outer parameters in the slope of time. For systems with a periodic, fast and a further slow, parametric time dependence both requirements are fulfilled by the Floquet picture of quantum mechanics. This picture, which starts from the adiabatic evolution on effective quasi-energy surfaces, is presented in the first chapter of the present thesis, whereby especially the term of the adiabaticity for periodically time dependent systems is explained. In the second chapter the Floquet theory is applied to the description of microwave experiments with highly excited hydrogen atoms. Here it is shown that the Floquet picture permits to understand a manifold of experimental observations under a unified point of view. Really these microwave experiments offer an ideal possibility for the test of the Floquet picture: On the one hand there is the strength of the outer field of the same order of magnitude as that of the nuclear field, by which the highly excited electron is bound, on the other hand in the experiment an extremely precise control of amplitude, frequency, and pulse shape is possible, so that the conditions for a detailed comparison of theory and experiment are given. The insights, which model calculations yield in the dynamics of highly excited hydrogen atoms in strong alternating fields, allow a prediction of further effects, for which it is to be looked for in new experiments. In the following third chapter some further aspects of these model calculations are discussed, whereby also common properties of the dynamics of excited atoms in microwave fields and that of atoms under the influence of strong laser pulses are discussed. (orig./HSI) [de

  17. Fabrication of large-area self-organizing gold nanostructures on a porous Al2O3 template for application as a SERS-substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Hassing, Søren; Albrektsen, Ole

    A new technique for fabrication of large-area self-organizing variably ordered gold nanostructures with sub-10 nm gaps on templates of hexagonally ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide is demonstrated. The size as well as the interparticle distance of the fabricated gold nanostructures are adjusted...... by application of various electrolytes used in anodization of the aluminum template and the thickness of gold sputter-coated on the pore layer. The fabricated substrates are characterized by SEM, and the applicability as SERS substrates is investigated by adsorption of rhodamine 6G on the nanostructures...

  18. APPLICATION OF TRANSURETHRAL MICROWAVE THERMOTHERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH ACUTE URINARY RETENTION AND SEVERE COMBINED COMORBIDITY FROM BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mysak

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Taking into consideration the minimally invasive nature, favourable tolerability and absence of adverse effects, TUMT can be considered a method of choice in patients with BPH-triggered AUR and contraindications to major surgical treatments and general anaesthesia. Remote outcomes of TUMT may be evaluated as satisfactory, with good effects in 71.62% patients. However in prostatic volumes exceeding 85 cm3 and pronounced intravesical pattern of BPH growth the efficcacy of TUMT is arguable. KEY WORDS: benign prostatic hyperplasia, acute urinary retention, transurethral microwave hermotherapy.

  19. Production of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma with dielectric half-mirror resonator and its application to polymer surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Kensuke; Keyamura, Kazuki; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2018-06-01

    For the surface treatment of a polymer tube, a ring-shaped atmospheric pressure microwave plasma (APMP) using a coaxial waveguide is studied. In this APMP, a dielectric plate is used not only as a partial mirror for cavity resonation but also for the precise alignment of the discharge gap for ring-shaped plasma production. The optimum position of the dielectric plate is investigated by electromagnetic wave simulation. On the basis of simulation results, a ring-shaped plasma with good uniformity along the ring is produced. The coaxial APMP is applied to the surface treatment of ethylene tetrafluoroethylene. A very fast surface modification within 3 s is observed.

  20. Analysis of water application techniques for growing tomatoes in small pots on different substrates. Note 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cavazza

    Full Text Available The response of the tomato plants to the irrigation regimes compared in the previous study, particularly when compared with the response to the peat fraction in the mixture, was modest, often irregular and subject to complex interactions with the former factor. This result could depend partially on the fact that the parameters for the water regime applied during the trials were chosen to prevent exposing the plants to excessive stress through lack of water or excess water. This note analyses the technique used to apply the water. Two main water application parameters were identified parameter a expressing the mean moisture level of the pot during growing, and parameter b expressing the amplitude of the variation in moisture level between the irrigation threshold and the level to which the water was topped up at each watering. The actual mean volume of irrigation during the cultivation period was compared with the theoretically predicted value and the discrepancy explained. The role of parameter a and b are proposed to define the irrigation regime applied and the water regime as such can be defined by these two parameters a and b, as a general composite index. Furthermore the effect on the biological performance of both parameters a and b were studied obtaining a clearer picture of the effect of the water regime. The role of both parameters, a and b were synthesized in a specific composite index for each individual characteristic of the plant after taking in account the principal causes of their variations.