Chon, Jegyun; Lee, Bongju; Shin, Sangyeop; Jang, Gunil; Jeon, Taehyeon
We investigated the causes of impingement between the patella bone and the bearing post during high flexion in cruciate-substituting total knee arthroplasty and proposed a treatment strategy. This prospective cohort study included 218 cases that had undergone cruciate-substituting total knee arthroplasty from February 2014 to January 2015; a single surgeon performed the operation using the same method without patellar resurfacing in all patients. In these patients, the occurrence of impingement was determined by performing more than 120° high knee flexion after inserting a bearing perioperatively. The incidence of impingement was significantly associated with bearing design, femoral implant size, patella bone length, and patella inferior pole angle (p patella bone. In the cruciate-substituting high-flexion total knee arthroplasty, impingement between the patella bone and bearing post was more common in patients with mobile bearing, small-size femoral component, and a long patella or a large inferior pole angle. In cases of intraoperative impingement between the patella bone and the bearing post, resection in the lower portion of the patella prevented impingement of the bearing with soft tissue or the patella by widening the space between the patella and the bearing post, which in turn prevented postoperative reduction in range of motion.
... activities following total knee replacement include unlimited walking, swimming, golf, driving, light hiking, biking, ballroom dancing, and ... Total Knee Replacement cont. Preparing for Surgery Medical Evaluation If you decide to have total knee replacement ...
Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...
Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise......, and - at least in the younger patients - more cementless implants. Trends related to organization are implementation of the fast track concept, which has reduced morbidity and length of stay, and concentration in larger units, which will also decrease morbidity and mortality. An annual volume of >25 TKAs per...
Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of pain reduction and functional improvement, and costing of total knee replacement (TKR) for people with osteoarthritis for whom less invasive treatments (such as physiotherapy, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular steroids, hyaluronic acids, and arthroscopic surgery) have failed. Clinical Need Osteoarthritis affects an estimated 10% to 12% of Canadian adults. The therapeutic goals of osteoarthritis treatment are to improve joint mobility and reduce pain. Stepwise treatment options include exercise, weight loss, physiotherapy, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, intra-articular steroids and hyaluronic acids, arthroscopic surgery, and, in severe cases, total joint replacement with follow-up rehabilitation. These treatments are delivered by a range of health care professionals, including physiotherapists, occupational therapists, family physicians, internists, rheumatologists, and orthopedic surgeons. TKR is an end-of-line treatment for patients with severe pain and functional limitations. More women than men undergo knee replacement, and most patients are between 55 and 84 years old. The Technology TKR is a surgical procedure in which an artificial joint or prosthesis replaces a damaged knee joint. The primary indication for TKR is pain, followed by functional limitation. Usually, a person’s daily activities must be substantially affected by pain and functional limitations for him or her to be considered a candidate for TKR. There are 3 different types of knee replacement prostheses. Non-constrained prostheses use the patient’s ligaments and muscles to provide the stability for the prosthesis. Semi-constrained prostheses provide some stability for the knee and do not rely entirely on the patient’s ligaments and muscles to provide the stability. Constrained prostheses are for patients whose ligaments and muscles are not able to provide stability for
Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi
Physical activity is recognized as one of the factors that influence bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to biomechanical analyses after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retaining (PCLR) and substituting (PCLS) TKA, each implant design has different kinematics and kinetics. The purposes of this study were: (1) to perform within-patient comparisons of the midterm and long-term effects of PCL retention in mobile-bearing TKA on proximal femur and tibia BMD and calcaneus bone quality measured using ultrasound and (2) to identify correlations between them. A prospective, quasi-randomized design was used. Thirty-seven patients (74 knees) who underwent bilateral TKA (PCLR on one side and PCLS on the other) were evaluated. Mean follow-up periods were 118 months (standard deviation 40) and 117 months (standard deviation 36) in knees with PCLR and PCLS implants, respectively. The BMDs of the total hip and proximal tibia and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; dB/MHz) through the calcaneus were measured. The mean BMD of PCLR and PCLS were equivalent at the proximal hip and tibia. The BUA of the calcaneus was also the same between implants. There were significant correlations between the 3 anatomic sites. When measured approximately 10 years after TKA, PCL retention had no substantial effect on the BMD of the proximal femur and tibia, or on the bone quality of the calcaneus. The measurement of noninvasive BUA may predict BMD, although further analysis is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonutti, Peter M; Mont, Michael A; McMahon, Margo; Ragland, Phillip S; Kester, Mark
Currently, minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty is defined as an incision length of definition are: 1. The amount of soft-tissue dissection (including muscle, ligament, and capsular damage). 2. Patellar retraction or eversion. 3. Tibiofemoral dislocation. Minimally invasive surgery should not be considered to be a cosmetic procedure but rather one that addresses patients' concerns with regard to postoperative pain and slow rehabilitation. Standard total knee arthroplasties provide pain relief, but returning to activities of daily living remains a challenge for some individuals, who may take several weeks to recover. Several studies have demonstrated long-term success (at more than ten years) of standard total knee arthroplasties. However, many patients remain unsatisfied with the results of the surgery. In a study of functional limitations of patients with a Knee Society score of > or = 90 points after total knee arthroplasty, only 35% of patients stated that they had no limitations. This finding was highlighted in a study by Dickstein et al., in which one-third of the elderly patients who underwent knee replacement were unhappy with the outcome at six and twelve months postoperatively. Although many surgeons utilize objective functional scoring systems to evaluate outcome, it is likely that the criteria for a successful result of total knee arthroplasty differ between the patient and the surgeon. This was evident in a report by Bullens et al., who concluded that surgeons are more satisfied with the results of total knee arthroplasty than are their patients. Trousdale et al. showed that, in addition to concerns about long-term functional outcome, patients' major concerns were postoperative pain and the time required for recovery. Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty have specific functional goals, such as climbing stairs, squatting, kneeling, and returning to some level of low-impact sports after surgery. Our clinical investigations demonstrated that
Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper
To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....
Boonstra, M.C.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Verdonschot, N.J.J.
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is being undertaken in a younger population than before and as a result the functional demands on the knee are likely to be increasing. As a consequence, it is important to define quantitative functional knee tests that can monitor any increase. A valuable functional
Crockarell, John R; Hicks, John M; Schroeder, R Jason; Guyton, James L; Harkess, James W; Lavelle, David G
Total knee arthroplasties with an asymmetric tibial tray and posterior femoral condyles were implanted in 224 knees. Follow-up averaged 6.3 years. All components were cemented, all patellae were resurfaced, and all femoral components were cruciate-substituting. Postoperative alignment averaged 3.3 degrees valgus. Radiolucencies were absent around 116 knees (66%). No components were radiographically loose. Knee Society scores averaged 85 postoperatively and modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index scores averaged 82. Postoperative flexion averaged 114 degrees. Ten knees required manipulation for arthrofibrosis. Lateral release was necessary in 62 knees (28%). No revisions were required for aseptic loosening. Survivorship free of additional surgical procedures was 97% at 5 years. Compared with other series by designing surgeons, similar excellent survivorship was seen but with a higher lateral release rate. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan
This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty.
Levine, W N; Ozuna, R M; Scott, R D; Thornhill, T S
Between January 1983 and January 1991, 29 patients (31 knees) with a failed Robert Brigham metal-backed knee arthroplasty (Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, MA) underwent revision to a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-five patients had osteoarthritis, three avascular necrosis, and one rheumatoid arthritis. The average patient age was 72.3 years (range, 49-88 years), and the average weight was 179 lb. (range, 112-242 lb.). The interval between the primary and secondary index procedures averaged 62 months (range, 7-106 months), and mean postrevision follow-up period was 45 months (range, 24-104 months). The primary mechanism of failure of the UKA was tibial polyethylene wear in 21 knees and opposite compartment progression of arthritis in 10 knees. Sixteen knees had particulate synovitis with dense metallic staining of the synovium. At revision, the posterior cruciate ligament was spared in 30 knees and substituted in 1 knee. Restoration of bony deficiency at revision required cancellous bone-graft for contained defects in seven knees, tibial wedges in four knees, and femoral wedges in two knees. No defects received structural allografts. The data suggest that failed, modern unicompartmental knee arthroplasty can successfully be converted to TKA. In most cases, the posterior cruciate ligament can be spared and bone defects corrected with simple wedges or cancellous grafts. Moreover, the results of revision of failed unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are superior to those of failed TKA and failed high tibial osteotomy and comparable to the authors' results of primary TKA with similar-length follow-up periods. Although these results are encouraging, longer-term follow-up evaluation is required to determine survivorship of these revision arthroplasties.
Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas
To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Prospective, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. A fast-track orthopedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital. Patients (N=24; mean age, 66y; 13 women) scheduled for primary unilateral TKA were investigated 1 week before surgery and on the day of hospital discharge 2.4 days postsurgery. Not applicable. We assessed all patients for knee-joint circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance using the Timed Up & Go, 30-second Chair Stand, and 10-m fast speed walking tests, together with knee pain during all active test procedures. All investigated variables changed significantly from pre- to postsurgery independent of knee pain. Importantly, knee circumference increased (knee swelling) and correlated significantly with the decrease in knee-extension strength (r=-.51; P=.01). Reduced fast-speed walking correlated significantly with decreased knee-extension strength (r=.59; P=.003) and decreased knee flexion (r=.52; P=.011). Multiple linear regression showed that knee swelling (P=.023), adjusted for age and sex, could explain 27% of the decrease in knee-extension strength. Another model showed that changes in knee-extension strength (P=.009) and knee flexion (P=.018) were associated independently with decreased performance in fast-speed walking, explaining 57% of the variation in fast-speed walking. Our results indicate that the well-known finding of decreased knee-extension strength, which decreases functional performance shortly after TKA, is caused in part by postoperative knee swelling. Future studies may look at specific interventions aimed at decreasing knee swelling postsurgery to preserve knee-extension strength and facilitate physical rehabilitation after TKA. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to analyse the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR compared to unicondylar knee replacement (UKR on patients. In terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The keywords used were: knee arthroplasty. Nearly three thousand articles were found on 25 August 2016. Of those, only twenty-five were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, patients who undergo UKR have higher revision rates at 5, 10 and 15 years. The reported overall risk of postoperative complications for patients undergoing TKR is 11%, compared with 4.3% for patients undergoing UKR. In conclusion, UKR have higher revision rates than TKR. However, an increased risk of postoperative complications after TKR.
Alexander L. Dodds
Full Text Available Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement.
Ileana Monica BORDA
Full Text Available Purpose: To measure changes in muscle power from before to 6 months after total knee arthroplasty and to compare outcomes with those from a control group of healthy adults. Material and Methods: 26 patients who underwent a total knee replacement were compared with 12 healthy age-matched adults in a prospective cohort study. Patients’ assessment was performed preoperatively, as well as at 1, 2 and 6 months postoperatively, by the isokinetic method. Healthy adults were assessed once by the same method. Isokinetic evaluation of knee extensor and flexor muscles was performed using a Gimnex Iso 2 dynamometer. After a warm-up protocol, measurements were done at angular velocities of 90 and 180°/sec. Results: Compared to healthy adults, patients performed significantly worse at all evaluation times, for both extensors and flexors of the knee, except for the 6-month evaluation at 180°/sec. One month postoperatively losses from preoperative levels were registered in patients, but without statistically significance, except for extension at 180°/sec. At 6 months postoperatively patients surpassed the preoperative levels, with statistical significance at 180°/sec. Conclusions: Power is an important parameter to follow after TKA, in parallel with peak torque. Increasing muscle power should be one of the central issues to address during postoperative rehabilitation.
Danoff, Jonathan R.; Geller, Jeffrey A.
The definitive treatment for advanced joint destruction in the late stages of rheumatoid arthritis can be successfully treated with total joint arthroplasty. Total knee arthroplasty has been shown to be a well-proven modality that can provide pain relief and restoration of mobility for those with debilitating knee arthritis. It is important for rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons alike to share an understanding of the special considerations that must be addressed in this unique population of patients to ensure success in the immediate perioperative and postoperative periods including specific modalities to maximize success. PMID:24151549
Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Cerciello, Simone; Vasso, Michele; Del Regno, Chiara
Extensive blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may be a potential problem since it leads to anaemia, increased need for transfusion and prolonged hospitalization. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postoperative knee flexion after TKA on blood loss and the need for transfusion. One hundred consecutive patients undergoing primary TKA from 2012 to 2013 were randomizely divided into two groups. In one group, the knee was extended for the first 6 h after surgery, whereas in the other was flexed at 90° for the same time. Two doses of endovenous tranexamic acid were administered in all subjects. Patients were homogeneous for all the possible confounding factors. Calculated blood loss was 846 ± 197 (ml) in the flexion group and 1,242 ± 228 (ml) in the extension group (p extension group (p extension group. Knee flexion at 90° after TKA, associated with the intraoperative use of tranexamic, acid is an effective method to reduce blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The routine use of the present protocol is effective in reducing social costs and length of hospitalization of TKA procedures.
Stucinskas, Justinas; Robertsson, Otto; Wingstrand, Hans
Background and purpose We have previously reported that the first 10 years of hip arthroplasty in Lithuania resulted in a higher cumulative revision rate than that observed in Sweden. We thus compared the corresponding results after introduaction of total knee replacement in Lithuania. Methods The 10-year revision rate for the first 595 primary ScanKnee arthroplasties inserted in Klaipeda, Lithuania, was compared to that for the first 1,280 ScanKnee primary arthroplasties inserted in Sweden. As in the hip replacement study, only patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Primary knee arthroplasties without patellar resurfacing were included, and the endpoint was revision for any reason other than addition of a patellar component. Results We found that the cumulative revision rate was not statistically significantly different between the groups. The revision pattern was different, however, and we observed 24 isolated patellar component additions in Sweden, but none in Klaipeda. Interpretation Contrary to the results of our previous hip arthroplasty study, the cumulative revision rate after total knee arthroplasty was similar in the two groups. This suggests that compared to hip arthroplasty, the outcome of total knee arthroplasty was less dependent on surgical experience. The large difference regarding isolated patellar component additions may be explained by long-term accumulation of severe OA cases in Lithuania. To patients subject to a newly introduced surgical treatment offering great improvement in quality of life, patellofemoral pain may be a minor problem. Furthermore, patellar problems may not have seemed particularly relevant for the surgeons, considering the disability of other patients waiting to be treated. PMID:19297790
Karlsen, Anders Peder Højer; Wetterslev, Mik; Hansen, Signe Elisa
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this systematic review was to document efficacy, safety and quality of evidence of analgesic interventions after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: This PRISMA-compliant and PROSPERO-registered review includes all-language randomized controlled trials of medication...
Kim, Eric G; Patel, Nirav K; Chughtai, Morad; Elmallah, Randa D K; Delanois, Ronald E; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A
The best strategy to address large bony defects in revision total knee arthroplasty has yet to be determined. The relatively recent development of porous tantalum cones and their use to address massive bone loss in knee arthroplasty has shown promising short- and intermediate-term results. The purpose of this review is to present the current literature on: (1) basic science of porous tantalum, (2) classification and treatment for bone loss, (3) clinical results, and (4) evolution of newer generation cones. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Kim, Nam Ki
Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty may occur in any part of the femur, tibia and patella, and the most common pattern involves the supracondylar area of the distal femur. Supracondylar periprosthetic fractures frequently occur above a well-fixed prosthesis, and risk factors include anterior femoral cortical notching and use of the rotational constrained implant. Periprosthetic tibial fractures are frequently associated with loose components and malalignment or malposition of implants. Fractures of the patella are much less common and associated with rheumatoid arthritis, use of steroid, osteonecrosis and malalignment of implants. Most patients with periprosthetic fractures around the knee are the elderly with poor bone quality. There are many difficulties and increased risk of nonunion after treatment because reduction and internal fixation is interfered with by preexisting prosthesis and bone cement. Additionally, previous soft tissue injury is another disadvantageous condition for bone healing. Many authors reported good clinical outcomes after non-operative treatment of undisplaced or minimally displaced periprosthetic fractures; however, open reduction or revision arthroplasty was required in displaced fractures or fractures with unstable prosthesis. Periprosthetic fractures around the knee should be prevented by appropriate technique during total knee arthroplasty. Nevertheless, if a periprosthetic fracture occurs, an appropriate treatment method should be selected considering the stability of the prosthesis, displacement of fracture and bone quality. PMID:25750888
Parratte, S; Ollivier, M; Argenson, J-N
Relatively poor results have been reported with open reduction and internal fixation of complex fractures around the knee in elderly osteoporotic patients, and primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been proposed as an alternative solution. While limiting the number of procedures, it meets two prerequisites: (1) to save the patient's life, thanks to early weight-bearing, to limit decubitus complications; and (2) to save knee function and patient autonomy, thanks to early knee mobilization. There are 3 main indications: complex articular fractures in elderly patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis prior to fracture; complex articular fractures of the tibial plateau in elderly patients whose bone quality makes internal fixation hazardous; and major destruction of the distal femur in younger patients. Although admitted in emergency, these patients require adequate preoperative management, including a multidisciplinary approach to manage comorbidities, control of anemia and pain, and assessment and management of vascular and cutaneous conditions. Preoperative planning is crucial, to order appropriate implants and materials that may be needed intraoperatively. Surgical technique is based on the basic principles of revision surgery as regards choice of implant, steps of reconstruction, bone defect management and implant fixation. For complex fractures of the distal femur, primary temporary reduction is a useful "trick", to determine the level of the joint line and femoral rotation. Complementary internal fixation may be required in case of diaphyseal extension of the fracture and to prevent inter-prosthetic fractures. In the literature, the results of primary TKA for fracture are encouraging and better than for secondary TKA after failure of non-operative treatment or internal fixation, with lower rates of revision and complications, earlier full weight-bearing and better functional results. Loss of autonomy is, however, frequent, and 1-year mortality is high
Sarmah, SS; Patel, S; Reading, G; El-Husseiny, M; Douglas, S; Haddad, FS
INTRODUCTION The number of total knee arthroplasties performed continues to rise annually and it would be expected that complications, which include periprosthetic fractures, will also therefore become more commonplace. This article reviews the current literature regarding this injury and identifies the treatment principles that enable patients to regain optimal function. METHODS A comprehensive search of the Pubmed and Embase™ databases was performed to identify relevant articles. Keywords and MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms included in the search strategy were ‘periprosthetic fracture(s)’, ‘femur’, ‘tibia’, ‘patella(r)’, ‘complication(s)’, ‘failure(s)’, ‘risk(s)’, ‘prevalence’, ‘incidence’, ‘epidemiology’ and ‘classification(s)’. The search was limited to all articles published in English and reference lists from the original articles were reviewed to identify pertinent articles to include in this review. A total number of 43 studies were identified. RESULTS Common treatment aims have been identified when managing patients with a periprosthetic fracture around total knee arthoplasty. The main criterion that determines which option to choose is the degree of remaining bone stock and the amount of fracture displacement. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of a periprosthetic fracture around total knee arthroplasty will either be non-operative, osteosynthesis or revision arthroplasty. It is imperative that a suitable option is chosen and based on the published literature, pathways are outlined to aid the surgeon. PMID:22943223
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knee pain is one of the major sources of pain and disability in developed countries, particularly in aging populations, and is the primary indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA in patients with osteoarthritis (OA.
Koeter, S.; Jackson, R.W.
Articular sporotrichosis, a chronic granulomatous fungal infection, is a rare entity but when present may lead to significant joint destruction. Severe knee arthrosis due to sporotrichal arthritis has traditionally been treated with arthrodesis. Total knee arthroplasty in the presence of
Full Text Available Surgeries for total knee replacement (TKR are increasing and in this context there is a need to develop new protocols for management and use of blood transfusion therapy. Autologous blood reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and the aim of the present study was to verify the safety and the clinical efficacy. An observational retrospective study has been conducted on 124 patients, undergoing cemented total knee prosthesis replacement. Observed population was stratified into two groups: the first group received reinfusion of autologous blood collected in the postoperative surgery and the second group did not receive autologous blood reinfusion. Analysis of data shows that patients undergoing autologous blood reinfusion received less homologous blood bags (10.6% versus 30%; p=0.08 and reduced days of hospitalization (7.88 ± 0.7 days versus 8.96 ± 2.47 days for the control group; p=0.03. Microbiological tests were negative in all postoperatively salvaged and reinfused units. Our results emphasize the effectiveness of this procedure and have the characteristics of simplicity, low cost (€97.53 versus €103.79; p<0.01, and easy reproducibility. Use of autologous drainage system postoperatively is a procedure that allows reducing transfusion of homologous blood bags in patients undergoing TKR.
This dissertation explores and discusses different aspects of blood loss and blood-saving measures in total hip and knee arthroplasty. Background: Worldwide, approximately 1 million total hip and 1 million total knee prostheses are implanted each year. Total hip arthroplasty and total
Casino, Daniela; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Martelli, Sandra; Lopomo, Nicola; Bignozzi, Simone; Iacono, Francesco; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio
Interest in the kinematics of reconstructed knees has increased since it was shown that the alteration of knee motion could lead to abnormal wear and damage to soft tissues. We performed intraoperative kinematic measurements using a navigation system to study knee kinematics before and after posterior substituting rotating platform total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We verified intraoperatively (1) if varus/valgus (VV) laxity and anterior/posterior (AP) laxity were restored after TKA; (2) if TKA induced abnormal femoral rollback; and (3) how tibial axial rotation was influenced by TKA throughout the range of flexion. We found that TKA improved alignment in preoperative osteoarthritic varus knees which became neutral after surgery and maintained a neutral alignment in neutral knees. The VV stability at 0 degrees was restored while AP laxity at 90 degrees significantly increased after TKA. Following TKA, the femur had an abnormal anterior translation up to 60 degrees of flexion, followed by a small rollback of 12 +/- 5 mm. TKA influenced the tibia rotation pattern during flexion, but not the total amount of internal/external rotation throughout whole range of flexion, which was preserved after TKA (6 degrees +/- 5 degrees ). This study showed that the protocol proposed might be useful to adjust knee stability at time zero and that knee kinematic outcome during total knee replacement can be monitored by a navigation system.
Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan
Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.
Full Text Available The occurrence of early knee arthrosis following early total meniscectomy is a significant orthopedic, social and economical problem. Arthroscopic surgery shows the role and significance of the menisci for normal knee functioning. The outcome of 19 knee arthroscopies are presented; patients are of male sex, average age 39 (from 34 to 45. All patients underwent knee arthrotomy and total medial and lateral meniscectomy before the age of 25. All patients were active sportsmen. 12 arthroscopies of the right knee and 7 arthroscopies of the left one were done. In 13 patients, medial knee arthrosis following medial meniscectomy was found. One patient had lateral knee arthrosis and degeneration of the medial meniscus following lateral meniscectomy . The same patient had the total rupture of LCA. The remaining 5 patients had lateral knee arthrosis following lateral meniscectomy. One or more loose bodies of cartilaginous origin were found in 8 patients. All the operated patients had evident early signs of initial or progressive knee arthrosis confirmed or diagnosed arthroscopically. Knee arthroscopy in early arthroses following knee meniscectomies in youth can relieve the pain and slow down disease progression. A permanent solution to the problem is possible only with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.
Munk, Stig; Jensen, Niels J. F.; Andersen, Ida Bøgh
PURPOSE: Knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty may impair postoperative mobilisation and training, and as medical elastic compression stockings are well tolerated and effective to prevent oedema, haematoma and postoperative pain after venous surgery, we wanted to study whether this effect...... could be transferred to total knee arthroplasty surgery reducing postoperative swelling and pain and thereby facilitating mobilisation and improving patient-reported knee function. METHODS: In a randomised controlled study, 88 patients were randomised to use either a medical elastic compression stocking...... or no stocking from the first postoperative day and the following 4 weeks after total knee arthroplasty. Outcome measures were knee, calf and ankle swelling, knee flexion, pain and patient-reported knee function. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of the swelling had occurred before application of the stocking the day...
Canovas, F; Dagneaux, L
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) results in a high degree of patient satisfaction, as it provides patients with considerable medium- and long-term benefits in terms of quality of life, pain relief and function. Nevertheless, the literature reports that up to 30% of patients are dissatisfied. This dissatisfaction is directly related to the patients' quality of life, which they deem insufficient. Their quality of life depends on many physical, behavioural, social and psychological factors that are not taken into account by functional outcome scores. After describing the principles of quality of life evaluation after TKA, we will assess the effects of patient-related factors, the surgical technique and postoperative program through an exhaustive review of the literature. Patient expectations after TKA will then be outlined, particularly return to work and return to sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a topic of great importance, because its diagnosing and treatment requires a lot of resources, and often has an unsatisfactory outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of the treatment of infection developed following TKA. Methods. This retrospective study of infected TKAs was performed in the period from 1998 to 2008 in the Orthopedics & Traumatology Clinic of the Military Medical Academy (MMA in Belgrade. A total of 654 primary and revised TKAs were performed in the said period. We registered and surgically treated 28 infected TKAs (primary TKAs: MMA - 22, other institutions - 6. The incidence of TKA infection in the MMA was 3.36%. The most common pathogens were: Staphylococcus aureus - 14 (50% cases, and Staph. epidermidis - 3 (10.7% cases. Other isolated pathogens were: Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneum., Klebsiella spp., Streptoccocus viridans, Seratia spp, Micrococcus luteus and Peptostreptococcus spp. In one case we had mixed anaerobic flora, and in 3 cases cultures were negative. We analyzed diagnostic challenges, risk factors (such as age and previous viscosupplementation and treatment outcomes in our series of infected TKAs. Results. In our series 2 infections healed after iv antibiotics and debridement, 1 patient responded to open debridement with component retention, 4 patients responded fully to one-stage reimplantation, 10 cases responded fully to two-stage reimplantation, 11 patients ended with arthrodesis and we had 1 patient with above knee amputation. Conclusion. Two-stage reimplantation remains gold standard for treatment of infected TKA, and we recommend it as treatment of choice for eradication of infection. The antibiotic loaded spacer prothesis concept in most cases allows infection eradication, good function and high patient satisfaction.
Jensen, Claus Hjorth; Rofail, S
The prevalence of obesity and previous knee injury was assessed in a retrospective study of 115 patients under-going total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis. Obesity was considered a contributing factor in the development of osteoarthritis in 37% of the patients, and 33% of the patients had...... had an injury to the knee in question. Unilateral osteoarthritis was significantly more frequent than bilateral osteoarthritis among patients with a history of previous knee injury. The association of previous injury to the knee and unilateral osteoarthritis was stronger in men than women. Aggressive...... treatment of patients with knee injuries seems warranted....
Harvey, I A; Barry, K; Kirby, S P; Johnson, R; Elloy, M A
We have investigated those factors which influence the range of movement after total knee arthroplasty, including sex, age, preoperative diagnosis and preoperative flexion deformity and flexion range...
Maslow, Jed; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Immerman, Igor
Post-patellectomy patients represent a specific subgroup of patients that may develop arthritis and persistent knee pain and potentially require treatment with total knee arthroplasty. This article reviews the treatment and functional outcomes following total knee arthroplasty in patients with prior patellectomy. A case report is presented as an example of the clinical management of a post-patellectomy patient with significant knee pain and disability treated with total knee arthroplasty. Emphasis will be placed in decision- making, specifically with the use of a posterior stabilized implant. In addition, postoperative strengthening of the quadriceps is essential to compensate for the lack of the patella and increase the success of total knee arthroplasty in this subgroup of patients.
Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas
To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study. A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital. Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30 minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized. Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments by an assessor blinded for active or control treatment. The change in knee extension strength associated with knee icing was not significantly different from that of elbow icing (knee icing change (mean (1 SD)) -0.01 (0.07) Nm/kg, elbow icing change -0.02 (0.07) Nm/kg, P = 0.493). Likewise, the changes in knee pain at rest (P = 0.475), or knee pain during the knee extension strength measurements (P = 0.422) were not different between treatments. In contrast to observations in experimental knee effusion models and inflamed knee joints, knee joint icing for 30 minutes shortly after total knee arthroplasty had no acute effect on knee extension strength or knee pain.
Full Text Available Total knee replacement (TKR has been performed for patients with end-stage knee joint arthritis to relieve pain and gain functions. Most knee replacement patients can gain satisfactory knee functions; however, the range of motion of the implanted knee is variable. There are many designs of TKR implants; it has been suggested by some researchers that customized implants could offer a better option for patients. Currently, the 3-dimensional knee model of a patient can be created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or computed tomography (CT data using image processing techniques. The knee models can be used for patient-specific implant design, biomechanical analysis, and creating bone cutting guide blocks. Researchers have developed patient-specific musculoskeletal lower limb model with total knee replacement, and the models can be used to predict muscle forces, joint forces on knee condyles, and wear of tibial polyethylene insert. These available techniques make it feasible to create customized implants for individual patients. Methods and a workflow of creating a customized total knee replacement implant for improving TKR kinematics and functions are discussed and presented in this paper.
Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik
Objective: To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty.Design: A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study.Setting: A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital.......Participants: Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty.Interventions: The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30...... minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized.Main outcome measures: Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments...
Zhang, Yu; Ye, Lu-you; Liu, Hai-xiao; Wen, Hong
Traditional treatments for stiff knees, such as quadriceps snip and V-Y quadricepsplasty, require extensive soft tissue exposure and lead to recurrent poor arc of motion and a permanent extensor lag. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release for treating limited knee flexion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compared the outcomes of two surgical approaches. Sixteen knees with severe osteoarthritis were treated with TKA using either a midvastus (eight knees) or parapatellar (eight knees) approach. Quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release was performed after fixation of the knee prosthesis. Maximum knee flexion, Knee Society Score (KSS), and quadriceps strength were recorded and compared between the two surgical approach groups at different time points. The average maximum flexion angle of the knee increased from 40.6 ± 11.8 preoperatively to 63.1 ± 8.4 after fixation of the knee prosthesis in the midvastus group and from 38.8 ± 10.3 to 65.6 ± 9.0 in the parapatellar group. TKA did not lead to adequate correction of extension contracture in these stiff knees. The quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release further improved knee flexion by 35.0 ± 4.6 and 25.6 ± 4.2 in the midvastus and parapatellar groups, respectively (p pie-crusting release technique was an effective procedure for improving knee flexion in cases of stiff knee. The midvastus approach maintained the integrity of the extensor mechanism and resulted in better outcomes than the parapatellar approach.
Madadi, Firooz; Mehrvarz, Amir Sarshekeh; Madadi, Firoozeh; Boreiri, Majid; Abachizadeh, Kambiz; Ershadi, Ali
Suction drains provide an easy and feasible method for controlling hemorrhage after total knee arthroplasty. However, there has been no compromise regarding the optimum clamping time for these drains. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in 50 patients to compare 12-hour drain clamping and continuous drainage after total knee arthroplasty in terms of wound complications, blood loss, and articular arc of motion. To eliminate any other factor except duration of clamping, we chose to compare only knees belonging to a single patient and to restrict the study to those knees undergoing surgery due to osteoarthritis. From a total of 100 knees (50 patients) studied, the 12-hour-clamping method resulted in a significantly smaller amount of postoperative blood loss (p < 0.001). The passive ranges of motion and wound complications were not significantly different between the two groups.
Background: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a major technical procedure. Since its introduction it has become a successful procedure for treating various forms of pathologies in the knee associated with severe pain and disabling deformities such as severe osteoarthritis. Although various systems exist, they are broadly ...
Full Text Available Ligament balancing is one of the most important surgical techniques for successful total knee arthroplasty. It has traditionally been recommended that medial and lateral as well as flexion and extension gaps are equal. This article reviews the relevant literature and discusses the clinical importance of the aforementioned gaps. Current evidence indicates that achieving medial stability throughout the range of motion should be a high priority in ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty. Finally, the medial stabilising surgical technique, which aims to achieve good medial stability in posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, is introduced.
Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K; Bagger, Jens; Hornsleth, Mette; Kehlet, Henrik
Background and purpose Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss of knee-extension strength at discharge after fast-track TKA. Patients and methods 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral TKA were randomized (1:1) to preoperative intravenous (IV) MP 125 mg (gro...
Lim, Jason Beng Teck; Chi, Chong Hwei; Lo, Lup Ean; Lo, Woon Theng; Chia, Shi-Lu; Yeo, Seng Jin; Chin, Pak Lin; Tay, Keng Jin Darren; Lo, Ngai Nung
To compare the outcome after primary total knee replacement (TKR) for end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) in men versus women. Records of 214 men and 1040 women who underwent primary TKR for end-stage knee OA and were followed up for a minimum of 2 years were reviewed. Knee flexion, Oxford Knee Score, Knee Society Score (KSS), and 8 subscores of Short Form 36 (SF-36) were recorded preoperatively and at postoperative 6 months and 2 years. Men and women were comparable only in age (67.9 vs. 67.3 years, p=0.244); men had a lower mean body mass index (27.0 vs. 28.3 kg/m(2), p<0.001). Preoperatively, men had better knee flexion (117º vs. 114.8º, p=0.05), Oxford Knee Score (33.5 vs. 36.8, p<0.001), KSS knee score (44.3 vs. 40.3, p=0.001), KSS function score (52.5 vs. 47.1, p<0.001), and all 8 subscores of SF-36 (p=0.005 to p<0.001). Compared with men, women achieved greater improvement at 6 months in Oxford Knee score (13.2 vs. 15.1, p=0.009) and KSS knee score (36.9 vs. 41.6, p=0.016), and at 2 years in Oxford Knee Score (15.0 vs. 17.9, p<0.001), KSS knee score (39.8 vs. 43.9, p=0.009), and SF-36 subscores of social functioning (23.6 vs. 35.1, p<0.001) and mental health (3.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.003). Compared with men, women had poorer preoperative knee flexion, Oxford Knee Score, KSS, and 8 subscores of SF-36, but achieved greater improvement in the Oxford Knee Score and KSS knee score at 6 months and 2 years, as well as in SF-36 subscores of social functioning and mental health at 2 years.
Nielsen, Katrine Abildgaard; Thomsen, Morten Grove; Latifi, Roshan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the difference in post-operative knee awareness between knees in patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to assess factors predicting high or low knee awareness. METHODS: This study was conducted on 99 bilateral simultaneous TKAs performed...... at our institution from 2008 to 2012. All patients received one set of questionnaires [Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS)] for each knee. Based on the FJS, the patients' knees were divided into two groups: "best" and "worst" knees. The median of the absolute difference in FJS and OKS...... within each patient was calculated. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify factors affecting FJS. RESULTS: The difference between knees was 1 point (CI 0-5) for the FJS and 1 point (CI 0-2) for the OKS. The FJS for females increased (decreasing awareness) with increasing age. Males had...
Hamilton, L R
Using the UCI (University of California at Irvine) total knee prosthesis, an arthroplasty was performed in ninety-seven patients (121 knees) from 1972 through 1977. I examined eighty of these patients (100 knees) at three to eight years after the operation and it was necessary to either perform or recommend further surgery in twenty-five of them (twenty-seven knees). These results were designated as failures. The knees in valgus angulation that failed typically did so within the first year because of medical instability and patellar dislocation. The knees in varus angulation that failed typically did so one to six years after operation because of loosening of the tibial component. When failure became established, each knee was found to have reverted to its preoperative angular deformity, indicating that deforming factors were still operative. I suspect that ligament imbalance may have contributed to many of these failures. The surface area and stiffness of the 5.0 and 7.5-millimeter-thick tibial components of the original UCI prosthesis were not sufficient to prevent loosening and subsidence. Constraint between the tibial and femoral components was not sufficient to prevent subluxation or dislocation if soft-tissue release was needed for correction of deformity. Prompted by this experience, total knee arthroplasty using the UCI device has been discontinued at the Ochsner Medical Institutions.
Lachiewicz, P F; Ranawat, C S
This is the first report of fat embolism syndrome after bilateral total knee arthroplasty with the total condylar prosthesis. Cementing techniques and increased systemic monomer may play a role in the etiology of this syndrome. It is reasonable to suppose that fat embolism syndrome often occurs after total knee arthroplasty in an occult form.
C.J. de Ruiter; Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen; P.A. Nolte; A. de Haan
Objective. To investigate the feasibility and effects of additional preoperative high intensity strength training for patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Design. Clinical controlled trial. Patients. Twenty-two patients awaiting TKA. Methods. Patients were allocated to a standard
Narici, Marco; Conte, M; Salvioli, Stefano
This study investigated features of skeletal muscle ageing in elderly individuals having previously undergone unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and whether markers of sarcopenia could be mitigated by a 12-week alpine skiing intervention. Novel biomarkers agrin, indicative of neuromuscular...
Li, Bin; Wen, Yu; Liu, Da; Tian, Lijie
This study prospectively assessed the effects of knee position on blood loss and range of motion after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One hundred and ten consecutive TKA patients were randomized into flexion group and extension group. Both groups had the leg elevated 30° at the hip over an inactive CPM for 72 h postoperatively. The flexion group had the knee flexed to 30° during this period. The extension group had the knee extended fully. Perioperative blood loss, hidden blood loss, knee swelling, ecchymosis, analgesia requirements, range of motion (ROM), fixed flexion deformity (FFD), straight-leg raising action, and postoperative complications within 6 weeks of surgery were measured for evaluation and comparison. The postoperative hidden blood loss, knee swelling, and scope of ecchymosis were significantly lower in the flexion group than in the extension group, and ROM and straight-leg raising action were significantly higher during the early period after operation. No significant difference was observed in perioperative blood loss, the amount of morphine used, or FFD in the early postoperative period or in ROM and FFD at 6 weeks postoperatively. The findings of this study indicate that flexion of the knee to 30° with the leg elevated 30° at the hip after total knee arthroplasty may mitigate knee swelling and provide other beneficial results during the early rehabilitation following TKA. Prospective comparative study, Level I.
Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...
Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...
Troelsen, Anders; Schrøder, Henrik; Husted, Henrik
During the past decade, the incidence of primary total knee replacement (TKA) surgery in Denmark has approximately doubled. This increase could be due to weakened indications to perform TKA surgery. We aimed to investigate variation in opinions about indications to perform TKA among Danish knee...
Yoon, Jung-Ro; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Wang, Joon Ho; Yang, Jae-Hyuk
In vivo comparative gap measurements were performed in three different patella positions (reduced, subluxated and everted) using offset-type-force-controlled-spreader-system. Prospectively, 50 knees were operated by total knee arthroplasty using a navigation-assisted gap-balancing technique. The offset-type-force-controlled-spreader-system was used for gap measurements. This commercially available instrument allows controllable tension in patella-reduced position. The mediolateral gaps of knee extension (0°) and flexion (90°) angle were recorded in three different patella positions; reduced, subluxated and everted. Any gap differences of more than 3 mm were considered as a meaningful difference. Correlation between the difference with the demographic data, preoperative radiologic alignment and intraoperative data was analysed. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation test were used. The gaps in patella eversion demonstrated smaller gaps both in knee extension and flexion position compared to the gaps of patella reduction position. The amount of decreased gaps was more definite in knee flexion position. Statistically significant difference was observed for the lateral gap of patella eversion compared to gap of patella reduction in knee flexion position (p patella subluxation and 33 (66 %) knees of patella evertion demonstrated either increased or decreased gaps in knee flexion position compared to the gaps of patella reduction position. The gaps in patella eversion demonstrated smaller gaps both in knee extension and flexion position compared to the gaps of patella reduction position. The amount of decreased gaps was more definite in knee flexion position. Therefore, the intraoperative patellar positioning has influence on the measurement of the joint gap. Keeping the patella in reduced position is important during gap balancing. I.
Heyse, Thomas J; Slane, Joshua; Peersman, Geert; Dirckx, Margo; van de Vyver, Arne; Dworschak, Philipp; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Scheys, Lennart
The recently reintroduced bicruciate-retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty (BCR TKA) is an interesting approach in the quest for close replication of knee joint biomechanics and kinematics closer to the native knee. Therefore, this study aimed at providing a detailed biomechanical view on the functional resemblance of BCR TKA to the native knee joint. Seven fresh-frozen full leg cadaver specimens (76 ± 10 year) were mounted in a 6 degrees-of-freedom kinematic rig that applied a dynamic squatting motion knee flexion. Two motion patterns were performed pre- and post-implantation of a fixed bearing BCR TKA: passive flexion-extension and squatting while an infrared camera system tracked the location of reflective markers attached to the tibia and femur. Additionally, specimen laxity was assessed using Lachman tests and varus/valgus stress tests in triplicate. Overall, differences in tibiofemoral kinematics between native knee and BCR TKA were small. Some minor differences appeared under the load of a squat: less internal tibial rotation and some minor paradoxical anterior translation of the medial femoral condyle during mid-flexion. BCR TKA may slightly elevate the joint line. Knee laxity as measured by the Lachman and varus/valgus tests was not significantly influenced by BCR TKA implantation. As both cruciate ligaments are preserved with BCR TKA the unloaded knee closely resembles native knee kinematics including preserving the rollback mechanism. The loss of the conforming anatomy of menisci and tibial cartilage and replacement via a relatively flat polyethylene inlay may account for the loss of tibial internal rotation and the slight paradoxical AP motion of the medial femoral condyle with BCR TKA. This phenomenon reproduces findings made earlier with fixed bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty.
Thomsen, Morten Grove; Husted, H; Bencke, J
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a gender-specific high-flexion posterior-stabilised (PS) total knee replacement (TKR) would offer advantages over a high-flex PS TKR regarding range of movement (ROM), 'feel' of the knee, pain and satisfaction, as well as during activity. A total......, satisfaction and daily 'feel' of each knee. Patients underwent gait analysis pre-operatively and at one year, which yielded kinematic, kinetic and temporospatial parameters indicative of knee function during gait. At final follow-up we found no statistically significant differences in ROM (p = 0.......66). Gait analysis showed no statistically significant differences between the two prosthetic designs in any kinematic, kinetic or temporospatial parameters. Both designs produced good clinical results with significant improvements in several gait parameters without evidence of any advantage in the gender...
Møller, J T; Boe, S; Vang, P S
Knee replacement using the Total Condylar Prosthesis was carried out on six large cadaveric knees. Tibiofemoral articulation was studied radiographically with the tibial component placed anteriorly as well as posteriorly on the tibial plateau. It is concluded that, in this model, when using the Total Condylar Prosthesis for big-sized knees, a tall, posteriorly placed tibial component gave the best placement of the femoral component and the most central tibio-femoral articulation, entailing optimal distribution of the load on the trabecular bone beneath the tibial component.
Thomsen, Morten G; Husted, Henrik; Otte, Kristian Stahl
BACKGROUND: Little information exists to support that patients care about flexion beyond what is needed to perform activities of daily living (ADL) after Total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to investigate if the achievement of a higher degree of knee flexion after TKA wou...... -- as pain free ROM and high patient satisfaction were achieved with both TKA's.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00294528....
Akbari Shandiz, Mohsen; Boulos, Paul; Saevarsson, Stefan Karl; Ramm, Heiko; Fu, Chun Kit Jack; Miller, Stephen; Zachow, Stefan; Anglin, Carolyn
Changes in knee shape and geometry resulting from total knee arthroplasty can affect patients in numerous important ways: pain, function, stability, range of motion, and kinematics. Quantitative data concerning these changes have not been previously available, to our knowledge, yet are essential to understand individual experiences of total knee arthroplasty and thereby improve outcomes for all patients. The limiting factor has been the challenge of accurately measuring these changes. Our study objective was to develop a conceptual framework and analysis method to investigate changes in knee shape and geometry, and prospectively apply it to a sample total knee arthroplasty population. Using clinically available computed tomography and radiography imaging systems, the three-dimensional knee shape and geometry of nine patients (eight varus and one valgus) were compared before and after total knee arthroplasty. All patients had largely good outcomes after their total knee arthroplasty. Knee shape changed both visually and numerically. On average, the distal condyles were slightly higher medially and lower laterally (range: +4.5 mm to -4.4 mm), the posterior condyles extended farther out medially but not laterally (range: +1.8 to -6.4 mm), patellofemoral distance increased throughout flexion by 1.8-3.5 mm, and patellar thickness alone increased by 2.9 mm (range: 0.7-5.2 mm). External femoral rotation differed preop and postop. Joint line distance, taking cartilage into account, changed by +0.7 to -1.5 mm on average throughout flexion. Important differences in shape and geometry were seen between pre-total knee arthroplasty and post-total knee arthroplasty knees. While this is qualitatively known, this is the first study to report it quantitatively, an important precursor to identifying the reasons for the poor outcome of some patients. Using the developed protocol and visualization techniques to compare patients with good versus poor clinical outcomes could
Ullrich, Boris; Stening, Jens; Pelzer, Thiemo; Raab, Jana
Despite the clinical success of total knee arthroplasty, impaired gait patterns and quadriceps and hamstring maximal voluntary force production might persist years post-surgery. Long-term data of gait patterns and quadriceps and hamstring maximal force production are rarely published with total knee arthroplasty patients. This work examined gait characteristics and the moment-knee angle relations of the knee extensors and flexors about 10 years post-total knee arthroplasty. About a decade post-surgery, 10 female total knee arthroplasty patients (64 years, mobile-bearing inlay) and 10 age-matched female controls were examined. Sagittal plane kinematics in the hip and knee joint during treadmill walking at 2 kilometres per hour were recorded using motion analysis. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were analyzed at self-selected walking speeds with a pressure-platform. The unilateral isometric moment-knee angle relations of the knee extensors and flexors and the electromyographic knee angle relation of the quadriceps were studied using dynamometry. Due to group differences for body mass index values, univariate analysis of variance (main effect: group, secondary effect: body mass index) was used for statistical analysis. Total knee arthroplasty patients demonstrated significant (Pgait deficits during constant and self-selected walking speeds and lower average absolute values in the moment-knee angle relations of the knee extensors and flexors. Significant (Pgait characteristics and maximal voluntary force production, especially for the knee extensors, might persist after total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McClelland, Jodie A; Feller, Julian A; Menz, Hylton B; Webster, Kate E
Recent research designed to improve outcome from total knee arthroplasty has included focus on strategies that increase the range of post-operative knee flexion. Patients with knee arthroplasty can now expect >100° of knee flexion following surgery, but it is not clear whether this improved range of motion facilitates outcome or whether patients take advantage of this range when completing daily functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the knee flexion angles used during daily functional activities that specifically required high degrees of knee flexion. It was hypothesised that patients with greater range of passive knee flexion would achieve higher degrees of knee flexion during functional activities. Motion analysis was used to assess the maximum knee flexion of 40 patients with total knee arthroplasty and 40 control participants as they performed maximum flexion squatting and lunging activities. Patients with knee arthroplasty used between 80.8 and 91.4° of knee flexion to complete these activities, which was 20 to 30% less than that used by the control participants. Patients with greater ranges of passive knee flexion had greater maximum knee flexion during functional activities. However, they used only between 68% and 77% of their full passive range when lunging and squatting. The development of rehabilitation strategies that aim to increase weightbearing knee flexion capacity may be warranted to improve functional performance following total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Münch, Henrik J; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Olesen, Jens T
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is unclear whether delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions against implanted metals play a role in the etiopathogenesis of malfunctioning total knee arthroplasties. We therefore evaluated the association between metal allergy, defined as a positive patch test reaction...... to common metal allergens, and revision surgery in patients who underwent knee arthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The nationwide Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register, including all knee-implanted patients and revisions in Denmark after 1997 (n = 46,407), was crosslinked with a contact allergy patch test......, the prevalence of cobalt and chromium allergy was markedly higher. Metal allergy that was diagnosed before implant surgery appeared not to increase the risk of implant failure and revision surgery. INTERPRETATION: While we could not confirm that a positive patch test reaction to common metals is associated...
Marmignon, C; Leimnei, A; Lavallée, S; Cinquin, P
To obtain a long lifespan of knee prosthesis, it is necessary to restore the alignment of the lower limb. In some cases of severe arthrosis, the ligament envelope of the joint may be deformed, inducing an asymmetric laxity once the lower limb is realigned. Because there is not yet unanimity regarding how to optimally measure or implement soft tissue balance, we provide a means to acquire a variety of measurements. In traditional surgery, the surgeon sometimes uses a "tensor", which acts like a forceps. This system was redesigned, instrumented, actuated, and integrated into a navigation system for orthopaedic surgery. Improving the perception of the surgeon, it helps him to address the ligament balancing problem. Our first prototype has been tested on sawbones before being validated in an experiment on two cadavers. In our first attempt, the surgeon was able to assess soft tissue balance but judged the device not powerful enough, which led us to develop a new more powerful hydraulic system. In this paper, we present our approach and the first results of the new hydraulic tensor which is currently in an integration process. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
da Silva, Robson Rocha; Santos, Ayrton André Melo; de Sampaio Carvalho Júnior, José; Matos, Marcos Almeida
To review the literature on quality of life among patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and assess the impact of various associated factors. this was a systematic review of the literature in the Medline, Embase, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the terms: TKA (total knee arthroplasty); TKR (total knee replacement); quality of life; and outcomes. There were no restrictions regarding study design. 31 articles addressing this topic using various quality-of-life evaluation protocols were selected. SF-36/SF-12, WOMAC and Oxford were the ones most frequently used. The studies made it possible to define that TKA is capable of making an overall improvement in patients' quality of life. Pain and function are among the most important predictors of improvement in quality of life, even when function remains inferior to that of healthy patients. The factors associated negatively were obesity, advanced age, comorbidities, persistence of pain after the procedure and a lengthy wait for surgery.
Sharma, Vineet; Tsailas, Panagiotis G.; Maheshwari, Aditya V.; Ranawat, Chitranjan S.
Several proponents of minimally invasive surgery-total knee arthroplasty (MIS-TKA) have suggested patellar eversion during a standard exposure of the knee may cause shortening of the patellar tendon and poorer outcomes secondary to acquired patella baja. To explore this suggestion, we retrospectively reviewed 135 consecutive TKAs in 110 patients to ascertain the effect of TKA on the postoperative Insall-Salvati ratio. All surgeries were performed using standard TKA techniques with a midline incision, medial parapatellar arthrotomy, partial excision of the fat pad, and routine eversion of the patella. One patient developed a postoperative patella baja, defined as an Insall-Salvati ratio of less than 0.8. The Knee Society score for knee and function in this patient was 75 and 70, respectively. Five additional patients had a decrease in Insall-Salvati ratio by 10% or more but without patella baja. Mean Knee Society score for knee and function in these five patients was 94 (range, 73–99) and 96 (range, 90–100), respectively, as compared with 93 (range, 37–99) and 94 (range, 40–100) in the remaining 104 patients. Our data suggest the incidence of patella baja is low after TKA despite routine patellar eversion. Furthermore, a 10% or more decrease in the Insall-Salvati ratio without patella baja was not associated with a worse clinical outcome. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18568378
Full Text Available Abstract Fixed and mobile-bearing in total knee arthroplasty are still discussed controversially. In this article, biomechanical and clinical aspects in both fixed and mobile-bearing designs were reviewed. In biomechanical aspect, the mobile-bearing design has proved to provide less tibiofemoral contact stresses under tibiofemoral malalignment conditions. It also provides less wear rate in in-vitro simulator test. Patients with posterior stabilized mobile-bearing knees had more axial tibiofemoral rotation than patients with posterior stabilized fixed-bearing knees during gait as well as in a deep knee-bend activity. However, in clinical aspect, the mid-term or long-term survivorship of mobile-bearing knees has no superiority over that of fixed-bearing knees. The theoretical advantages for mobile-bearing design to provide a long-term durability have not been demonstrated by any outcome studies. Finally, the fixed-bearing design with all-polyethylene tibial component is suggested for relatively inactive, elder people. The mobile-bearing design is suggested for younger or higher-demand patients due to the potential for reduced polyethylene wear and more normal kinematics response after joint replacement. For younger surgeon, the fixed-bearing design is suggested due to less demand for surgical technique. For experienced surgeon, one familiar surgical protocol and instrumentation is suggested rather than implant design, either fixed-bearing or mobile-bearing.
Full Text Available Introduction: Computer assisted surgery was pioneered in early 1990s. The first computer assisted surgery (CAS total knee replacement with an imageless system was carried out in 1997. In the past 25 years, CAS has progressed from experimental in vitro studies to established in vivo surgical procedures. Methods: A comprehensive body of evidence establishing the advantages of computer assisted surgery in knee and hip arthroplasty is available. Established benefits have been demonstrated including its role as an excellent research tool. Its advantages include dynamic pre-operative and per-operative assessment, increased accuracy in correction of deformities, kinematics and mechanical axis, a better alignment of components, better survival rates of prostheses and a better functional outcome. Adoption of computer navigation in the hip arthroplasty is still at an early stage compared to knee arthroplasty, though the results are well documented. Evidence suggests improved accuracy in acetabular orientation, positioning, hip offset and leg length correction. Results: Among the orthopaedic surgeons, navigated knee arthroplasty is gaining popularity though slowly. The uptake rates vary from country to country. The Australian joint registry data shows increased navigated knee arthroplasty from 2.4% in 2003 to 28.6% in 2015 and decreased revision rates with navigated knee arthroplasty in comparison with traditional instrumented knee arthroplasty in patient cohort under the age of 55 years. Conclusion: Any new technology has a learning curve and with practice the navigation assisted knee and hip arthroplasty becomes easy. We have actively followed the evidence of CAS in orthopaedics and have successfully adopted it in our routine practice over the last decades. Despite the cautious inertia of orthopaedic surgeons to embrace CAS more readily; we are certain that computer technology has a pivotal role in lower limb arthroplasty. It will evolve to become a
Deep, Kamal; Shankar, Shivakumar; Mahendra, Ashish
Computer assisted surgery was pioneered in early 1990s. The first computer assisted surgery (CAS) total knee replacement with an imageless system was carried out in 1997. In the past 25 years, CAS has progressed from experimental in vitro studies to established in vivo surgical procedures. A comprehensive body of evidence establishing the advantages of computer assisted surgery in knee and hip arthroplasty is available. Established benefits have been demonstrated including its role as an excellent research tool. Its advantages include dynamic pre-operative and per-operative assessment, increased accuracy in correction of deformities, kinematics and mechanical axis, a better alignment of components, better survival rates of prostheses and a better functional outcome. Adoption of computer navigation in the hip arthroplasty is still at an early stage compared to knee arthroplasty, though the results are well documented. Evidence suggests improved accuracy in acetabular orientation, positioning, hip offset and leg length correction. Among the orthopaedic surgeons, navigated knee arthroplasty is gaining popularity though slowly. The uptake rates vary from country to country. The Australian joint registry data shows increased navigated knee arthroplasty from 2.4% in 2003 to 28.6% in 2015 and decreased revision rates with navigated knee arthroplasty in comparison with traditional instrumented knee arthroplasty in patient cohort under the age of 55 years. Any new technology has a learning curve and with practice the navigation assisted knee and hip arthroplasty becomes easy. We have actively followed the evidence of CAS in orthopaedics and have successfully adopted it in our routine practice over the last decades. Despite the cautious inertia of orthopaedic surgeons to embrace CAS more readily; we are certain that computer technology has a pivotal role in lower limb arthroplasty. It will evolve to become a standard practice in the future in various forms like navigation
Lucio Flávio Biondi Pinheiro Júnior
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper reports a case of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis (DPVNS, associated with advanced gonarthrosis, submitted to total knee replacement. The patient had progressive pain and swelling. She had two previous surgeries, firstly arthroscopic , synovectomy and subsequently open synovectomy associated with radiotherapy, with recurrence of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse synovitis, advanced arthrosis, and bone cysts. The patient was submitted to a total knee replacement and synovectomy. There was a good postoperative clinical course, with improvement of pain, function, and joint edema on examination. The patient will be followed regarding the possibility of disease recurrence and implant survival.,
Koesters, A.; Poetzelsberger, B.; Dela, F.
The aim of this study was to monitor the long-term effects of skiing on health-related parameters and implant related factors like loosening and wear in patients with total knee arthroplasty. This paper describes the overall study design, general demographics, and physiological demand of the inte......The aim of this study was to monitor the long-term effects of skiing on health-related parameters and implant related factors like loosening and wear in patients with total knee arthroplasty. This paper describes the overall study design, general demographics, and physiological demand...
Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K
Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss......-group differences were similar for knee circumference, TUG test, and pain scores. MP reduced the inflammatory response (CRP) at 24 hours postoperatively; group MP 33 (IQR 21-50) mg/L vs. group C 72 (IQR 58-92) mg/L (p ...-265) mg/L (p reduce the pronounced loss of knee-extension strength or other functional outcomes at discharge after fast-track TKA despite a reduced systemic inflammatory response....
Latifi, Roshan; Thomsen, Morten Grove; Kallemose, Thomas
AIM: To investigate knee awareness and functional outcomes in patients treated with simultaneous bilateral vs unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Through a database search, we identified 210 patients who had undergone unilateral TKA (UTKA) and 65 patients who had undergone......-surgical treatments were failed, thus preoperatively the patients had poor functionality. All patients were asked to complete Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS) questionnaires. The patients were matched according to age, gender, year of surgery, Kellgren-Lawrence score and pre- and postoperative...... overall knee alignment. The FJS and OKS questionnaire results of the two groups were then compared. RESULTS: A mixed-effects model was used to analyze differences between SBTKA and UTKA. OKS: The mean difference in the OKS between the patients who had undergone SBTKA and those who had undergone UTKA was 1...
Jiang, Chao; Lou, Jieqiong; QIAN, WENWEI; Ye, Canhua; Zhu, Shibai
Introduction Controversy still exists regarding positioning of the knee in flexion or in extension after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impacts treatment outcomes. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated if a postoperative knee position regime could positively affect the rehabilitation. Methods A comprehensive search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of knee positioning after TKA was conducted. The outcomes of interest were blood loss and range of motion (ROM); total cal...
Sánchez Mayo, B; Rodríguez-Mansilla, J; González Sánchez, B
The purpose of this study was to know the effects of continuous passive mobilization in patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty. A search strategy was developed to retrieve all clinical trials, written in English and/or Spanish, published in the electronic search databases PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus, Dialnet, CSIC and PEDro. The inclusion criteria were: clinical trials published from January 2000 until November 2014 in English or Spanish. Out of 537 clinical trials that were potentially relevant, a total of 12 were included in this review. The evaluation of 1,153 patients shows that there is no significant difference in improving the range of the joint, pain, balance, motion, healing and hospital stay using continuous passive mobilization against the regular physiotherapy treatment for total knee arthroplasty. The application of continuous passive mobilization in the long-term does not provide any benefit in terms of the breadth of the range of the joint, pain and improvement of standing and motion in comparison with conventional postoperative physiotherapy treatment in total knee arthroplasty. In the short term an improvement is obtained in the range of joint motion in knee flexion.
Husted, Henrik; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard
Twenty-six consecutive cases of infected primary total knee arthroplasties were treated at our institution from 1989 through 2000. Eleven patients had debridement and irrigation performed within 2 months of index arthroplasty or hematogenous spread; only one infection was eradicated. Twenty-five ...
Full Text Available Introduction: In the society of the 21st century, osteoarthritis is considered one of the primary causes of the occurrence of pain and disability. Arthroplasty is the treatment of choice for advanced degenerative changes. The aim of the study was to carry out a functional assessment of patients at early stages of rehabilitation after total knee replacement.
Moustafa Abdelaziz Moustafa
Mar 2, 2012 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Nalbuphine added to intrathecal morphine in total knee arthroplasty; effect on postoperative analgesic requirements and morphine related side effects. Moustafa Abdelaziz Moustafa *, Rabab Saber Saleh. Faculty of Medicine, Anaesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care, Alexandria, ...
Operation theatres in Africa are not as sophisticated as those in the west and one may expect higher rates of infection after primary Total Knee Replacement Arthroplasties (TKRA). We conducted a study to determine the incidence and risk factors for the development of post operative SSI after primary TKRA at a hospital in ...
Kristensen, M.; Pötzelsberger, B.; Scheiber, P.
We investigated the effect of alpine skiing for 12 weeks on skeletal muscle characteristics and biomarkers of glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-three patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were studied 2.9 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SD) after the operation. Fourteen...
occur after orthopedic surgery and are associated with increased costs, more surgical procedures and death. Various techniques have been developed to reduce this risk. Operation theatres in Africa are not as sophisticated as those in the west and one may expect higher rates of infection after primary. Total Knee ...
Husted, H; Troelsen, A; Otte, K S
Bilateral simultaneous total knee replacement (TKR) has been considered by some to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Our study analysed the outcome of 150 consecutive, but selected, bilateral simultaneous TKRs and compared them with that of 271 unilateral TKRs in a standardised...
Introduction: Total knee replacement surgery is relatively new in Nigeria and available in few centres only. It has been evolving at a slow pace because of the lack of facilities, structures and adequate surgical expertise alongside patient ignorance and poverty. Objective: The aim of this article is to review the cases done in a ...
Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik
PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...
Thienpont, E; Lavand'homme, P; Kehlet, H
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major orthopaedic intervention. The length of a patient's stay has been progressively reduced with the introduction of enhanced recovery protocols: day-case surgery has become the ultimate challenge. This narrative review shows the potential limitations of day...... in a limited group of patients. The younger, male patient without comorbidities and with an excellent social network around him might be a candidate. Demographic changes, effective recovery programmes and less invasive surgical techniques such as unicondylar knee arthroplasty, may increase the size...
Full Text Available Introduction: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA can be used to treat medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. Some of these knees will eventually fail, and need to be revised. There is controversy about using UKA in younger patients as a definitive procedure or as a means to delay total knee arthroplasty (TKA because the outcomes of subsequent revision surgery may be inferior to a primary TKA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 46 revision TKA patients following failed UKA (UKA revisions using functional outcomes questionnaires and compared the results with a cohort of age and gender matched primary TKA patients. Our hypothesis was that UKA revision surgery would be inferior to primary TKA surgery. Results: Data was collected on 33 knees after a mean follow-up period of five years. There was no significant difference in the Oxford Knee Score (33.7 vs 37.1, p = 0.09 or the Western Ontario and MacMasters Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC (24.8 vs. 19.1, p = 0.22. A subgroup analysis demonstrated that UKAs, which fail early, are more likely to produce an inferior outcome following revision surgery than those that survive more than five years. Discussion: We conclude that UKA can be used effectively in appropriately selected patients, as the functional outcome of their subsequent revision to TKA is not significantly inferior to a primary TKA.
van der Woude, J A D; Wiegant, K; van Heerwaarden, R J; Spruijt, S; Emans, P J; Mastbergen, S C; Lafeber, F P J G
Knee joint distraction (KJD) is a relatively new, knee-joint preserving procedure with the goal of delaying total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in young and middle-aged patients. We present a randomised controlled trial comparing the two. The 60 patients ≤ 65 years with end-stage knee osteoarthritis were randomised to either KJD (n = 20) or TKA (n = 40). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, three, six, nine, and 12 months. In the KJD group, the joint space width (JSW) was radiologically assessed, representing a surrogate marker of cartilage thickness. In total 56 patients completed their allocated treatment (TKA = 36, KJD = 20). All patient reported outcome measures improved significantly over one year (p Osteoarthritis Research Society International clinical response was 83% after TKA and 80% after KJD. A total of 12 patients (60%) in the KJD group sustained pin track infections. In the KJD group both mean minimum (0.9 mm, standard deviation (sd) 1.1) and mean JSW (1.2 mm, sd 1.1) increased significantly (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003). In relatively young patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis, KJD did not demonstrate inferiority of outcomes at one year when compared with TKA. However, there is a high incidence of pin track infection associated with KJD. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:51-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Michelle M. Dowsey
Full Text Available Total knee replacement (TKR is the mainstay of treatment for people with end-stage knee OA among suitably “fit” candidates. As a high cost, high volume procedure with a worldwide demand that continues to grow it has become increasingly popular to measure response to surgery. While the majority who undergo TKR report improvements in pain and function following surgery, a significant proportion of patients report dissatisfaction with surgery as a result of ongoing pain or poor function. Poor outcomes of TKR require care that imposes on already overburdened health systems. Accurate and meaningful capture and interpretation of outcome data are imperative for appropriate patient selection, informing those at risk, and for developing strategies to mitigate the risk of poor results and dissatisfaction. The ways in which TKR outcomes are captured and analysed, the level of follow-up, the types of outcome measures used, and the timing of their application vary considerably within the literature. With this in mind, we reviewed four of the most commonly used joint specific outcome measures in TKR. We report on the utility, strengths, and limitations of the Oxford knee score (OKS, knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC, and knee society clinical rating system (KSS.
Hube, R; Mayr, H O; Pfitzner, T; von Roth, P
Flexion contracture is a common deformity of the arthritic knee. The present publication describes causes, clinical relevance and surgical technique in the presence of flexion contractures in total knee arthroplasty. Flexion contracture can be attributed to different causes. Basically it is a mismatch between flexion and extension gaps. Moderate and severe deformities have to be corrected by additional surgical interventions. In most cases soft tissue techniques with release of contracted structures, the removal of osteophytes and additional distal femoral bone resection are necessary. The goal of these interventions is to achieve full extension of the knee. During rehabilitation attention has to be paid to maintain it with intensive physical therapy. A remaining flexion contracture is associated with inferior functional outcome and persistent pain. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Saleh, Khaled J; Lee, Laura W; Gandhi, Rajiv; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Mahomed, Nizar N; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Novicoff, Wendy M; Mihalko, William M
After total knee arthroplasty, quadriceps femoris muscle strength is an important determinant of physical function. Quadriceps weakness is often present in the osteoarthritic limb and worsens after total knee arthroplasty. Although some quadriceps strength is regained, it may take more than 2 years to achieve preoperative levels, and it is unclear if quadriceps strength in the operated limb ever reaches that of the nondiseased contralateral limb or the quadriceps strength of healthy controls. Studies point to volitional muscle activation rather than muscle atrophy or joint pain as the cause of the weakness. The unresolved challenge lies in clarifying the optimal surgical and rehabilitation course that will reverse the weakness early or prevent its occurrence. Studies suggest that progressive resistive strengthening exercises and neuromuscular electrical stimulation, possibly along with "prehabilitation," improve quadriceps volitional force output. Well-designed, controlled studies are necessary to determine efficacy. Because knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty are highly prevalent, improving quadriceps weakness is an important goal for orthopaedic surgeons and rehabilitation specialists.
Mine, Takatomo; Hoshi, Kenji; Gamada, Kazuyoshi; Ihara, Koichiro; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kuriyama, Ryutaro; Date, Ryo
Total knee arthroplasty is effective to regain quality of life. Standing up from and sitting down on a chair and stair stepping motion are important in daily living. We previously reported in vivo kinematics of this implant during a stepping exercise. The purpose of this analysis was to assess in vivo knee motion during standing up from and sitting down on a chair and determine the motion pattern in patients with the unique knee prosthesis. A total of 15 patients implanted with Bi-Surface PS were assessed during standing up from and sitting down on a chair. The Bi-Surface PS knee is a posterior-cruciate substitute prosthesis with a unique ball-and-socket joint in the mid-posterior portion of the femoral and tibial components. Patients were examined during standing up from and sitting down on a chair using a two-dimensional to three-dimensional registration technique. During standing up from and sitting down on a chair from minimum to 30° knee flexion, anterior femoral translation was slight. From 30° knee flexion to maximum flexion, the kinematic pattern was a medial pivot and rollback. This study demonstrated that the knee motion kinematic patterns observed in this study were not similar to normal knee kinematics and derived from the unique design of the Bi-Surface PS.
Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt
BACKGROUND: Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is unkn......BACKGROUND: Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA......). It is unknown how these exercise variables influence knee pain after TKA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of loading and contraction failure on knee pain during strength training, shortly following TKA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Consecutive sample of patients from the Copenhagen area, Denmark......, receiving a TKA, between November 2012 and April 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen patients, no more than 3 weeks after their TKA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In a randomized order, the patients performed 1 set of 4 standardized knee extensions, using relative loads of 8, 14, and 20 repetition maximum (RM...
Dudhniwala, A G; Singh, S; Morgan-Jones, R
We present the first ever reported case of bilateral total knee replacements in a congenital amputee with bilateral fibular deficiency. A 60 year old woman with bilateral fibular hemimelia presented with advanced osteoarthritis in both her knees for which bilateral total knee replacements was performed. The left knee replacement was followed up at 12 months and the right knee at 7 years. Oxford knee scores improved from 14 to 40 for the left knee and were 37 for the right knee. She was able to walk independently to a distance beyond 400 m. Modification in the surgical procedure and postoperative rehabilitation is discussed. Mid-term follow-up of 7 years reaffirms total knee replacement as a viable option for below knee amputees with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boesen, Morten P; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard; Husted, Henrik
A case of a fractured polyethylene stabilizing insert causing secondary knee instability in a Dual-articular total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is presented. A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery with a Dual-articular TKA 4 years earlier had a well-functioning prosthesis until a fall, after which......-articular knee....
Clements, Warren J; Miller, Lisa; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Graves, Stephen E; Ryan, Philip
Background Patella resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty is a contentious issue. The literature suggests that resurfacing of the patella is based on surgeon preference, and little is known about the role and timing of resurfacing and how this affects outcomes. Methods We analyzed 134,799 total knee arthroplasties using data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Hazards ratios (HRs) were used to compare rates of early revision between patella resurfacing at the primary procedure (the resurfacing group, R) and primary arthroplasty without resurfacing (no-resurfacing group, NR). We also analyzed the outcomes of NR that were revised for isolated patella addition. Results At 5 years, the R group showed a lower revision rate than the NR group: cumulative per cent revision (CPR) 3.1% and 4.0%, respectively (HR = 0.75, p patella only” revisions were more common in the NR group (29%) than in the R group (6%). Non-resurfaced knees revised for isolated patella addition had a higher revision rate than patella resurfacing at the primary procedure, with a 4-year CPR of 15% and 2.8%, respectively (HR = 4.1, p patella was not resurfaced, and suggest that surgeons may be inclined to resurface later if there is patellofemoral pain. However, 15% of non-resurfaced knees revised for patella addition are re-revised by 4 years. Our results suggest an early beneficial outcome for patella resurfacing at primary arthroplasty based on revision rates up to 5 years. PMID:19968604
Court, C; Gauliard, C; Nordin, J Y
Arthroscopic arthrolysis is a reliable technique for the treatment of knee stiffness due to arthrofibrosis following ligament replacement or following the treatment of knee fracture. However, its use is uncommon for this indication in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we questioned whether or not arthroscopy is a reliable technique for treatment of knee stiffness following TKA, due to arthrofibrosis. Four men mean aged 54 (38-70) underwent knee arthroscopy for a history of arthrofibrosis following TKA. In two cases the arthrofibrosis had appeared after a primary TKA done for limited range of motion and in two other cases had followed a revision arthroplasty. The mean knee flexion before the TKA was 80 degrees (40-110) and it was 105 degrees (100-120) after performing the TKA. The knees were not mobilized under anesthesia though the mean flexion was 75 degrees (60-80) 15 days after the TKA. The indication for arthroscopy was a painless limited range of motion of the knee. The arthroscopy was performed 6 months (2.5-12) after the TKA and at this time the flexion was limited to 65 degrees (60-80). The extension was limited in 2 cases to 10 degrees and 30 degrees. Patients were evaluated an average of 20 months (8-36) after the arthroscopy. With 2 peripatellar portals we sectioned the adhesions in the suprapatellar pouch, the 2 retinaculars and the adhesive bands in the 2 gutters. Two anterior additional portals were used in case of extension lag. A suction drain was placed and the portals were sutured. A continuous passive motion machine was started in the recovery room. The mean operating time for arthroscopic arthrolysis was 38 minutes (30-60). The mean knee flexion was 116 degrees (100-130) at the end of arthroscopy and was 93 degrees (75-110) at the last review. The mean flexion improved by 31 degrees (15-50). The mean flexion improved by 45% (25-83). The 2 extension lags decreased respectively from 30 degrees to 10 degrees and from 10 degrees to 0
Matsui, Yoshio; Minoda, Yukihide; Fumiaki, Inori; Nakagawa, Sigeru; Okajima, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Akio
Joint gap balancing during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important for ensuring postoperative joint stability and range of motion. Although the joint gap should be balanced to ensure joint stability, it is not easy to achieve perfect balancing during TKA. In particular, relative extension gap shortening can induce flexion contracture. Intraoperative manipulation is often empirically performed. This study evaluated the tension required for this manipulation and investigated the influence of intraoperative manipulation on the joint gap in cadaveric knees. Total knee arthroplasty was performed in 6 cadaveric knees from whole body cadavers. Flexion contracture was induced using an insert that was 4 mm thicker than the extension gap, and intraoperative manipulation was performed. Study measurements included the changes in the joint gap after manipulation at 6 positions, with the knee bending from extension to 120° flexion, and the manipulation tension that was required to create a 4-mm increase in the gap. The manipulation tension needed to create a 4-mm increase in the extension gap was 303±17 N. The changes in the joint gap after manipulation were 0.4 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.2 mm, -0.2 mm, -0.4 mm, and -0.6 mm at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120° flexion, respectively. Therefore, the joint gap was not significantly changed by the manipulation. Intraoperative manipulation does not resolve flexion contracture. Therefore, if flexion contracture occurs during TKA, treatment with additional bone cutting and soft tissue release is likely more appropriate than manipulation. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1070-e1074.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Gustilo, T; Comadoll, J L; Gustilo, R B
Fifty-six consecutive revised total knee arthroplasties (TKA) were followed for an average of 8.3 years (range: 3 to 15 years). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of revision TKA to determine any trends in either the good outcomes or the failures. We found that the success rate for revision TKA was comparable to that for primary TKA. Eighty-nine percent of the knees rated at least fair, with 73% of these rating good or excellent, and 4% poor result. Moreover, the findings suggest that if prostheses are aligned correctly at implantation, there is only slight deterioration in their performance over time. Outcome was not affected by the type of prosthesis used in either the previous surgery or the revision. There is a correlation between the number of revisions and the functional knee rating; the more revisions, the less chance for success. There was also a direct correlation between varus knee alignment and significant increased incidence of failure. No appreciable difference was found between degenerative arthritis patients and rheumatoid patients, except that the rheumatoid patients had a higher incidence of delayed infections.
Full Text Available Introduction: Midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement (TKR is an evolving concept. Successful treatment of instability requires an understanding of the different types of instability. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify information pertinent to midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement, utilising PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched included Embase, Medline, All of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and cross references. Results: Three factors, i.e., elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and medial collateral ligament (MCL laxity, were identified to influence midflexion instability. Literature suggested mediolateral instability at 30–60° of flexion as diagnostic of midflexion instability. Literature search also revealed paucity in clinical studies analysing midflexion instability. Most of the evidence was obtained from cadaveric studies for elevated joint line and MCL laxity. Clinical studies on multiradii femoral component were limited by their small study size and early followup period. Conclusion: Elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and MCL laxity have been suggested to cause midflexion laxity in primary TKR. Due to limitations in available evidence, this review was unable to raise the strength of overall evidence. Future well-designed clinical studies are essential to make definitive conclusions. This review serves as a baseline for future researchers and creates awareness for routine assessment of midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement.
Matziolis, G; Röhner, E
Aseptic loosening seems to have become a minor problem in total knee arthroplasty. In contrast to that, new challenges are defined by changing patients' expectations. Beside reduction of pain and improving mobility, modern implants should not be noticed as such and should not limit sports activities. In this paper, a summary of the development and the current situation of total knee arthroplasty (e.g., implantation numbers, hospitality, operation time, and infection rates) are provided. The data are compared in an international context. In addition, current trends and developments from recent years are shown and rated according to the literature. The paper is based on a literature search (PubMed) and analyses of published official statistical data and expert recommendations. Implantation numbers have been declining gradually in Germany since 2009. In 2013, 127,077 total knee arthroplasties were implanted. In contrast, the number of revision operations has increased gradually during the last decade. In addition, hospital stay and operation time have declined. The development of implants, instruments, and operation techniques results from changing patients' expectations. All innovations must be compared against the results of well-proven techniques. The arthroplasty register may be an instrument to evaluate the results of new techniques and implants in a broad clinical application in terms of survival.
Msayib, Yunus; Gaydecki, Patrick; Callaghan, Michael; Dale, Nicola; Ismail, Sheheera
For the first six weeks following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), a patient will attend an outpatient clinic typically seen twice weekly. Here, an exercise regime is performed and improvement assessed using a hand held goniometer that measures the maximum angle of knee flexion, an important metric of progress. Additionally a series of daily exercises is performed at home, recorded in a diary. This protocol has problems. Patients must attend the hospital with assistance since they are not permitted to drive for six weeks following the procedure; appointments are sometimes missed; there are occasionally not enough physiotherapy appointment available; furthermore, it is difficult to be sure that patients are compliant with their exercises at home. The economic and social costs are therefore significant both to the patient and the health service. We describe here an automatic system that performs the monitoring of knee flexion within a domestic environment rather than in a hospital setting. It comprises a master and slave sensor unit that attach using Velcro straps to the thigh and shin above and below the operation wound. The patient performs the prescribed knee exercises whilst wearing the device, during which time it measures and records the angles of knee flexion. The device utilises the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) infrastructure to transmit data through the Internet to a secure hospital-based server using an on-board GSM modem. The clinician is then able to view and interpret the information from any computer with internet access and the software. The system does not require the patient to possess a mobile telephone, a computer, or have internet access; the necessary communications technology is completely integrated into the device.
E. Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection (PJI is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Control of infection after a failed two-stage TKA is not always possible, and the resolution of infection may require an above-knee amputation (AKA or a the-knee (KF. The purpose of this review is to determine which treatment method (AKA or KF yields better function and ambulatory status for patients after a failed two-stage reimplantation. A PubMed search related to the resolution of infection by means of an above-the-knee amputation (AKA or a knee fusion was performed until 10 January 2015. The key words were: infected TKA and above-the-knee amputation. Five hundred and sixty-six papers were found, of which ten were reviewed because they were focused on the topic of the article. KF should be strongly considered as the treatment of choice for patients who have persistent infected TKA after a failed two-stage revision arthroplasty. Patients can walk at least inside the house, and activity of daily living independence is achieved by the patients with successful KF, although walking aids, including a shoe lift, are required. An intramedullary nail leads to better functional results than an external fixator. The functional outcome after AKA performed after TKA is poor. A substantial percentage of the patients never fit with a prosthesis, and those who are seldom obtain functional independence. Only 50% of patients are able to walk after AKA. Patients receiving KF for treating recurrent PJI after TKA have better function and ambulatory status compared to patients receiving AKA. KF must be recommended as the treatment of choice for patients who have persistent infected TKA after a failed two-stage reimplantation procedure.
Ana Alexandra da Costa Pinheiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.
Sonia Marchán Espinosa
Full Text Available The postoperatory pain after total prothesis of knee is a special type of agony, of great repercussion in the health area, since it affects the surgical patients who suffer it, the family that "suffer" together with the patient, the responsible doctors, the nursing personnel and the involved institutions. Aim: To value the pain degree for the immediate postoperatory of the prothesis of knee surgical patients during his stay at the Post-anesthesic Recovery Unit.Material and method: There was realized a descriptive study at the Valdepeña´s Hospital at the Post-anesthesic Recovery Unit for 7 months. The sample was formed by the prothesis of knee surgical patients during this period. There was designed a multiple answers questionnaire to which the patients answered during his stay in the unit and there was in use as instrument of measure of the pain the visual analogical scale.Results: 50 % of the patients suffered an intense pain after the anesthesic effect disappear. Almost the totality of the patients (90 % needed an analgesic rescue. In spite of it, the satisfaction that the patients expressed with the relief of his pain was very high.Conclusions: The patients experience high pain levels during the immediate postoperatory. The results reveal the need to design analgesic protocols more adapted to the individual patients need.
Klein, R; Serpe, L; Kester, M A; Edidin, A; Fishkin, Z; Mahoney, O M; Schmalzried, T P
Rotational stresses from box-post impingement have been implicated in the loosening of posterior-stabilized total knee prostheses. A bench model was constructed to assess the forces generated by tibiofemoral rotation. Rotational torque under load was measured in two different posteriorstabilized total knee prostheses using an axial-torsion load cell at 0 degrees, 20 degrees, and 40 degrees flexion over 20 degrees internal and external rotation. The Sigma posterior-stabilized prosthesis generated little torque through 5 degrees internal and external rotation. An increase in torque then occurred because of box-post impingement, generating peak torques of 17 to 18 N-m at 12 degrees to 14 degrees rotation. The bench model produced the same deformation of the polyethylene post as seen on retrieved specimens. The Scorpio posterior-stabilized prosthesis had a relatively continuous rise in generated torque from tibiofemoral conformity. Box-post impingement did not occur resulting in 32% lower torque between 12 degrees and 14 degrees rotation. Peak rotational torques of 15 to 16 N-m were reached at 19 degrees to 20 degrees rotation. Tibiofemoral conformity is the primary source of rotational constraint. Box-post impingement can be a source of additional rotational constraint. Depending on specific design features, small changes in relative tibiofemoral component rotation can more than double the generated torque. Axial rotation of the knee in vivo can generate substantial torque. Relative tibiofemoral rotational position is an important factor influencing component function and fixation.
Siqueira, Marcelo B P; Haller, Kathryn; Mulder, Andrew; Goldblum, Andrew S; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K
Intraoperative medial collateral ligament (MCL) disruption during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often managed with either primary repair or use of a constrained implant. A total of 23 patients with an MCL injury during TKA between 2003 and 2009 were compared with 92 matched controls. Of the 23 patients, 10 were treated with an unconstrained implant and primary MCL repair, 8 with constrained implants, 3 with constrained implants and MCL repair, and 2 with unconstrained implants and no MCL repair. After an average 5-year follow-up, patients had lower Knee Society Scores (KSS), 79 versus 87 (p = 0.03), but similar Knee Function Scores (KFS), 68 versus 72 (p = 0.35). The improvement between preoperative and postoperative KSS and KFS did not vary among the two groups (p = 0.88 and p = 0.77, respectively). Postoperative scores did not vary significantly among the four treatment modalities. Conservative treatment can provide satisfactory outcomes and avoid potential complications of increased constraint. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Benazzo, Francesco; Rossi, Stefano M P; Ghiara, Matteo; Zanardi, Alessandro; Perticarini, Loris; Combi, Alberto
Total knee replacement (TKR) is a widely used procedure for the treatment of post-traumatic arthritis. This type of solution has also been used recently for the treatment of acute fractures around the knee, particularly in joints that were already arthritic before the trauma. The purpose of this paper is to present our experience with TKR in both acute and chronic traumatic events, highlighting the main problems associated with these conditions and focussing on the indications, principles of technique, tips, tricks and pitfalls of this procedure. The main issues related to post-traumatic arthritis and the problem of TKR in acute fractures are discussed, and our case series of both groups of patients is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fransen, B.L.; van Duijvenbode, D.C.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Burger, B.J.
Purpose: For years, numerous studies have been performed to determine whether mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (MB-TKA) or fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty (FB-TKA) is the preferential design in total knee arthroplasty. Reviews and meta-analyses on this subject have focused on a
Schnurr, C; Stolzenberg, I; Nessler, J; Eysel, P; König, P
Implantation of a total knee arthroplasty with a correct mechanical axis, a rectangular joint gap and a reconstructed joint line by use of an imageless computer navigation device Symptomatic gonarthrosis if non operative treatment or joint preserving operations remains ineffective Infections; soft tissue damage in the approach area; massive instability of the collateral ligaments Medial parapatellar approach to the knee joint; diminution of the patella; fixation of the reference arrays in tibia and femur; registration of leg axis, ligament balance and surface of the knee joint by use of the navigation system; tibial resection perpendicular to the mechanical axis; ligament balancing to achieve a rectangular extension gap; femoral implant planning to maintain the original joint line and reconstruct an equal joint gap in extension and flexion; femora resection perpendicular to the mechanical axis; reconstruction of the rectangular flexion gap by rotation of the femoral resection; two stage cementing technique for fixation of the original implants; check of the final mechanical axis and symmetry of the joint gap over the whole range of motion; wound closure. Physiotherapy; continuous passive motion treatment; mobilization with 20 kg weight bearing with 2 crutches for 2 weeks, thereafter with 2 crutches and incremental full weight bearing for 4 weeks. The analysis of 582 consecutive navigated total knee arthroplasties showed one case of extension gap instability > 3 mm (0.2%) and 8 patients with flexion gap instability > 3 mm (1.4%). A too tight flexion gap was registered in 23 patients (4.4%), a too wide flexion gap in 13 cases (2.5%). The joint line was reconstructed with an average inaccuracy of 0 mm, in 17 patients the joint line was elevated > 3 mm (2.9%).
João Paulo Fernandes Guerreiro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma regarding healing, pain and hemostasis after total knee arthroplasty, by means of a blinded randomized controlled and blinded clinical study.METHODS: Forty patients who were going to undergo implantation of a total knee prosthesis were selected and randomized. In 20 of these patients, platelet-rich plasma was applied before the joint capsule was closed. The hemoglobin (mg/dL and hematocrit (% levels were assayed before the operation and 24 and 48 h afterwards. The Womac questionnaire and a verbal pain scale were applied and knee range of motion measurements were made up to the second postoperative month. The statistical analysis compared the results with the aim of determining whether there were any differences between the groups at each of the evaluation times.RESULTS: The hemoglobin (mg/dL and hematocrit (% measurements made before the operation and 24 and 48 h afterwards did not show any significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05. The Womac questionnaire and the range of motion measured before the operation and up to the first two months also did not show any statistical differences between the groups (p > 0.05. The pain evaluation using the verbal scale showed that there was an advantage for the group that received platelet-rich plasma, 24 h, 48 h, one week, three weeks and two months after the operation (p < 0.05.CONCLUSIONS: In the manner in which the platelet-rich plasma was used, it was not shown to be effective for reducing bleeding or improving knee function after arthroplasty, in comparison with the controls. There was an advantage on the postoperative verbal pain scale.
Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is the most common treatment for degenerative osteoarthritis of that articulation. However, either in rehabilitation clinics or in hospital wards, the knee range of motion (ROM can currently only be assessed using a goniometer. In order to provide continuous and objective measurements of knee ROM, we propose the use of wearable inertial sensors to record the knee ROM during the recovery progress. Digitalized and objective data can assist the surgeons to control the recovery status and flexibly adjust rehabilitation programs during the early acute inpatient stage. The more knee flexion ROM regained during the early inpatient period, the better the long-term knee recovery will be and the sooner early discharge can be achieved. The results of this work show that the proposed wearable sensor approach can provide an alternative for continuous monitoring and objective assessment of knee ROM recovery progress for TKA patients compared to the traditional goniometer measurements.
Faschingbauer, Martin; Renner, Lisa; Boettner, Friedrich
There is little data on whether preexisting allergies to implant materials and bone cement have an impact on the outcome of TKA. This review article analyzes the current literature to evaluate the prevalence and importance of metal and cement allergies for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. A review of the literature was performed using the following search criteria: "knee," "arthroplasty," and "allergy" as well as "knee," "arthroplasty," and "hypersensitivity." One hundred sixteen articles were identified on PubMed, Seventy articles could be excluded by reviewing the title and abstract leaving 46 articles to be included for this review. The majority of the studies cited patch testing as the gold standard for screening and diagnosis of hypersensitivity following TKA. There is consensus that patients with self-reported allergies against metals or bone cement and positive patch test should be treated with hypoallergenic materials or cementless TKA. Treatment options include the following: coated titanium or cobalt-chromium implants, ceramic, or zirconium oxide implants. Allergies against implant materials and bone cement are rare. Patch testing is recommended for patients with self-reported allergies. The use of special implants is recommended for patients with a confirmed allergy.
Full Text Available Remaining pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common observation in about 20% of postoperative patients; where in about 60% of these knees require early revision surgery within five years. Obvious causes of this pain could be identified simply with clinical examinations and standard radiographs. However, unexplained painful TKA still remains a challenge for the surgeon. The management should include a multidisciplinary approach to the patient`s pain as well as addressing the underlying etiology. There are a number of extrinsic (tendinopathy, hip, ankle, spine, CRPS and so on and intrinsic (infection, instability, malalignment, wear and so on causes of painful knee replacement. On average, diagnosis takes more than 12 months and patients become very dissatisfied and some of them even acquire psychological problems. Hence, a systematic diagnostic algorithm might be helpful. This review article aims to act as a guide to the evaluation of patients with painful TKA described in 10 different steps. Furthermore, the preliminary results of a series of 100 consecutive cases will be discussed. Revision surgery was performed only in those cases with clear failure mechanism.
Meneghini, Robert Michael; Russo, Glenn S; Lieberman, Jay R
It is established that patients and surgeons share different perceptions regarding total knee replacement (TKA). This study's objective was to determine patient perceptions regarding TKA as well as the influence of the various information sources in shaping these perceptions. All patients presenting with knee pain for evaluation of TKA were offered a questionnaire. Multivariate statistical analysis correlated response and demographic variables. Approximately 81% of patients felt the main reason for TKA was to alleviate pain, whereas only 19% felt return to sports-related activities was the main reason. Approximately 37% of patients felt TKAs should last for 20 years or more, which was strongly correlated with TV, newspaper, or Internet exposure (p ≤ 0.01). Approximately 38% of respondents had heard of partial knee replacement, whereas relatively few had received information regarding patient-specific, gender-specific, mobile-bearing, or high-flexion TKA designs. Men were likelier than women to get their information from friends, family, or another patient (p = 0.04). Although most respondents perceived pain relief as the primary goal, patients getting information from the media are likelier to expect TKA to last longer than 20 years. This suggests direct-to-patient marketing with such claims as 30-year durability may influence patient perceptions regarding TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Chughtai, Morad; Sodhi, Nipun; Jawad, Michael; Newman, Jared M; Khlopas, Anton; Bhave, Anil; Mont, Michael A
Cryotherapy is widely utilized to enhance recovery after knee surgeries. However, the outcome parameters often vary between studies. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to compare (1) no cryotherapy vs cryotherapy; (2) cold pack cryotherapy vs continuous flow device cryotherapy; (3) various protocols of application of these cryotherapy methods; and (4) cost-benefit analysis in patients who had unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A search for "knee" and "cryotherapy" using PubMed, EBSCO Host, and SCOPUS was performed, yielding 187 initial reports. After selecting for RCTs relevant to our study, 16 studies were included. Of the 8 studies that compared the immediate postoperative outcomes between patients who did and did not receive cryotherapy, 5 studies favored cryotherapy (2 cold packs and 3 continuous cold flow devices). Of the 6 studies comparing the use of cold packs and continuous cold flow devices in patients who underwent UKA or TKA, 3 favor the use of continuous flow devices. There was no difference in pain, postoperative opioid consumption, or drain output between 2 different temperature settings of continuous cold flow device. The optimal device to use may be one that offers continuous circulating cold flow, as there were more studies demonstrating better outcomes. In addition, the pain relieving effects of cryotherapy may help minimize pain medication use, such as with opioids, which are associated with numerous potential side effects as well as dependence and addiction. Meta-analysis on the most recent RCTs should be performed next. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fenner, Verena U; Behrend, Henrik; Kuster, Markus S
Modern knee designs do not fully restore the anatomy and kinematics of the natural knee. This study evaluates the kinematic and kinetic changes of well-functioning patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in comparison to a healthy age-matched control group while descending stairs and level walking. The aim was to have a baseline for further investigations of TKA patients with problems. Fifteen patients satisfied with TKA (8♀/7♂; 66.8 ± 7.4 years; body mass index (BMI) 25.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2); 2.1 ± 1.3 years postop, LCS Complete) and 17 healthy control subjects (7♀/10♂; 66.6 ± 6.8 years; BMI 25.0 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Kinematic (upper and lower body) and kinetic (lower body) data were collected during stair descending (step height 17 cm) and level walking, using an 8-camera Vicon system and 2 force plates. Parameters were compared using a Student t test. Patients after TKA showed significantly lower frontal knee moments and a more externally rotated hip during stance for both level walking and stair descent. There were 31% more significantly different parameters during level walking than during stair descent. The analysis of stair descending in addition to level walking for satisfied patients does not add additional information for the understanding of the kinematic and kinetic changes after TKA. It seems more important to include the kinematics and kinetics of the hip and ankle joint in all 3-dimensional planes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sanders, John C; Gerstein, Neal; Torgeson, Eli; Abram, Stephen
To determine whether intrathecal baclofen is an effective adjunctive agent to decrease acute and chronic postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Operating room and inpatient units of a university hospital. 60 adult, ASA physical status I, II, and III patients presenting for total knee arthroplasty. Anesthesia was provided by spinal injection of 15 mg of 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with either 100 mcg baclofen or saline. Sedation was provided with intravenous midazolam and propofol. Data were collected on adverse effects, opioid usage, and verbal pain scale (VPS) from 0 to 10. The study period was divided into six discrete time intervals that included the 1(st) 72-hour postoperative period and a three-month post-discharge follow-up telephone call. The baclofen group used less morphine in the PACU than the control group (5 mg vs. 9.3 mg; P = 0.04). VPS were lower in the baclofen group than the treatment group, but significant differences could be demonstrated only in the time periods 48-72 hours and three months postoperatively. At three months, fewer patients in the baclofen group reported pain than the control group (8/27 vs. 19/29; P = 0.009). Regression analysis showed that the baclofen group was 4.5 times less likely to report pain at three months (95% CI: 1.5-16.6). IT baclofen used as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for total knee arthroplasty allows for less postoperative opioid usage and less chronic pain at three months.
Naylor, Justine; Harmer, Alison; Fransen, Marlene; Crosbie, Jack; Innes, Lesley
Owing to a scarcity of clinical research, evidence-based clinical guidelines are not available to guide physiotherapy rehabilitation after total knee replacement surgery. This is despite the fact that, annually, over 20000 patients in Australia, over 300 000 patients in North America and 36 000 patients in the UK potentially require rehabilitation at this time to regain functional independence and to resume recreational and work-related physical activities. This survey of clinicians aimed to describe standard (usual) care after total knee replacement in Australia and to provide possible explanations for practice variance, if such variation exists. A nationwide postal survey involving public and privately funded hospital physiotherapy departments was conducted. Purposive sampling was used to randomly select hospitals from the National Joint Replacement Registry. A series of closed and open-ended protocol-based questions were asked. A response rate of 65% (65/100) was obtained. Elements of consistency and diversity across the acute and post-acute phases were evident. Consistent findings included the provision of gait retraining and exercise prescription in the acute period, the requirement for independent ambulation as a criterion for discharge from acute care and the routine referral to ongoing outpatient or community-based physiotherapy. Less consistency was reported for the use of continuous passive motion and cryotherapy in the acute phase, the modes of ongoing rehabilitation, discharge from rehabilitation criteria and the tools for measuring outcomes. Both institutional and non-institutional factors appeared to explain the demonstrated practice variation. In order to propagate evidence-based practice guidelines and uniformity in care, well-designed clinical trials are required to identify cost-effective rehabilitation programmes after total knee replacement.
Huang, GangYong; Xia, Jun; Wang, Siqun; Wei, YiBing; Wu, Jianguo; Chen, Feiyan; CHEN, JIE; Shi, JingSheng
Background Apart from transepicondylar axis, the native femoral sulcus was also reported to be used as a guide for the femoral component position in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, it was not shown in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This study was conducted to compare the position of trochlear groove in patients with and without osteoarthritis, and to assess whether trochlear groove could be used as a guide for position of femoral component in TKA for severe knee osteoarthri...
Herrera-Espiñeira, Carmen; Escobar, Antonio; Navarro-Espigares, José Luis; Castillo, Juan de Dios Lunadel; García-Pérez, Lidia; Godoy-Montijano, Amparo
The elevated prevalence of osteoarthritis in Western countries, the high costs of hip and knee arthroplasty, and the wide variations in the clinical practice have generated considerable interest in comparing the associated costs before and after surgery. To determine the influence of a number of variables on the costs of total knee and hip arthroplasty surgery during the hospital stay and during the one-year post-discharge. A prospective multi-center study was performed in 15 hospitals from three Spanish regions. Relationships between the independent variables and the costs of hospital stay and postdischarge follow-up were analyzed by using multilevel models in which the "hospital" variable was used to group cases. Independent variables were: age, sex, body mass index, preoperative quality of life (SF-12, EQ-5 and Womac questionnaires), surgery (hip/knee), Charlson Index, general and local complications, number of beds and economic-institutional dependency of the hospital, the autonomous region to which it belongs, and the presence of a caregiver. The cost of hospital stay, excluding the cost of the prosthesis, was 4,734 Euros, and the post-discharge cost was 554 Euros. With regard to hospital stay costs, the variance among hospitals explained 44-46% of the total variance among the patients. With regard to the post-discharge costs, the variability among hospitals explained 7-9% of the variance among the patients. There is considerable potential for reducing the hospital stay costs of these patients, given that more than 44% of the observed variability was not determined by the clinical conditions of the patients but rather by the behavior of the hospitals.
Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shang, Ping; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Yu
One long-held tenet of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is that post-operative neutral limb alignment promotes implant durability. Recently, the concept of generic safe zone (0° ± 3°) has been challenged. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether neutral alignment was superior to malalignment in long-term survival of TKAs. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Chinese Periodical, Google and reference lists of all the included studies were searched. Of the 1512 studies initially identified, ten met the eligibility criteria, including eight case-control studies and two cohort trials. Relative risks of implant failure were compared between post-operative neutrally aligned and malaligned knees. Post-operative malalignment showed higher failure rate of knee implants compared with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.00-1.88, P = 0.05). Failure rate in knees with varus alignment was significantly higher than with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.07-2.55, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of implant failure between knees with valgus and neutral alignment (95 % CI 0.78-2.41, n.s.). No significant difference of failure rate was noted between neutral alignment and malalignment for fixed-bearing prothesis (95 % CI 0.94-1.95, n.s.) or rotating-platform prothesis (95 % CI 0.75-2.73, n.s.). There was no significant difference of failure rate between knees with neutral alignment and malalignment for studies with a mean follow-up of more than 10 years (95 % CI 0.81-2.01, n.s.) or studies using long-leg weight-bearing radiographs (95 % CI 0.79-1.79, n.s.). Post-operative varus alignment results in shorter survival rate after TKA. Not only neutral limb alignment but also the valgus alignment promotes implant durability. Neutral or valgus alignment rather than varus alignment is essential to achieve long-term survival of TKAs and patient satisfaction. III.
Smith, Julie R; Rowe, Philip J; Blyth, Mark; Jones, Bryn
Navigated total knee arthroplasty has been shown to increase accuracy in post operative implant alignment. By contrast navigated total knee arthroplasty has not shown significant functional improvements to date, when compared with conventional surgery using subjective clinical questionnaire scores. The aim of this study was to compare the knee joint kinematics measured during functional activities using electrogoniometry 12 months after total knee arthroplasty in randomised navigated and conventional total knee arthroplasty groups. The study design was a double blinded, randomised, prospective, controlled trial. The patients were randomised into 2 surgical groups (n=102 navigated group, n=98 conventional group; mean age navigated=67, conventional=67). Flexible electrogoniometry was used to measure patient's knee kinematics with respect to time during 12 functional activities. No significant difference was found in terms of the maximum, minimum and excursion knee joint angle during any of the functional activities. However there was a statistically significant improvement in the level and slope gait cycle at the pre swing phase in the navigated group. There were minimal functional improvements in the navigated total knee arthroplasty group 12 months after surgery. However, these are unlikely to have a significant effect on daily activity for the navigated group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vandekerckhove, Pieter-Jan T K; Parys, Roel; Tampere, Thomas; Linden, Patrick; Van den Daelen, Luc; Verdonk, Peter C
It remains unclear what the contribution of the PCL is in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the PCL in TKA in relationship to clinical outcome, strength and proprioception. Two arthroplasty designs were compared: a posterior cruciate-substituting (PS) and a posterior cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA. A retrospective analysis was performed of 27 CR and 18 PS implants with a minimum of 1 year in vivo. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical outcome (range of motion, visual analogue scale for pain, Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scoring system, Lysholm score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score), strength (Biodex System 3 Dynamometer(®)) and proprioception (balance and postural control using the Balance Master system(®)). Each design was also compared to the non-operated contralateral side in terms of strength and proprioception. There were no significant differences between both designs in terms of clinical outcome and strength. In terms of proprioception, only the rhythmic weight test at slow and moderate speed shifting from left to right was significant in favour of the CR design. None of the unilateral stance tests showed any significant difference between both designs. There was no difference in terms of strength and proprioception between the operated side and the non-operated side. Retaining the PCL in TKA does not result in an improved performance in terms of clinical outcome and proprioception and does not show any difference in muscle strength. III.
Manzotti, Alfonso; Pullen, Chris; Cerveri, Pietro; Chemello, Cesare; Confalonieri, Norberto
The Authors present the results of a series of navigated total knee replacements (TKR) without hardware removal in patients with post-traumatic arthritis following femoral fractures. The purpose of the paper was to determine the effectiveness of computer-assisted TKR in these patients compared to routine primary implants. Sixteen patients with post-traumatic knee arthritis following a distal femoral fracture and retained hardware were included in the study (group I). Patients in the study group were matched with patients who had undergone a computer navigated TKR using the same implant and software (group II). The indication for TKR in all group II patients was atraumatic arthritis and surgery was performed in the same period as the study group. Patients were matched for age, gender, pre-operative range of motion, severity of arthritis pre-operatively, type and grade of deformity and implant features. There were no statistically significant differences in surgical time, hospital staying or intra-operative and post-operative complications between the two study groups. At the latest follow-up no statistically significant difference was seen for the Knee Society Score and WOMAC indices. Implant alignment and radiological parameters were similar in both groups. This study demonstrated that post-traumatic knee arthritis following prior distal femoral fracture can be safely managed using a computer navigated TKR without hardware removal. Comparison between this patient group and a matched group with atraumatic arthritis showed similar post-operative results and complication rates. III. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
José Wanderley Vasconcelos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To mid-term evaluate patients who were submitted to total knee arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing. METHODS: It was realized a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients who were submitted to total knee arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing. In all patients clinical examination was done based on the protocol of the Knee Society Scoring System, which assessed pain, range of motion, stability, contraction, knee alignment and function, and radiological evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were evaluated. Of these, 07 were operated only on left knee, 12 only on right knee and 17 were operated bilaterally, totaling 53 knees. Ages ranged from 26 to 84 years. Of the 53 knees evaluated, 33 (62.26% had no pain. The maximum flexion range of motion averaged 104.7°. No knee had difficulty in active extension. As to the alignment for anatomical axis twelve knees (22.64% showed deviation between 0° and 4° varus. Thirty-nine (75.49% knees showed pace without restriction and the femorotibial angle ranged between 3° varus and 13° valgus with an average of 5° valgus. The patellar index ranged from 0.2 to 1.1. CONCLUSION: Total knee arthroplasty whitout patellar resurfacing provides good results in mid-term evaluation.
Lorentzen, J S; Petersen, M M; Brot, C
We studied 30 patients with arthrosis in one knee operated on with a cemented (n 26) or an uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (n 4). Full weight-bearing from the first postoperative day was allowed in all patients, and they received standard postoperative physiotherapy. 1 week prior...
Aalund, Peter K; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben Bæk
OBJECTIVE: (s): To investigate which of the two muscle-impairment measures for the operated leg, normalized knee extension strength or leg press power, is more closely associated to performance-based and self-reported measures of function shortly following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN: C...
Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Simonsen, Ole; Laursen, Mogens Berg
BACKGROUND: This study is a secondary analysis of 12-month follow-ups from two parallel, randomised controlled trials (RCT) in painful knee osteoarthritis patients. RCT1: Total knee replacement (TKR) followed by non-surgical treatment compared with non-surgical treatment. RCT2: Non-surgical treat...
Kazemi, Seyyed Morteza; Besheli, Laleh Daftari; Eajazi, Alireza; Sajadi, Mohammad Reza Miniator; Okhovatpoor, Mohammad Ali; Zanganeh, Ramin Farhang; Minaei, Reza
Summary Background One of the complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) which has not yet been directly addressed is pseudo-patella baja (PPB). True patella baja (PB) is present when the length of the patellar tendon becomes shorter. PPB is present when the patella tendon is not shortened, but the level of the joint line is elevated. This study was conducted to assess PPB in TKA. Material/Methods Sixty patients who had had a primary TKA at our center between 1995 and 2005 were included. The average follow-up was 27.5 months. The Knee Society Scoring (KSS), lateral knee x-rays and the Blackburne-Peel index were used for assessments. Results Out of the 60 patients, 43 (72%) demonstrated no joint line elevation or patellar tendon shortening (group A). Fifteen patients (25%) had joint line elevation (group B), and both PB and PPB were present in 2 (3%) patients (group C). KSS was lower in groups B and C compared with group A, but this difference was not statistically significant. The average range of motion (ROM) in group A was significantly higher compared with either group B or C, and patients in groups B and C showed significantly more severe pain compared with group A (P<0.001). Conclusions PPB is not an uncommon finding after TKA and is associated with a statistically significant decrease in ROM and an increase in pain. Furthermore, KSS in the PPB group was less than in patients without PPB, although the difference was not statistically meaningful. PMID:21525812
Papalia, Rocco; Vasta, Sebastiano; D'Adamio, Stefano; Albo, Erika; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
To overview the complications involving extensor apparatus of the knee following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to summarize which are the lines of treatment available and their reported outcomes in literature. A comprehensive search of several databases was performed using as basic keywords "complications after TKA", "extensor mechanism disruption", "periprosthetic patellar fracture", "quadriceps tendon rupture", "quadriceps tendon rupture" isolated or combined with other terms by using Boolean operators. The methodological quality of each article was also evaluated using the Coleman methodology score (CMS). Twenty-nine studies were evaluated. The mean CMS of the studies selected was 33.1/100. Patellar fractures, requiring surgical treatment when there is rupture of the extensor mechanism or loosening of the patellar component, were treated surgically in 28.1 % of patients. The patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures were surgically treated with reconstruction or augmented repair, respectively, in 98.6 and 76.5 %. Complications involving the extensor apparatus of the knee following a TKA need early and appropriate management to avoid their devastating influence on joint functionality. Management has to be evaluated very carefully based on the site of the lesion, integrity of the prosthetic components and surrounding tissue to restore, and the patients' individual characteristics. The surgical approach for comminuted periprosthetic fractures and reconstruction of torn tendons of the extensor apparatus are needed to restore function and decrease pain, but, given the poor methodological quality of the studies published so far, it is not clear which surgical technique or graft leads to better outcomes. Therefore, there is an absolute need for better designed comparative trials producing clearer and stronger evidence on this critical matter. IV.
Full Text Available Background: Dislocation following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is the worst form of instability. The incidence is from 0.15 to 0.5%. We report six cases of TKA dislocation and analyze the patterns of dislocation and the factors related to each of them. Materials and Methods: Six patients with dislocation of knee following TKA are reported. The causes for the dislocations were an imbalance of the flexion gap (n=4, an inadequate selection of implants (n=1, malrotation of components (n=1 leading to incompetence of the extensor mechanism, or rupture of the medial collateral ligament (MCC. The patients presented complained of pain, giving way episodes, joint effusion and difficulty in climbing stairs. Five patients suffered posterior dislocation while one anterior dislocation. An urgent closed reduction of dislocation was performed under general anaesthesia in all patients. All patients were operated for residual instability by revision arthroplasty after a period of conservative treatment. Results: One patient had deep infection and knee was arthrodesed. Two patients have a minimal residual lag for active extension, including a patient with a previous patellectomy. Result was considered excellent or good in four cases and fair in one, without residual instability. Five out of six patients in our series had a cruciate retaining (CR TKA designs: four were revised to a posterior stabilized (PS TKA and one to a rotating hinge design because of the presence of a ruptured MCL. Conclusion: Further episodes of dislocation or instability will be prevented by identifying and treating major causes of instability. The increase in the level of constraint and correction of previous technical mistakes is mandatory.
Giaquinto, S; Ciotola, E; Dall'Armi, V; Margutti, F
The study evaluated the subjective functional outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in participants who underwent hydrotherapy (HT) six months after discharge from a rehabilitation unit. A total of 70 subjects, 12 of which were lost at follow-up, were randomly assigned to either a conventional gym treatment (N=30) or HT (N=28). A prospective design was performed. Participants were interviewed with Western-Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) at admission, at discharge and six months later. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were applied for statistical analysis. Both groups improved. The WOMAC subscales, namely pain, stiffness and function, were all positively affected. Statistical analysis indicates that scores on all subscales were significantly lower for the HT group. The benefits gained by the time of discharge were still found after six months. HT is recommended after TKA in a geriatric population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stall, Nathan M; Kagoma, Yoan M; Bondy, Jennifer N; Naudie, Douglas
Operating rooms (ORs) are estimated to generate up to one-third of hospital waste. At the London Health Sciences Centre, prosthetics and implants represent 17% of the institution's ecological footprint. To investigate waste production associated with total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), we performed a surgical waste audit to gauge the environmental impact of this procedure and generate strategies to improve waste management. We conducted a waste audit of 5 primary TKAs performed by a single surgeon in February 2010. Waste was categorized into 6 streams: regular solid waste, recyclable plastics, biohazard waste, laundered linens, sharps and blue sterile wrap. Volume and weight of each stream was quantified. We used Canadian Joint Replacement Registry data (2008-2009) to estimate annual weight and volume totals of waste from all TKAs performed in Canada. The average surgical waste (excluding laundered linens) per TKA was 13.3 kg, of which 8.6 kg (64.5%) was normal solid waste, 2.5 kg (19.2%) was biohazard waste, 1.6 kg (12.1%) was blue sterile wrap, 0.3 kg (2.2%) was recyclables and 0.3 kg (2.2%) was sharps. Plastic wrappers, disposable surgical linens and personal protective equipment contributed considerably to total waste. We estimated that landfill waste from all 47 429 TKAs performed in Canada in 2008-2009 was 407 889 kg by weight and 15 272 m3 by volume. Total knee arthroplasties produce substantial amounts of surgical waste. Environmentally friendly surgical products and waste management strategies may allow ORs to reduce the negative impacts of waste production without compromising patient care. Level IV, case series.
Zelle, J.; van der Zanden, A.C.; De Waal Malefijt, M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph
Background High-flexion knee replacements have been developed to accommodate a large range of flexion (>120°) after total knee arthroplasty. Both posterior cruciate ligament retaining and sacrificing high-flexion knee designs have been marketed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the
J. Ryan Martin
Full Text Available The following office tip describes four patients that underwent primary total knee arthroplasty and developed posterolateral knee pain at a mean follow-up duration of 1.6 months postoperatively. The first patient in this series noted substantial pain lying in bed (in a lateral decubitus position with the operative leg up while attempting to abduct her leg to adjust her sheet in bed. A thorough clinical and radiographic work-up was performed. This patient’s posturing in bed (and subsequent physical exam maneuver led to a presumptive diagnosis of popliteal tendinopathy. The diagnosis was confirmed arthroscopically by identifying a frayed and inflamed popliteal tendon. After undergoing arthroscopic popliteal tendon release, the patient noted complete pain relief while retaining coronal stability in both flexion and extension. The following office tip defines a previously undescribed clinical diagnostic examination for popliteal tendinopathy that was identified based on a patient’s symptomatology and subsequently utilized to identify three additional cases of arthroscopically confirmed popliteal tendinopathy.
McClelland, Jodie A; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E
Before total knee arthroplasty (TKA), males walk with biomechanics that are distinct from females. It is not known whether these sex-specific profiles are maintained after TKA and whether any differences reflect those typical of unimpaired males and females. The aim of this study was to compare knee biomechanics of males and females with TKA with unimpaired controls during walking. Eighty-five participants (44 females and 41 males) who were at least 12 months after unilateral TKA and 39 matched control participants (21 females and 18 males) were included in this observational cohort study. All participants were assessed with 3-dimensional motion analysis during comfortable speed walking. All key biomechanics parameters during walking were significantly different between males with TKA and male controls (P < .01). There were no differences in the same parameters between females with TKA and female controls. Sex-specific biomechanics profiles are maintained after TKA. Biomechanics of females with TKA were closer to normal than males, suggesting that previous studies that investigate a mixed-sex cohort may have underestimated biomechanics outcome from TKA for females. Future studies should consider evaluating outcome from TKA independently for males and females. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas
Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were obtained using a universal goniometer and a tape measure, respectively. To establish reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. The knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were generally reliable (ICC > 0.8) within and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within and between physiotherapists, respectively. Generally, the experienced tester recorded larger knee joint ROM and lower circumference values than that of the inexperienced tester. In clinical practice, we suggest that repeated knee goniometric and circumferential measurements should be recorded by the same physiotherapist in individual patients with TKA. Tester experience appears not to influence the degree of reliability. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Naili, Josefine E; Wretenberg, Per; Lindgren, Viktor; Iversen, Maura D; Hedström, Margareta; Broström, Eva W
It is not well understood why one in five patients report poor outcomes following knee arthroplasty. This study evaluated changes in knee biomechanics, and perceived pain among patients reporting either a good or a poor outcome in knee-related quality of life after total knee arthroplasty. Twenty-eight patients (mean age 66 (SD 7) years) were included in this prospective study. Within one month of knee arthroplasty and one year after surgery, patients underwent three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis, completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and rated perceived pain using a visual analogue scale. A "good outcome" was defined as a change greater than the minimally detectable change in the KOOS knee-related quality of life, and a "poor outcome" was defined as change below the minimally detectable change. Nineteen patients (68%) were classified as having a good outcome. Groups were analyzed separately and knee biomechanics were compared using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Differences in pain between groups were evaluated using Mann Whitney U test. Patients classified as having a good outcome improved significantly in most knee gait biomechanical outcomes including increased knee flexion-extension range, reduced peak varus angle, increased peak flexion moment, and reduced peak valgus moment. The good outcome group also displayed a significant increase in walking speed, a reduction (normalization) of stance phase duration (% of gait cycle) and increased passive knee extension. Whereas, the only change in knee biomechanics, one year after surgery, for patients classified as having a poor outcome was a significant reduction in peak varus angle. No differences in pain postoperatively were found between groups. Patients reporting a good outcome in knee-related quality of life improved in knee biomechanics during gait, while patients reporting a poor outcome, despite similar reduction in pain, remained unchanged in knee biomechanics one year after
Andersen, Mikkel Rathsach; Winther, Nikolaj; Lind, Thomas
Background and purpose - Backside wear of the polyethylene insert in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can produce clinically significant levels of polyethylene debris, which can lead to loosening of the tibial component. Loosening due to polyethylene debris could theoretically be reduced in tibial...... components of monoblock polyethylene design, as there is no backside wear. We investigated the effect of 2 different tibial component designs, monoblock and modular polyethylene, on migration of the tibial component in uncemented TKA. Patients and methods - In this randomized study, 53 patients (mean age 61...... implants had a statistically significantly higher degree of migration compared to the monoblock. We believe that the greater stiffness of the modular implants was the main reason for the difference in migration, but an initial creep in the polyethylene metal-back locking mechanism of the modular group...
Boureau, F; Putman, S; Arnould, A; Dereudre, G; Migaud, H; Pasquier, G
Management of bone loss is a major challenge in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The development of preformed porous tantalum cones offers new possibilities, because they seem to have biological and mechanical qualities that facilitate osseointegration. Compared to the original procedure, when metaphyseal bone defects are too severe, a single tantalum cone may not be enough and we have developed a technique that could extend the indications for this cone in these cases. We used 2 cones to fill femoral bone defects in 7 patients. There were no complications due to wear of the tantalum cones. Radiological follow-up did show any migration or loosening. The short-term results confirm the interest of porous tantalum cones and suggest that they can be an alternative to allografts or megaprostheses in case of massive bone defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lucio Honorio de Carvalho Junior
Full Text Available Infection after total knee replacement (IATJ is a rare complication. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality increasing the final costs. Gram positive coccus and Staphylococcus coagulase-negative and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common isolated germs (>50% of the cases. Conditions related to the patient, to the surgical procedure and even to the post op have been identified as risk factors to IATJ. Many complementary methods together with clinical symptoms are useful to a proper diagnosis. Treatment for IATJ must be individualized but generally is a combination of systemic antibiotic therapy and surgical treatment. Prosthesis exchange in one or two stages is the first choice procedure. Debridement with prosthesis retention is an option in acute cases with stable implants and antibiotic sensible germs.
Husted, Henrik; Jørgensen, Christoffer C.; Gromov, Kirill
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postoperative joint stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may compromise the outcome and necessitate manipulation. Previous studies have not been in a fast-track setting with optimized pain treatment, early mobilization, and short length of stay (LOS), which may...... have influenced the prevalence of joint stiffness and subsequent manipulation. We investigated the prevalence of manipulation following fast-track TKA and identified patients at risk of needing manipulation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 3,145 consecutive unselected elective primary unilateral TKA patients...... operated in 6 departments with well-defined fast-track settings were included in the study. Demographic data, prevalence, type and timing of manipulation, and preoperative and postoperative ROM were recorded prospectively, ensuring complete 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: 70 manipulations were performed within...
Gehrke, T; Kendoff, D; Haasper, C
The use of hinged implants in primary total knee replacement (TKR) should be restricted to selected indications and mainly for elderly patients. Potential indications for a rotating hinge or pure hinge implant in primary TKR include: collateral ligament insufficiency, severe varus or valgus deformity (>20°) with necessary relevant soft-tissue release, relevant bone loss including insertions of collateral ligaments, gross flexion-extension gap imbalance, ankylosis, or hyperlaxity. Although data reported in the literature are inconsistent, clinical results depend on implant design, proper technical use, and adequate indications. We present our experience with a specific implant type that we have used for over 30 years and which has given our elderly patients good mid-term results. Because revision of implants with long cemented stems can be very challenging, an effort should be made in the future to use shorter stems in modular versions of hinged implants. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Nadaud, Matthew C; Fehring, Thomas K; Fehring, Keith
Periprosthetic osteolysis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become a significant problem. Routine surveillance is warranted to detect problems that may not be symptomatic. The goal of these radiographs is to detect arthroplasty-related bone loss at an early stage to implement strategies to limit its extension. The purpose of this study was to show the extent to which condylar osteolysis can be underestimated on routine radiographs. Two cadaveric femurs were prepared to receive a posterior stabilized (PS) femoral component. A simulated osteolytic lesion was created using acetabular reamers. Lesions of 36 mm not easily discernible on standard anteroposterior and lateral images were easily recognized on oblique films. The oblique radiographs described can help with the early recognition of retrofemoral osteolysis about a posterior-stabilized implant.
Zimmerman, William F.; Miller, Mark A.; Cleary, Richard J.; Izant, Timothy H.; Mann, Kenneth A.
The mechanical loads acting across the knee joint following total knee replacements (TKR) during activities of daily living have recently been measured using instrumented TKRs. Using a series of postmortem retrieved TKR constructs we investigated whether these mechanical loads could result in damage to the implant bone interface or supporting bone in the tibia. Eighteen cemented en bloc tibial components (0 to 22 years in service) were loaded under axial compression in increments from 1 to 10 times body weight and digital image correlation was used to measure bone strain and interface micromotion during loading and unloading. Failure was considered to occur when micromotion exceeded 150 μm or compressive bone strain exceeded 7300 με. The results show that all retrieved specimens had sufficient bone strength to support most activities of daily living, but ~40% would be at risk under larger physiologic loads that might occur secondary to a higher impacts such as jogging or a stumble. The tray-bone micromotion (regression model R2=0.48, p=0.025) was greater for donors with lower age at implantation (p=0.0092). Proximal bone strain (model R2=0.46, p=0.03) was greater for donors with longer time in service (p=0.021). Distal bone strain (model R2=0.58, p=0.005) was greater for donors with more time in service (p=0.0054) and lower peri-implant BMD (p=0.049). High mechanical overload of a single or repetitive nature may be an initiating factor in aseptic loosening of total joint arthroplasties and should be avoided in order to prolong the life of the implant. PMID:27237382
Freed, Ryan D; Simon, Jacqueline C; Knowlton, Christopher B; Orozco Villaseñor, Diego A; Wimmer, Markus A; Lundberg, Hannah J
It is not known if the loads and motions reported for instrumented knees are generalizable to a larger population of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The purpose of this study is to (1) report axial implant force data for chair and stair activities for a population of cruciate-retaining TKA patients and (2) compare the population forces to those measured with instrumented TKAs. Twenty-three subjects with a cruciate-retaining TKA underwent motion analysis during stair ascending, stair descending, chair sitting, and chair rising activities after informed consent in this institutional review board approved study. Axial TKA forces were calculated using a previously validated computational model. Differences between the mean and variability of population instrumented TKA peak forces and force impulses were tested using t tests and Levene test. Peak axial forces were 3.06, 2.74, 2.65, and 2.60 kN for stair ascent, stair descent, chair rising, and chair sitting, respectively. Force impulses were 123.3, 123.4, 153.5, and 154.0 kN*% activity cycle for stair ascent, stair descent, chair sitting, and chair rising, respectively. Population TKA and instrumented TKA peak forces were different for stair ascent (P = .03) and stair descent (P = .03) in the second half of the activity cycles. The variability of the peak forces and impulses were not different (P = .106 to P = .99). The forces and motions presented in this study represent cruciate-retaining TKA patients and could be used for displacement-driven knee wear testing. The forces are similar to those in the literature from instrumented prostheses of an ultracongruent cruciate-sacrificing TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Dunbar, Michael J; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L
The future of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery will involve planning that incorporates more patient-specific characteristics. Despite known biological, morphological, and functional differences between men and women, there has been little investigation into knee joint biomechanical and neuromuscular differences between men and women with osteoarthritis, and none that have examined sex-specific biomechanical and neuromuscular responses to TKA surgery. The objective of this study was to examine sex-associated differences in knee kinematics, kinetics and neuromuscular patterns during gait before and after TKA. Fifty-two patients with end-stage knee OA (28 women, 24 men) underwent gait and neuromuscular analysis within the week prior to and one year after surgery. A number of sex-specific differences were identified which suggest a different manifestation of end-stage knee OA between the sexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter......-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...
Schache, Margaret B; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is commonly performed for end-stage knee osteoarthritis to relieve pain and improve quality of life. Understanding specific muscle weakness following TKA is required in order to develop targeted rehabilitation programmes for TKA patients. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether TKA patients have reduced strength in lower limb muscle groups compared to controls. A search of common scientific databases was conducted. A modified published checklist was used to assess the risk of bias. A meta-analysis was completed for each lower limb muscle group in three separate post-operative time periods (4-6 months, 1-3 years, and >3 years). The GRADE approach was used to determine the quality of the evidence. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. There was low quality evidence for all meta-analyses. The meta-analyses showed that TKA patients had weaker quadriceps than the controls at every post-operative time (pooled effect sizes between -2.81 and -0.53). The meta-analyses of hamstring strength for patients 1-3 years post-operatively also showed patient weakness (pooled effect size=-1.87) and no significant difference at >3 years post-operatively (pooled effect size=-0.20). There was low quality evidence of quadriceps and hamstring weakness following TKA. Further research is required to determine if other lower limb muscles also display similar muscle weakness. Strategies that specifically target strengthening of these muscle groups may need to be incorporated in rehabilitation to improve outcomes from TKA. I. © 2013.
Carr, James B; Werner, Brian C; Browne, James A
Options for treatment of a failed septic total knee arthroplasty (TKA) include arthrodesis and above-knee amputation (AKA). Little comparative data exist to help clinicians when considering these alternatives. A national database was queried for patients who underwent either knee arthrodesis or AKA for an infected TKA between 2005 and 2012. Procedure volumes, postoperative complications, hospital charges, length of stay, and 90-day readmission rates were evaluated. A total of 2634 patients underwent arthrodesis and 5001 patients underwent AKA for septic TKA. The percentage of total patients who underwent AKA increased significantly throughout the study period compared to knee arthrodesis. Patients who underwent AKA tended to be older and have more medical comorbidities. Arthrodesis patients had a significantly higher rate of postoperative infection (14.5% vs 8.3%, P procedures should help the clinician when weighing these alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background : A controversy exists regarding simultaneous or staged bilateral total knee replacement. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral and 50 undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were evaluated prospectively to compare the clinical, radiological results and complication rates. Eighty-four patients belonged to ASA category II or III preoperatively. The study included a high proportion of rheumatoid patients and osteoarthritis patients with severe deformities. Results: Bilateral group had greater blood loss and required more blood transfusion, but there was no difference in requirement of postoperative intensive care and the complication rates. Rheumatoid knees had lower pre and postoperative knee score and functional score as compared to osteoarthritic knees. Morbidity and mortality of one stage bilateral knee replacement was no greater than unilateral operation. Conclusion: Simultaneous bilateral knee replacement in younger patients with advanced rheumatoid arthritis is safe and effective
I.B. de Groot (Ingrid)
textabstractOsteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee is a common locomotor disease characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In the Netherlands, in the year 2000 about 257,400 persons above the age of 55 years had hip OA and about 335,700 persons had knee OA. Because the prevalence of OA
Full Text Available Overweight and obesity increase risks of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability. Severe knee osteoarthritis can be treated by knee arthroplasty. Total knee arthroplasty has been used in overweight and obese patients; however, clinical reports showed that the outcome of this group of patients was not good as normal-weight patients. Two computer models were created in this paper to simulate the effect of excess loads on the distal femoral bone and contact pressures in total knee arthroplasty during a gait cycle. The numerical results showed increased stress in periprosthetic distal femoral bones and higher contact pressure on tibial polyethylene insert during the stance phase. Based on the computer simulation results and published research work, cementless total knee arthroplasty with thicker tibial polyethylene insert may be a better option for overweight patients.
Karam, Matthew D; Pugely, Andrew; Callaghan, John J; Shurr, Donald
The reported incidence of persistent knee flexion contracture following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has varied from 1-15 percent Various treatment modalities have been described in attempts to manage this often difficult problem. This paper describes a novel method of treatment by using a hinged cast brace (previously reported for treatment of femur fractures and knee contractures secondary to hemophilia and cerebral palsy) for use in patients with symptomatic knee flexion contractures. Application of this cast brace with frequent adjustment (every three to four days, initially) toward full extension can often improve knee extension, after physical therapy and other modalities such as extension-assist braces have failed. Care must be taken in the application and use of this device which utilizes frequent manipulations to reduce and maintain the knee flexion angle. We report two clinical cases in which this protocol was effectively used in decreasing symptomatic knee flexion contractures.
Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C
Gait features characteristic of a cohort may be difficult to evaluate due to differences in subjects' demographic factors and walking speed. The aim of this study was to employ a multiple regression normalization method that accounts for subject age, height, body mass, gender, and self-selected walking speed in the evaluation of gait in unilateral total knee arthroplasty patients. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 45 total knee arthroplasty patients and 31 aged-matched controls walking at their self-selected speed. Gait data peaks including joint angles, ground reaction forces, net joint moments, and net joint powers were normalized using subject body mass, standard dimensionless equations, and a multiple regression approach that modeled subject age, height, body mass, gender, and self-selected walking speed. Normalizing gait data using subject body mass, dimensionless equations, and multiple regression approach resulted in a significantly lower knee adduction moment and knee extensor power in total knee arthroplasty patients compared to controls (pmultiple regression normalization greatly reduced variance in gait data by minimizing correlations with subject demographic factors and walking speed, resulting in significantly higher peak hip extension angles and peak hip flexion powers in total knee arthroplasty patients (p<0.05). Total knee arthroplasty patients generate greater hip extension angles and hip flexor power and have a lower knee adduction moment than healthy controls. This gait pattern may be a strategy to reduce muscle and joint loading at the knee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin; Wagenmakers, Robert; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty have proven to be effective surgical procedures for the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. In recent decades, there have been considerable efforts to improve the component designs, modes of fixation, and surgical techniques. Minimally
Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Myhrmann, Lis
To investigate the relationship between early functional mobility and pain intensity in a fast track program after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To investigate the relationship between early functional mobility and pain intensity in a fast track program after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....
Hassan, Basim Kamil; Dessau, Ram Benny; Sahlström, Arne
primary total hip and knee joint replacements. METHODS: Long-term postoperative renal dysfunction was analyzed in a retrospective study of 1301 consecutive primary total hip and knee joint replacements performed between January 2009 and December 2013. According to the RIFLE criteria, increased serum...
Slamin, John; Parsley, Brian
Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a highly successful surgical procedure with more than 600,000 TKA's performed annually in the US. Interest in improving surgical outcomes has led to improvements in surgical technique, instrumentation, and implant design. Computer navigation and robotic systems were introduced to further refine the mechanical alignment of joint replacement procedures. The cost to implement some of these technologies and the additional time required in the operating room to utilize these developments has limited the acceptance of them broadly. The introduction of custom instrumentation and cutting blocks based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed for better restoration of mechanical alignment. Unfortunately, little has changed in patient satisfaction in the past ten years. The recent introduction of patient specific instrumentation and patient specific implants is another step forward to restore the pre-deformity anatomy and joint geometry. This new technology can benefit the hospital by improving operating room time efficiencies through having shorter set-up times, and the elimination of cleaning, sterilization and inventory costs. The patient can potentially benefit by a shorter operative time, improved postoperative alignment and better fitting implants.
Escobar, A; García Pérez, L; Herrera-Espiñeira, C; Aizpuru, F; Sarasqueta, C; Gonzalez Sáenz de Tejada, M; Quintana, J M; Bilbao, A
To provide new data on minimally clinical important difference (MCID) and percentages of responders on pain and functional dimensions of Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in patients who have undergone total knee replacement (TKR). 1-year prospective multicentre study with two different cohorts. Consecutive patients on the waiting list were recruited. There were 415 and 497 patients included. Pain and function were collected by the reverse scoring option of the WOMAC (0-100, worst to best). Transition items (five point scale) were collected at 1-year and MCID was calculated through mean change in patients somewhat better, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and two other questions about satisfaction. Analysis was performed in the whole sample and by tertiles of baseline severity. Likewise were calculated the percentages of patients who attained cut-off values. Global MCID for pain were about 30 in both cohorts and 32 for. By ROC these values were about 20 and 24 respectively. According to the other two transitional questions these values were for pain 27 and 20 for function. By tertiles the worst the baseline score the higher the cut-off values. Percentage of responders does not change when comparing responders to the global MCID with their own tertile MCID and were about 61% for pain and 50% for function. Due to the wide variations, MCID estimates should be calculated and used according to the baseline severity score. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Borges, Alexandre Moreira; Freitas, Geraldo Luiz Schuck de; Migon, Eduardo Zaniol; Oliveira, Gustavo Kaempf de; Rodrigues, Marcos Wainberg
Several studies show that patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) tend to maintain or gain weight after the procedure, which would result in increased wear of the prosthesis and new surgical interventions in a smaller period of time in comparison with patients with adequate body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TKA surgery on these patients' BMI. Initially the records were analyzed, chosen at random from 91 patients undergoing TKA during the period from August 2011 to July 2013. Patients were stratified by BMI as normal weight (BMI between 20 and 25), overweight (BMI between 25 and 30), and obesity (BMI > 30). They were re-evaluated in a minimum period of 18 months. The mean age of the sample population was 68.1 years; 69.1 for men and 67.2 for women. The mean preoperative BMI was 27.24 kg/m2. Among the study participants, in the preoperative period, 17 patients had normal weight, 65 were overweight, and nine were obese. Postoperative analysis showed weight loss in 41 patients (46%), and weight gain in 50 patients (54%). The mean postoperative BMI was 27.16 kg/m2, in general, experiencing a slight decline in the mean BMI of 0.08 kg/m2. Patients who underwent TKA did not achieve significant reduction in BMI after surgery.
Noble, J; Goodall, J R; Noble, D J
The benefits and risks of Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Replacement (SBTKR) remain controversial. A review of the English speaking literature was undertaken and found that many papers took staunch positions either for or against the procedure. It was also noted that earlier papers supporting SBTKR suggested cost benefits. There was a huge disparity in the incidence of mortality and morbidity and it was not possible to compare many papers, because in some medically frail patients were excluded from the SBTKR cohorts. In large published series the proportion of patients having a SBTKR varied between 3% and 70%. Many, but not all, series highlighted age and co-morbidity as risk factors. Overall there was no clear case for or against SBTKR. The evidence suggested that careful preoperative assessment and patient selection on a strict protocol were essential. The procedure should be confined to hospitals where high dependency nursing is readily available and the literature indicated that the risk is less in high through-put units. By refining preoperative assessment and preparation it can be a safe and effective procedure in an appropriate clinical setting for postoperative care.
Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty-three community-dwelling women were divided into the following groups: older, with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty in the contralateral limb (OKG; N= 7; older, without symptomatic osteoarthritis (OG; N= 8; and young and healthy (YG; N= 8. Muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength test and exercise intensity progression (workload increases of 5%-10% were made whenever adaptation occurred were compared before and after 13 weeks of a twice-weekly progressive resistance-training program. RESULTS: At baseline, OKG subjects displayed lower muscle strength than those in both the OG and YG. Among OKG subjects, baseline muscle strength was lower in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total arthroplasty leg. Muscle strength improved significantly during follow-up in all groups; however, greater increases were observed in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total knee arthroplasty leg in OKG subjects. Greater increases were also seen in the osteoarthritic leg of OKG than in OG and YG. The greater muscle strength increase in the osteoarthritic leg reduced the interleg difference in muscle strength in OKG subjects, and resulted in similar posttraining muscle strength between OKG and OG in two of the three exercises analyzed. Greater exercise intensity progression was also observed in OKG subjects than in both OG and YG subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OKG subjects displayed greater relative muscle strength increases (osteoarthritic leg than subjects in the YG, and greater relative exercise intensity progression than subjects in both OG and YG. These results suggest that resistance training is an effective method to counteract the lower-extremity strength deficits reported in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Total knee arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is an effective method of eliminating pain and improving functional status, but it is associated with a number of unique challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of total knee arthroplasty, as well as patient satisfaction, in this series of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. Between January 2001 and 2012, 108 total knee arthroplasties in 78 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were performed, utilizing a posteriorstabilized prostheses. The average age of the patients was 58 ± 12.4 years, and 88% were females. Median follow-up of patients was 80 months with interquartile range of 34 months (min-max: 36-132 months. Results. Average Knee Society score improved from preoperative 18 ± 11.4 to postoperative 83 ± 3.5, and Functional Knee Society score from 21 ± 9.9 to 50 ± 5.9. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC knee injury and osteopaedic outcome scores improved from 23 ± 6.4 to 69 ± 4.6 postoperatively. In 25 (23.14% knees radiolucent lines of less than 2 mm were found and they were not progressive. Survival rate excluding deep infection was 99.1%. Conclusion. Total knee arthroplasty is an effective procedure of treatment of damaged knee joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Baker, Paul N; Petheram, Timothy; Dowen, Daniel; Jameson, Simon S; Avery, Peter J; Reed, Mike R; Deehan, David J
Patella resurfacing during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. Variation in published results for patella resurfacing may potentially be explained by differences in design between TKA brands. We interrogated NJR-PROMs data to ascertain whether there is an early functional benefit to resurfacing the patella, both overall and for each of the five most popular primary knee designs through use of the Oxford Knee Score. A total of 8103 resurfaced TKAs and 15,290 nonresurfaced TKAs were studied. There was a large variation in the proportion of knees undergoing patella resurfacing by brand (Nexgen=16% versus Triathlon=52%). Patellar resurfacing did not significantly influence the magnitude of improvement in overall knee function or anterior knee-specific function irrespective of TKA brand or for cruciate retaining versus sacrificing designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik; Maribo, Thomas
BACKGROUND: Preoperative progressive resistance training (PRT) is controversial in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), because of the concern that it may exacerbate knee joint pain and effusion. OBJECTIVE: To examine if preoperative PRT initiated 5 weeks prior to TKA would 1...... were scheduled for TKA due to osteoarthritis and assigned for the intervention group. METHODS: Patients underwent unilateral PRT (3 sessions/week). Exercise loading was 12 repetition maximum (RM) with progression towards 8RM. The training program consisted of 6 exercises performed unilaterally. MAIN...... the training period was found (p=.21). Training load generally increased and maximal muscle strength improved; unilateral leg press: 18%±30 (p=.03), knee extension: 81%±156 (pPRT of the affected leg initiated shortly before TKA does not exacerbate knee...
Stubbe, J.H.; Gelsema, T.; Delnoij, D.M.J.
Background: The Dutch Consumer Quality Index Hip Knee Questionnaire (CQI Hip Knee) was used to assess patients' experiences with and evaluations of quality of care after a total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study is to evaluate the construct validity and internal
Pitta, Michael; Esposito, Christina I; Li, Zhichang; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Wright, Timothy M; Padgett, Douglas E
We sought is to determine the mechanism of failure among primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) performed at a single high-volume institution by asking the following research questions: (1) What are the most common failure modes for modern TKA designs? and (2) What are the preoperative risk factors for failure following primary TKA? From May 2007 to December 2012, 18,065 primary TKAs performed on 16,083 patients at a single institution were recorded in a prospective total joint arthroplasty registry with a minimum of 5-year follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed patient charts to determine a cause of failure for primary TKAs. A cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the risk of revision surgery following primary TKA. The most common reasons for failure within 2 years after TKA were infection and stiffness. The multivariable regression identified the following preoperative risk factors for TKA failure: history of drug abuse (hazard ratio [HR] 4.68; P = 0.03), deformity/mechanical preoperative diagnosis (HR 3.52; P failure of primary TKAs, which may be useful information for developing strategies to improve outcomes following TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberto Freire da Mota e Albuquerque
Full Text Available Um dos avanços tecnológicos mais significativos da medicina atual é a cirurgia assistida por computador, sendo que na ortopedia uma das aplicações mais importantes dessa tecnologia é na artroplastia do joelho. A principal contribuição da cirurgia ortopédica assistida por computador (Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery’s - CAOS na artroplastia do joelho é o seu potencial em aprimorar a precisão da implantação das próteses e do alinhamento do membro operado contribuindo para a otimização e longevidade dos resultados. A navegação independente de imagens, baseada em referências anatômicas adquiridas durante o ato cirúrgico através de transmissores de raios infra-vermelho, tem sido a técnica preponderante na artroplastia do joelho. Utilizamos o sistema de navegação para artroplastia total do joelho "OrthoPilot" versão 2.2 para a colocação de 72 próteses de joelho "Search Evolution" da "Aesculap AG CO. KG" com ou sem estabilização posterior em uma série contínua. O objetivo foi aferir a precisão do alinhamento obtido com a navegação através de radiografias panorâmicas obtidas no período pós-operatório. Obtivemos um desvio médio do eixo mecânico nulo de 0,66º com desvio padrão de 0,7º, sendo que 98,6% dos joelhos ficaram dentro de uma margem de erro de 3º e 79,2% com erro inferior a 1º. Concluímos que o sistema é seguro e preciso, não adicionando morbidade à cirurgia convencional.One of the most significant technological advancements in current medicine is the computer-assisted surgery, which, for orthopaedics, one of the major uses of this technology is in knee arthroplasty. The main contribution provided by computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS to knee arthroplasty is its potential to improve prosthesis implant precision and the operated limb alignment, contributing to results optimization and longevity. The image-independent navigation, based on anatomical references acquired during surgical
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Total knee arthroplasty is a well-established procedure with gratifying results. There is no consensus in the literature whether to routinely resurface the patella while performing total knee arthroplasty or not. Although an extremely rare occurrence in clinical practice, patellar prosthesis dislocation is a possible complication resulting from total knee arthroplasty. Case presentation We report a rare case of atraumatic spontaneous dislocation of patellar prosthesis in a 63-year-old Caucasian man of British origin with patellar tendon injury. The patient was treated successfully through a revision of the patellar component and tendon repair. In two years follow-up the patient is asymptomatic with no sign of loosening of his patellar prosthesis. Conclusions A thorough understanding of knee biomechanics is imperative in performing total knee arthroplasty in order to achieve a better functional outcome and to prevent early prosthetic failure.
Brandon Green, DO
Full Text Available This study will evaluate an alternative method in which a four prong bone staple was used to repair the medial collateral ligament following over-release or avulsion injuries in (#6 cases during a total knee arthroplasty. The use of a four prong bone staple to repair medial collateral ligament injuries status post total knee replacement will provide satisfactory results with respect to post-operative knee stability and range of motion. Our retrospective review revealed that all six patients improved with regards to range of motion following the total knee arthroplasty. We feel that repair of the medial collateral ligament with a four-prong bone staple is a viable option after an over-release or avulsion injury sustained during a total knee arthroplasty.
Li, Bin; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Yanfang; Bai, Lunhao
This study assessed the effects of limb position on venous hemodynamics and blood loss after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). First, the venous blood flow velocity was detected by color Doppler flow imaging in seven young volunteers after the leg was elevated 25 cm with the knee in full extension or mild flexion. Next, 108 consecutive TKA patients were randomized into flexion or extension groups. Both groups had the leg elevated 25 cm at the ankle over a specific backing pad for 72 hours postoperatively. In the flexion group, the knee was flexed mildly (extension group, the knee was extended fully. Perioperative total blood loss, hidden blood loss (HBL), knee swelling, range of motion (ROM), straight-leg raising action, and postoperative complications within 6 weeks of surgery were measured. Venous blood flow velocity in the mild flexion position was significantly faster than that in knee full extension position. Postoperative HBL and knee swelling were significantly lower in the flexion group than in the extension group, and ROM and straight-leg raising actions were significantly higher during early follow-up. No significant difference was observed in perioperative total blood loss or in ROM at 6 weeks postoperatively. The findings of this study indicate that elevating the leg with the knee flexed mildly can promote venous return and decrease the HBL and knee swelling following TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Dunbar, Michael; Newman, Jared M; Khlopas, Anton; Chughtai, Morad; Martinez, Nick; Bhowmik-Stoker, Manoshi; Mont, Michael A
This study surveyed a group of US and international orthopaedic surgeons to prioritize areas of improvement in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Specifically, we assessed surgeon responses regarding the top five areas of TKA needing improvement; which were stratified by: a) US surgeons, b) international surgeons, c) US surgeons' implant-brand-loyalty, and d) surgeons' years of experience and case volume. Four hundred and eighteen surgeons who were board-certified, in practice for at least two years, spent 60% of their time in clinical practice, and performed a minimum of 25 lower extremity joint arthroplasties per year were surveyed. They chose the top five areas (among 17) needing improvement for TKA. Results were stratified by surgeons' location (US and international), implant-brand-loyalty, years of experience, and case volume. Functional outcomes was the top identified area for improvement (US 63% and international 71%), followed by brand loyalty (Company I 68%, other brand 59%, and multi-brand/no loyalty 66%), years of experience (early-career 64%, mid-career 63%, and late-career 75%) and case volume (low-volume 69%, mid-volume 60%, and high-volume 71%). Following this was costs for US surgeons (47%) and implant survivorship for international surgeons (57%). While costs were the next highest area for specific Company-loyal surgeons (57%), implant survivorship was the next highest area for the other two cohorts. Implant survivorship was the second most important area of improvement regardless of years of experience and for low- and mid-volume surgeons. Surgeons identified functional outcomes as the most important area needing improvement. Cost of implants was more important for American as compared to international surgeons.
Sanders, Thomas L; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Schleck, Cathy D; Larson, Dirk R; Berry, Daniel J
Despite the large increase in total hip arthroplasties and total knee arthroplasties, the incidence and prevalence of additional contralateral or ipsilateral joint arthroplasty are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of additional joint arthroplasty after a primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. This historical cohort study identified population-based cohorts of patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (n = 1,933) or total knee arthroplasty (n = 2,139) between 1969 and 2008. Patients underwent passive follow-up through their medical records beginning with the primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. We assessed the likelihood of undergoing a subsequent total joint arthroplasty, including simultaneous and staged bilateral procedures. Age, sex, and calendar year were evaluated as potential predictors of subsequent arthroplasty. During a mean follow-up of 12 years after an initial total hip arthroplasty, we observed 422 contralateral total hip arthroplasties (29% at 20 years), 76 contralateral total knee arthroplasties (6% at 10 years), and 32 ipsilateral total knee arthroplasties (2% at 20 years). Younger age was a significant predictor of contralateral total hip arthroplasty (p hip arthroplasties (3% at 20 years), and 29 ipsilateral total hip arthroplasties (2% at 20 years). Older age was a significant predictor of ipsilateral or contralateral total hip arthroplasty (p hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty can be informed of a 30% to 45% chance of a surgical procedure in a contralateral cognate joint and about a 5% chance of a surgical procedure in noncognate joints within 20 years of initial arthroplasty. Increased risk of contralateral total knee arthroplasty following an initial total hip arthroplasty may be due to gait changes prior to and/or following total hip arthroplasty. The higher prevalence of bilateral total hip arthroplasty in younger patients may result from
Guan, Shanyuanye; Gray, Hans A; Schache, Anthony G; Feller, Julian; de Steiger, Richard; Pandy, Marcus G
No data are available to describe six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) knee-joint kinematics for one complete cycle of overground walking following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aims of this study were firstly, to measure 6-DOF knee-joint kinematics and condylar motion for overground walking following TKA; and secondly, to determine whether such data differed between overground and treadmill gait when participants walked at the same speed during both tasks. A unique mobile biplane X-ray imaging system enabled accurate measurement of 6-DOF TKA knee kinematics during overground walking by simultaneously tracking and imaging the joint. The largest rotations occurred for flexion-extension and internal-external rotation whereas the largest translations were associated with joint distraction and anterior-posterior drawer. Strong associations were found between flexion-extension and adduction-abduction (R 2 = 0.92), joint distraction (R 2 = 1.00), and anterior-posterior translation (R 2 = 0.77), providing evidence of kinematic coupling in the TKA knee. Although the measured kinematic profiles for overground walking were grossly similar to those for treadmill walking, several statistically significant differences were observed between the two conditions with respect to temporo-spatial parameters, 6-DOF knee-joint kinematics, and condylar contact locations and sliding. Thus, caution is advised when making recommendations regarding knee implant performance based on treadmill-measured knee-joint kinematic data. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1634-1643, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Catani, F; Benedetti, M G; De Felice, R; Buzzi, R; Giannini, S; Aglietti, P
The purpose of this investigation is to determine the functional performance of the mobile bearing total knee replacement prosthesis as compared to the fixed bearing type total knee replacement prosthesis. Kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography data were gained from 10 patients with mobile bearing and 10 patients with a fixed bearing posterior stabilized Insall Burstein II total knee replacement during ascending and descending stairs. A control group of 10 normal subjects, matched by sex and age, was also analysed. No significant biomechanical differences in patients with different total knee replacement designs have been reported from level-walking studies. Slightly better performance of posterior retaining with respect to cruciate sacrificing total knee replacement designs have been claimed from stair climbing studies. Only one study has been conducted regarding mobile versus fixed bearing total knee replacement assessed by gait analysis. This study did not show any biomechanical differences between the two groups. Motion analysis was used to quantify the knee kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (right and left longissimus dorsi, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles) during stair ascent and descent. The mobile bearing group demonstrated a reduced knee extensor moment during stair climbing and descending, and a reduced knee adductor moment during stair climbing. When ascending stairs, most of the mobile bearing patients show a peak knee flexion and a peak knee flexion moment at the late stance phase during the double support period. This kinematic and kinetic pattern is absent in normal subject. Both mobile bearing and fixed bearing groups showed abnormal electromyography patterns in both descending and ascending. During stair climbing, the mobile bearing design demonstrates a different kinematic pattern to the fixed bearing total knee replacement. Lower limb compensatory mechanisms
Huber, Erika O; Roos, Ewa M.; Meichtry, André
baseline to 3 months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) following a neuromuscular exercise programme (NEMEX-TJR) plus a knee school educational package (KS) or KS alone. METHODS: 45 patients (55-83 years, 53% male, waiting for TKR) were randomized to receive a minimum of 8 sessions of NEMEXTJR plus 3...
Maya L Roth
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As the North American population ages, the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and the surgical interventions (ie, total knee arthroplasty [TKA] aimed at correcting pain and disability will also rise proportionally. Therefore, efforts to better understand the factors associated with surgical outcomes are warranted. To date, no studies have examined the impact of psychosocial factors on acute postoperative TKA pain.
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials is to assess the effectiveness of no drainage when compared to drainage in total knee arthroplasty, in terms of recovery of knee flexion, reduction in swelling, length of hospital stay and haemoglobin levels following TKA.
Nazzal, Mahmoud I.; Bashaireh, Khaldoon H.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Nazzal, Mohammad S.; Maayah, Mikhled F.; Mesmar, Mohammad
The aim of this study was to examine patient satisfaction with rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-six patients, aged 45-77 years, were enrolled in a post-TKA comprehensive therapy program focusing on knee strengthening and functional activities. The program lasted 3 months and was conducted for 1 h, twice a day, 5 days per…
Huber, Erika O; de Bie, Rob A; Roos, Ewa M.
Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is the standard treatment for patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). Significant improvement in pain and function are seen after TKR and approximately 80% of patients are very satisfied with the outcome. Functional status prior to TKR is a major predictor...
B.S. Ferket (Bart); Feldman, Z. (Zachary); Zhou, J. (Jing); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. Mazumdar (Madhu)
textabstractObjectives To evaluate the impact of total knee replacement on quality of life in people with knee osteoarthritis and to estimate associated differences in lifetime costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) according to use by level of symptoms. Design Marginal structural modeling
Skou, Søren Thorgaard; Roos, Ewa M.; Laursen, Mogens Berg
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a lack of high quality evidence concerning the efficacy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to international evidence-based guidelines, treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should include patient education, exercise and weight loss. Insoles and pharmacolog...
Bastiani, Denise; Ritzel, Cintia Helena; Bortoluzzi, Silvia Manfrin; Vaz, Marco Aurelio
The inflammatory manifestations of knee osteoarthritis (OA) lead to muscle inhibition and hypotrophy, resulting in a reduction in total muscle work and muscle power. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most adequate surgery for the treatment of advanced OA. However, its effects on muscle functional behavior have not been well understood. To compare the total work and power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles in patients with OA (20) and in patients post-TKA (12) at two angular velocities (60º/sec and 240º/sec). An isokinetic Biodex dynamometer was used to assess muscle power and total work during isokinetic contractions. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare total muscle work and muscle power between the groups (SPSS software, version 13.0; significance level, P 0.05). In addition, no difference was observed in the muscle power of the knee extensors and flexors (P > 0.05). Total work and power were similar in the OA and TKA groups, suggesting that TKA did not improve functional capacity, which was similar in both groups.
Mandzuk, Lynda L; McMillan, Diana E; Bohm, Eric R
Primary total hip and primary total knee surgeries are commonly performed to improve patients' quality of life and functional status. This longitudinal retrospective study (N = 851) examined self-reported quality of life and functional status over the preoperative and postoperative periods: 12 months prior to surgery, one month prior to surgery and 12 months following surgery. A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the changes in quality of life and functional status over the sampling period. Patients in the convenience sample reported improvements in quality of life and functional status utilizing the SF-12 and Oxford Hip and Oxford Knee, although differences were noted by procedure and gender. Total hip patients tended to demonstrate greater improvement than total knee patients and males reported higher levels of physical and mental quality of life as well as functional status when compared to females. Of particular note was that mental health scores were consistently lower in both total hip and total knee replacement patients across the perioperative period and up to one year postoperative. This study identifies an opportunity for health care providers to proactively address the mental health of total hip and total knee replacement patients throughout their joint replacement trajectory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Chao; Lou, Jieqiong; Qian, Wenwei; Ye, Canhua; Zhu, Shibai
Controversy still exists regarding positioning of the knee in flexion or in extension after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impacts treatment outcomes. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated if a postoperative knee position regime could positively affect the rehabilitation. A comprehensive search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of knee positioning after TKA was conducted. The outcomes of interest were blood loss and range of motion (ROM); total calculated blood loss (CBL), drainage volume, hidden blood loss (HBL), decline of hemoglobin level and requirement for blood transfusion. Ten RCTs involving 962 knees were eligible for meta-analysis. Positioning the knee in flexion after TKA was significantly associated with lesser CBL (P < 0.00001), less HBL (P < 0.00001) and decreased requirement for blood transfusion (P = 0.06). On subgroup analyses, the flexion group was found to have significantly less decrease in hemoglobin level 48 h to 6 days after surgery (P = 0.003), while no significant difference was noted at 24 h after surgery (P = 0.29). Further,a superior ROM was observed in flexion group (5-7 days after surgery) (P = 0.002), while there was no significant difference at 6 weeks. No significant inter-group difference in wound drainage was observed at 24 h after surgery. Positioning the knee in flexion in the early postoperative stage was associated with significantly lesser CBL, lesser HBL, decreased requirement for blood transfusion and better ROM at least in the early postoperative period, which may contribute to early rehabilitation. However, no significant difference was found in ROM at 6 weeks.
Kim, Abraham D; Shah, Vivek M; Scott, Richard D
We evaluated the intraoperative effect of patellar thickness on intraoperative passive knee flexion and patellar tracking during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with preoperative arthrofibrosis and compared them to patients with normal preoperative range of motion (ROM) documented in a prior study. Routine posterior cruciate ligament-retaining TKA was performed in a total of 34 knees, 23 with normal ROM and 11 with arthrofibrosis, defined as ≤100° of passive knee flexion against gravity under anesthesia. Once clinical balance and congruent patellar tracking were established, custom trial patellar components thicker than the standard trial by 2-mm increments (2-8 mm) were sequentially placed and trialed. Passive flexion against gravity was recorded using digital photograph goniometry. Gross mechanics of patellofemoral tracking were visually assessed. On average, passive knee flexion decreased 2° for every 2-mm increment of patellar thickness (P thickness had no gross effect on patellar subluxation and tilt in patients with arthrofibrosis as well as those with normal ROM. Patellar thickness had a modest effect on intraoperative passive flexion and no effect on patellar tracking in patients with arthrofibrosis undergoing TKA. There was no marked difference in intraoperative flexion and patellar tracking between patients with arthrofibrosis and patients with normal preoperative ROM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colin A. McNamara, BS
Full Text Available The number of revision total knee arthroplasty procedures performed annually is increasing and, subsequently, so is the number of patients presenting following a failed revision. Rerevising a total knee arthroplasty after one or more failed revision procedures presents many challenges, including diminished bone stock for prosthetic fixation. “Off the shelf” implants may not offer the best alternative for reconstruction. We present the case of a 55-year-old patient who required a rerevision total knee arthroplasty following multiple failed revisions with severe femoral and tibia bone loss. We describe a novel technique we employed to improve component fixation within the compromised bone stock.
Leylabadlo, Hamed Ebrahimzadeh
Full Text Available Infection is a serious complication after implantation of total knee-prostheses. However, fungal infection is rarely found in periprosthetic joints, and in most reports, the infecting organism is a species. This is a case report of infection after left knee total arthroplasty caused by species. The patient is still undergoing antifungal therapy with voriconazole and is still being followed-up. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is the first report of species in a patient after total knee arthroplasty.
Mar 6, 2017 ... knee replacement in a resource constrained environment: A preliminary report. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:369-75. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon ...
McNabb, David Clinton; Olcott, Christopher W; Del Gaizo, Daniel J; Vaughn, Bradley K; Lim, Moe R
Patellar tendon reflexes were elicited among patients who had had a unilateral total knee replacement, those planned for unilateral total knee replacement, and a cohort of controlled patients. Patellar tendon reflex (PTR) response was measured with surface electromyography. The aim of this study was to determine if total knee arthroplasty significantly alters the PTR. As part of the clinical evaluation of the spine, extremity reflexes are provoked. Reflex variation between right and left extremities can be a pathological finding in disease of the spine. It has been noted that in patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the PTR is diminished on the operative side compared with the contralateral nonoperative side. PTR is part of the clinical exam when evaluating a patient for lumbar radiculopathy. The right and left patellar tendon reflex intensities were measured by quadriceps surface electromyography in 3 groups of patients. Group 1 consisted of 21 patients with unilateral TKA who were at least 6 months postoperative. Group 2 consisted of 18 patients with unilateral severe knee arthritis indicated for TKA. Group 3, serving as the control group, included 20 patients with no evidence of knee arthritis in either knee. The average reflex response for each group was recorded and comparisons were then made between each group. Patients who have undergone unilateral TKA have a PTR on average of 55.1% of their contralateral uninvolved side. This is statistically significant when compared with reflexes in patients who are planned for unilateral total knee arthroplasty, 96.03% (P = 0.001) and when compared with patients without evidence for knee arthritis, 102.2% (P < 0.001). The results of this case control study show that TKAs do significantly diminish PTRs when compared with a contralateral uninvolved knee in the same patient. 3.
Berti, Lisa; Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Ensini, Andrea; Catani, Fabio; Giannini, Sandro
Currently there is a limited understanding of the factors influencing range of motion by comparing patellar resurfacing vs non-resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty during activities of daily living. A recent meta-analysis of patellar replacement confirms better outcome with patella resurfacing; however, the result can be influenced by many other factors, such as: component design, surgeon experience, and technical aspects of the surgery. This study compares the biomechanics of the knee in patients after total knee arthroplasty with and without patellar resurfacing during stair climbing. Forty-seven patients with total knee arthroplasty were assessed at the mean follow-up of 24 months. In all of them a posterior stabilised fixed bearing prosthesis (Optetrak PS, Exactech) was implanted. Twenty-six patients were treated without patellar resurfacing and 21 with patellar resurfacing. Clinical evaluations were performed using the International Knee Society and the Hospital for Special Surgery scores. Ten patients with patellar resurfacing and 10 patients without patellar resurfacing were also studied with motion analysis during stair climbing; 10 healthy subjects were studied for statistical comparison. Clinical passive knee flexion, International Knee Society Function and Hospital for Special Surgery scores were significantly higher in the patellar resurfacing group. During stair climbing, active knee joint range of motion during the stance phase was greater in patients with patellar resurfacing. The maximum adduction moment was significantly higher in the group without patellar resurfacing. Patients with patellar resurfacing demonstrated better clinical scores, and kinematic and kinetic data while ascending stairs.
Van Der Woude, J. A D; Nair, S. C.; Custers, R. J H; Van Laar, J. M.; Kuchuck, N. O.; Lafeber, F. P J G; Welsing, P. M J
Objective: In end-stage knee osteoarthritis the treatment of choice is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An alternative treatment is knee joint distraction (KJD), suggested to postpone TKA. Several studies reported significant and prolonged clinical improvement of KJD. To make an appropriate decision
Goel, R; Fleischman, A N; Tan, T; Sterbis, E; Huang, R; Higuera, C; Parvizi, J; Rothman, R H
The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of two agents, aspirin and warfarin, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SBTKA), and to elucidate the risk of VTE conferred by this procedure compared with unilateral TKA (UTKA). A retrospective, multi-institutional study was conducted on 18 951 patients, 3685 who underwent SBTKA and 15 266 who underwent UTKA, using aspirin or warfarin as VTE prophylaxis. Each patient was assigned an individualised baseline VTE risk score based on a system using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Symptomatic VTE, including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), were identified in the first 90 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression accounting for baseline VTE risk. The adjusted incidence of PE following SBTKA was 1.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.2) with aspirin and 2.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 2.4) with warfarin. Similarly, the adjusted incidence of VTE following SBTKA was 1.6% (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) with aspirin and 2.5% (95% CI 1.9 to 3.3) with warfarin. The risk of PE and VTE were reduced by 66% (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) and 38% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.0), respectively, using aspirin. In addition, the risk of PE was 204% higher for patients undergoing SBTKA relative to those undergoing UTKA. For each ten-point increase in baseline VTE risk, the risk of PE increased by 25.5% for patients undergoing SBTKA compared with 10.5% for those undergoing UTKA. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction or peripheral vascular disease had the greatest increase in risk from undergoing SBTKA instead of UTKA. Aspirin is more effective than warfarin for the prevention of VTE following SBTKA, and serves as the more appropriate agent for VTE prophylaxis for patients in all risk categories. Furthermore, patients undergoing SBTKA are at a substantially increased risk of VTE, even more so for
Background and purpose Patella resurfacing during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is disputed and new prosthesis designs have been introduced without documentation of their survival. We assessed the impact on prosthesis survival of patella resurfacing and of prosthesis brand, based on data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Patients and methods 5 prosthesis brands in common use with and without patella resurfacing from 1994 through 2009 were included n = 11,887. The median follow-up times were 9 years for patella-resurfaced implants and 7 years for implants without patella resurfacing. For comparison of prosthesis brands, also brands in common use with only one of the two treatment options were included in the study population (n = 25,590). Cox regression analyses were performed with different reasons for revision as endpoints with adjustment for potential confounders. Results We observed a reduced overall risk of revision for patella resurfaced (PR) TKAs, but the statistical significance was borderline (RR = 0.84, p = 0.05). At 15 years, 92% of PR and 91% of patella non resurfaced (NR) prostheses were still unrevised. However, PR implants had a lower risk of revision due to pain alone (RR = 0.1, p < 0.001), but a higher risk of revision due to loosening of the tibial component (RR = 1.4, p = 0.03) and due to a defective polyethylene insert (RR = 3.2, p < 0.001). At 10 years, the survival for the reference NR brand AGC Universal was 93%. The NR brands Genesis I, Duracon, and Tricon (RR = 1.4–1.7) performed statistically significantly worse than NR AGC Universal, while the NR prostheses e.motion, Profix, and AGC Anatomic (RR = 0.1–0.7), and the PR prostheses NexGen and AGC Universal (RR = 0.4–0.5) performed statistically significantly better. LCS, NexGen, LCS Complete (all NR), and Tricon, Genesis I, LCS, and Kinemax (all PR) showed no differences in this respect from the reference brand. A lower risk of revision (crude) was found for TKAs
Full Text Available After total knee arthroplasty (TKA, it is important for patients to show early improvements in knee joint function and walking to regain independence in performing the activities of daily life. We conducted for 4 weeks an intervention one week after TKA using a hybrid assistive limb (HAL: unilateral leg type as an exoskeleton robotic device to facilitate knee joint function and walking. The intervention improved the range of knee extension movement safely and without pain compared to preoperation. In addition, we found that training with the HAL improved walking ability, speed, and rate, as well as the time taken to perform the timed up and go (TUG test compared to preoperation. The strength of the quadriceps muscle did not improve with training; however, the patient was able to induce a knee extensor moment during the initial stance phase, as measured by kinetics and kinematics, and these actions could be performed without pain. HAL training soon after TKA improved knee joint function in a 76-year-old patient who presented with OA of the knee. The improvements in knee extension lag and knee extensor moment allowed the patient to walk without pain and regain ADL in comparison with preoperation.
Wang, Fen; Liu, Li-Wei; Hu, Zhen; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Quan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES Anterior knee pain is a common problem in patients who have undergone TKR which causes dissatisfaction among them. There are Various methods for prevention of anterior knee pain following TKR .The objective of this study is to determine the effect of circumpatellar electrocautery on anterior knee pain following TKR and to compare the results with that of those patients who have undergone TKR without circumpatellar denervation. METHODS This is a cohort study conducted in Dept. of Orthopedics, Govt. Medical College, Kozhikode,kerala, 2014. Total sample size was 90.out of which 2 patients died during the study period. We lost follow up of 7 patients. Among the remaining 81 patients 42 had undergone TKR with circumpatellar denervation using electocautery and 39 without circumpatellar denervation. They were kept under follow up. Patients were followed up postoperatively at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and at one year. At all postoperative visits, a clinical score was determined using the Knee Society score and the clinical anterior knee pain rating system described by Waters and Bentley RESULTS There is no statistically significant difference in AKP score between both groups.There is a statistically significant difference in the knee society score at 1st month(p value <.001. But there is no difference on further follow up visits . CONCLUSION There is no statistically significant difference between final outcome of patients who underwent patella denervation using circumpatellar electrocauterisation and those without denervation with respect to anterior knee pain among patients who have undergone TKR.
Skou, Soren Thorgaard; Roos, Ewa M.; Laursen, Mogens Berg
Introduction: It is recommended that non-operative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should be individually tailored and include multiple treatment modalities. Despite these recommendations, no one has yet investigated the efficacy of combining several non-surgical treatment modalities...... in a randomised controlled study. The purpose of this randomised controlled study is to examine if an optimised, combined non-surgical treatment programme results in greater improvements in pain, function and quality of life in comparison with usual care in patients with KOA who are not eligible for total knee...
SooHoo, N F; Lieberman, J R; Farng, E; Park, S; Jain, S; Ko, C Y
The objective of this study was to develop evidence-based quality indicators to measure key aspects of care that can be targeted to decrease variations in complication rates between surgeons performing total joint replacement. RAND/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) modified-Delphi expert panel method. To accomplish this objective, a proposed set of quality of care indicators was developed through a comprehensive literature search and structured interviews with expert clinicians. An expert panel of orthopaedic surgeons was then convened to rate the validity of these quality indicators using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Indicators were classified as valid by the panel based on the median panel rating and the amount of dispersion of panel ratings. There were 101 candidate indicators of quality identified in the six domains of preoperative processes of care, intraoperative processes, postoperative processes, implant selection and the use of new technology, privileging of hospitals and surgeons, and outcomes and comorbidity assessment. A total of 68 of the 101 indicators were rated as valid with statistical agreement. This study identifies measures of structure, process and outcome rated as valid quality indicators for hip and knee replacement. This project provides tools to measure and improve quality of care for patients undergoing total joint replacement.
Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos; Gómez-Cardero, Primitivo; Martínez-Lloreda, Ángel
Revision knee arthroplasty with a rotating-hinge design could be an option for the treatment of instability following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in elderly patients. To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of revision arthroplasties in TKAs with instability using a rotating-hinge design in elderly patients. We retrospectively reviewed 96 rotating-hinge arthroplasties. The average age of the patients was 79 years (range, 75-86 years); the minimum follow-up was 5 years (mean, 7.3 years; range, 5-10 years). Patients were evaluated clinically (Knee Society score) and radiographically (position of prosthetic components, signs of loosening, bone loss). At a minimum followup of 5 years (mean, 7.3 years; range, 5-10 years), Knee Society pain scores improved from 37 preoperatively to 79 postoperatively, and function scores improved from 34 to 53. ROM improved on average from -15° of extension and 80° of flexion before surgery to -5° of extension and 120° of flexion at the last followup (p = 0.03). No loosening of implants was observed. Nonprogressive radiolucent lines were identified around the femoral and tibial components in 2 knees. One patient required reoperation because of a periprosthetic infection. Revision arthroplasty with a rotating-hinge design provided substantial improvement in function and a reduction in pain in elderly patients with instability following TKA. Level IV, therapeutic study.
Ebert, Jay R; Munsie, Claire; Joss, Brendan
To investigate the association between active knee flexion at initial (1-2 wk) and final (7 wk) outpatient visits after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to develop a guide for the expected progression of knee flexion in the subacute postoperative phase. Prospective case series. Rehabilitation clinic. Consecutive sample of patients (N=108) who underwent TKA between December 2007 and August 2012. TKA followed by a standardized, 5-week outpatient rehabilitation program (2 sessions per week) immediately after hospital discharge. Active knee flexion was recorded on the patient's first outpatient visit (1-2 wk) and then biweekly throughout the patient's 5-week outpatient rehabilitation program. Active knee flexion at initial (1-2 wk) and final (7 wk) outpatient visits were significantly correlated (r=.86, Pearly identification of patients at risk for poor long-term outcomes who may benefit from further intensive care or other early intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E; Ramteke, Alankar A; Feller, Julian A
Computer-assisted navigation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reduces variability and may improve accuracy in the postoperative static alignment. The effect of navigation on alignment and biomechanics during more dynamic movements has not been investigated. This study compared knee biomechanics during level walking of 121 participants: 39 with conventional TKA, 42 with computer-assisted navigation TKA and 40 unimpaired control participants. Standing lower-limb alignment was significantly closer to ideal in participants with navigation TKA. During gait, when differences in walking speed were accounted for, participants with conventional TKA had less knee flexion during stance and swing than controls (Pbiomechanics of computer-assisted navigation TKA patients compared to controls than for patients with conventional TKA. Computer-assisted navigation TKA may restore biomechanics during walking that are closer to normal than conventional TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tjoumakaris, Fotios Paul; Tucker, Bradfords Chofield; Post, Zachary; Pepe, Matthew David; Orozco, Fabio; Ong, Alvin C
Arthrofibrosis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a potentially devastating complication, resulting in loss of motion and function and residual pain. For patients in whom aggressive physical therapy and manipulation under anesthesia fail, lysis of adhesions may be the only option to rescue the stiff TKA. The purpose of this study is to report the results of arthroscopic lysis of adhesions after failed manipulation for a stiff, cruciate-substituting TKA. This retrospective study evaluated patients who had undergone arthroscopic lysis of adhesions for arthrofibrosis after TKA between 2007 and 2011. Minimum follow-up was 12 months (average, 31 months). Average total range of motion of patients in this series was 62.3°. Average preoperative flexion contracture was 16° and average flexion was 78.6°. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test. Pre- to postoperative increase in range of motion was significant (Pextension deficit was 16°, which was reduced to 4° at final follow-up. This value was also found to be statistically significant (PTKA using a standardized arthroscopic approach; however, patients achieved approximately half of the improvement that was obtained at the time of surgery. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista de Alencar
Full Text Available A associação do maior número de artroplastias totais de joelho com a maior expectativa de vida da população tem levado a mais complicações de longo prazo, que se somam à baixa qualidade óssea dos pacientes mais idosos e culminam, muitas vezes, em fraturas periprotéticas. Este complexo problema ortopédico tem apresentação clínica muito variável, podendo acometer quaisquer dos ossos do joelho e levar a resultados desastrosos, em virtude de sua difícil solução. O seu tratamento exige do ortopedista amplo conhecimento tanto de técnicas de artroplastia como de osteossíntese, além de elaborado arsenal terapêutico como, por exemplo, acesso a banco de ossos.The increasing number of total knee arthroplasties, in combination with the population's longer life expectancy, has led to a greater number of long-term complications. These complications are also correlated with poor bone quality in the elderly and often result in periprosthetic fractures. This complex orthopedic problem has very diverse clinical presentation, possibly afflicting periprosthetic fracture may happen in any bone that constitutes the knee and, due to the difficulty of finding a solution, may lead to disastrous outcomes. The treatment demands broad knowledge from the orthopedic surgeon, not only regarding arthroplasty techniques, but also osteosynthesis, as well as an elaborate therapeutic including, for example, access to a bone bank.
Andersen, Karen V; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte V
There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...
Conclusion: Treating infected total knee arthroplasty with these self-made articulating spacers eradicates infection effectively, improves the life quality before reimplantation and provides good final results without significant complications.
Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm
Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...
Della Torre, MD, Paul; Stephens, MD, Andrew; Oh, MD, Horng Lii; Kamra, MD, Akshay; Zicat, MD, Bernard; Walker, MD, Peter
Medial collateral ligament injury during primary total knee arthroplasty is a recognised complication potentially resulting in valgus instability, suboptimal patient outcomes and a higher rate of revision or reoperation...
Sarman, Hakan; Muezzinoglu, Umit S; Memisoglu, Kaya; Baran, Tuncay
Although skin necrosis following total knee arthroplasty or revision total knee arthroplasty is rare, it may cause severe complications. Skin changes begin with superficial infections and may result in removal of the prosthesis. Treatment of skin necrosis is an important factor, which determines the prognosis of the prosthesis. Several techniques have been defined for sufficient closure. In this article, we present the case of a patient who was treated for skin necrosis that developed after knee revision arthroplasty, using serial debridement, convergence sutures and an intermittent vacuum-assisted closure device (KCI Inc., San Antonio, TX). © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Huang, Gangyong; Xia, Jun; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Wu, Jianguo; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng
Apart from transepicondylar axis, the native femoral sulcus was also reported to be used as a guide for the femoral component position in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, it was not shown in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This study was conducted to compare the position of trochlear groove in patients with and without osteoarthritis, and to assess whether trochlear groove could be used as a guide for position of femoral component in TKA for severe knee osteoarthritis. Total 50 severe knee osteoarthritis patients (Kellgren Lawrence grade 3 or 4) who underwent TKA were included. Meanwhile, 50 patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery without osteoarthritis were included as control. The distance from trochlear groove to the midpoint of a virtual anterior condyle osteotomy line (parallel to the posterior condyle line) (a-b) was recorded by radiological and surgical measurements. Midpoint of transepicondylar axis and trochlear groove were used as guide for placing prosthesis model in TKA, respectively. No-thumb test was performed to assess the patellar tracking. The position of femoral component was finally performed using trochlear groove as guide in TKA. Value of "a-b" was significantly different between osteoarthritic and control knees (P = 0.008). During the placement of prosthesis model, similar patellar tracking was detected between using midpoint of transepicondylar axis and trochlear groove as guide (P > 0.05). After placing femoral component using trochlear groove as guide, most patients obtained good patellofemoral congruence with pneumatic tourniquet inflated (n = 43) or deflated (n = 5), and good patellofemoral congruence was also obtained by lateral patellar retinaculum release in two patients. Despite the shifting of trochlear groove caused by severe knee osteoarthritis, trochlear groove can be used as a guide for position of femoral component, with equivalent patellar tracking compared with transepicondylar axis.
van Houten, Albert H; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Wymenga, Ate B
Incidence of anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is reported to be between 4 and 49 %. The incidence of AKP at long-term follow-up and possible determinants after cruciate cruciate-retaining TKA were investigated. A 10-year follow-up of a cohort of 55 patients (63 TKAs), who received the balanSys™ cruciate-retaining total knee system (Mathys Ltd, Bettlach, Switzerland) between 1999 and 2002, was performed. Patients had undergone the balanced gap technique, with either a fixed bearing or an AP-glide bearing. Standardised diagnostic questions regarding AKP were collected and categorised into two groups: those with and without AKP. The lateral patellar tilt, patellar displacement measurement and modified Insall-Salvati ratio were used for patella position evaluation on skyline radiographs. The Knee Society Score (KSS), the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Numerical Rating Scales (NRS) for pain and satisfaction were obtained at follow-up. Sixteen patients in the study population experienced AKP. Incidence of AKP (fixed bearing 13/44; AP-glide bearing baring 3/17) was not dependent on type of insert (n.s.). There were no statistical differences in patella position and tibiofemoral contact point between the AKP group and the no AKP group (n.s.). KSS, KOOS, NRS-pain and NRS-satisfaction were significantly lower for the patients with AKP (all p patella positioning was not found to be a determinant for anterior knee pain after TKA. However, patellar displacement does not seem completely favourable. Moreover, type of bearing was not found a determinant for AKP at long-term follow-up. Lower quality prospective cohort study (<80 % follow-up, patients enrolled at different time points in disease), Level II.
Wang, Fen; Zhou, Yingjie; Sun, Jiajun; Yang, Chunxi
Continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB), guided by ultrasound combined nerve stimulations, offers advantages for both sides and provides effective postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the medium-term impact of continuous femoral nerve block on knee function and quality of life in patients following TKA. This was a follow-up study. Total 168 adult patients scheduled for elective TKA were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block guided by ultrasound combined nerve stimulator (group CFNB, n = 82) or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (group PCEA, n = 86). Quality of life, knee function, patient satisfaction, pain medication and associated adverse effects were compared at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (MOS SF-36), and clinical results were assessed using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Knee Scoring System. Patient satisfaction scores were divided into four categories. A total of 162 patients completed the 12-month follow-up. The CFNB group patients had significantly improved SF-36 scores and physical function at 1 month postoperatively (P quality of life in patients at one month postoperatively. Continuous femoral nerve block is a good choice for postoperative analgesia after TKA.
Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G.M.; Kort, Nanne P.
Background and purpose Patient-specific templating total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a new method for alignment of a total knee arthroplasty that uses disposable guides. We present the results of the first 40 consecutive patients who were operated on using this technique. Methods In this case-control study, we compared blood loss, operation time, and alignment of 40 TKAs performed using a patient-specific templating alignment technique with values from a matched control group of patients who w...
Artz, Neil; Elvers, Karen T.; Lowe, Catherine Minns; Sackley, Cath; Jepson, Paul; Beswick, Andrew D.
Background Rehabilitation, with an emphasis on physiotherapy and exercise, is widely promoted after total knee replacement. However, provision of services varies in content and duration. The aim of this study is to update the review of Minns Lowe and colleagues 2007 using systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of post-discharge physiotherapy exercise in patients with primary total knee replacement. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Cochrane C...
Total knee replacement has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful procedures in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However quadriceps weakness and reductions in function are commonly reported following surgery. Recently Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) has been used as an adjunct to traditional strengthening programmes. This review considers the effectiveness of NMES as a means of increasing quadriceps strength in patients before and after total knee replacement.
Bohl, Daniel D; Wetters, Nathan G; Del Gaizo, Daniel J; Jacobs, Joshua J; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Della Valle, Craig J
Optimal treatment for intraoperative injury to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) during primary total knee arthroplasty remains controversial. While some advocate primary ligament repair and a period of bracing, others suggest conversion to a knee prosthesis with increased intrinsic constraint. The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcomes of primary repair followed by bracing. We performed a retrospective review of consecutive primary total knee arthroplasties to identify patients with intraoperative MCL laceration or avulsion treated with primary repair. Midsubstance lacerations were treated with end-to-end suture repair, whereas a screw-and-washer construct, suture, and/or suture anchors were used for reattachment of avulsions. All patients were instructed to wear an unlocked hinged knee brace for six weeks postoperatively. Patients were evaluated at a minimum of two years postoperatively for evidence of instability or other modes of failure and complications. An intraoperative MCL injury occurred during forty-eight (1.2%) of the 3922 total knee arthroplasties that had been performed. One patient died less than two years postoperatively, one was lost to follow-up, and one underwent an intraoperative conversion to a constrained total knee arthroplasty, leaving forty-five total knee arthroplasties available for study. There were twenty-four midsubstance lacerations and twenty-one avulsions; thirty-five of these injuries occurred during a cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty and ten, during a posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. At a mean of ninety-nine months (range, twenty-four to 214 months), there were no symptoms or physical examination findings of instability. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery knee score increased from 47 preoperatively to 85 at the time of follow-up (p knees required intervention for stiffness (four manipulations and one revision), and two required revision for aseptic loosening. Our results suggest that
Livbjerg, Anna Emilie; Frøkjær, Sara; Simonsen, Ole
The purpose was to investigate risk factors for postoperative stiffness and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). In one of the five Danish regions, all patients in a 4-year period who received MUA following total knee arthroplasty (N=36) were included in two case......-control studies. Data on potential risk factors were extracted from the Danish Knee arthroplasty Register and from a postal questionnaire including long-term outcome measures regarding pain, function and quality of life (Oxford Knee Score and EQ-5D). Previous knee surgery and a high preoperative Knee Society...... Function Score were significant risk factors, whereas attending a preoperative information meeting was associated with a significantly decreased risk of postoperative stiffness requiring MUA (P
Anania, Andres; Abdel, Matthew P; Lee, Yuo-yu; Lyman, Stephen; González Della Valle, Alejandro
We investigated the incidence, natural history, and functional consequences of a newly developed flexion contracture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty patients with full knee extension preoperatively who developed a postoperative flexion contracture were match-paired 1:2 with 80 patients who had full extension. The incidence of a newly developed flexion contracture, ROM, and Knee Society scores (KSS) at six weeks, four months, and one year were analysed. The incidence of a new flexion contracture at six weeks was 14%, but diminished to 5% and 0.3% at four months and one year, respectively. One year after surgery, there was no difference in the KSS (p = 0.5). This study showed that the majority of patients who developed a new flexion contracture after TKA have full knee extension one year postoperatively. Moreover, knee extension and KSS at one year are equivalent to those patients who did not developed a flexion contracture.
Bonutti, Peter M; Marulanda, German A; McGrath, Mike S; Mont, Michael A; Zywiel, Michael G
Arthrofibrosis is a relatively common complication after total knee arthroplasty that negatively affects function and quality of life. Static progressive stretching is a technique that has shown promising results in the treatment of contractures of the elbow, ankle, wrist and knee. This study evaluated a static progressive stretching device as a treatment method for patients who had refractory knee stiffness after total knee arthroplasty. Twenty-five patients who had knee stiffness and no improvement with conventional physical therapy modalities were treated with the device. After a median of 7 weeks (range, 3-16 weeks), the median increase in range of motion was 25 degrees (range, 8-82 degrees). The median gain in knee active flexion was 19 degrees (range, 5-80 degrees). Ninety-two percent of patients were satisfied with the results. The authors believe static progressive stretching devices may be an effective method for increasing the ranges of motion and satisfaction levels of patients who develop arthrofibrosis after total knee arthroplasty.
Mesfin, Addisu; Goddard, Maria S; Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa A; Khanuja, Harpal S
To the authors' knowledge, few reports have been published in the English literature of using total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of hereditary multiple exostoses. This article describes 2 patients with hereditary multiple exostoses, 1 treated with total hip arthroplasty and 1 treated with total knee arthroplasty. Bony deformities make arthroplasty uniquely challenging in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. An expanded metaphysis of the proximal femur, coxa valga deformity, and the presence of hardware from previous reconstructive surgeries can make total hip arthroplasty technically difficult. Substantial bony deformity of the distal femur, valgus deformity of the knee, and sizing issues that necessitate custom implants can make total knee arthroplasty difficult. The most common bony deformities in hereditary multiple exostoses are short stature, limb-length discrepancy, valgus deformity at the knee and ankle, and asymmetry of the pectoral and pelvic girdles. Most reported surgical treatments for patients with hereditary multiple exostoses focus on the pediatric population or the management of malignant transformation of exostoses. Studies that specifically address the conditions associated with knee deformities focus on extra-articular deformity correction rather than arthroplasty.When arthroplasty is necessary in this patient population, an understanding of the commonly occurring deformities can help with preoperative planning and surgical management. All painful lesions must be evaluated for malignant transformation. Bone scans can be useful during workup. All specimens should be sent for pathologic evaluation. Such patients are challenging because of the distorted hip anatomy and valgus knee deformity. The current 2 cases illustrate specific challenges that can be anticipated and underscore key principles for arthroplasty in the management of hereditary multiple exostoses. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Miric, A; Lombardi, P; Sculco, T P
One of the most catastrophic complications after total joint arthroplasty is a fatal pulmonary embolism. Thromboembolic disease is particularly a problem in lower extremity joint arthroplasty secondary to the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and proximal propagation of the thrombus. The environment created during total hip and knee arthroplasty fulfills the criteria for DVT formation: vessel wall damage, venous stasis, and a hypercoagulable state. Evidence that suggests the insult and primary event in thrombogenesis occurs during surgery. Until recently, however, the main thrust of DVT prophylaxis has concentrated on the immediate postoperative period. A more global approach to patient care during the 6-week period beginning with surgery may result in more effective DVT prophylaxis. Operative interventions that have proven to be effective include hypotensive epidural anesthesia and intravenous administration of heparin. Postoperative pharmaceutical interventions range from standard doses of aspirin or warfarin to recently studied dosing regimens of low-molecular-weight heparins, antiplatelet agents, and antithrombotic agents. Mechanical prophylaxis has also proved to be a valuable adjunct in DVT prophylaxis during these periods. It is hoped that a more comprehensive approach incorporating several of the aforementioned treatments into a strategy that encompasses the intraoperative and early and late postoperative periods will maximize the effectiveness of DVT prophylaxis.
Background This study aims to explore the technique of soft tissue balance and joint tension maintenance in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with flexion contracture of the knee. Methods This retrospective study reviewed flexion contracture deformity of RA patients who underwent primary TKA and ligament and soft tissue balancing. Based on the flexion contracture deformity, the remaining 76 patients available for analysis were divided into two groups, i.e., severe flexion group (SF) and moderate flexion group (MF). Results There were no intraoperative complications in this study. All patients had improved Knee Society Rating System scores and range of motion. The flexion contracture was completely corrected in MF and SF patients. There were no cases of patellar dislocation, but three cases had mild mediolateral instability in severe flexion group. Four knees (two knees in SF versus two knees in MF) had transient peroneal nerve palsy but recovered after conservative therapy. Conclusions TKA can be performed successfully in the RA knees with severe flexion contracture. It is very important in TKA to maintain the joint stability in the condition of severe flexion contracture deformity of the RA knee. PMID:24229435
Figueroa, D; Calvo, R; Villalón, I; Tuca, M J; Vaisman, A; Valdés, M
To identify those clinical characteristic and arthroscopic findings in patients with knee arthrosis that are associated with worsening of the disease and subsequent total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on 78 consecutive patients (88 knees) who underwent knee arthroscopy for arthrosis. The study included 44 women and 34 men, with a mean age of 58.9 years (range: 37-78 years). After a mean follow-up of 50.4 months (range: 12-96 months), those patients who progressed towards TKA were identified. A logistic regression model was applied to recognise the factors associated with deterioration of the arthrosis, with consequent progression towards a TKA. Twenty-four out of the 88 knees progressed towards a TKA (27.3%) within a mean time of 13.5 months after arthroscopy (range: 13-29 months). The clinical characteristics that showed a significant association with poor progression of the arthrosis were: female gender (0.02) and Ahlbäck 2 (P=.04). Arthroscopic finding that proved significant correlation with worsening of the arthrosis towards TKA were: meniscal tears of the posterior horn (P=.02), meniscectomies above 60% (P=.03), and 2nd degree chondral lesions in loading areas of the medial femoral condyle (P=.02). The variables associated with a greater chance of progressing towards a TKA after a knee arthroscopy due to arthrosis in this study were, female gender, grade 2 radiographic arthrosis, posterior horn meniscal lesions, meniscectomies over 60%, and chondral lesions in loading area of the medial femoral condyle. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Miki, Takaaki; Miki, Takahito; Nishiyama, Akihiro
Stress fractures have been reported to occur in the pubis, femoral neck, proximal part of the tibia, and fabella during the postoperative period following total knee or total hip arthroplasty. However, to our knowledge, calcaneal stress fractures after total hip or total knee arthroplasty have not been reported in the English-language literature. Most orthopaedic surgeons are not familiar with calcaneal stress fractures that may occur in elderly patients after a total knee or total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, imaging findings, and bone mineral content of the proximal part of the femur and the distal end of the radius in five patients who had a calcaneal stress fracture after a total knee or total hip arthroplasty. All patients were women with a mean age of 76.8 years. All fractures occurred in the calcaneus on the same side as the arthroplasty. The fracture appeared at a mean of 10.2 weeks postoperatively. All patients reported heel pain on walking. Swelling and local heat were found in four and three patients, respectively. Pain was elicited by squeezing the calcaneus in all patients. Early radiographs had normal findings in two patients, and an irregular sclerotic line appeared later in the radiographs of all patients. All fractures were treated conservatively. Four fractures healed uneventfully, but one fracture displaced. All patients had osteoporosis. Calcaneal stress fractures during the postoperative period following total knee or total hip arthroplasty may not be as rare as previously thought. Because clinical symptoms of the fracture appear insidiously and radiographic findings are absent or subtle in the early stage, a high index of suspicion is needed for orthopaedic surgeons to make the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging or repeated radiographs may be necessary to make the correct diagnosis when no abnormality is apparent on the initial radiograph.
Full Text Available Background: Mini-subvastus approach for Total Knee Arthropalsty allows a faster recovery. It is traditionally not utilized for obese patients because of difficulty in exposure of the knee and eversion of the patella. We hypothesized that obesity should not really cause a problem for patients undergoing a TKA with the mini-subvastus approach as the anatomy of the quadriceps in the obese and the nonobese patient population is the same. We present an analysis of the use of mini-subvastus approach in obese patients. Materials and Methods : 97 obese patients (109 knees 81 females + 16 males with mean age 64 years underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA by mini-subvastus approach between January 2006 to July 2007. 16 patients (18 kness were morbidly obese. All patients were prospectively evaluated by pre- and postoperative Knee Society and function score. The average follow-up was 18 months (range from 1 to 3 years with minimum 1 year follow-up. Results: The approach provided adequate exposure in all knees, with an average surgical time of 90 minutes. The patella could be everted easily after the tibial and femoral cuts. The average Knee Society score improved from 42 to 89 and the function score from 48 to 65. The complications included medial collateral ligament injury (one case and patellar tendon avulsion (one case. Conclusion: Our results compare favorably with other reported series in obese patients. The mini-subvastus approach can be considered in obese patients.
Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Kehlet, Henrik; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding
Background Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is unknown how these exercise variables influence knee pain after TKA. Objective To investigate the effect of loading and contraction failure on knee pain during strength training, shortly following TKA. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Consecutive sample of patients from the Copenhagen area, Denmark, receiving a TKA, between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants Seventeen patients, no more than 3 weeks after their TKA. Main outcome measures: In a randomized order, the patients performed 1 set of 4 standardized knee extensions, using relative loads of 8, 14, and 20 repetition maximum (RM), and ended with 1 single set to contraction failure (14 RM load). The individual loadings (kilograms) were determined during a familiarization session >72 hours prior. The patients rated their knee pain during each repetition, using a numerical rating scale (0–10). Results Two patients were lost to follow up. Knee pain increased with increasing load (20 RM: 3.1±2.0 points, 14 RM: 3.5±1.8 points, 8 RM: 4.3±2.5 points, P = 0.006), and repetitions to contraction failure (10% failure: 3.2±1.9 points, 100% failure: 5.4±1.6 points, Pknee pain 60 seconds after the final repetition (2.7±2.4 points) was not different from that recorded before strength training (2.7±1.8 points, P = 0.88). Conclusion Both loading and repetitions performed to contraction failure during knee- extension strength-training, increased post-operative knee pain during strength training implemented shortly following TKA. However, only the increase in pain during repetitions to contraction failure exceeded that defined as clinically relevant, and was very short-lived. Trial Registration Clinical
Nilsdotter, A-K; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Roos, E M
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively describe self-reported outcomes up to 5 years after total knee replacement (TKR) in Osteoarthritis (OA) and to study which patient-relevant factors may predict outcomes for pain and physical function (PF). METHODS: 102 consecutive patients with knee OA, 63 women and 39...... men, mean age 71 (51-86) assigned for TKR at the Department of Orthopaedics at Lund University Hospital were included in the study. The self-administered questionnaires Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and SF-36 were mailed preoperatively and 6 months, 12 months and at 5 years...
Mouchnino, L; Gueguen, N; Blanchard, C; Boulay, C; Gimet, G; Viton, J-M; Franceschi, J-P; Delarque, A
Stepping-down is preceded by a shift of the center of mass towards the supporting side and forward. The ability to control both balance and lower limb movement was investigated in knee osteoarthritis patients before and after surgery. It was hypothesized that pain rather than knee joint mobility affects the coordination between balance and movement control. The experiment was performed with 25 adult individuals. Eleven were osteoarthritic patients with damage restricted to one lower limb (8 right leg and 3 left leg). Subjects were recruited within two weeks before total knee replacement by the same orthopedic surgeon using the same prosthesis and technics of surgery. Osteoarthritic patients were tested before total knee replacement (pre-surgery session) and then, 9 of the 11 patients were tested one year after the surgery when re-educative training was completed (post-surgery session). 14 adult individuals (men: n = 7 and women: n = 7) were tested as the control group. The way in which the center of mass shift forward and toward the supporting side is initiated (timing and amplitude) did not vary within patients before and after surgery. In addition knee joint range of motion of the leading leg remained close to normal before and after surgery. However, the relative timing between both postural and movement phases was modified for the osteoarthritis supporting leg (unusual strategy for stepping-down) before surgery. The "coordinated" control of balance and movement turned to be a "sequential" mode of control; once the body weight transfer has been completed, the movement onset is triggered. This strategy could be aimed at shortening the duration-time supporting on the painful limb. However no such compensatory response was observed. The change in the strategy used when supporting on the arthritis and painful limb could result from the action of nociceptors that lead to increased proprioceptor thresholds, thus gating the proprioceptive inputs that may be the
Nam, Deok Ho; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Bae, Dae Kyung [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Total knee arthroplasty(TKA) has been used for the treatment of knee joint pain, deformity, and instability caused by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or tuberculous arthritis, and by virtue of good results and rapid development, the procedure has been increasingly employed. With the development of total knee prosthesis, complications have also increased, however, and due to complications occurring up to six years after surgery, fusion occurs in about 2% of all replaced knees. The most common complication of TKA is loosening, followed by infection. Others are thrombosis, subluxation, dislocation and fracture, and complications may be divided into four groups: biologic, technical, specific to type of components, and associated with certain diagnosis. Where these complications occur, a patient must undergo a second procedure, but the success rate is lower than for the initial procedure. Exact etiological evaluation important clinically and radiologically. We illustrate the etiologies and radiologic characteristics of TKA complications according to classification.
Würth, S; Finkenzeller, T; Pötzelsberger, B; Müller, E; Amesberger, G
This study focused on the psychological and quality of life aspects of resuming alpine skiing practice after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in elderly skilled skiers. Two data pools were used in order to analyze psychological states: (a) at the beginning, at the end, and 8 weeks after a 12-week skiing intervention; and (b) concerning diurnal variations of states (i.e., skiing days compared with everyday life during intervention and retention phase). In particular, effects of skiing on amount of physical activity and perceived exertion, perceived pain and knee function, and subjective well-being were analyzed using a control group design. Results reveal that the skiing intervention substantially increases the amount of physical activity by the intervention group (122.30 ± 32.38 min/day), compared with the control group (75.14 ± 21.27 min/day) [F (2, 32) = 8.22, P skiing goes along with enhanced well-being and no significant impact on perceived pain, exertion or knee function. In sum, alpine skiing can be recommended for older persons with TKA with respect to well-being, perceived pain and knee function, and perceived exertion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Metal allergy in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is still a controversial topic. Oxinium, ceramic or titanium niobium nitride (TiNbN) coated implants are available for some knee systems. The hypothesis of this study was that the use of TiNbN-coated components would not lead to inferior results compared to conventional implants and that none of the allergic patients receiving TiNbN-coated implants would require revision for metal allergy. This study was a retrospective, 2 to 1 matched pairs study with 40 titanium niobium nitride-coated TKA compared with 80 conventional cobalt chrome implants. No demographic differences between these groups were observed. The mean follow-up for this study was 2 years. No differences in clinical, radiological, or patient-reported outcome measurements were observed between the two groups. No patients have been revised at this short- to medium-term outcome evaluation. Metal allergy leading to contact or systemic dermatitis is especially linked to chrome and cobalt allergy. Nickel allergy because of knee implants rarely gives cutaneous symptoms, but could potentially lead to peri-prosthetic osteolysis and loosening. The use of titanium niobium nitride implants in case of a positive history of metal allergy could avoid this devastating complication. The use of titanium niobium nitride-coated implants for primary knee osteoarthritis shows similar clinical and radiological outcomes as conventional TKA without revision for loosening at short- to medium-term follow-up. Level of evidence Level IV study.
Full Text Available Background. Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the adjuvant effects of auricular acupressure on relieving postoperative pain and improving the passive range of motion in patients with total knee replacement (TKR. Method. Sixty-two patients who had undergone a TKR were randomly assigned to the acupressure group and the sham control group. The intervention was delivered three times a day for 3 days. A visual analog scale (VAS and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were used to assess pain intensity. Pain medication consumption was recorded, and the knee motion was measured using a goniometer. Results. The patients experienced a moderately severe level of pain postoperatively (VAS 58.66 ± 20.35 while being on the routine PCA. No differences were found in pain scores between the groups at all points. However, analgesic drug usage in the acupressure group patients was significantly lower than in the sham control group (<0.05, controlling for BMI, age, and pain score. On the 3rd day after surgery, the passive knee motion in the acupressure group patients was significantly better than in the sham control group patients (<0.05, controlling for BMI. Conclusion. The application of auricular acupressure at specific therapeutic points significantly reduces the opioid analgesia requirement and improves the knee motion in patients with TKR.
Fujimoto, Eisaku; Sasashige, Yoshiaki; Tomita, Tetsuya; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Inoue, Amiko; Sawa, Mikiya; Ota, Yuki
The influence of residual malalignment on biomechanical analysis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is currently uncertain. The hypothesis is that postoperative alignment would influence the in vivo kinematics after TKA, under weight-bearing conditions but not under non-weight-bearing condition. The purpose of the present study was to compare weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions and to evaluate the effect of the postoperative alignment on the in vivo kinematics after posterior cruciate ligament-retaining TKA during midflexion using 2-dimensional/3-dimensional registration. Thirty knees of 30 patients with pre-operative varus deformity were divided into 2 groups according to their postoperative alignment: the normal alignment group (N = 21) and the varus alignment group (N = 9). Under weight-bearing conditions, the varus alignment group showed a significant posterior displacement of the medial femoral condyle (flexion: 80°, 90° P difference in the medial and lateral femoral condyle positions under non-weight-bearing conditions was observed between the normal and varus alignment groups. The postoperative alignment influenced knee kinematics under weight-bearing conditions. The weight load influenced knee kinematics through posterior tibial slope and induced greater lateral femoral condyle mobility, which might explain the better clinical and functional outcome. These findings contribute to gaining a proper understanding of the in vivo kinematics of the postoperative varus alignment and might be useful for orthopaedic surgeons in the achievement of patient satisfaction. III.
Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu; Yoshino, Kensuke
The knee flexion angle after a total knee arthroplasty is an important indicator of clinical outcome. However, there is little appropriate information about the correlation between the ligament balancing and knee flexion angle after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the ligamentous balance in extension and flexion on knee flexion angle one year after posterior cruciate ligament sacrificing rotating platform total knee arthroplasty. Eighty-five total knee arthroplasties in 71 patients were investigated in this study. The postoperative knee flexion angle and the percentage of improvement in the balanced group in which the difference between varus and valgus was less than 2° and the unbalanced group in extension and the rectangular group in which the asymmetry of the flexion gap was within 2° and the trapezoidal group in flexion were compared. The factors affecting postoperative knee flexion angle were also investigated in a forced entry multiple regression analysis. The mean flexion angle improved significantly from 116.2° to 122.5° in the rectangular group. By contrast, in the trapezoidal group, no significant improvement was seen (from 115.5° to 117.4°). The statistically significant difference was found between the rectangular and trapezoidal group in flexion in terms of the improvement of the knee flexion angle while there was no difference between the balanced and unbalanced group in extension. The multiple regression analysis showed that the asymmetry of the flexion gap was a predictor of the postoperative knee flexion angle. Asymmetric flexion gap affected negatively the postoperative knee flexion angle after posterior cruciate ligament sacrificing rotating platform total knee arthroplasty. A gap balancing technique is recommended for this type of implant. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Szötz, Kirsten; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Hørdam, Britta
BACKGROUND: The length of stay in hospital following total knee replacement is markedly shortened due to fast-track programmes. Patients have to be responsible for their recovery at a very early stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of physical health problems and the level...... of exercising in the early recovery period after discharge from hospital following total knee replacement. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. A total of 86 patients were included following first-time elective total knee replacement. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS......: The majority of the patients experienced leg oedema (90.7%). Secondary to this were pain (81.4%), sleeping disorders (47.7%) problems with appetite (38.4%) and bowel function (34.9%) were the most frequently identified physical health problems. In total, 69.8% of the patients indicated that they did...
Meyer, Christof; Szalay, Gabor; Alt, Volker; Schnettler, Reinhard
The incidence of periprosthetic fractures after knee-joint implant revisions is increasing in prevalence. We present a method of treatment for a patient who sustained a triple fracture--a periprosthetic femur fracture, a patella fracture, and a tibial shaft fracture. The femoral fracture was treated with a specially designed intramedullary nail, the patella fracture with a figure-of-eight suture, and the tibial shaft fracture by a minimal-invasive plate osteosynthesis using a percutaneous plating technique. Osseous consolidation was confirmed, and the patient presented a satisfying range of movement under full-weight-bearing conditions after mobilisation. Simultaneous multiple periprosthetic fractures are a special challenge, and in situ coupling of the endoprosthesis with a slotted hollow nail presents a valuable option for the treatment. Level V, Expert opinion.
Peters, Christopher L; Erickson, Jill A; Gililland, Jeremy M
Clinical and radiographic outcomes of 184 consecutive revision total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) placed with cemented components and press-fit fluted cementless stems were reviewed at average follow-up of 49 months. Revision was performed for septic failure in 53 of 184 knees, periprosthetic fracture in 10 of 184 knees, and aseptic failure in 121 of 184 knees. The press-fit cementless stems were placed to tightly contact the endosteum of the metadiaphyseal area of the femur and tibia. No knees were re-revised for aseptic loosening. There were 15 failures (15/184, 8.2%): 13 were septic failures, 9 of which were recurrence of sepsis and 4 of which were new cases of sepsis. Average Knee Society knee score improved from 134.6 to 167.8 (P < .05). Revision TKA with modular cementless stems provided excellent fixation with no revisions for aseptic loosening. Re-revision for sepsis was the dominant failure mechanism with an overall rate of 7%. Given the increasing prevalence of revision TKA, sepsis prevention strategies should receive increased attention.
Cao Jiangang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Huiwen; Liu, Jun
To evaluate the effectiveness of semitendinous and gracilis transfer for the treatment of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury caused by total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Between March 2009 and May 2014, 11 patients (11 knees) with MCL injuries caused by primary TKA were treated by semitendinous and gracilis transfer in primary TKA (injury group). Another 18 patients (21 knees) without MCL injury were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury sides, disease duration, body mass index, knee varus deformity, and preoperative Knee Society Score (KSS) between 2 groups (P>0.05), with comparability. KSS score was used to evaluate the function after operation. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients, and no complications of joint instability and pain occurred. The follow-up time was-6-29 months in injury group and was 7-34 months in control group. At last follow-up, the KSS clinical score and ftinctional score were significantly increased to 89.82 +/- 3.76 and 89.54 +/- 3.50 in the injury group (Pinjury caused by TKA. The insertions of semitendinous tendon and gracilis are close to that of the knee MCL, which can effectively improve knee function.
Cao, J-G; Wang, L; Zhao, H-W; Liu, J
The objective of the study is to evaluate the clinic effectiveness of semitendinosus and gracilis transfer for the treatment of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). From March 2009 to May 2014, a series of 11 patients with MCL injuries of primary TKA were treated by semitendinosus and gracilis transfer. Another 18 patients (21 knees) were recruited as control group. The two groups of patients were comparable for gender, age, body mass index, varus knee deformity, KSS score, joint activity degree and type of prosthesis comparison without significant difference (p > 0.05). All the patients were regularly followed-up using the American Knee Society Scoring System (KSS). No patient of either group reported impaired wound healing, joint instability, pain, prosthesis loosening and other complications. At the final follow-up, the mean knee objective score and the functional score of the injury group include (89.82 ± 3.76) points and (89.54 ± 3.50) points, respectively. The control group includes (90.19 ± 3.39) and (90 ± 3.53) points. They were significantly higher than the preoperative conditions. The difference was not statistically significant. The difference of KSS score was not statistically significant (t = 0.158, p = 0.877; t = 0.820, p = 0.432). The semitendinosus and gracilis transfer are reliable for the treatment of MCL injury of TKA. The semitendinosus and gracilis are close to the knee MCL, which can effectively improve knee function.
Awengen, R.; Hirschmann, M.T. [Kantonsspital Baselland (Bruderholz, Liestal, Laufen), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Rasch, H. [Kantonsspital Baselland (Bruderholz, Liestal, Laufen), Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Amsler, F. [Amsler Consulting, Basel (Switzerland)
The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the differences of bone tracer uptake (BTU) in symptomatic and asymptomatic knees after bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and identify typical BTU patterns with regards to TKA component position and alignment. A consecutive number of 37 patients after bilateral TKA were retrospectively included. The knees were grouped into symptomatic (group A) and asymptomatic (group B) knees. All patients underwent 99m-Tc-HDP-SPECT/CT. Coronal, rotational, and sagittal TKA component position was analysed in 3D reconstructed CT. BTU was anatomically localised and quantified using a validated standardized localization scheme. Maximum BTU values for each area were recorded and normalized values calculated. Signed log-rank test, chi-square test, paired t-tests, and Pearson correlations were used (p <0.05). Symptomatic TKAs were significantly more flexed and had a tendency to be more internally rotated when compared to asymptomatic ones (p < 0.05). In all regions, the mean BTU in asymptomatic knees was lower than in symptomatic knees. In both groups the highest mean BTU was found around the tibial stem (symptomatic 7.30; asymptomatic 6.30, p = 0.061) and at the tip of the tibial stem (symptomatic 5.49; asymptomatic 4.74, p = 0.062). Superior patellar regions showed higher BTU than inferior regions. The highest patellar BTU was found in the superior medial patella (symptomatic 4.99; asymptomatic 3.98, p = 0.048). The lowest BTU was found in the posterior femoral regions (flatsp, flatip, fmedsp, fmedip) (Table 3). Tibial and patellar areas showed twice as high mean BTUs than femoral areas (Fig. 3). A significant correlation of TKA component position and BTU was demonstrated. Distribution and intensity of BTU in SPECT/CT depends on TKA component position and alignment. In addition, typical BTU patterns in symptomatic and asymptomatic knees were identified. A profound knowledge of BTU pattern, TKA component position
Husted, Henrik; Toftgaard Jensen, T
One hundred consecutive patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint and scheduled for primary total knee arthroplasty performed in a bloodless field were prospectively randomized to have the tourniquet inflated on either straight leg or maximally flexed knee. There was no difference in the num...
Harwin, Steven F; Greene, Kenneth A; Hitt, Kirby
The 4-year outcomes of a prospective study of patients undergoing Triathlon total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are presented. There were 2035 consecutive cemented TKAs performed on 1688 patients. Mean follow-up was 21 months, including 713 knees with a follow-up of > or =2 years. In a subgroup of 239 patients, the coverage of the patella cut surface by the patella component was analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first article to study this issue. Mean Knee Society pain scores improved from 48 to 96, function improved from 63 to 85, and range of motion improved from a mean of -5 degrees to 104 degrees to a mean of -2 degrees to 126 degrees. Coverage of the patella by the prosthesis was full from medial to lateral in 88% and full from proximal to distal in 91% of knees. The implant system has performed well within the follow-up period, with no implant- or design-related failures.
Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S
Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P < .0001). The incidence of blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P < .0001). There was no difference in venous thromboembolic complications between groups. We demonstrated reductions in hemoglobin loss and transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Saltzman, Bryan M; Dave, Ankur; Young, Adam; Ahuja, Mukesh; Amin, Sandeep D; Bush-Joseph, Charles A
A total of 20 consecutive patients with knee stiffness post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) underwent arthroscopic lysis of adhesions and manipulation plus indwelling epidural were evaluated retrospectively. Epidural catheters were placed preoperatively for an intended 6 weeks of postoperative analgesia to facilitate intensive physical therapy. The mean loss of knee extension immediately before incision was 13.5 ± 9.1 degrees (range, 0-35 degrees) and flexion was 77.65 ± 19.2 degrees (range, 45-125 degrees). At the 6-week and final (mean, 0.47 years) follow-up, the loss of extension was 1.5 ± 5.1 degrees (range, -10 to +7 degrees) and 5.4 ± 4.7 degrees (range, 0-15 degrees), respectively, and flexion was 99.7 ± 12.3 degrees (range, 75-120 degrees) and 98.5 ± 16.1 degrees (range, 75-130 degrees), respectively. Of the 20 patients, 2 missed their 6-week clinic visit. Improvements in motion immediately preoperative to 6-week and final follow-up were each significant (p TKA is correlated with a high likelihood of functional success postoperatively as measured by range of motion improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was the development of a surgical assistance system based on augmented reality to support joint replacement procedures and implantation of prosthetic knee. Images of the scene were captured in order to detect the visual markers located on the lateral surface of the patient’s leg for overlapping the 3D models of the prosthesis and the joint, as well as the tool used by the medical specialist. With the marker identification, it was possible to compute its position and orientation for locating the virtual models, obtaining a monitoring system for giving accurate information about the procedure. Also it can be used as training platform for surgeons, without having volunteers or patients for performing real surgeries; instead they can train in a virtual environment. The results have shown an efficient system in terms of cost-benefit relation, taking into account the materials used for developing the system; nevertheless, the accuracy of the algorithm decreases according to the distance between the markers.
Jasper, Jorrit; Metsaars, Wieneke; Jansen, Joris
Ochronosis is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by homogentisic acid oxidase enzyme deficiency. High homogentisic acid levels will eventually result in black deposits in skin, sclerae, connective tissues and urine (alkaptonuria). It can lead to early degeneration of connective tissues and cartilage. Ochronosis can damage normal cartilage, leading to secondary osteoarthritis. The diagnosis is often delayed because of its low prevalence and non-specific early symptoms. In our patient, the secondary osteoarthritis due to ochronosis deposits in the cartilage was treated by total knee arthroplasty, with good clinical outcome. This article reports the first case of ochronosis with secondary osteoarthritis of the knee in a patient previously diagnosed with cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP). 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA nowadays is a commonly used treatment for patients suffering from severe osteoarthritis. The success of TKA is influenced by a complex interaction between the bony anatomy, the geometry of the components and the soft tissue balancing. Valgus angle subtended between the mechanical and anatomical axis of femur is one of the major factors influencing the alignment of implants. The objective of this study is to determine the variation of this valgus angle using a scannogram in patients with severe osteoarthritis presenting for TKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS 150 consecutive patients of osteoarthritis of the knee joint presenting for total knee arthroplasty participated in our study. All patients underwent a preoperative scannogram, the mechanical and anatomical axis were drawn and the valgus angle was measured on the PACS (picture archiving and communication system software. RESULTS The mean age of patients undergoing TKA was 63.62±8.38 years. Although, the mean valgus angle for the patients was 6.009±0.89 degrees, only 45 (30% of 150 had valgus angle between 6-7 degrees. 72 (48% had valgus angle in the range of 5-6 degrees and 9 (6% had valgus angle in the range of 4-5 degrees. In 21 (14% knees, valgus angle was more than 7 degrees, while in 3 (2% knees, it was less than 4 degrees. CONCLUSION Fixed valgus angle resection is not reliable in restoring mechanical axis in total knee arthroplasty. A proper preoperative planning to determine the accurate valgus angle is a must to maintain alignment while performing total knee arthroplasty and thereby improve the long-term results. Scannogram is an easy, reliable and cost-effective method to determine the valgus angle.
Er, Mehmet Serhan; Altınel, Elif Cihan; Altınel, Levent; Erten, Recep Abdullah; Eroğlu, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to compare the sleep quality of patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty before and after the surgery and analyze the effect of total knee arthroplasty on sleep quality. The study included 42 patients (32 females, 10 males) who underwent total knee arthroplasty for primary knee osteoarthritis. For each patient the preoperative 1 day and postoperative 3 months results of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) were compared. The preoperative mean PSQI was 9. VAS score decreased in 97.6% of the patients, while sleep quality increased in 78.6%. 85.7% of the patients reported to have less episodes of pain related sleep disturbances. While both the PSQI and VAS improved after the surgery, there was no correlation between the parameters (p>0.05). Our results suggested that total knee arthroplasty surgery relieves pain and improves sleep quality. The improvement in sleep quality does not appear to be related to pain relief.
Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte
This study investigated whether unselected patients operated on with total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could accomplish a self-developed accelerated track, ANORAK-HH, with a planned length of stay (LOS) of maximum 5 days and patient satisfaction at all parts of the tra...
Husted, Henrik; Holm, Gitte
This study investigated whether unselected patients operated on with total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could accomplish a self-developed accelerated track, ANORAK-HH, with a planned length of stay (LOS) of maximum 5 days and patient satisfaction at all parts of the track...
Kang, K-T; Koh, Y-G; Son, J; Kwon, O-R; Baek, C; Jung, S H; Park, K K
Malrotation of the femoral component can result in post-operative complications in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including patellar maltracking. Therefore, we used computational simulation to investigate the influence of femoral malrotation on contact stresses on the polyethylene (PE) insert and on the patellar button as well as on the forces on the collateral ligaments. Validated finite element (FE) models, for internal and external malrotations from 0° to 10° with regard to the neutral position, were developed to evaluate the effect of malrotation on the femoral component in TKA. Femoral malrotation in TKA on the knee joint was simulated in walking stance-phase gait and squat loading conditions. Contact stress on the medial side of the PE insert increased with internal femoral malrotation and decreased with external femoral malrotation in both stance-phase gait and squat loading conditions. There was an opposite trend in the lateral side of the PE insert case. Contact stress on the patellar button increased with internal femoral malrotation and decreased with external femoral malrotation in both stance-phase gait and squat loading conditions. In particular, contact stress on the patellar button increased by 98% with internal malrotation of 10° in the squat loading condition. The force on the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) increased with internal and external femoral malrotations, respectively. These findings provide support for orthopaedic surgeons to determine a more accurate femoral component alignment in order to reduce post-operative PE problems.Cite this article: K-T. Kang, Y-G. Koh, J. Son, O-R. Kwon, C. Baek, S. H. Jung, K. K. Park. Measuring the effect of femoral malrotation on knee joint biomechanics for total knee arthroplasty using computational simulation. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:552-559. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.511.BJR-2016-0107.R1. © 2016 Kang et al.
Kang, K-T.; Koh, Y-G.; Son, J.; Kwon, O-R.; Baek, C.; Jung, S. H.
Objectives Malrotation of the femoral component can result in post-operative complications in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including patellar maltracking. Therefore, we used computational simulation to investigate the influence of femoral malrotation on contact stresses on the polyethylene (PE) insert and on the patellar button as well as on the forces on the collateral ligaments. Materials and Methods Validated finite element (FE) models, for internal and external malrotations from 0° to 10° with regard to the neutral position, were developed to evaluate the effect of malrotation on the femoral component in TKA. Femoral malrotation in TKA on the knee joint was simulated in walking stance-phase gait and squat loading conditions. Results Contact stress on the medial side of the PE insert increased with internal femoral malrotation and decreased with external femoral malrotation in both stance-phase gait and squat loading conditions. There was an opposite trend in the lateral side of the PE insert case. Contact stress on the patellar button increased with internal femoral malrotation and decreased with external femoral malrotation in both stance-phase gait and squat loading conditions. In particular, contact stress on the patellar button increased by 98% with internal malrotation of 10° in the squat loading condition. The force on the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) increased with internal and external femoral malrotations, respectively. Conclusions These findings provide support for orthopaedic surgeons to determine a more accurate femoral component alignment in order to reduce post-operative PE problems. Cite this article: K-T. Kang, Y-G. Koh, J. Son, O-R. Kwon, C. Baek, S. H. Jung, K. K. Park. Measuring the effect of femoral malrotation on knee joint biomechanics for total knee arthroplasty using computational simulation. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:552–559. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.511.BJR-2016-0107.R1. PMID:28094763
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81 completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S, Knee Society Score (KSS, and HRQL (SF-36. At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05. SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001. Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI, and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05. The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05, but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05. The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05. In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.
Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K; Bagger, Jens; Hornsleth, Mette; Kehlet, Henrik
Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss of knee-extension strength at discharge after fast-track TKA. Patients and methods - 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral TKA were randomized (1:1) to preoperative intravenous (IV) MP 125 mg ...
Szöts, Kirsten; Konradsen, Hanne; Solgaard, Søren
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To generate information on how telephone follow-up consultations, structured by nursing status according to the VIPS-model, functioned after total knee arthroplasty. The objectives were to unfold the content of the telephone follow-ups according to the structure for nursing...... status and to explore the patients' views of the telephone follow-ups. BACKGROUND: The length of stay in hospital following total knee arthroplasty has fallen markedly, and patients now have to be responsible for their recovery from a very early stage. After discharge, patients may experience a variety...... Telephone follow-up was valued by total knee arthroplasties patients as representing a holistic approach and providing adequate information, counselling and support after discharge to home. Three categories were identified with regard to the patients' views: 'A means for reflection and provision of adequate...
Brockett, Claire L; Carbone, Silvia; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M
Wear of total knee replacement continues to be a significant factor influencing the clinical longevity of implants. Historically, failure due to delamination and fatigue directed design towards more conforming inserts to reduce contact stress. As new generations of more oxidatively stable polyethylene have been developed, more flexibility in bearing design has been introduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insert conformity on the wear performance of a fixed bearing total knee replacement through experimental simulation. Two geometries of insert were studied under standard gait conditions. There was a significant reduction in wear with reducing implant conformity. This study has demonstrated that bearing conformity has a significant impact on the wear performance of a fixed bearing total knee replacement, providing opportunities to improve clinical performance through enhanced material and design selection.
Van der Linden-Van der Zwaag Henrica MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the light of both the importance and large numbers of case series and cohort studies (observational studies in orthopaedic literature, it is remarkable that there is currently no validated measurement tool to appraise their quality. A Delphi approach was used to develop a checklist for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability of case series and cohorts in total hip and total knee arthroplasty with a focus on aseptic loosening. Methods A web-based Delphi was conducted consisting of two internal rounds and three external rounds in order to achieve expert consensus on items considered relevant for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability. Results The internal rounds were used to construct a master list. The first external round was completed by 44 experts, 35 of them completed the second external round and 33 of them completed the third external round. Consensus was reached on an 8-item reporting quality checklist, a 6-item methodological checklist and a 22-item generalizability checklist. Conclusions Checklist for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability for case series and cohorts in total hip and total knee arthroplasty were successfully created through this Delphi. These checklists should improve the accuracy, completeness and quality of case series and cohorts regarding total hip and total knee arthroplasty.
Pijls, Bart G; Dekkers, Olaf M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Valstar, Edward R; van der Heide, Huub J L; Van der Linden-Van der Zwaag, Henrica M J; Nelissen, Rob G H H
In the light of both the importance and large numbers of case series and cohort studies (observational studies) in orthopaedic literature, it is remarkable that there is currently no validated measurement tool to appraise their quality. A Delphi approach was used to develop a checklist for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability of case series and cohorts in total hip and total knee arthroplasty with a focus on aseptic loosening. A web-based Delphi was conducted consisting of two internal rounds and three external rounds in order to achieve expert consensus on items considered relevant for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability. The internal rounds were used to construct a master list. The first external round was completed by 44 experts, 35 of them completed the second external round and 33 of them completed the third external round. Consensus was reached on an 8-item reporting quality checklist, a 6-item methodological checklist and a 22-item generalizability checklist. Checklist for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability for case series and cohorts in total hip and total knee arthroplasty were successfully created through this Delphi. These checklists should improve the accuracy, completeness and quality of case series and cohorts regarding total hip and total knee arthroplasty.
Full Text Available Typically, joint arthroplasty is performed to relieve pain and improve functionality in a diseased or damaged joint. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA involves replacing the entire knee joint, both femoral and tibial surfaces, with anatomically shaped artificial components in the hope of regaining normal joint function and permitting a full range of knee flexion. In spite of the design of the prosthesis itself, the degree of flexion attainable following TKA depends on a variety of factors, such as the joint’s preoperative condition/flexion, muscle strength, and surgical technique. High-flexion knee prostheses have been developed to accommodate movements that require greater flexion than typically achievable with conventional TKA; such high flexion is especially prevalent in Asian cultures. Recently, computational techniques have been widely used for evaluating the functionality of knee prostheses and for improving biomechanical performance. To offer a better understanding of the development and evaluation techniques currently available, this paper aims to review some of the latest trends in the simulation of high-flexion knee prostheses.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the rate of urinary retention after knee arthroplasty, the various factors involved in predicting those at risk for retention and to assess the impact of retention and catheterization on joint sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all available case notes of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty in a consecutive 2-year period (2000-2002. Adequate data was available for 142 patients. RESULTS: 142 patients underwent total knee arthroplasty. 19 patients were catheterized preoperatively for monitoring urine output. 123 patients were not catheterized. Urinary retention occurred in 19.7% (28/142. The mean day of catheterization for retention was 0.66. The mean duration of catheterization in patients developing retention was 3.58 days and was 3 days in the patients catheterized pre - or perioperatively. Deep joint sepsis occurred in 2.1% (3/142 - only one had been catheterized and that was preoperatively. No case of infection had urinary retention or had a symptomatic urinary tract infection. The only factors predicting those at significant risk of retention following knee arthroplasty was a past medical history of urinary retention (p = 0.049 and postoperative morphine requirement (p = 0.035. No patients required urological surgical intervention at mean follow up of 1.97 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the use of indwelling urinary catheterization for patients developing urinary retention after total knee arthroplasty.
Full Text Available The objective - to evaluate long-term results and survival rates of «Universal» condylar knee prosthesis. Material and methods. There were a total of 121 total knee joint replacements in the set with 107 patients aged 71.3 years on average (52-86 years. A total of 115 knees diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the 3-4th degree were indicated for the surgery, and there were 6 patients with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Knee Society Score (KSS, Results. The assessment of the knee state on a scale KSS average clinical section KSS (knee score was 48.2, and functional (function score - 46,8 points. After surgery, the indices increased to 87.4 points and 85.8 points, respectively. One complication was described during the surgery, namely - the fracture of the medial tibia condyle (0.8%. In the early post-surgery period, peroneal nerve paresis was observed in two patients (1.6%. In the postoperative period, disorders of the wound healing were observed in 6 patients (4.9%, which were healed successfully in a conservative way. In the late post-surgery period, there were infectious complications in the knee joint in 4 knee joints (3.3%. Aseptic loosening was observed in 4 cases out of 117 endoprostheses (3.4%. It always concerned the loosening of tibial component. The loosening of the femoral component was not observed. In the period from the implantation until June 2014, which is 16-22 years after the implantation, there are 16 patients in total surviving, who had a total of 21 implanted endoprostheses. Among them there are no signs of a loosening only in 4 patients (19%; there was an apparent radiolucent line up until 2 mm with a sclerotic rim under the tibial component. All the patients were without clinical symptoms for the loosening. Six female patients (28.5% state troubles in the area of the femoro-patellar joint, where there is a lateralization of the patella, apparent on the X-ray images. Two
Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue
BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge......-only administration of TXA. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of two interventions. The TXA IV and IA group received combined administration of TXA consisting of 1 g administered intravenously preoperatively...... Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence....
Helito, Camilo Partezani; Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Gobbi, Ricardo Gomes; Angelini, Fábio Janson; Rezende, Marcia Uchoa; Tírico, Luis Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis
OBJECTIVES: Healing is an event that is fundamental to the success of total knee arthroplasty. The aims of the present study were to compare the rates of complications related to wound healing between two groups of volunteers submitted to total knee arthroplasty and to evaluate the effects of postoperative oxygen supplementation by means of a nasal catheter. METHOD: A total of 109 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized into two groups, namely, groups that did and did not receive postoperative oxygen supplementation via a nasal catheter. The surgical wound was monitored every day during the hospital stay and on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 30th and 42nd postoperative days. Characteristics related to healing were observed, including hyperemia, dehiscence, necrosis, phlyctenules and deep and superficial infection. RESULTS: There were no cases of deep infection. Hyperemia was statistically correlated with the total number of complications in the groups, with oxygen demonstrated to be a protective factor against hyperemia. Approximately 30% of the patients who exhibited hyperemia had other complications, independent of oxygen supplementation. CONCLUSION: Oxygen supplementation following total knee arthroplasty was shown to be effective in diminishing hyperemia around the operative wound. The development of hyperemia was a precursor to other complications, irrespective of whether oxygen supplementation was used. PMID:25518030
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stepping-down is preceded by a shift of the center of mass towards the supporting side and forward. The ability to control both balance and lower limb movement was investigated in knee osteoarthritis patients before and after surgery. It was hypothesized that pain rather than knee joint mobility affects the coordination between balance and movement control. Methods The experiment was performed with 25 adult individuals. Eleven were osteoarthritic patients with damage restricted to one lower limb (8 right leg and 3 left leg. Subjects were recruited within two weeks before total knee replacement by the same orthopedic surgeon using the same prosthesis and technics of surgery. Osteoarthritic patients were tested before total knee replacement (pre-surgery session and then, 9 of the 11 patients were tested one year after the surgery when re-educative training was completed (post-surgery session. 14 adult individuals (men: n = 7 and women: n = 7 were tested as the control group. Results The way in which the center of mass shift forward and toward the supporting side is initiated (timing and amplitude did not vary within patients before and after surgery. In addition knee joint range of motion of the leading leg remained close to normal before and after surgery. However, the relative timing between both postural and movement phases was modified for the osteoarthritis supporting leg (unusual strategy for stepping-down before surgery. The "coordinated" control of balance and movement turned to be a "sequential" mode of control; once the body weight transfer has been completed, the movement onset is triggered. This strategy could be aimed at shortening the duration-time supporting on the painful limb. However no such compensatory response was observed. Conclusion The change in the strategy used when supporting on the arthritis and painful limb could result from the action of nociceptors that lead to increased proprioceptor thresholds
Abdel-Jaber, Sami; Belvedere, Claudio; Leardini, Alberto; Affatato, Saverio
Knee wear simulators are meant to perform load cycles on knee implants under physiological conditions, matching exactly, if possible, those experienced at the replaced joint during daily living activities. Unfortunately, only conditions of low demanding level walking, specified in ISO-14243, are used conventionally during such tests. A recent study has provided a consistent knee kinematic and load data-set measured during stair climbing in patients implanted with a specific modern total knee prosthesis design. In the present study, wear simulation tests were performed for the first time using this data-set on the same prosthesis design. It was hypothesised that more demanding tasks would result in wear rates that differ from those observed in retrievals. Four prostheses for total knee arthroplasty were tested using a displacement-controlled knee wear simulator for two million cycles at 1.1 Hz, under kinematics and load conditions typical of stair climbing. After simulation, the corresponding damage scars on the bearings were qualified and compared with equivalent explanted prostheses. An average mass loss of 20.2±1.5 mg was found. Scanning digital microscopy revealed similar features, though the explant had a greater variety of damage modes, including a high prevalence of adhesive wear damage and burnishing in the overall articulating surface. This study confirmed that the results from wear simulation machines are strongly affected by kinematics and loads applied during simulations. Based on the present results for the full understanding of the current clinical failure of knee implants, a more comprehensive series of conditions are necessary for equivalent simulations in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaunder, Christopher L; Hawkinson, Michael P; Tennent, David J; Tubb, Creighton C
With continued emphasis on the value of healthcare, factors such as quality of life and patient reported outcomes are critical in evaluating high-demand procedures such as knee replacement surgery. Equally important to the surgery itself is maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency of the treatment, both preoperatively and postoperatively, which can have a significant effect the final outcome. Technical outcomes of total knee replacement are generally considered excellent; however, many patients continue to have postoperative pain, functional limitations, and low treatment satisfaction. The recovery process can be difficult and is often prolonged in older patient populations. Blood flow restriction (BFR) training is a resistance exercise performed with a venous tourniquet that stimulates local changes in muscle at low resistance. Herein we report on 3 patients who participated in BFR exercises as an adjunct to their normal physical therapy following total knee arthroplasty.
Full Text Available Reports of fungal infection after total knee arthroplasty are extremely rare. In most reports, the infecting organism is a Candida species. The present report describes a case involving a 73-year-old immunocompetent woman who underwent total knee arthroplasty and presented one month later with signs of prosthetic infection. She underwent joint debridement and the fluid was sent for culture and sensitivity testing. The culture showed growth of Trichosporon asahii. The patient was administered intravenous and intra-articular injections of amphotericin B, followed by antifungal treatment with voriconazole for one year. At 26 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of infection and the patient was ambulating with a walker. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is the first report of T asahii infection following knee replacement. Early detection, prompt institution of the appropriate antibiotics and regular follow-up are recommended.
Roper, Glade E; Bloemke, Adam D; Roberts, Catherine C; Spangehl, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D
Malrotation of the tibial component is associated with poor outcomes after total knee arthroplasty, yet the definition and evaluation of this problem remain controversial. Contributing factors to this controversy include inconsistent and cumbersome methods for measuring rotation, based upon transposed measurements from multiple computed tomography images. We developed and tested the reliability of a new, simple method for measuring tibial component rotation based upon a single, three-dimensional high definition, axial computed tomography image. Sixty individual knees after total knee arthroplasty were evaluated. The intra-reliability and inter-reliability both exceeded 0.9 whether the tibial component was made of titanium, cobalt-chrome or all-polyethylene. Based upon these findings we suggest that this technique be used for evaluating tibial component rotation in future studies. © 2013.
Liljensøe, A.; Laursen, J. O.; Bliddal, H.
to implement an intensive weight loss program in order to reduce preoperative body weight of obese patients before TKA surgery. The primary aim of the Weight Loss Intervention before Total Knee Arthroplasty (WITKA) study is to investigate whether weight loss interventions before total knee arthroplasty (TKA...... or a weight loss group that followed a low-energy diet (810 kcal/day) 8 weeks before surgery. Outcomes were assessed before intervention for the weight loss group, and within 1 week preoperatively for both the weight loss group and the control group. The primary outcome in the WITKA study was the Short......-Form 36 (SF-36). Secondary outcomes were Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 6 Minutes' Walk Test, and body composition. Results: Included were 77 patients (weight loss group n=38; control group n=39), 71% were females, the mean age was 65 years (range 46-85), and the average BMI was 31...
Hoell, T; Hohaus, C; Huschak, G; Beier, A; Meisel, H-J
When there is significant loss of spinal dura mater, dural substitution with synthetic or allogenic materials is essential. In the case of laminectomy, mechanical protection and reformation of the dorsal spinal canal may be useful. This is a report on a patient with total dura loss through tumour atrophy of the dura and laminae. In order to reconstruct the dorsal face of the spinal canal a polylactide sheet was cut and shaped to fit the physiological contour. A bovine dura substitute was firmly attached and sutured to the inner surface of the polylactide shield. The implant was wedged in between the pedicles and the facet joints and resulted in a water-tight dura substitute maintaining the shape of the spinal canal and protecting it against mechanical forces and intradural scar formation.
Mihalko, William; Fishkin, Zair; Krackow, Kenneth; Krakow, Kenneth
Flexion is an important outcome variable after total knee arthroplasty. Traditionally, matched implant-bone resections of the distal and posterior aspects of the femur are used to prevent loss of knee flexion or extension. However, given limited implant sizes, resection of these portions of the femur may affect the shape of the knee. Variations in the anterior aspects of the femur along with implant size constraints may increase trochlear groove height in the anterior compartment, increase the arc that the extensor mechanism must travel, and thereby decrease passive flexion. We determined the trochlear groove height change in 55 patients after primary total knee arthroplasties. The thickness of the replaced lateral and medial anterior flanges increased by 1.1 +/- 2.6 mm and 0.5 +/- 2.2 mm, respectively, whereas the change in trochlear groove thickness was 0 +/- 1.1 mm. We examined varying amounts of patellofemoral buildup in a cadaver model to observe the effect on passive range of motion of the knee. A 2-mm and 4-mm buildup of the anterior cortex resulted in flexion loss of 1.8 degrees and 4.4 degrees, respectively. The change in the shape of the anterior aspect of the femur may have small effects on flexion but they may not be clinically important.
Liu, Shiluan; Long, Hua; Zhang, Yinglong; Ma, Baoan; Li, Zhao
Although the single-radius (SR) femoral design is known to have theoretical advantages in many aspects, studies of clinical outcomes that compare the SR with the multiple-radius (MR) femoral design are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to address the hypothesis that a SR femoral design in primary total knee arthroplasty improves patient outcomes. The meta-analysis identified 15 articles reporting the clinical outcomes of 2212 knee replacements using the SR (n = 948) compared with the multiradius (MR; n = 1361) femoral design. Comparing SR with MR, we examined the Knee Society Score for the knee (KSS-knee), KSS-function, knee flexion, range of motion, complications, isometric peak torque of knee, and survival rate. The range of motion of SR knees was lower than that of MR knees. No differences were found in the analyses of KSS-knee, KSS-function, knee flexion, complications, isometric peak torque of the knee, and survival rate. Our meta-analysis does not provide clinical support for the previously reported theoretical advantages of the SR implant design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Husted, Rasmus Skov; Troelsen, Anders; Thorborg, Kristian
-surgical treatment to be tried prior to surgical procedures. Patients with knee OA are characterized by decreased muscle strength, particularly in the knee-extensor muscles. Correspondingly, decreased knee-extensor strength is found to be associated with an increased risk of development, progression and severity...... of knee OA symptoms. Recent trials suggest a positive effect of pre-operative exercise on pre- and post-operative outcome; however, the most effective pre-operative knee-extensor strength exercise dosage is not known. The purpose of the present trial is to investigate the efficacy of three different...... exercise dosages of pre-operative, home-based, knee-extensor strength exercise on knee-extensor strength before and shortly after surgery in patients eligible for TKA due to end-stage knee OA. METHODS: In this randomized dose-response trial with a three-arm parallel design, 140 patients with end-stage knee...
Tarasevicius, Sarunas; Stucinskas, Justinas; Robertsson, Otto; Wingstrand, Hans
We have previously reported that the first 10 years of hip arthroplasty in Lithuania resulted in a higher cumulative revision rate than that observed in Sweden. We thus compared the corresponding results after introduaction of total knee replacement in Lithuania. The 10-year revision rate for the first 595 primary ScanKnee arthroplasties inserted in Klaipeda, Lithuania, was compared to that for the first 1,280 ScanKnee primary arthroplasties inserted in Sweden. As in the hip replacement study, only patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Primary knee arthroplasties without patellar resurfacing were included, and the endpoint was revision for any reason other than addition of a patellar component. We found that the cumulative revision rate was not statistically significantly different between the groups. The revision pattern was different, however, and we observed 24 isolated patellar component additions in Sweden, but none in Klaipeda. Contrary to the results of our previous hip arthroplasty study, the cumulative revision rate after total knee arthroplasty was similar in the two groups. This suggests that compared to hip arthroplasty, the outcome of total knee arthroplasty was less dependent on surgical experience. The large difference regarding isolated patellar component additions may be explained by long-term accumulation of severe OA cases in Lithuania. To patients subject to a newly introduced surgical treatment offering great improvement in quality of life, patellofemoral pain may be a minor problem. Furthermore, patellar problems may not have seemed particularly relevant for the surgeons, considering the disability of other patients waiting to be treated.
Smith, Colin R.; Vignos, Michael F.; Lenhart, Rachel L.; Kaiser, Jarred; Thelen, Darryl G.
The study objective was to investigate the influence of coronal plane alignment and ligament properties on total knee replacement (TKR) contact loads during walking. We created a subject-specific knee model of an 83-year-old male who had an instrumented TKR. The knee model was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal model and included deformable contact, ligamentous structures, and six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. A novel numerical optimization technique was used to simultaneously predict muscle forces, secondary knee kinematics, ligament forces, and joint contact pressures from standard gait analysis data collected on the subject. The nominal knee model predictions of medial, lateral, and total contact forces during gait agreed well with TKR measures, with root-mean-square (rms) errors of 0.23, 0.22, and 0.33 body weight (BW), respectively. Coronal plane component alignment did not affect total knee contact loads, but did alter the medial–lateral load distribution, with 4 deg varus and 4 deg valgus rotations in component alignment inducing +17% and −23% changes in the first peak medial tibiofemoral contact forces, respectively. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that uncertainties in ligament stiffness and reference strains induce ±0.2 BW uncertainty in tibiofemoral force estimates over the gait cycle. Ligament properties had substantial influence on the TKR load distributions, with the medial collateral ligament and iliotibial band (ITB) properties having the largest effects on medial and lateral compartment loading, respectively. The computational framework provides a viable approach for virtually designing TKR components, considering parametric uncertainty and predicting the effects of joint alignment and soft tissue balancing procedures on TKR function during movement. PMID:26769446
A. I. Petukhov
Full Text Available The topical questions of optical computer navigation at knee total arthroplasty are widely covered. The indications, contraindication to use, using features and possible complications of this technique are listed. The analysis of literature data makes it clear that computer navigation assists in the accuracy of endoprosthesis implantation that may to decrease the rate of revision surgeries in future.
Stevens, Martin; Reininga, Inge H. F.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Wagenmakers, Robert; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) are successful operative interventions, yet little is known about the physical activity behavior of patients after THA/TKA. For older adults, there are beneficial effects of regular physical activity after THA/TKA. The objective of this paper is to review
Loon, C. van; Oyen, W.J.G.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Verdonschot, N.J.J.
The bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal femur may decrease after cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a result of the stress shielding effect of the femoral component. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in BMD of the distal femur compared with those of the femoral necks
Barink, M.; Meijerink, H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Kampen, A. van; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de
It is often suggested that patella tracking after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with an asymmetrical patella groove is more physiological than with a symmetrical patella groove. Therefore, this study tried to address two questions: what is the effect of TKA on patella tracking, and is patella
van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Horn, Jim R.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin
Objective: Validation of the program theory of the Groningen orthopaedic exit strategy (GOES), a theory-driven program aiming to improve the rehabilitation of total hip and knee arthroplasty patients after shortened hospital stay. First part of the program theory is the action theory, hypothesising
Gromov, Kirill; Troelsen, Anders; Otte, Kristian Stahl
Background and purpose - The safety aspects of bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (BSTKA) are still debated. In this retrospective single-center study, we investigated early morbidity and mortality following BSTKA in a modern fast-track setting. We also identified risk factors for re...
van Hove, R.P.; Brohet, R.M.; van Royen, B.J.; Nolte, P.A.
Purpose: Titanium nitride (TiN) coating of cobalt–chromium–molybdenum (CoCrMo) implants has shown to improve the biomechanical properties of the implant surface and to reduce adhesive wear in vitro. It is yet unknown whether TiN coating of total knee prosthesis (TKP) affects the postoperative
The authors present the case of a young man with arthrogryphosis multiplex congenita and an above knee amputation who underwent an ipsilateral total hip replacement. The unique aspects of the case and technical difficulties are highlighted. Follow-up at five years revealed an excellent clinical and radiological outcome.
Daněk, Josef; Nedoma, Jiří; Hlaváček, Ivan; Vavřík, P.; Denk, F.
Roč. 76, č. 1-3 (2007), s. 49-56 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : total knee joint replacement * contact problem * non-overlapping domain decomposition method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2007
M.M. Vissers (Maaike); I.B. de Groot (Ingrid); M. Reijman (Max); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); H.J. Stam (Henk); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)
textabstractAbstract Background: After total knee arthroplasty (TKA) only 75-89% of patients are satisfied. Because patient satisfaction is a prime goal of all orthopaedic procedures, optimization of patient satisfaction is of major importance. Factors related to patient satisfaction after TKA
Austen, Shennah; van der Weegen, Walter; Verduin, Cees M.; van der Valk, Marc; Hoekstra, Henk J.
Fungal prosthetic joint infections are rare and difficult to treat. There is an ongoing discussion about the type and duration of antifungal treatment and the necessity of prosthesis removal. We report the first European case of an infected total knee arthroplasty with Coccidioides immitis.
Safaei, Mohsen; Meneghini, R. Michael; Anton, Steven R.
Total knee arthroplasty is a common procedure in the United States; it has been estimated that about 4 million people are currently living with primary knee replacement in this country. Despite huge improvements in material properties, implant design, and surgical techniques, some implants fail a few years after surgery. A lack of information about in vivo kinetics of the knee prevents the establishment of a correlated intra- and postoperative loading pattern in knee implants. In this study, a conceptual design of an ultra high molecular weight (UHMW) knee bearing with embedded piezoelectric transducers is proposed, which is able to measure the reaction forces from knee motion as well as harvest energy to power embedded electronics. A simplified geometry consisting of a disk of UHMW with a single embedded piezoelectric ceramic is used in this work to study the general parametric trends of an instrumented knee bearing. A combined finite element and electromechanical modeling framework is employed to investigate the fatigue behavior of the instrumented bearing and the electromechanical performance of the embedded piezoelectric. The model is validated through experimental testing and utilized for further parametric studies. Parametric studies consist of the investigation of the effects of several dimensional and piezoelectric material parameters on the durability of the bearing and electrical output of the transducers. Among all the parameters, it is shown that adding large fillet radii results in noticeable improvement in the fatigue life of the bearing. Additionally, the design is highly sensitive to the depth of piezoelectric pocket. Finally, using PZT-5H piezoceramics, higher voltage and slightly enhanced fatigue life is achieved.
Safaei, Mohsen; Meneghini, R Michael; Anton, Steven R
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common procedure in the United States; it has been estimated that about 4 million people are currently living with primary knee replacement in this country. Despite huge improvements in material properties, implant design, and surgical techniques, some implants fail a few years after surgery. A lack of information about in vivo kinetics of the knee prevents the establishment of a correlated intra- and postoperative loading pattern in knee implants. In this study, a conceptual design of an ultra high molecular weight (UHMW) knee bearing with embedded piezoelectric transducers is proposed, which is able to measure the reaction forces from knee motion as well as harvest energy to power embedded electronics. A simplified geometry consisting of a disk of UHMW with a single embedded piezoelectric ceramic is used in this work to study the general parametric trends of an instrumented knee bearing. A combined finite element and electromechanical modeling framework is employed to investigate the fatigue behavior of the instrumented bearing and the electromechanical performance of the embedded piezoelectric. The model is validated through experimental testing and utilized for further parametric studies. Parametric studies consist of the investigation of the effects of several dimensional and piezoelectric material parameters on the durability of the bearing and electrical output of the transducers. Among all the parameters, it is shown that adding large fillet radii results in noticeable improvement in the fatigue life of the bearing. Additionally, the design is highly sensitive to the depth of piezoelectric pocket. Finally, using PZT-5H piezoceramics, higher voltage and slightly enhanced fatigue life is achieved.
Stevens, Jennifer E; Mizner, Ryan L; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee have quadriceps weakness and arthrogenous muscle inhibition (AMI). While total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reliably reduces pain and improves function in patients with knee OA, quadriceps weakness persists after surgery. The purpose of this investigation was to assess contributions of AMI to quadriceps weakness before and after TKA and to assess the effect of pain on AMI. Twenty-eight patients with unilateral, end-stage, primary knee OA were tested an average of 10 days before and 26 days after TKA. The mean age at time of operation was 63 years (range 49-82 years). Measurements on the involved and uninvolved knees were performed using the burst-superimposition technique, where supramaximal electrical stimulation is superimposed on a voluntary contraction. Knee pain during contraction was measured using a numeric rating scale. The involved quadriceps were significantly weaker than the uninvolved prior to TKA (pmuscle activation accounted for 65% of the variability in the change in quadriceps strength (r(2)=0.65) (pmuscle contraction accounted for a small, but significant portion of the change in voluntary activation (r(2)=0.22) (p=0.006). Exercise regimens that emphasize strong muscle contraction and clinical tools that facilitate muscle activation like biofeedback and neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be necessary to reverse the quadriceps activation failure and weakness in the patients with knee OA that worsens after TKA. The failure of current rehabilitation regimens to directly address activation deficits within the first months after surgery may explain the persistent quadriceps weakness in patients after TKA.
Nodzo, Scott R; Rachala, Sridhar R
Polypropylene mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for failed patellar tendon repairs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but there have been few reports of this synthetic mesh used in complete quadriceps rupture after TKA. We retrospectively reviewed seven consecutive cases in six patients with complete quadriceps tears after TKA who had their quadriceps tendon repaired with suture and polypropylene mesh augmentation. All but two patients had previously failed primary suture repair. Patient outcomes were evaluated using the Knee Society Score. Standardized anterior-posterior (AP), lateral and merchant radiographs were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up. Seven knees in six patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 34±10 (range 24 to 49months) months. There were only four clinical successes defined as an extensor lag less than 30°. Of the functioning knees at final follow-up (n=5) the overall extensor lag in this group did significantly improve from 50±13° to 20±15° (range 5 to 40°) (p=.01). Mean postoperative flexion at final follow-up was 115±8°. Mean Knee Society Score for function improved from 20±30 to 45±54 (p=.03) as did the mean Knee Society Score for pain (44±18 vs. 74±78, p=.02). Polypropylene mesh offered limited postoperative functional results when used as an augment to the multiply operated knee that sustains a complete quadriceps rupture after TKA, but did allow for significant improvement in postoperative pain outcomes. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hatfield, Gillian L; Stanish, William D; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L
Objective To determine if baseline 3-dimensional (3-D) biomechanical gait patterns differed between those patients with moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) who progressed to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and those that did not, and whether these differences had predictive value. Methods Fifty-four patients with knee OA had ground reaction forces and segment motions collected during gait. 3-D hip, knee, and ankle angles and moments were calculated over the gait cycle. Amplitude and temporal waveform characteristics were determined using principal component analysis. At followup 5–8 years later, 26 patients reported undergoing TKA. Unpaired t-tests were performed on baseline demographic and waveform characteristics between TKA and no-TKA groups. Receiver operating curve analysis, stepwise discriminate analysis, and logistic regression analysis determined the combination of features that best classified TKA and no-TKA groups and their predictive ability. Results Baseline demographic, symptomatic, and radiographic variables were similar, but 7 gait variables differed (P < 0.05) between groups. A multivariate model including overall knee adduction moment magnitude, knee flexion/extension moment difference, and stance–dorsiflexion moment had a 74% correct classification rate, with no overtraining based on cross-validation. A 1-unit increase in model score increased by 6-fold the odds of progression to TKA. Conclusion In addition to the link between higher overall knee adduction magnitude and future TKA, an outcome of clear clinical importance, novel findings include altered sagittal plane moment patterns indicative of reduced ability to unload the joint during midstance. This combination of dynamic biomechanical factors had a 6-fold increased odds of future TKA; adding baseline demographic and clinical factors did not improve the model. PMID:25708360
Ryosuke Sato, MD
Full Text Available Postoperative pseudogout after total knee arthroplasty (TKA is very rare, and its physical findings are very similar to infectious symptoms. In pseudogout, the mechanism underlying the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals remains unclear. Here, we report the histologic findings in a pseudogout attack in the late postoperative period after TKA. She had acute onset of arthritis of the knee 2 years after TKA. Histologic examination showed significant neutrophil infiltration. Interestingly, chondrogenesis was noted in the synovial tissue, and calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals were synthesized mainly at the site of chondrogenesis, suggesting a potential mechanism underlying the occurrence of pseudogout after TKA.
Hahn, Myung Hoon; Won, Ye Yeon
Background There are few reports on bone mineral density (BMD) changes of axial bones after total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint and its results are controversial. The purpose of our study was to measure the BMD changes of hip and spine in patients receiving TKR due to severe OA and to identify clinical factors relating BMD changes. Methods Among 66 female patients above 65 years old who underwent TKR due to severe OA and checked preoperative BMD, 5...
Jimmy Chan Chun-Ming
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune systemic disease with predominant peripheral polyarthritis, often leading to severe joint destruction. This is a case report of an 81-year-old woman with long-standing severe rheumatoid arthritis requiring multiple orthopaedic operations for joint destruction since 2000. These operated joints improved her functional mobility until recently, when she found that her knees were fixed at around 70° of flexion with limited motion. There was chronic progressive flexion deformity of bilateral distal femurs, which was an extremely rare complication of total knee arthroplasty.
Hedke, J; Skripitz, R; Ellenrieder, M; Frickmann, H; Köller, T; Podbielski, A; Mittelmeier, W
Here, we present a case of an 85-year-old woman with a low-grade-infection caused by Actinomyces naeslundii after total-knee arthroplasty (TKA) followed by septic loosening. Actinomyces naeslundii was cultured from a tissue sample from the knee joint capsule/synovial tissue obtained after the initial TKA. A review of the literature revealed two cases of periprosthetic infection and another three cases of arthritis due to Actinomyces naeslundii. So far, no standard treatment for periprosthetic infections caused by Actinomyces species has been established.
Liu, David; Graham, David; Gillies, Kim; Gillies, R Mark
A pneumatic tourniquet is commonly used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve surgical field visualisation but may result in quadriceps muscle ischaemia. We performed this study to analyse the effect of the tourniquet on recovery following TKA. A prospective randomised single-blinded trial was undertaken to examine the effect of the tourniquet on post-operative pain, swelling, blood loss, quadriceps function and outcome following TKA. Twenty patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were randomised to tourniquet or no tourniquet groups. Quadriceps function was assessed using surface electromyography (EMG) during active knee extension. The no tourniquet group had significantly less pain in the early post-operative period compared to the tourniquet group. There was no difference in Oxford knee score, range of motion, or thigh and knee swelling up to 12 months post-operatively. Quadriceps function, measured by surface EMG, was compromised for the first six months post-surgery by tourniquet use. The radiological cement mantle at the bone prosthesis interface at 12-month follow-up was not affected by the absence of a tourniquet. We believe that it is safe and beneficial for our patients to routinely perform TKA without a tourniquet.
Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Yeo Jin, Seng; Chong Chi, Hwei
We compared postoperative flexion contracture in navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA) versus conventional TKA. Two groups (Group 1: conventional, Group 2: navigated) of 235 consecutive patients matched for age and gender were retrospectively compared. Range of motion, mechanical axes, Knee Society Scores, Oxford Knee Scores and Short Form-36® (SF-36) scores were collected prospectively and compared preoperatively and at 2years following TKA. At 2years, patients who underwent navigated TKA averaged significantly lesser flexion contracture of 1 degree compared to 6 degrees in patients who underwent conventional TKA. There were a significantly larger proportion of outliers in the conventional group. Computer navigation results in less severe flexion contracture and less frequent flexion contracture of more than 5 degrees as compared to conventional techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Styron, Joseph F; Barsoum, Wael K; Smyth, Kathleen A; Singer, Mendel E
There is little in the literature to guide clinicians in advising patients regarding their return to work following a primary total knee arthroplasty. In this study, we aimed to identify which factors are important in estimating a patient's time to return to work following primary total knee arthroplasty, how long patients can anticipate being off from work, and the types of jobs to which patients are able to return following primary total knee arthroplasty. A prospective cohort study was performed in which patients scheduled for a primary total knee arthroplasty completed a validated questionnaire preoperatively and at four to six weeks, three months, and six months postoperatively. The questionnaire assessed the patient's occupational physical demands, ability to perform job responsibilities, physical status, and motivation to return to work as well as factors that may impact his or her recovery and other workplace characteristics. Two survival analysis models were constructed to evaluate the time to return to work either at least part-time or full-time. Acceleration factors were calculated to indicate the relative percentage of time until the patient returned to work. The median time to return to work was 8.9 weeks. Patients who reported a sense of urgency about returning to work were found to return in half the time taken by other employees (acceleration factor = 0.468; p job (acceleration factor = 1.116), and receiving Workers' Compensation (acceleration factor = 4.360). Although the physical demands of a patient's job have a moderate influence on the patient's ability to return to work following a primary total knee arthroplasty, the patient's characteristics, particularly motivation, play a more important role.
Hamamoto, Yosuke; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Azukizawa, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Shuichi
The purposes of this study were to translate the new Knee Society Score (KSS) into Japanese and to evaluate the construct and content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the Japanese version of the new KSS. The Japanese version of the KSS was developed according to cross-cultural guidelines by using the "translation-back translation" method to ensure content validity. KSS data were then obtained from patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The psychometric properties evaluated were as follows: for feasibility, response rate, and floor and ceiling effects; for construct validity, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and correlations with quality of life. Construct validity was evaluated by using Spearman's correlation coefficient to quantify the correlation between the KSS and the Japanese version of the Oxford 12-item Knee Score or Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires. The Japanese version of the KSS was sent to 93 consecutive osteoarthritic patients who underwent primary TKA in our institution. Fifty-five patients completed the questionnaires and were included in this study. Neither a floor nor ceiling effect was observed. The reliability proved excellent in the majority of domains, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.65-0.88. Internal consistency, assessed by Cronbach's alpha, was good to excellent for all domains (0.78-0.94). All of the four domains of the KSS correlated significantly with the Oxford 12-item Knee Score. The activity and satisfaction domains of the KSS correlated significantly with all and the majority of subscales of the SF-36, respectively, whereas symptoms and expectation domains showed significant correlations only with bodily pain and vitality subscales and with the physical function, bodily pain, and vitality subscales, respectively. The Japanese version of the new KSS is a valid, reliable, and responsive instrument to capture subjective aspects of the functional
Ackerman, Ilana N; Dieppe, Paul A; March, Lyn M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether variation exists in the preoperative age, pain, stiffness, and physical function of people undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) at several centers in Australia and Europe. METHODS: Individual Western Ontario and McMaster Univers......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether variation exists in the preoperative age, pain, stiffness, and physical function of people undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) at several centers in Australia and Europe. METHODS: Individual Western Ontario and Mc...... in the timing of joint replacement across the centers studied, with potential for compromised surgical outcomes due to premature or delayed surgery. Possible contributing factors include patient preferences, the absence of concrete indications for surgery, and the capacity of the health care systems....
Honsawek, Sittisak; Deepaisarnsakul, Benjamad; Tanavalee, Aree; Sakdinakiattikoon, Manoon; Ngarmukos, Srihatach; Preativatanyou, Kanok; Bumrungpanichthaworn, Piyanuch
Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of severe pain and functional limitation. Total knee arthroplasty is an effective procedure to relieve pain, restore knee function, and improve quality of life for patients with end stage knee arthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory process in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis before surgery and in subsequent periods following total knee arthroplasty. A prospective study of 49 patients undergoing primary total knee replacements was conducted. The patients were evaluated by monitoring serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), knee skin temperature, and clinical status. Measurements were carried out preoperatively and postoperatively on day one and at two, six, 14, and 26 weeks during follow-up review in the knee clinic. The serum IL-6 and CRP were elevated on the first postoperative day but fell to preoperative values at two weeks postoperatively. Both returned to within the normal range by six weeks postoperatively. In addition, the postoperative ESR showed a slow rise with a peak two weeks after surgery and returned to the preoperative level at 26 weeks postoperatively. The difference in skin temperature between operated and contralateral knees had a mean value of +4.5°C at two weeks. The mean value decreased to +3.5°C at six weeks, +2.5°C at 14 weeks, and +1.0°C at 26 weeks. The difference in skin temperature decreased gradually and eventually there was no statistically significant difference at 26 weeks after surgery. A sustained elevation in serum IL-6, CRP, ESR, and skin temperature must raise the concern of early complication and may suggest the development of postoperative complication such as haematoma and/or infection.
Sogbein, Olawale A; Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Bryant, Dianne; Johnston, David F; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; MacDonald, Steven; Lanting, Brent; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Howard, James L
Pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often severe and can inhibit rehabilitation. Motor-sparing analgesic techniques such as periarticular infiltrations and adductor canal blocks have been popularized for knee analgesia since they preserve motor strength and permit early mobilization. Our primary objective was to compare the duration of analgesia from motor-sparing blocks with that of a standard periarticular infiltration. We used the time to first rescue analgesia as the end point. We randomized 82 patients scheduled for elective TKA to receive either the preoperative motor-sparing block (0.5% ropivacaine, 2.5 μg/mL of epinephrine, 10 mg of morphine, and 30 mg of ketorolac) or intraoperative periarticular infiltration (0.3% ropivacaine, 2.5 μg/mL of epinephrine, 10 mg of morphine, and 30 mg of ketorolac). For the motor-sparing block, we modified the ultrasound-guided adductor canal block by combining it with a lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block and posterior knee infiltration. The patients, surgeons, anesthetists administering the blocks, and outcome assessors all remained blinded to group allocation. Our primary outcome was duration of analgesia (time to first rescue analgesia). Secondary outcomes included quadriceps strength, function, side effects, satisfaction, and length of hospital stay. The duration of analgesia was significantly longer (mean difference, 8.8 hours [95% confidence interval = 3.98 to 13.62], p block group (mean [and standard error], 18.1 ± 1.7 hours) compared with the periarticular infiltration group (mean, 9.25 ± 1.7 hours). The infiltration group had significantly higher scores for pain at rest for the first 2 postoperative hours and for pain with knee movement at 2 and 4 hours. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to any other secondary outcomes. In patients undergoing a TKA, a motor-sparing block provides longer analgesia than periarticular infiltration with retention of quadriceps muscle
Coles, L G; Gheduzzi, S; Miles, A W
The patellofemoral joint is a common site of pain and failure following total knee arthroplasty. A contributory factor may be adverse patellofemoral biomechanics. Cadaveric investigations are commonly used to assess the biomechanics of the joint, but are associated with high inter-specimen variability and often cannot be carried out at physiological levels of loading. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of a novel knee simulator for investigating patellofemoral joint biomechanics. This simulator specifically facilitated the extended assessment of patellofemoral joint biomechanics under physiological levels of loading. The simulator allowed the knee to move in 6 degrees of freedom under quadriceps actuation and included a simulation of the action of the hamstrings. Prostheses were implanted on synthetic bones and key soft tissues were modelled with a synthetic analogue. In order to evaluate the physiological relevance and repeatability of the simulator, measurements were made of the quadriceps force and the force, contact area and pressure within the patellofemoral joint using load cells, pressure-sensitive film, and a flexible pressure sensor. The results were in agreement with those previously reported in the literature, confirming that the simulator is able to provide a realistic physiological loading situation. Under physiological loading, average standard deviations of force and area measurements were substantially lower and comparable to those reported in previous cadaveric studies, respectively. The simulator replicates the physiological environment and has been demonstrated to allow the initial investigation of factors affecting patellofemoral biomechanics following total knee arthroplasty. © IMechE 2014.
Matsumoto, T; Takayama, K; Ishida, K; Hayashi, S; Hashimoto, S; Kuroda, R
The aim of this study was to compare the post-operative radiographic and clinical outcomes between kinematically and mechanically aligned total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). A total of 60 TKAs (30 kinematically and 30 mechanically aligned) were performed in 60 patients with varus osteoarthritis of the knee using a navigation system. The angles of orientation of the joint line in relation to the floor, the conventional and true mechanical axis (tMA) (the line from the centre of the hip to the lowest point of the calcaneus) were compared, one year post-operatively, on single-leg and double-leg standing long leg radiographs between the groups. The range of movement and 2011 Knee Society Scores were also compared between the groups at that time. The angles of orientation of the joint line in the kinematic group changed from slight varus on double-leg standing to slight valgus with single-leg standing. The mechanical axes in the kinematic group passed through a neutral position of the knee in the true condition when the calcaneus was considered. The post-operative angles of flexion and functional activity scores were significantly better in the kinematic than in the mechanical group (p leg standing, and more neutral weight-bearing in tMA than a mechanically aligned TKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:640-6. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Vanlommel, L; Luyckx, T; Vercruysse, G; Bellemans, J; Vandenneucker, H
Flexion in a stiff total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be improved by manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). Although this intervention usually results in an improvement in range of motion, the expected result is not always achieved. The purpose of this study is to determine which factors affect range of motion after manipulation in patients with a stiff total knee. After exclusion (n = 22), the data of 158 patients (138 knees) with a stiff knee after TKA who received a manipulation under anaesthesia between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Pre-, peri- and post-operative variables were identified and examined for their influence on flexion after the manipulation using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlations. After MUA, a mean improvement in flexion of 30.3° was observed at the final follow-up. Preoperative TKA flexion, design of TKA and interval between TKA procedure and MUA were positive associated with an increase in flexion after MUA. MUA performed 12 weeks or more after TKA procedure deteriorated the outcome. Three factors, pre-TKA flexion type of prosthesis and interval between TKA procedure and manipulation under anaesthesia, were found to have impact on flexion after TKA and MUA were identified. Results are expected to be inferior in patients with low flexion before TKA procedure or with a long interval (>12 weeks) between the TKA procedure and the manipulation under anaesthesia. IV.
Brown, Matthew L; Plate, Johannes F; Von Thaer, Sarah; Fino, Nora F; Smith, Beth P; Seyler, Thorsten M; Lang, Jason E
Range of motion (ROM) is important for functional outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however, some patients hesitate to maximize their ROM postoperatively. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) measures patients' fear of movement. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine whether TSK scores correlated with decreased ROM after primary TKA. A secondary purpose was to determine whether biofeedback could increase ROM after TKA. Patients were recruited from the senior author's practice between June 2011 and March 2013. A clinical photograph was taken of each patient's knee in maximum passive flexion in the operating room immediately following closure. Patients were randomized to the control or photograph group before incision. A linear mixed model was implemented to determine whether the TSK score and viewing the photo correlated to ROM. Seventy-nine patients were analyzed for correlation between the TSK score and the knee ROM. Sixty patients were analyzed for correlation between viewing the clinical photograph and the knee ROM. The linear mixed model demonstrated a significant negative correlation between the TSK score and both active (β = -0.47, P < .01) and passive (β = -0.66, P < .001) knee flexions. There was a trend toward decreased knee flexion among patients shown their clinical photograph. The TSK was developed as a tool to identify patients at risk for maladaptive responses to painful stimuli. Our data suggest that the TSK may help arthroplasty surgeons identify patients at risk for decreased ROM after TKA. Showing patients a clinical photograph failed to increase ROM after TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In a standard total knee replacement, tibial component alignment is a key factor for the long term success of the surgery. The purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of extramedullary and intramedullary tibial cutting guides used in indigenous and imported implants respectively, in positioning of the tibial components in megaprosthetic knee replacements. Methods A comparative study of the accuracy of extramedullary and intramedullary tibial cutting guides was carried out in 92 megaprosthetic knee replacements for distal femoral tumors. For the proximal tibia cut for tibial component placement, an extramedullary guide was used in 65 patients and an intramedullary guide was used in 27 patients. Tibial component alignment angles were measured in postoperative X-rays with the help of CAD software. Results There was more varus placement in coronal plane with extramedullary cutting guide (−1.18 +/− 2.4 degrees than the intramedullary guide (−0.34 +/− 2.31 degrees but this did not reach statistical significance. The goal of 90 +/− 2 degrees alignment of tibial component was achieved in 54% of patients in the extramedullary group versus 67% in the intramedullary group. In terms of sagittal plane alignment, extramedullary guide showed less accurate results (2.09 +/− 2.4 degrees than intramedullary guide (0.50 +/− 3.80 degrees for tibial component alignment, though 78% of patients were aligned within the goal of 0–5 degrees of tibial slope angle in extramedullary group versus 63% in intramedullary group. The mean error in the measurements due to rotation of the knee during taking the X-rays was less than 0.1 degrees and distribution of the X-rays with the rotation of knee was similar in both the groups. Conclusions Overall, in megaprosthetic knee replacement intramedullary guides gave more accurate results in sagittal plane and exhibited similar variability as of extramedullary guides in coronal plane.
Nyland, John; Kanouse, Zachary; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David; Jakob, Rolie
Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most common disabling medical conditions. With longer life expectancy the number of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures being performed worldwide is projected to increase dramatically. Patient education, physical activity, bodyweight levels, expectations and goals regarding the ability to continue athletic activity participation are also increasing. For the subset of motivated patients with knee osteoarthritis who have athletic activity approach type goals, early TKA may not be the best knee osteoarthritis treatment option to improve satisfaction, quality of life and outcomes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a conceptual decision-making model designed to improve the knee osteoarthritis treatment intervention outcome for motivated patients with athletic activity approach type goals. The model focuses on improving knee surgeon, patient and rehabilitation clinician dialogue by rank ordering routine activities of daily living and quality of life evoking athletic activities based on knee symptom exacerbation or re-injury risk. This process should help establish realistic patient expectations and goals for a given knee osteoarthritis treatment intervention that will more likely improve self-efficacy, functional independence, satisfaction and outcomes while decreasing the failure risk associated with early TKA.
Mark A. Fleming, MBBCH, FC orth(SA, MMED
Full Text Available This is a report of a 64-year-old man who had undergone a high tibial osteotomy (HTO 17 years ago of his right knee for medial compartment osteoarthritis; 5 days later, he received a below-knee amputation owing to a missed popliteal artery injury at the time of the HTO. We elected to perform a total knee replacement (TKR for progressive arthritis of the ipsilateral knee 17 years after the transtibial amputation. Although there is a plethora of literature regarding TKR in the contralateral knee of amputees, there is a paucity of data of TKR in the ipsilateral knee. Using medical search engines including Google Scholar and PubMed, we were only able to identify 4 case reports of TKR in the ipsilateral knee of below-knee amputees. This is the first description in the English literature that has the following rare pathology list: tricompartmental arthritis with a previous closing wedge HTO with a resultant truncated valgus tibia and short transtibial amputation.
Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik
Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...
Burke, Neil G
It is important to reduce potential wound complications in total hip and total knee arthroplasty procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the jubilee dressing method to a standard adhesive dressing.
Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA in patients with knee arthritis and retained implants in the ipsilateral femur is a challenge for knee surgeons. Use of a conventional intramedullary femoral cutting guide is not practical because of the obstruction of the medullary canal by implants. Previous studies have shown that computer-assisted surgery (CAS can help restore alignment in conventional TKA for patients with knee arthritis with retained femoral implants or extra-articular deformity, without the need for implant removal or osteotomy. However, little has been published regarding outcomes with the use of navigation in minimally invasive surgery (MIS-TKA for patients with this complex knee arthritis. MIS has been proven to provide less postoperative pain and faster recovery than conventional TKA, but MIS-TKA in patients with retained femoral implants poses a greater risk in limb malalignment. The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of CAS-MIS-TKA in patients with knee arthritis and retained femoral implants. Between April 2006 and March 2008, eight patients with knee arthritis and retained femoral implants who underwent the CAS-MIS-TKA were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the eight patients had extra-articular deformity, including two femur bones and one tibia bone, in the preoperative examination. The anteroposterior, lateral, and long-leg weight-bearing radiographs carried out at 3-month follow-up was used to determine the mechanical axis of lower limb and the position of components. The mean preoperative femorotibial angle in patients without extra-articular deformity was 3.8° of varus and was corrected to 4.6° of valgus. With the use of navigation in MIS-TKA, the two patients in this study with extra-articular femoral deformity also obtained an ideal postoperative mechanical axis within 2° of normal alignment. Overall, there was a good restoration of postoperative mechanical alignment in all cases, with a mean angle of 0.4° of
Paul Della Torre, MD
Full Text Available Medial collateral ligament injury during primary total knee arthroplasty is a recognised complication potentially resulting in valgus instability, suboptimal patient outcomes and a higher rate of revision or reoperation. Options for management include primary repair with or without augmentation, reconstruction or immediate conversion to prosthesis with greater constraint, in conjunction with various postoperative rehabilitation protocols. Inconsistent recommendations throughout the orthopaedic literature have made the approach to managing this complication problematic. The objective of this study was to review the available literature to date comparing intraoperative and postoperative management options for primary total knee arthroplasty complicated by recognised injury to the medial collateral ligament. This systematic literature review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (#CRD42014008866 and performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines including a PRISMA flow diagram. Five articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Each was a retrospective, observational cohort or case series with small numbers reported, inconsistent methodology and incompletely reported outcomes. Four of the five studies managing medial collateral ligament injury during total knee arthroplasty (47/84 patients with direct repair with or without autograft augmentation reported good outcomes with no revision or reoperation required for symptomatic instability over a follow-up period of 16 months to almost 8 years. The fifth study with a follow-up to 10 years and a high rate of conversion to unlinked semi constrained total knee arthroplasty implant (30/37 patients reported a greater incidence of revision due to instability, in patients in whom the medial collateral ligament injury was directly repaired without added constraint. Overall balance of evidence is in favour of satisfactory outcomes without symptomatic instability following direct repair with or without
Trieb, Klemens; Ullmann, David; Metzinger, Katharina; Kramar, Reinhard; Mauerer, Andreas; Hofstätter, Stefan; Fiala, Rainer
The aim of this open-label, prospective, short-term study was to carry out an initial comparison of a completely metal-free ceramic with a geometrically identical metallic arthroplasty over a 1-year follow-up period. This study investigates a completely metal-free system using a composite matrix material containing aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 , BPK-S Integration, Peter Brehm GmbH, Weisendorf, Germany) or zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 , BPK-S Integration Ceramic, Biolox Delta-CeramTec GmbH, Plochingen, Germany). Eighty patients (40 in each group) received either a completely metal-free ceramic system (matrix of aluminum and zirconium oxide) or an anatomically identical metallic knee system made of a cobalt-chromium alloy. Clinical assessment was performed preoperatively, and during follow-up at 3 and 12 months, using the Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score, and EQ-5D-VAS. For radiological evaluation, standard preoperative and postoperative standardized radiographs were taken at the given follow-up visits. The postoperative clinical scores improved significantly at the 3- and 12-month follow-ups, but did not differ statistically between the two groups. The radiologically evaluated mean postoperative mechanical and anatomical axes showed proper alignment within both groups at all times. No revision surgery had to be performed, and no complications or loosening were recorded whatsoever. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing a total ceramic metal-free knee system with a geometrically identical metallic TKA (total knee arthroplasty). Longer follow-ups will be required to demonstrate the overall efficiency of this TKR and perhaps to expand its medical indication. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kuiken, Todd A; Amir, Hagay; Scheidt, Robert A
To assess device accuracy, patient acceptance, and effect of a computerized biofeedback knee goniometer (CBG), on patients' compliance with active range of motion (AROM) exercises after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Two-stage study: measurement validation on asymptomatic controls and an unblinded, multiple crossover trial. Inpatient rehabilitation. Asymptomatic controls (n=14) and post-TKA inpatients (n=11). For measurement validation, CBG-angle measurements were compared with manual, clinician-obtained angles. To assess motivational effect, the CBG was worn after TKA; on alternating days, it either monitored AROM silently (no feedback) or provided audiovisual feedback about reaching preset range of motion (ROM) goals and prompted the patients to exercise when idle. To assess accuracy, the device's readings were compared with manual measurements. Patient satisfaction was determined by a self-report questionnaire; exercise compliance was assessed by calculating activity rate and stratified interactivity intervals. CBG readings reproduced clinician measurements reliably between 0 degrees and 100 degrees (eta(2)=98.5%). Auditory feedback was more helpful than visual feedback for motivating exercise. During feedback-on days, the mean total activity rate +/- standard deviation was 15.1+/-10.9 activity counts per hour, and the interactivity interval was 6.7+/-5.7 minutes. The activity rate was higher on feedback-off days-22.5+/-11.1 counts/hour (P=.11)-and the mean interactivity interval was 3.6+/-2.7 minutes (P=.07). The CBG provided reliable, unbiased estimates of clinician measurements of joint angle within the range of 0 degrees to 100 degrees. The CBG was accepted well by most patients. Surprisingly, slightly more ROM activity was noted during feedback-off days than feedback-on days.
Lavernia, Carlos J; Villa, Jesus M; Iacobelli, David A
Psychological distress has been associated with inferior scores for pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, its relationships with scores and arthrofibrosis after TKA remain unclear. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs), including Knee Society (KS) scores, of those patients who developed arthrofibrosis and underwent manipulation and compare them with a control group; and (2) in patients with arthrofibrosis who underwent manipulation, to determine PROs and KS scores of those with psychological distress and those without it. During a 17-year period (August 1992 to October 2009), a total of 1952 TKAs were performed and included in our prospectively collected joint registry database; 1248 procedures had a postoperative followup of at least 2 years (mean, 5 years; range, 2-16 years). Among them, 57 knees (53 patients) developed arthrofibrosis and underwent manipulation under anesthesia after the index procedure. This group was compared with a matched group (by age, sex, race, and ethnicity) of 63 knees (58 patients) without arthrofibrosis. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative Quality of Well-Being scale (QWB-7), SF-36, WOMAC, and The KS knee and function scores were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Patients with Mental Component Summary subscale were considered in psychological distress for all comparisons. Active knee flexion and KS range of motion (ROM) were used as objective motion measures. Minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 5 years; range, 2-16 years). Patients who developed arthrofibrosis had worse KS function scores before TKA than did patients in the nonarthrofibrosis control group (mean 27, SD 20.5 versus 37, SD 19.3; p=0.006). Patients with arthrofibrosis and psychological distress, before TKA and when compared with patients with arthrofibrosis but without distress, had worse QWB-7 (0.490 versus 0.547; p<0.001) and worse WOMAC stiffness (4.92, versus 3.22; p=0
Full Text Available In vivo kinematics of total knee arthroplasty (TKA are essential to investigate the articular surface wear of the knee implant. However, the prediction of in vivo knee kinematics and contact track during walking remains challenged. In this study, a previously developed subject-specific musculoskeletal multibody dynamics model was utilized to predict the in vivo kinematics of TKA during the straight gait and right-turn cycles, and the contact position as described by the center of pressure (COP. The predicted in vivo knee motions of the straight gait cycle were found with similar kinematic patterns and ranges of motion to clinical studies. The main internal-external rotations of the femoral component relative to the tibial insert occurred at the stance phase of the straight gait cycle with a lateral rotational pivot point; while the remaining changes in the contact positon mainly exhibited the anterior or posterior translation. For the right-turn cycle, the major changes in the contact positon were the internal-external rotations, and the rotational pivot points were mostly located at the medial compartment. These predictions further demonstrate that in vivo kinematics and contact track are gait pattern-dependent and are important considerations to further investigate the in vivo wear mechanisms of TKA bearings.
Mat Eil Ismail, Mohd Shukry; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Shokri, Amran Ahmed; Ab Rahman, Shaifuzain
Physiotherapy is an important part of rehabilitation following arthroplasty, but the impact of preoperative physiotherapy on functional outcomes is still being studied. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of preoperative physiotherapy on the short-term functional outcomes of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 50 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis who underwent unilateral primary TKA were randomised into two groups: the physiotherapy group (n = 24), whose patients performed physical exercises for six weeks immediately prior to surgery, and the nonphysiotherapy group (n = 26). All patients went through a similar physiotherapy regime in the postoperative rehabilitation period. Functional outcome assessment using the algofunctional Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) scale and range of motion (ROM) evaluation was performed preoperatively, and postoperatively at six weeks and three months. Both groups showed a significant difference in all algofunctional KOOS subscales (p 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the time-versus-treatment analysis between groups for the symptoms (p = 0.003) and activities of daily living (p = 0.025) subscales. No significant difference in ROM was found when comparing preoperative measurements and those at three months following surgery, as well as in time-versus-treatment analysis (p = 0.928). Six-week preoperative physiotherapy showed no significant impact on short-term functional outcomes (KOOS subscales) and ROM of the knee following primary TKA. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Pantos, Panayiotis G; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Soucacos, Panayiotis N; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M
This paper aims to study the prevalence of total knee and hip replacements in Greek patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to identify possible predictive factors for future total hip or knee replacement. A retrospective medical record review was performed in 750 RA patients who were recruited during 1994 to 2008 in a single Greek medical centre. Of the reviewed patients, 489 with a minimum follow-up duration of 1 year were enrolled in the study. The occurrence of total hip or knee replacement was used as the primary outcome variable in the predictive analysis. Total hip or knee replacement associated with RA was performed in 21 patients (4.3%). Total disease duration was the most significant factor associated with increased likelihood of total joint replacement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at baseline examination was positively associated with subsequent knee or hip joint replacement (OR=1.023, 95%CI 1.005-1.04). Inadequate response to treatment was associated with a 3.12-times higher likelihood of joint replacement (95%CI, 1.28-7.58). The patients who underwent total hip or knee replacement had significantly higher ESRs and DAS 28 levels (pjoint hip or knee replacement can improve pharmacological treatment to maintain function and prevent destruction of the affected joints. Longer disease duration and inadequate response to treatment after the first year of follow-up increases the likelihood ratio for total joint replacement during the course of disease in Greek RA patients.
Bossmann, Tanja; Brauner, Torsten; Wearing, Scott; Horstmann, Thomas
This study explored whether nociceptive (NS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and psychological distress were predictive of pain 6 months after primary total knee replacement. ANS and NS regulation, psychological distress and self-reported pain, stiffness and function were evaluated preoperatively in 56 patients. Pain severity measured 6 months after surgery was used as the primary outcome in an analysis of covariance model. The data of 47 patients (85.5%) could be analyzed. Postoperative pain severity 6 months after surgery was significantly associated with reduced heart rate variability and tended to be related to a lower conditioned pain modulation effect, but the latter only in females. Due to the small sample size the results must be interpreted with caution. A dysregulation of ANS and NS may be predictive of pain severity 6 months after total knee replacement. The impact of the conditioned pain modulation effect could be sex specific.
Computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty was developed in Grenoble in the mid-1990s. The first human implantation was performed on 21 January 1997, with no particular problems. Since this date more than 200,000 patients have been implanted with our device all over the world. The device is passive (not active like a robot), and requires no pre- or perioperative imaging. It is based on kinematics and palpation, the surgeon remaining in charge at all times. The computer helps to identify the lower leg axis, to accurately fix the bone cutting guides, and to check the ligament balance. These steps are not easy to perform with conventional ancillaries. The effectiveness of computer-assisted total knee replacement is well documented, although it is too early to claim that a "well-aligned" prothesis will have a better survival rate. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, with modern prostheses, to confirm the results of historical studies.
Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Husted, Henrik
OBJECTIVE: To compare 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with or without progressive strength training (PST) commenced early after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on functional performance. METHODS: In total, 82 patients with a unilateral primary TKA were randomized to 2...... different interventions: 7 weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with PST (PST group) and without PST (CON group) commenced early after fast-track TKA. The primary outcome was the maximal distance walked in 6 minutes (6-minute walk test). Secondary outcomes were lower extremity strength and power...... meaningful differences between groups in change scores from baseline to any other time point for all secondary outcomes. The secondary outcome knee extension strength did not reach the level recorded before surgery in both groups. CONCLUSION: Seven weeks of supervised physical rehabilitation with PST...
Lee, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Jung, Eun-Jung; Lee, Byoung-Hee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental information for efficient management of patients after a total knee replacement (TKR) through the evaluation of changes of range of motion, pain, functional level, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] For a total of 63 knee osteoarthritis patients, VAS, KSKS, KSFS, HSS, WOMAC scores and quality of life were evaluated for functional levels at pre-operation, post-operation, six months after operation, and 12 months after operation. [Results] After the TKR operations, participants showed significant improvement in KSKS, KSFS, WOMAC, and SF-36 scores when compared to pre-operation. [Conclusion] After a TKR operation, ROM, and pain management, along with a therapeutic program for improvement of function, should be conducted 6 months after the operation.
Artz, Neil; Elvers, Karen T; Lowe, Catherine Minns; Sackley, Cath; Jepson, Paul; Beswick, Andrew D
Rehabilitation, with an emphasis on physiotherapy and exercise, is widely promoted after total knee replacement. However, provision of services varies in content and duration. The aim of this study is to update the review of Minns Lowe and colleagues 2007 using systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of post-discharge physiotherapy exercise in patients with primary total knee replacement. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL to October 4(th) 2013 for randomised evaluations of physiotherapy exercise in adults with recent primary knee replacement. Outcomes were: patient-reported pain and function, knee range of motion, and functional performance. Authors were contacted for missing data and outcomes. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Data was combined using random effects meta-analysis and reported as standardised mean differences (SMD) or mean differences (MD). Searches identified 18 randomised trials including 1,739 patients with total knee replacement. Interventions compared: physiotherapy exercise and no provision; home and outpatient provision; pool and gym-based provision; walking skills and more general physiotherapy; and general physiotherapy exercise with and without additional balance exercises or ergometer cycling. Compared with controls receiving minimal physiotherapy, patients receiving physiotherapy exercise had improved physical function at 3-4 months, SMD -0.37 (95% CI -0.62, -0.12), and pain, SMD -0.45 (95% CI -0.85, -0.06). Benefit up to 6 months was apparent when considering only higher quality studies. There were no differences for outpatient physiotherapy exercise compared with home-based provision in physical function or pain outcomes. There was a short-term benefit favouring home-based physiotherapy exercise for range of motion flexion. There were no differences in outcomes when the comparator was hydrotherapy, or when additional balancing or cycling components were included. In
Ko, Yu; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Yeo, Seng-Jin; Yang, Kuang-Ying; Yeo, William; Chong, Hwei-Chi; Thumboo, Julian
To compare the responsiveness of the Knee Society (KS) Clinical Rating System, the general health status measure Short Form 36 (SF-36), and both the raw and Rasch-based scores of the condition-specific Oxford Knee Score (OKS) in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) METHODS: Data were prospectively collected as part of routine care from adult patients who underwent TKR between 2001 and 2006. OKS data fit the Rasch partial credit model after removing items regarding limping and kneeling. Responsiveness was assessed using effect size (ES), standardised response mean (SRM), and relative validity (RV). Among 702 patients with complete data at baseline and two follow-ups, the pain subscale of the KS (KS-P), raw-OKS, and Rasch-OKS consistently had higher levels of responsiveness than all eight SF-36 and the other KS subscales. At 6-month follow-up, Rasch-OKS had the largest ES and KS-P had the largest SRM (2.7 and 2.0, respectively). When compared to raw-OKS, the RVs of KS-P, Rasch-OKS, SF-36 bodily pain, and SF-36 physical functioning were 1.1, 0.66, 0.49, and 0.36, respectively. A similar ordering of responsiveness was observed at 24-month follow-up. The OKS and KS-P are more responsive than most SF-36 subscales in TKR patients. Raw-OKS and Rasch-OKS have comparable responsiveness. Different responsiveness indices may give different results.
Cordtz, Rene Lindholm; Zobbe, Kristian; Højgaard, Pil
OBJECTIVES: To investigate predictors of 10-year risk of revision and 1-year risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and death following total hip/total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) in (1) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with patients with osteoarthritis (OA); and (2) patients.......65-3.40)), PJI (SHR=1.61 (0.70-3.69)) nor death (HR=0.75 (0.24-2.33)) compared with non-treated. Glucocorticoid exposure (HR=2.87 (1.12-7.34)) and increasing DAS28 (HR=1.49 (1.01-2.20)) were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with RA had a decreased 10-year risk of revision while the risk of death......) and the Danish Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registers. Survival analyses were used to calculate confounder-adjusted sub-HRs (SHR) and HRs. RESULTS: In total, 3913 patients with RA with THA/TKA were compared with 120 499 patients with OA. Patients with RA had decreased risk of revision (SHR 0.71 (0...
Maniar, Rajesh Navin; Patil, Aniket Machindra; Maniar, Adit Rajesh; Gangaraju, Bharat; Singh, Jaivardhan
Background Low vitamin D levels affects muscle function. Vitamin D and calcium deficiency cause osteomalacic myopathy and poor functional recovery after hip fractures. The relationship of vitamin D and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is not previously reported. Methods Influence of vitamin D on functional performance before and after TKA was reviewed retrospectively in 120 patients. Of these, 64 had vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D < 30 ng/mL) preoperative...
Shaath, Mohammed; Sukeik, Mohamed; Mortada, Saadallah; Masterson, Sean
Compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee replacement (TKR) surgery that needs prompt diagnosis and treatment as it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. We have found very few reports in the literature describing compartment syndrome after TKRs and therefore, present a relevant case which occurred in the immediate postoperative phase and was treated with fasciotomy and subsequent operations to close the soft tissue defects. PMID:27672575
Liu, David; Graham, David; Gillies, Kim; Gillies, R Mark
Purpose A pneumatic tourniquet is commonly used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve surgical field visualisation but may result in quadriceps muscle ischaemia. We performed this study to analyse the effect of the tourniquet on recovery following TKA. Materials and Methods A prospective randomised single-blinded trial was undertaken to examine the effect of the tourniquet on post-operative pain, swelling, blood loss, quadriceps function and outcome following TKA. Twenty patients with o...
Feczko, Peter; Engelmann, Lutz; Arts, Jacobus J.; Campbell, David
Background Despite the growing evidence in the literature there is still a lack of consensus regarding the use of minimally invasive surgical technique (MIS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods A prospective, randomized, international multicentre trial including 69 patients was performed to compare computer-assisted TKA (CAS-TKA) using either mini-midvastus (MIS group) or standard medial parapatellar approach (conventional group). Patients from 3 centers (Maastricht, Zwickau, Adelaide) ...
Mei, ShuYa; Jin, ShuQing; Chen, ZhiXia; Ding, XiBing; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Quan
Patients frequently experience postoperative pain after a total knee arthroplasty; such pain is always challenging to treat and may delay the patient's recovery. It is unclear whether local infiltration or a femoral nerve block offers a better analgesic effect after total knee arthroplasty.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare local infiltration with a femoral nerve block in patients who underwent a primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through December 2014. Two reviewers scanned abstracts and extracted data. The data collected included numeric rating scale values for pain at rest and pain upon movement and opioid consumption in the first 24 hours. Mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each end point. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate potential sources of heterogeneity.While the numeric rating scale values for pain upon movement (MD-0.62; 95%CI: -1.13 to -0.12; p=0.02) in the first 24 hours differed significantly between the patients who received local infiltration and those who received a femoral nerve block, there were no differences in the numeric rating scale results for pain at rest (MD-0.42; 95%CI:-1.32 to 0.47; p=0.35) or opioid consumption (MD 2.92; 95%CI:-1.32 to 7.16; p=0.18) in the first 24 hours.Local infiltration and femoral nerve block showed no significant differences in pain intensity at rest or opioid consumption after total knee arthroplasty, but the femoral nerve block was associated with reduced pain upon movement.
Jørgensen, C C; Pitter, F T; Kehlet, H
Background: Preoperative single high-dose glucocorticoid may have early outcome benefits in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but long-term safety aspects have not been evaluated. Methods: From October 2013, the departments reporting to the prospective Lundbeck Foundation....... Conclusions: In this detailed prospective cohort study, preoperative high-dose glucocorticoid administration was not associated with LOS >4 days, readmissions or infectious complications in TKA patients without contraindications....
Gaffney, Brecca M.; Harris, Michael D.; Davidson, Bradley S.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.; Christiansen, Cory L.; Shelburne, Kevin B.
Patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) demonstrate quadriceps weakness and functional limitations one year after surgery during daily tasks such as walking and stair climbing. Most biomechanical analyses of patients after TKA focus on quadriceps function and rarely investigate other lower-extremity muscles or high-demand ambulatory activities of daily living. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify lower-extremity muscle forces in patients with unilateral TKA during high-demand...
Chang, Ri-Na; Kim, Jong-Hak; Lee, Heeseung; Baik, Hee-Jung; Chung, Rack Kyung; Kim, Chi Hyo; Hwang, Tae-Hu
Fat embolism syndrome is a rare and potentially lethal complication most commonly seen in long bone fractures and intramedullary manipulation. The clinical triad of fat embolism syndrome consists of mental confusion, respiratory distress, and petechiae. This study reports a case of cerebral fat embolism syndrome following elective bilateral total knee replacement. After an uneventful anesthesia and initial recovery, the patient developed neurologic symptoms nine hours postoperatively.
Jaeger, P; Grevstad, Ulrik; Henningsen, Maja
In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the effect of the predominantly sensory adductor-canal-blockade on established pain in the early post-operative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesised that the adductor-canal-blockade would reduce pain during flexion of the knee...
Thomsen, Morten G; Latifi, Roshan; Kallemose, Thomas
Background and purpose - When evaluating the outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), increasing emphasis has been put on patient satisfaction and ability to perform activities of daily living. To address this, the forgotten joint score (FJS) for assessment of knee awareness has been developed...
Gözde Özcan Söylev
Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a painful and disabling disorder that usually affects the extremities. This complication may affect the knee joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. We report a unique case of CRPS of the foot and ankle, which was an unusual involvement site for CRPS after TKA.
Barink, M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de
Good femoral bone stock is important for the stability of the femoral component in revision knee arthroplasty. However, the primary total knee replacement (TKR) may cause significant loss of bone stock in the distal anterior femur. Earlier stress-induced bone remodelling simulations have suggested
Bali, Cagla; Ozmete, Ozlem; Eker, H Evren; Hersekli, Murat A; Aribogan, Anis
This study evaluated the postoperative analgesic efficacies of fascia iliaca block and periarticular drug injection techniques after TKA (total knee arthroplasty) surgeries. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. University Teaching and Research Center. Seventy-one American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-III patients between 48 and 70 years of age who underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized. Tenoxicam (20 mg) was administered intramuscularly to both groups of patients 30 minutes before surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups to receive fascia iliaca block before the induction of anesthesia (Group FI) or periarticular drug injection during the surgery (Group PI). All surgeries were performed under general anesthesia using standard techniques. Postoperative analgesia was provided with patient-controlled intravenous morphine. Total morphine consumption was the primary outcome measure and was recorded postoperatively at 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Pain levels at rest and on movement (knee flexion) were evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and recorded at the same time points. Patients' demographics, rescue analgesic demands, side effects, hemodynamics, and satisfaction scores were also recorded. The groups had similar VAS scores both at rest and on movement (P>.05). However, the amount of cumulative morphine and use at each follow-up period was higher in Group PI (P.05). Fascia iliaca block may be used as an alternative method to periarticular injection, and it effectively reduces the amount of morphine used to relieve post-TKA pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marcus Vinicius Malheiros Luzo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results from surgery with computer-assisted navigation in cases of total knee arthroplasty.METHOD: a total of 196 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty with computer-assisted navigation were evaluated. The extension and flexion spaces (gaps were evaluated during the operation and the alignment after the operation was assessed. The Knee Society Score (KSS questionnaire for assessing patient's function was applied preoperatively and postoperatively after a mean follow-up of 22 months.RESULTS: in all, 86.7% of the patients presented good alignment of the mechanical axis (less than 3◦ of varus or valgus in relation to the mechanical axis and 96.4% of the patients presented balanced flexion and extension gaps. Before the operation, 97% of the patients presented poor or insufficient KSS, but after the operation, 77.6% presented good or excellent KSS.CONCLUSION: the navigation system made it possible to achieve aligned and balanced implants, with notable functional improvement among the patients. It was found to be useful in assessing, understanding and improving knowledge in relation to performing arthroplasty procedures.
Hugo Alexandre de Araújo Barros Cobra
Full Text Available O desgaste do polietileno tibial utilizado nas artroplastias de joelho origina partículas que, quando fagocitadas, dão início à cascata de eventos biológicos que levam à osteólise e consequente afrouxamento dos componentes da prótese. Assim sendo, alternativas para o polietileno têm sido pesquisadas com o objetivo de minimizar o desgaste e, com isso, aumentar a durabilidade das artroplastias. Uma dessas opções é a utilização de polietilenos tibiais móveis, que apresentam maior conformidade do que os polietilenos fixos, ao mesmo tempo em que permitem autoalinhamento rotacional entre os componentes, melhorando, dessa forma, a cinética e a cinemática da prótese. São apresentados aqui, de forma resumida, porém abrangente, o conceito, os fundamentos biomecânicos, as indicações, os resultados esperados e complicações dos polietilenos tibiais móveis nas artroplastias totais do joelho.Debris of polyethylene tibial bearings have been recognized as a major cause for the onset of the cascade of biological events leading to osteolysis and loosening of prosthetic components after total knee arthroplasty. Since then, research has been focused on alternative bearing surfaces in order to minimize the amount and rate of polyethylene wear off and, in doing so, increasing the survivorship rate for knee arthroplasties. One such option is to have a mobile tibial bearing allowing more conformity and rotational self-alignment of the components, improving kinetics and kinematics of the prosthesis. The authors present a resumed but throughout and comprehensive review of the rationale, biomechanics fundamentals, indications, pitfalls, outcomes and complications for the use of mobile tibial bearings in total knee replacement.
Kloth, J.K.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A. [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tanner, M.; Ewerbeck, V. [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Center of Orthopedics, Trauma and Spinal Cord Injury; Stiller, W. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, I. [Univ. of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Dept. of Nursing and Health, Saarbruecken (Germany)
To reduce radiation exposure of frequently performed radiographs of the knee in follow-up of total-knee arthroplasty ensuring accurate assessment by using objective quality control criteria. In this prospective randomized study 278 radiographs of the knee in follow-up of total-knee arthroplasty were performed with standard and 37 % reduced radiation dose. The evaluation of the plain-radiographs was conducted using the following criteria: bone-implant interface, implant-surface character, implant-implant discrimination and periarticular heterotopic ossification. Two radiologists evaluated these criteria using a score ranging from 1 (definitely assessable) to 4 (not assessable). If a single criterion had been evaluated with a score ≥ 3 or more than 2 criteria with ≥ 2 points, the radiograph was score das ''not assessable''. The study was designed as non-inferiority-trial. 100 % of examined radiographs were scored as assessable, hence no statistical inferiority between the examinations with standard and reduced dose could be observed. Singular assessment of the defined criteria was likewise dose-independent. Plain-radiography of the knee following total-knee arthroplasty can be performed with 63 % of standard dose without loss of diagnostic validity.
Murtha, Andrew S; Johnson, Anthony E; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Rivera, Jessica C
United States military personnel frequently suffer knee injuries. The resulting progressive posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) causes significant disability in these young high-demand patients for which total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the only effective treatment of their pain and impairment. Yet the use of this option for treatment of PTOA has not been studied. This retrospective review identified 74 knees in 64 U.S. military personnel who underwent TKA at ≤50 years of age during an 8-year period at a tertiary-care, academic, military medical center. Fifty-five knees (74.3%) experienced one or more prior ligamentous, meniscal, or chondral injuries prior to arthroplasty. Only one subject had a history of osteochondral intra-articular fracture. The average at injury was 29.2 years (95%CI of ±2.50) with an average age at arthroplasty of 44.3 years (±1.11). The most common injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture (n = 19) with a mean time to TKA of 23.1 (±10.54) and 18.8 years (±7.01) when concomitant meniscal pathology was noted. Nineteen patients were noted to have radiographic and symptomatic end-stage osteoarthritis without a specified etiology at 41.4 years (±1.47) and underwent subsequent TKA. This is the first study to evaluate treatment of end-stage PT OA in young people treated with TKA, finding that the incidence of PTOA as an indication for arthroplasty is significantly higher than among civilians. In this otherwise healthy, high-demand patient population, the rate of OA progression following knee injury is accelerated and the long term implications can be career and life altering. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:677-681, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pollo, F E; Jackson, R W; Koëter, S; Ansari, S; Motley, G S; Rathjen, K W
During the past decade, the technology and design of knee joint prostheses has progressed considerably. However, there is still much controversy on whether resurfacing the patella during routine total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is necessary. This study compares the biomechanics of the lower limb in patients after TKA with and without patellar resurfacing during level walking, stair climbing, and chair rising. Eighteen patients who underwent TKA by two different surgeons using the same prosthesis were studied after full rehabilitation while walking, stair climbing, and chair rising. Patients were divided between those who were resurfaced and those who were not resurfaced. An aged-matched control population was recruited for comparison. The Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Rating Scale was used to gather clinical information. Kinematic and kinetic parameters were collected using a 5-camera Motion Analysis System and an AMTI OR6-5 force platform. For level walking, patients were asked to walk at a self-selected speed down an 8-m walkway. For stair climbing, patients were asked to climb a 4-step staircase without handrail support and for chair rising, patients were asked to rise from a chair that was positioned at the height of their knee joint line. Five trials for each side were recorded for averaging and statistical analysis. Temporal-spatial parameters and kinematic and kinetic variables at the knee joint were tested for significance using the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant differences in the biomechanics of walking, stair climbing, or chair rising between patients after TKA with and without a resurfaced patella.
Pichonnaz, Claude; Bassin, Jean-Philippe; Lécureux, Estelle; Christe, Guillaume; Currat, Damien; Aminian, Kamiar; Jolles, Brigitte M
To evaluate the effects of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) on knee swelling and the assumed consequences of swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Randomized controlled trial. Primary care hospital. Two groups of 30 patients were randomized before TKA surgery (N=60; 65% women ; mean age, 70.7±8.8y; weight, 77.8±11.3kg; size, 1.64±0.08m; body mass index, 29.9±4.1kg/m(2)). Participants received either 5 MLD treatments or a placebo, added to rehabilitation, in between the second day and the seventh day after surgery. Swelling was measured by blinded evaluators before surgery and at second day, seventh day, and 3 months using bioimpedance spectroscopy and volume measurement. Secondary outcomes were active and passive range of motion, pain, knee function, and gait parameters. At seventh day and 3 months, no outcome was significantly different between groups, except for the knee passive flexion contracture at 3 months, which was lower and less frequent in the MLD group (-2.6°; 95% confidence interval, -5.0° to -0.21°; P=.04; absolute risk reduction, 26.6%; 95% confidence interval, 0.9%-52.3%; number needed to treat, 4). The mean pain level decreased between 5.8 and 8.2mm on the visual analog scale immediately after MLD, which was significant after 4 of 5 MLD treatments. MLD treatments applied immediately after TKA surgery did not reduce swelling. It reduced pain immediately after the treatment. Further studies should investigate whether the positive effect of MLD on knee extension is replicable. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Komnik, Igor; Peters, Markus; Funken, Johannes; David, Sina; Weiss, Stefan; Potthast, Wolfgang
After knee arthroplasty (KA) surgery, patients experience abnormal kinematics and kinetics during numerous activities of daily living. Biomechanical investigations have focused primarily on level walking, whereas walking on sloped surfaces, which is stated to affect knee kinematics and kinetics considerably, has been neglected to this day. This study aimed to analyze over-ground walking on level and sloped surfaces with a special focus on transverse and frontal plane knee kinematics and kinetics in patients with KA. A three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis was performed by means of optoelectronic stereophogrammetry 1.8 ± 0.4 years following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental arthroplasty surgery (UKA). AnyBody™ Modeling System was used to conduct inverse dynamics. The TKA group negotiated the decline walking task with reduced peak knee internal rotation angles compared with a healthy control group (CG). First-peak knee adduction moments were diminished by 27% (TKA group) and 22% (UKA group) compared with the CG during decline walking. No significant differences were detected between the TKA and UKA groups, regardless of the locomotion task. Decline walking exposed apparently more abnormal knee frontal and transverse plane adjustments in KA patients than level walking compared with the CG. Hence, walking on sloped surfaces should be included in further motion analysis studies investigating KA patients in order to detect potential deficits that might be not obvious during level walking.
Full Text Available After knee arthroplasty (KA surgery, patients experience abnormal kinematics and kinetics during numerous activities of daily living. Biomechanical investigations have focused primarily on level walking, whereas walking on sloped surfaces, which is stated to affect knee kinematics and kinetics considerably, has been neglected to this day. This study aimed to analyze over-ground walking on level and sloped surfaces with a special focus on transverse and frontal plane knee kinematics and kinetics in patients with KA. A three-dimensional (3D motion analysis was performed by means of optoelectronic stereophogrammetry 1.8 ± 0.4 years following total knee arthroplasty (TKA and unicompartmental arthroplasty surgery (UKA. AnyBody™ Modeling System was used to conduct inverse dynamics. The TKA group negotiated the decline walking task with reduced peak knee internal rotation angles compared with a healthy control group (CG. First-peak knee adduction moments were diminished by 27% (TKA group and 22% (UKA group compared with the CG during decline walking. No significant differences were detected between the TKA and UKA groups, regardless of the locomotion task. Decline walking exposed apparently more abnormal knee frontal and transverse plane adjustments in KA patients than level walking compared with the CG. Hence, walking on sloped surfaces should be included in further motion analysis studies investigating KA patients in order to detect potential deficits that might be not obvious during level walking.
Komnik, Igor; David, Sina; Weiss, Stefan; Potthast, Wolfgang
After knee arthroplasty (KA) surgery, patients experience abnormal kinematics and kinetics during numerous activities of daily living. Biomechanical investigations have focused primarily on level walking, whereas walking on sloped surfaces, which is stated to affect knee kinematics and kinetics considerably, has been neglected to this day. This study aimed to analyze over-ground walking on level and sloped surfaces with a special focus on transverse and frontal plane knee kinematics and kinetics in patients with KA. A three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis was performed by means of optoelectronic stereophogrammetry 1.8 ± 0.4 years following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental arthroplasty surgery (UKA). AnyBody™ Modeling System was used to conduct inverse dynamics. The TKA group negotiated the decline walking task with reduced peak knee internal rotation angles compared with a healthy control group (CG). First-peak knee adduction moments were diminished by 27% (TKA group) and 22% (UKA group) compared with the CG during decline walking. No significant differences were detected between the TKA and UKA groups, regardless of the locomotion task. Decline walking exposed apparently more abnormal knee frontal and transverse plane adjustments in KA patients than level walking compared with the CG. Hence, walking on sloped surfaces should be included in further motion analysis studies investigating KA patients in order to detect potential deficits that might be not obvious during level walking. PMID:28002437
Ma, Yuan; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Ushio, Tetsuro; Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Akasaki, Yukio; Nakashima, Yasuharu
Placement of tibial component is expected to fulfill both maximum surface coverage and recommended anterior-posterior (AP) alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the tibial baseplate shape on AP axis. Virtual surgery of TKA was performed with three-dimensional bone models reconstructed from 77 osteoarthritis varus knees. Two differently designed tibial baseplates, symmetrically and anatomically, were set to the cut surface under posterior slopes of 0°, 3°, and 7°. The AP axes were defined by connecting the geometrical center of the cut surface with the medial edge (axis MED) and medial 1/3 (axis 1/3MED) of patella tendon attachment. We evaluated the overhang rates as well as the most fitting AP axis which passes through the geometric center. Overhang rates when aligned to axis MED were 12-25% for the symmetrical-type group and 13-22% for the anatomical-type group. Overhang rates when aligned to axis 1/3MED were 42-48% for the symmetrical-type group and 3-7% for the anatomical-type group. The most fitting AP axis of tibial baseplate was located 2.5° external to axis MED for the symmetrical-type group and around 3.3° internal to axis 1/3MED for the anatomical-type group. Symmetrically or anatomically designed tibial baseplates have their own favored AP axis and specific performance on coverage. When aligned to axis 1/3MED, anatomically designed tibial baseplates will effectively lower the mismatch rates compared to a symmetrically designed tibial baseplate. Orthopaedic surgeons are expected to place the tibial components to the cut surface during TKA with full understanding of the features between different baseplate designs, AP axes, and posterior slopes for an ideal tibial rotational position.
Seo, Seung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Wan; Seo, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Do-Hun; Kim, Ok-Gul; Lee, Chang-Rack
When evaluating the effects of the preparation of the flexion gap on the extension gap in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the effects of posterior condylar resection and osteophyte removal on the extension gap should be differentiated. Although the amount of osteophytes differs between patients, posterior condylar resection is a procedure that is routinely implemented in TKA. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the resection of the posterior condyle of the femur on the extension gap in posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA. We enrolled 40 knees that underwent PS TKA between July 2010 and February 2011 with no or minimal osteophytes in the posterior compartment and a varus deformity of <15°. We measured the extension gap before and after the resection of the posterior condyle of the femur using a tensor under 20 and 40 lb of distraction force. Under 20 lb of distraction force, the average extension gap was 13.3 mm (standard deviation [SD], 1.6) before and 13.8 mm (SD, 1.6) after posterior condylar resection. Under 40 lb of distraction force, the average extension gap was 15.1 mm (SD, 1.5) before and 16.1 mm (SD, 1.7) after posterior condylar resection. The resection of the posterior condyle of the femur in PS TKA increased the extension gap. However, this increase was only by approximately 1 mm. In conclusion, posterior condylar resection does increase the extension gap by approximately 1 mm. However, in most case, this change in unlikely to be clinically important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio; Lepri, Andrea Cozzi; Sirleo, Luigi; Innocenti, Massimo
Polyethylene (PE) wear is a major contributor to implant loosening following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and advanced bearings in TKA are being investigated with hopes of reducing or eliminate wear-related loosening. Currently, information on knee tribology is available from national joint registries and may be the best tools to evaluate the efficacy and safety of design innovations in joint arthroplasty. We performed a review of national joint registries trying to answer the following questions: "Which is the main factor directly related to revisions rate in TKA?" and "Are there new bearing options better than conventional ones?" A review was performed of all published annual reports of National Joint Registers, as well as of the literature. The search was carried out using and comparing the National Joint Registers. Current data from registries for total knee arthroplasty indicates that age is the major factor affecting the outcome of primary total knee replacement. The 10-year cumulative revision rate for non-cross-linked PE was 5.8% and for XLPE it was 3.5%. The effect of cross-linked polyethylene was more evident in the younger patients. The survival of the oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral component appears better when compared to a similar age group of patients with conventional group of prostheses. Our review suggests that the revision rates are half for the OxZr components compared to conventional CoCr femoral components. Age is the most relevant single factor related to revision rate. Cross-linked PE has a statistical lower revision rate at 10 years compared to conventional PE and, in the OxZr group, the revision rate is 2 times lower than Co-Cr in the same group of age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common form of treatment to relieve pain and improve function in cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Good clinical outcomes have been reported with a variety of TKA prostheses. The cementless Hi-Tech Knee II cruciate-retaining (CR-type prosthesis, which has 6 fins at the anterior of the femoral component, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL retention, flat-on-flat surface component geometry, all-polyethylene patella, strong initial fixation by the center screw of the tibial base plate, 10 layers of titanium alloy fiber mesh, and direct compression molded ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, is appropriate for TKA in the Japanese knee. The present study was performed to evaluate the clinical results of primary TKA in RA using the cementless Hi-Tech Knee II CR-type prosthesis. Materials and methods We performed 32 consecutive primary TKAs using cementless Hi-Tech Knee II CR-type prosthesis in 31 RA patients. The average follow-up period was 8 years 3 months. Clinical evaluations were performed according to the American Knee Society (KS system, knee score, function score, radiographic evaluation, and complications. Results The mean postoperative maximum flexion angle was 115.6°, and the KS knee score and function score improved to 88 and 70 after surgery, respectively. Complications, such as infection, occurred in 1 patient and revision surgery was performed. There were no cases of loosening in this cohort, and prosthesis survival rate was 96.9% at 12 years postoperatively. Conclusion These results suggest that TKA using the cementless Hi-Tech Knee II CR-type prosthesis is a very effective form of treatment in RA patients at 5 to 12 years postoperatively. Further long-term follow-up studies are required to determine the ultimate utility of this type of prosthesis.
Robin, Brett N; Ellington, Matthew D; Jupiter, Daniel C; Allen, Bryce C
The plateau-patella angle (PPA) has been proposed as a new and simpler method to describe patellar height. This method has not been used or validated in knees following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A modified PPA (mPPA) was developed for use in this population. The method was validated by determining the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the technique in 50 consecutive patients compared to three well-described methods of describing patellar height after TKA. Three observers then evaluated the mPPA of 297 post-operative radiographs to describe a normal range after TKA for a given technique and implant. The interobserver reliability was the highest for the mPPA compared to the other methods. The mean mPPA for the entire cohort was 21.06, 20.49, and 19.94 for the three observers. The modified plateau-patella angle is a reliable way to evaluate patellar height in patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robert R Edwards
Full Text Available Several recent reports suggest that pain-related catastrophizing is a risk factor for poor acute pain outcomes following surgical interventions. However, it has been less clear whether levels of catastrophizing influence longer-term postoperative outcomes. Data were analyzed from a relatively small number (n=43 of patients who underwent total knee replacement and were followed for 12 months after their surgery. Previous research has suggested that high levels of both catastrophizing and depression are associated with elevated acute postoperative pain complaints among patients undergoing knee surgery. In this sample, catastrophizing and depression at each of the assessment points were studied as prospective predictors of pain (both global pain ratings and pain at night at the subsequent assessment point over the course of one year. The predictive patterns differed somewhat across measures of pain reporting; depressive symptoms were unique predictors of greater global pain complaints, while catastrophizing was a specific and unique predictor of elevated nighttime pain. While surgical outcomes following total knee replacement are, on average, quite good, a significant minority of patients continue to experience long-term pain. The present findings suggest that high levels of catastrophizing and depression may promote enhanced pain levels, indicating that interventions designed to reduce catastrophizing and depressive symptoms may have the potential to further improve joint replacement outcomes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum in the serum of paediatric tumour patients after fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty. Further, these metal ion levels were compared with serum metal ion levels of patients with other orthopaedic devices such as hip and knee prostheses with metal-on-metal or metal-on-polyethylene articulation to find differences between anatomical locations, abrasion characteristics, and bearing surfaces. After an average follow-up of 108 months (range: 67 to 163 of 11 paediatric patients with fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty, the mean concentrations for Co and Cr were significantly increased while Mo was within the limits compared to the upper values from the reference laboratory. Furthermore, these serum concentrations were significantly higher compared to patients with a standard rotating hinge device (P=0.002 and P<0.001 and preoperative controls (P<0.001. On the other hand, the serum levels of patients following MoM THA or rotating hinge arthroplasty using megaprostheses were higher. Therefore, periodic long-term follow-ups are recommended due to the rising concerns about systemic metal ion exposure in the literature. Upon the occurrence of adverse reactions to metal debris the revision of the fixed hinge implant should be considered.
Lee, Qunn Jid; Yeung, Sze Tsun; Wong, Yiu Chung; Wai, Yuk Leung
Patellar thickness is a concern in total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing because of the risk of patellar fracture or implant loosening. The aim of this study was to evaluate if patellar thickness is related to clinical outcome in the absence of patellar fracture or implant loosening. Early results of 169 patients who underwent total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing were reviewed to assess the effect of patellar thickness on clinical outcome. The mean follow-up was 13 months. The range of motion, Knee Society Score, Function Score and WOMAC Score were assessed preoperatively, at day 0, 6 months and 1 year. Radiographs were assessed for patellar fracture or implant loosening. Thirty-one percent of all patients had preoperative thickness thickness after patellar cut, all were female. Twenty-three percent had ≥1 mm increase of thickness after surgery. Radiographs did not show any patellar fracture or implant loosening. However, preoperative patellar thickness thickness. Residual thickness thickness ≥1 mm postoperatively was associated with lower gain in WOMAC score at 6 months. Early results of patellar resurfacing with preoperative thickness thickness thickness was also found to have inferior clinical results. II.
Husby, Vigdis S; Foss, Olav A; Husby, Otto S; Winther, Siri B
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) alleviates pain, but muscle strength and function is reduced for a long period postoperatively. To investigate whether maximal strength training (MST) is more effective in improving muscle strength than standard rehabilitation (SR) after TKA. A randomized, controlled study. Community physical therapy centers and University hospital research department. Forty-one adults superior increases in leg press and knee extension muscle strength compared with those managed with SR from 7 days' to 10 weeks' follow-up. The difference in muscle strength was maintained at 12 months' follow- up. No differences in functional performance were found at any time-point. Exercises after TKA should be performed with high intensity and target the operated leg specifically.
Nakajima, Arata; Tsuge, Shintaro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Sonobe, Masato; Shibata, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Yu; Nakagawa, Koichi
Although the Charcot arthropathy may be associated with serious complications, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the preferred choice of treatment by patients. This case report presents an 80-year-old man with intra-articular giant heterotopic ossification following loosening of femoral and tibial implants and femoral condylar fracture. He had undergone TKA because of Charcot neuropathy seven years ago and had been doing well since. Immediately after a left knee sprain, he became unable to walk. Because he had developed a skin ulcer on his left calf where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected, we postponed revision surgery until the ulcer was completely healed. While waiting, intra-articular bony fragments grew larger and formed giant heterotopic ossified masses. Eventually, the patient underwent revision surgery, and two major ossified masses were carefully and successfully extirpated. It should be noted that intra-articular heterotopic giant ossification is a significant complication after TKA for neuropathic arthropathy.
Full Text Available Although the Charcot arthropathy may be associated with serious complications, total knee arthroplasty (TKA is the preferred choice of treatment by patients. This case report presents an 80-year-old man with intra-articular giant heterotopic ossification following loosening of femoral and tibial implants and femoral condylar fracture. He had undergone TKA because of Charcot neuropathy seven years ago and had been doing well since. Immediately after a left knee sprain, he became unable to walk. Because he had developed a skin ulcer on his left calf where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected, we postponed revision surgery until the ulcer was completely healed. While waiting, intra-articular bony fragments grew larger and formed giant heterotopic ossified masses. Eventually, the patient underwent revision surgery, and two major ossified masses were carefully and successfully extirpated. It should be noted that intra-articular heterotopic giant ossification is a significant complication after TKA for neuropathic arthropathy.
Full Text Available We evaluated the efficacy of a cement gun to improve the depth of cement penetration in total knee arthroplasty. Ninety-one consecutive patients from two hospitals were recruited for this study. For Group I cement was applied to the tibial baseplate and the proximal tibia with fingers. Group 2 had similar application of cement to the tibial baseplate but cement was pressurized into the proximal tibia using a cement gun.. The knee was kept extended until the cement hardened. Standard post-operative x-rays were reviewed to assess cement penetration into the proximal tibia. The mean cement penetration was 2.1 mm in Group 1 and 3.1 mm in Group 2 and the difference was statistically significant. The use of the cement gun improves cement penetration into the proximal tibia and facilitates early stability of the implant fixation to the bone.
Justin M Head
Full Text Available Background: Patellar resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty remains a point of controversy within the literature and the generally followed paradigm varies among regions. Methods: In effort to elucidate a difference following the change from universal patellar resurfacing to universal non-resurfacing, 32 patients with bilateral TKA that included one resurfaced and one native patella were retrospectively reviewed at average follow up 21.4 months from the most recent surgery. Results: No difference was observed in patient satisfaction, KOOS-ADL score, and VAS scores. No complications or secondary patellar resurfacing occurred. Conclusions: Therefore, patients perceive no difference between knees with native patella retention or a resurfaced patella in regards to pain and function.
Swapna Pran Saikia
Full Text Available BACKGROUND To create a bloodless surgical field and to ensure less intraoperative bleeding, tourniquets are applied in total knee arthroplasty, which results in improvement of cementation quality, reducing time of surgery and ensuring implant fixing for a long term. Thigh pain, nerve palsy, ischaemia, damage of soft tissue, thromboembolism and poor wound healing and patella maltracking are the disadvantages of this technique. Due to reduced muscle strength, reduced knee ROM and increased pain, recovery may be delayed. Amongst the surgeons, the use of tourniquets is a common practise as it has many benefits such as it can enhance speed of procedure and recovery of patient. It minimises intraoperative blood loss, improves interdigitations of cement and bone and reduce the operative time. This study evaluates the effects of tourniquet use on functional and clinical outcome and on ROM of knee. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of tourniquet use on functional and clinical outcome and on ROM of knee. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study, which was randomised and it was conducted on 100 patients in Jorhat Medical College, Jorhat, Assam, between March 2013 to March 2014. 100 patients were assessed for eligibility, however, 20 patients were excluded as they had diabetes mellitus with vascular disease peripherally (10, using anticoagulant (6 and refused to participate (4. The number of patients selected for randomisation were 80, out of which, one group allocated to tourniquet group (A n=40, and other group, (B in which, no tourniquet group; out of 40 in group A, 2 patients did not receive allocated intervention; in group B, 4 patients did not receive allocated intervention, i.e. preoperative switch to general anaesthesia. Hence, the total number of patients in group A who were analysed were 38 and total number of patients in group B who were analysed were 36. All the patients had signed, given informed consent and this study
Moyad, Thomas F; Estok, Daniel
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed in knees with mild or moderate intraarticular deformity often can be resolved with careful ligament balancing and bone resection. However, extra-articular deformity may require an osteotomy to safely create rectangular flexion and extension gap balance. In these challenging situations, restoring the mechanical axis through intra-articular bone resection and soft tissue releases alone can lead to excessive bone loss and ligament instability. We report a case of TKA with combined femoral and tibial osteotomies in a post-polio patient with extra-articular deformities. Although a few small case studies have been previously published in the literature, specific details regarding this procedure are lacking. Our objective is to provide a detailed surgical technique and to review the indications for extra-articular osteotomies performed during TKA.
Klit, Jakob; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rosenlund, Signe
of sexual life. Questionnaires including Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and SF-36 were evaluated preoperatively and three, six, and twelve months postoperatively. OKS and SF-36 showed significant improvements. However, patient satisfaction and fulfillment of personal expectations did not reflect these scores....... Overall, TKA did not affect the patients’ socioeconomic status, and overall, patients did not experience impairment of sexual life, but decreased frequency and negative affection of sexual practice should be anticipated. Alternative outcome measurements of TKA surgery not focusing on implants and surgical......In this prospective multicenter study we included subjects younger than 60 years of age and scheduled for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study assessed patients’ overall satisfaction, fulfillment of pre-operative expectations, the effect on socioeconomic parameters, and quality...
Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pécora, Jose Ricardo; Demange, Marco Kawamura
Chronic lateral dislocation of the patella is a rare condition and acquired causes are usually secondary to knee trauma. The neglected chronic dislocation leads to progressive genu valgum and external tibial torsion deformities with subsequent gonarthrosis, which becomes painful and debilitating. There is no consensus regarding treatment of these patients, but total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a useful therapy in cases of painful symptomatic gonarthrosis. Few reports have shown that subvastus approach and lateral release may be a valid option for TKA, since it allows the correction of valgus deformity and patellar tracking without interrupting vascular blood supply of patella. This article reports a case of TKA and extensor mechanism realignment without patellar resurfacing in a patient with genu valgum and chronic post-traumatic patellar dislocation with satisfactory results after two years of follow-up.
Full Text Available The Mycoplasma hominis infection is a rare postoperative complication after joint replacement. Based on our knowledge, there were only two cases reported by Korea all over the world currently. A case of postoperative Mycoplasma hominis infection after total knee replacement in our hospital was reported in this article. It was confirmed through mass spectrometer and Mycoplasma cultivation and treated by the first stage debridement, polyethylene insert replacement, and then drainage and irrigation combined with sensitive antibiotics after the operation. We observed that the C reactive protein (CRP level correlates with the development of disease, while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR remains at a high level, indicating the relevance between the Mycoplasma hominis infection caused by knee joint replacement and CRP. This study aims to report the case and review relevant literature.
Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zhenxian; Wang, Ling; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin
Tibiofemoral contact forces in total knee replacement have been measured at the medial and lateral sites respectively using an instrumented prosthesis, and predicted from musculoskeletal multibody dynamics models with a reasonable accuracy. However, it is uncommon that the medial and lateral forces are applied separately to replace a total axial load according to the ISO standard in the majority of current finite element analyses. In this study, we quantified the different effects of applying the medial and lateral loads separately versus the traditional total axial load application on contact mechanics and wear prediction of a patient-specific knee prosthesis. The load application position played an important role under the medial-lateral load application. The loading set which produced the closest load distribution to the multibody dynamics model was used to predict the contact mechanics and wear for the prosthesis and compared with the total axial load application. The medial-lateral load distribution using the present method was found to be closer to the multibody dynamics prediction than the traditional total axial load application, and the maximum contact pressure and contact area were consistent with the corresponding load variation. The predicted total volumetric wear rate and area were similar between the two load applications. However, the split of the predicted wear volumes on the medial and the lateral sides was different. The lateral volumetric wear rate was 31.46% smaller than the medial from the traditional load application prediction, while from the medial-lateral load application, the lateral side was only 11.8% smaller than the medial. The medial-lateral load application could provide a new and more accurate method of load application for patient-specific preclinical contact mechanics and wear prediction of knee implants.
Ebert, Jay R; Joss, Brendan; Jardine, Berit; Wood, David J
To investigate the efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) in the early postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce edema and pain and improve knee range of motion. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Private hospital and functional rehabilitation clinic. Consecutive sample of patients (N=43; 53 knees) scheduled for TKA. MLD (vs no MLD) on days 2, 3, and 4 postoperatively. Both groups underwent conventional, concomitant physical therapy. Clinical assessment was undertaken pre- and postoperatively prior to and after the designated postoperative MLD sessions (days 2, 3, and 4) and at 6 weeks postsurgery. This included active knee flexion and extension range of motion, lower limb girths (ankle, midpatella, thigh, and calf), and knee pain using a numeric rating scale and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. A significant group effect was observed for active knee flexion, with post hoc tests demonstrating a significantly greater active knee flexion in the MLD group when compared with the control (no MLD) group at the final measure prior to hospital discharge (day 4 postsurgery) and at 6 weeks postsurgery. There were no further group effects observed for the remaining patient-reported and functional outcomes. MLD in the early postoperative stages after TKA appears to improve active knee flexion up to 6 weeks postsurgery, in addition to conventional care. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harato, Kengo; Kobayashi, Shu; Kojima, Iwao; Sakurai, Aiko; Tanikawa, Hidenori; Niki, Yasuo
The aims of the present study were to investigate the factors affecting one-leg standing (OLS) time in patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to clarify the age-related recovery process following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the early postoperative period. A total of 80 knees of 40 patients with knee OA were enrolled. They were asked to perform relaxed standing on one leg for as long as possible. First, OLS time was measured. Second, age, body mass index, knee flexion angle during (KFA) OLS, femorotibial angle (FTA) during OLS, and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain were evaluated. Multiple regression analysis was done to identify the factors affecting OLS time. In addition, the recovery process was compared between older and younger patients after TKA. A larger KFA during OLS, older age, and larger FTA were significantly associated with shorter OLS time. After TKA, postoperative OLS time in older patients did not improve significantly by postoperative day 20, while the time in younger patients improved significantly from postoperative day 19. Even if subjective knee pain and KFA during OLS improved, longer rehabilitation was required to improve OLS time in older patients in the early postoperative period.
Wied, Christian; Thomsen, Morten G; Kallemose, Thomas
BACKGROUND: Fast-track TKA has significantly shortened the time available for physiotherapists to optimize knee ROM before discharge. Safety aspects concerning knee stiffness and the need for manipulation in a fast-track setting need to be illuminated. The study aims were to analyze if fast-track...
Chawla, Harshvardhan; van der List, Jelle P; Christ, Alexander B; Sobrero, Maximiliano R; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Pearle, Andrew D
Utilization of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) as alternatives to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis (OA) has increased. However, no single resource consolidates survivorship data between TKA and partial resurfacing options for each variant of unicompartmental OA. This meta-analysis compared survivorship between TKA and medial UKA (MUKA), lateral UKA (LUKA) and PFA using annual revision rate as a standardized metric. A systematic literature search was performed for studies quantifying TKA, MUKA, LUKA and/or PFA implant survivorship. Studies were classified by evidence level and assessed for bias using the MINORS and PEDro instruments. Annual revision rates were calculated for each arthroplasty procedure as percentages/observed component-year, based on a Poisson-normal model with random effects using the R-statistical software package. One hundred and twenty-four studies (113 cohort and 11 registry-based studies) met inclusion/exclusion criteria, providing data for 374,934 arthroplasties and 14,991 revisions. The overall evidence level was low, with 96.7% of studies classified as level III-IV. Annual revision rates were lowest for TKA (0.49%, CI 0.41 to 0.58), followed by MUKA (1.07%, CI 0.87 to 1.31), LUKA (1.13%, CI 0.69 to 1.83) and PFA (1.75%, CI 1.19 to 2.57). No difference was detected between revision rates for MUKA and LUKA (p=0.222). Revisions of MUKA, LUKA and PFA occur at an annual rate of 2.18, 2.31 and 3.57-fold that of TKA, respectively. These estimates may be used to inform clinical decision-making, guide patient expectations and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of total versus partial knee replacement in the setting of unicompartmental OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Henry; Foster, Jonathan; Franksen, Natasha; Estes, Jill; Rolston, Lindsey
Newer TKR designs have been introduced to the market with the aim of overcoming common sizing problems with older TKR designs. Furthermore, since a sizable percentage of patients with OA present with disease limited to the medial/lateral knee compartment in addition to the patellofemoral joint, for whom, a customized bi-compartmental knee replacement (BKR) is available as a treatment option. To date, there is very little information regarding knee strength and mechanics during gait for patients implanted with these modern TKR and BKR designs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate knee strength and mechanics during walking for patients with either a modern off the shelf TKR or a customized BKR and compare these findings to a cohort of healthy controls. Twelve healthy controls, eight BKR, and nine TKR patients participated in the study. Maximal isometric knee strength was evaluated. 3D kinematic and kinetic analyses were conducted for level walking. The TKR knee exhibited less peak extensor torque when compared to, both the BKR and control limbs (p < 0.05). The TKR knee had less extensor moment at stance than both the BKR and control knees (p < 0.05). Both the BKR and control knees displayed larger internal rotation at stance than that of the TKR knee (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, for patients that exhibit isolated OA of the tibiofemoral joint, using a customized BKR implant is a viable treatment option and may contribute to superior mechanical advantages.
Sharma, Tankamani; Hönle, Wolfgang; Handschu, René; Adler, Werner; Goyal, Tarun; Schuh, Alexander
The aim of this study is to evaluate the difference in perioperative complication rate in total hip, bipolar hemiarthroplasties and total knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson disease in trauma and elective surgery in our Musculoskeletal Center during a period of 10 years. Between 2006 and 2016, 45 bipolar hemiarthroplasties in trauma surgery, 15 total knee and 19 total hip arthroplasties in patients with Parkinson's disease were performed. We divided the patients in two groups. Group I included trauma cases (45) and group II elective surgery cases (34). Complications were documented and divided into local minor and major complications and general minor and major complications. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical evaluation. In both groups, there was one local major complication (p > 0.05): In group I, there was one case of loosening of a K-wire which was removed operatively. In group II, there was one severe intraarticular bleeding requiring puncture of the hematoma. In group I, there were 38 general complications; in group II, there were 17 general complications. There was no statistical difference in complication rate (p > 0.05). Total hip arthroplasty, bipolar hemiarthroplasties and knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson disease is possible in elective and trauma surgery. Complication rate is higher in comparison with patients not suffering from Parkinson disease, but there is no difference in complication rate in elective and trauma surgery. Nevertheless, early perioperative neurological consultation in patients with Parkinson disease is recommended to minimize complications and improve early outcomes after arthroplasty.
N. N. Karyakin
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of knee arthroplasty using patient specific guides produced using physical prototypes and 3D printing that are applied for positioning of resection blocks. Materials and methods. The authors analyzed the treatment outcomes of 4 patients during the period from 2015 to 2016 who underwent total knee arthroplasty for posttraumatic gonarthrosis of III-IV stage with the use of patient specific guides for resection blocks positioning. The mean age of patients was 59±12 years. Initially, all patients reported marked limitation of movement in the knee joint. The average flexion prior to surgery was 53.3±35.1°. According to FLFS roentgenography all patients had a varus deformity of the lower limb with an average value of 15.0±12.3°.Results. In all cases the axis of the lower limb was normalized postoperatively. The average KOOS score for “pain” was 85.2±14.0, for “daily physical activity” — 74.5±14.8, for “symptoms and stiffness” — 69.0±11.0, for “quality of life” — 62.5±12.5 points. Average knee ROM after arthroplasty: flexion 113.3±5.787° and full extension. Such outcomes can be considered as excellent considering preoperative marked knee movement limitations in all patients.Conclusion. Preoperative planning using the technology of producing patient specific guides and prototyping on physical tibia and femur models allowed to restore normal axis of the lower limb. The authors observed a significant improvement in joint function and a pain syndrome reduction in all patients. In authors’ opinion patient specific precision guides can be used in the following cases: inflammatory process or deformation of the femur in patient’s history; when the use of intramedullary guides is difficult and does not allow positioning of the prosthesis components with sufficient accuracy or is associated with an increased risk of a purulent-inflammatory process
Full Text Available Permanent patellar dislocation with tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis is a relatively rare condition. To treat this condition, total knee arthroplasty with proximal or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism has been reported. We report a challenging case of an 80-year-old woman diagnosed with permanent patellar dislocation with tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis treated by a mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty utilizing navigation system. Lateral retinaculum release was performed to improve patellar tracking; other proximal or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism was not necessary. Postoperative radiographs show stable patellar tracking and recurrent patellar dislocation was not observed. This clinical case indicates that the implant’s precise alignment and rotation during total knee arthroplasty could settle anatomical abnormalities of permanent patellar dislocation and the mobile bearing insert could contribute to stabilizing patellar tracking.
Doury-Panchout, F; Metivier, J-C; Fouquet, B
The influence of kinesiophobia on disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis is known, but its influence on functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty remains unexplored. To assess the influence of kinesiophobia on functional recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with knee osteoarthritis and to investigate if kinesiophobia was more common in obese patients than in non-obese patients. Cohort study. Inpatients of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation unit of the Château-Renault hospital (France). The study included 89 consecutive patients (mean age = 72.6 years) hospitalized for postoperative rehabilitation after TKA. All patients completed the study. We evaluated functional outcome by testing maximum passive flexion, pain intensity, the duration of hospitalization, and performance in a six minute walk test. Kinesiophobia was assessed by the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) score. Obesity was assessed by calculation of body mass index (BMI). A Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to determine significant independent predictors of the distance at the six minute walk test. During the six minute walk test, patients without kinesiophobia walked significantly farther than patients with kinesiophobia (309.5 [83.6] m vs. 264.8 [96.5] m, P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the duration of hospitalization, the maximum passive flexion, or pain intensity between the two groups. The best multivariate model of factors associated with the performance in the 6 minute walk test included the Lequesne's score before surgery, the degree of active extension of the knee at the beginning of hospitalization, the TSK scores (total score, classification with the TSK score, "avoidance" subscale score). The overall TSK score did not differ between the obese and non-obese groups. Our study is consistent with previous reports that cognitive and behavioral maladaptative strategies can impair functional recovery after TKA. Moreover
.... This retrospective study was a chart review of a series of 92 patients who underwent 100 total knee arthroplasties performed by the same surgeon and treated with a novel microcurrent-generating antimicrobial dressing (MCD...
Rieder, F; Kösters, A; Wiesinger, H-P; Dorn, U; Hofstaedter, T; Fink, C; Seynnes, O R; Müller, E
This study investigated the effectiveness of recreational skiing as an intervention to improve quadriceps muscle architecture, strength, and antagonistic co-activation in patients with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Hence, patients with TKA were assigned to either an intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). The IG completed a 12-week guided skiing program whereas the CG was instructed not to change their daily routines for the same period and was not allowed to ski. Before, after the intervention/after an 8-week retention period m. rectus femoris (RF) cross-sectional area (CSA), m. vastus lateralis muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle were measured with ultrasonography, while isometric (90° knee angle) knee extension, flexion torque and m. biceps femoris co-activation were assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer in 26 patients. There were significant and stable increases in RF CSA for the operated (10%; P 0.05). There were no significant effects for other parameters (all P > 0.05). Overall, the skiing intervention was successful in increasing muscle mass in TKA older patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maniar, Rajesh Navin; Patil, Aniket Machindra; Maniar, Adit Rajesh; Gangaraju, Bharat; Singh, Jaivardhan
Low vitamin D levels affects muscle function. Vitamin D and calcium deficiency cause osteomalacic myopathy and poor functional recovery after hip fractures. The relationship of vitamin D and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is not previously reported. Influence of vitamin D on functional performance before and after TKA was reviewed retrospectively in 120 patients. Of these, 64 had vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D vitamin D oral supplementation postoperatively. Functional parameters including Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire, and Knee Society Score were assessed pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Preoperative function was significantly lower in osteoarthritic patients with vitamin D deficiency (WOMAC score; p = 0.040), but at 3 months all functional scores were similar. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency has a negative effect on function in knee osteoarthritic patients. However, postoperative vitamin D supplementation can lead to functional recovery in these patients. Thus, TKA should not be delayed in vitamin D deficient patients; rather supplementation in the postoperative period is preferable to achieve comparable functional outcome at 3 months to patients with vitamin D sufficiency.
Miralles-Muñoz, F A; Lizaur-Utrilla, A; Manrique-Lipa, C; López-Prats, F A
To evaluate the outcome of knee fixation without bone fusion using an intramedullary modular nail and interposed cement. Retrospective study of 29 infected total knee arthroplasties with prospective data collection and a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (3-5). Complications included 2 recurrent infections, 1 peri-implant fracture, and 1 cortical erosion due to the tip of the femoral component. All of these were revised with successful results. The mean limb length discrepancy was 0.8 cm, with 24<1cm. Twenty-five patients reported no pain. The mean WOMAC-pain was 86.9, WOMAC-function 56.4, SF12-physical 45.1, and SF12-mental 53.7. Four patients needed a walking frame, and only two were dependent for daily activities. The Endo-Model Link nail is an effective method for knee fixation that restores the anatomical alignment of the limb with adequate leg length. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hofstaedter, T; Fink, C; Dorn, U; Pötzelsberger, B; Hepperger, C; Gordon, K; Müller, E
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a recreational alpine skiing intervention on implant-related factors, such as loosening and wear, in patients with total knee arthoplasty (TKA). A group of 16 TKA patients were examined 2.3 ± 0.1 years after skiing about 80 days over three seasons inclusive of a ski intervention of 2-3 times per week (25.5 days) over a 12-week period. Mean follow-up period was 5.1 ± 1 years after surgery. All patients had excellent clinical and radiological outcomes. The average flexion was 120-130°, the average Oxford Knee Score increased from 15 points pre-operatively to 47.4 points post-operatively. An average Tegner activity level of 5.5 was assessed, indicating a very high post-operative activity level. No radiolucencies or osteolyses were observed in any of the radiographs. One patient sustained a meniscal tear in the contralateral knee. Recreational alpine skiing on intermediate terrain at moderate speed can be recommended after TKA. Analysis of mid-term follow-up has not shown any negative effect on the implant loosening or additional polyethylene wear. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chan, Vincent W K; Chan, Ping-Keung; Chiu, Kwong-Yuen; Yan, Chun-Hoi; Ng, Fu-Yuen
Wound closure is key to prevent infection, facilitate immediate rehabilitation, and improve efficiency of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Continuous knotless suturing with barbed suture can potentially save time and distribute tension more evenly. However, its role in TKA in terms of cost-effectiveness and wound complications is not clear. This study aims at comparing barbed and traditional sutures' wound closure time and cost in primary TKA. One hundred nine knees were randomized into either barbed or traditional group. Synthetic absorbable sutures (Vicryl, Ethicon Inc) and bidirectional barbed sutures (Stratafix, Ethicon Inc) were used. Arthrotomy and subcutaneous wound closure time, wound complications, and rehabilitation parameters in terms of range of motion and Knee Society Score were compared. Patients were followed up to 3 months. Traditional sutures had significantly more positive leak tests (10 vs 2, P value sutures (arthrotomy 325 seconds vs 491 seconds; subcutaneous 306 seconds vs 381 seconds, P value suture material and operation time, barbed suture on average saved USD 48.7 per TKA in our local institute. Bidirectional barbed suture improves the cost-effectiveness of TKA through reducing wound closure time and wound complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives. To compare home-based rehabilitation with the standard hospital rehabilitation in terms of improving knee joint mobility and recovery of muscle strength and function in patients after a total knee replacement. Materials and Methods. A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-eight patients with a prosthetic knee were included in the study and allocated to either a home-based or hospital-based rehabilitation programme. Treatment included various exercises to restore strength and joint mobility and to improve patients’ functional capacity. The primary outcome of the trial was the treatment effectiveness measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC. Results. The groups did not significantly differ in the leg side (right/left or clinical characteristics (P>0.05. After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements (P<0.001 from the baseline values in the level of pain (visual analogue scale, the range of flexion-extension motion and muscle strength, disability (Barthel and WOMAC indices, balance, and walking. Conclusions. This study reveals that the rehabilitation treatments offered either at home or in hospital settings are equally effective.
de Souza Leão, Marcos George; Santos Santoro, Erika; Lima Avelino, Rafael; Inoue Coutinho, Lucas; Campos Granjeiro, Ronan; Orlando Junior, Nilton
this study had the aim of assessing the quality of life among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). For this, the SF-36 and WOMAC questionnaires respectively were used to make comparisons with preoperative values. a prospective observational cohort study was conducted, with blinded analysis on the results from 107 TKAs in 99 patients, between June 2010 and October 2011. The present study included 55 knees/patients, among whom 73% were female and 27% were male. The patients' mean age was 68 years. The SF-36 and WOMAC questionnaires (which have been validated for the Portuguese language) were applied immediately before and six months after the surgical procedure. the statistical and graphical analyses indicated that the variables presented normal distribution. From the data, it was seen that all the indices underwent positive changes after the surgery. despite the initial morbidity, TKA is a very successful form of treatment for severe osteoarthritis of the knee (i.e. more than two joint compartments affected and/or Ahlback classification greater than 3), from a functional point of view, with improvement of the patients' quality of life, as confirmed in the present study. This study presented evidence level IV (description of case series), with analysis on the results, without a comparative study.
McNair, Peter J; Boocock, Mark G; Dominick, Nicholas D; Kelly, Richard J; Farrington, Bill J; Young, Simon W
Although previous studies have compared radiological, pain, and function scores in kinematically aligned (KA) and mechanically aligned (MA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), no previous studies have undertaken a three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis in these groups. This study compared kinematic and kinetic variables recorded during level walking in patients at least 2 years post-surgery who underwent an MA or KA procedure. Utilizing a 9-camera motion analysis system, gait analysis was undertaken on 29 patients (MA = 15, KA = 14). A 9-camera motion analysis system was used to collect 3D kinematic data of the involved and uninvolved limbs during walking at a self-selected speed. Additionally, 3D ground reaction forces and moments during the stance phase were recorded, and an inverse dynamics approach was utilized to analyze these data. There were no significant differences in spatial-temporal variables between MA and KA groups (P > .05). Local minima and maxima for knee joint angles were not significantly different (P > .05) across involved and uninvolved legs and MA/KA groups in any of the 3 planes of motion. Principal component analysis revealed a significant difference (P < .05) in the transverse plane moment in late stance. No other significant differences were observed for knee, hip, or ankle joint moments. Differences in gait parameters across the KA and MA groups at 2 years post-surgery were insufficient to support either one of the operative procedures over the other. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gaffney, Brecca M; Harris, Michael D; Davidson, Bradley S; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E; Christiansen, Cory L; Shelburne, Kevin B
Patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) demonstrate quadriceps weakness and functional limitations 1 year after surgery during daily tasks such as walking and stair climbing. Most biomechanical analyses of patients after TKA focus on quadriceps function and rarely investigate other lower-extremity muscles or high-demand ambulatory activities of daily living. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify lower-extremity muscle forces in patients with unilateral TKA during high-demand tasks of pivoting and descending stairs. Five patients with unilateral TKA and five age and sex-matched controls performed three bilateral high-demand tasks: (1) step down from an 8-inch platform, (2) inside pivot: 90° direction change toward planted limb, and (3) outside pivot: 90° direction change away from planted limb. Subject-specific musculoskeletal simulations were created in OpenSim to determine joint angles, moments, and lower-extremity muscle forces. The results indicate that patients with TKA adopt compensatory strategies at both the hip and knee. Patients with TKA demonstrated increased hip external rotation, decreased knee flexion, decreased quadriceps force, and decreased hip abductor force in all three tasks. These strategies are likely a result of quadriceps avoidance, which may stem from instability after TKA or a habitual strategy developed during the late stages of osteoarthritis.
Kumar, M; Battepathi, P; Bangalore, P
Recent studies have shown that patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) may not completely reflect the satisfaction of patients with the intervention. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a novel 'patient reported fulfilment of expectation' (PROFEX) questionnaire and to study the correlation between scores on PROMs (patient reported outcome measures such as SF-36 and WOMAC) and the post-operative fulfilment of expectations. In this study, a novel 20-item 'expectation' questionnaire was developed, validated and administered pre-operatively to 523 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. The 'fulfilment' questionnaire was administered one year following the operation. Physician-reported (Knee Society Scores) and patient-reported (WOMAC, SF-36) outcome measures were also administered. Both components of PROFEX questionnaire were found to have good reliability and internal consistency. No significant correlation existed between post-operative fulfilment scores and the 'improvement' scores of WOMAC, SF-36 and Knee Society scores. Lower pre-operative expectations were associated with higher post-operative fulfilment scores, but the magnitude of this correlation was low. The lack of correlation between the scores on PROMs and the PROFEX scores shows that the scores on the PROMs do not reflect the sense of fulfilment of the patients with the outcomes. Instruments that directly measure fulfilment of expectations are necessary to gain insight into the requirements of the patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ramanathan, Deepak; Saleh, Anas; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A; Barsoum, Wael K
Multimodal pain management is used after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce opioid intake. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has generated much interest as a non-pharmacologic, patient-controlled therapy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of TENS in reducing opioid intake and improving recovery after TKA. This was a prospective, parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized trial of patients receiving femoral nerve catheter block with allocation to either active or placebo TENS device groups. All participants were 18-85 years and underwent unilateral, primary TKA at two academic hospitals. Device usage was monitored during inpatient and outpatient phases. Participants were requested to return at second, fourth, and sixth postoperative weeks for follow-up. The primary endpoint was opioid usage, as indicated by medication intake in equianalgesic equivalents to morphine. Secondary measures included: visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores; functional assessments as measured from knee joint range of motion (ROM) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test; and clinical outcomes as defined by modified Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) and the 12-item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-12). Among 116 participants, overall withdrawal was 37.9% (44 patients) at similar rates in both study arms. After excluding for non-femoral nerve catheter (FNC) blocks (i.e., protocol deviations), there were 35 patients in the active group and 31 patients in the placebo group whose complete records were analyzed. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the clinical endpoints.
Madsen, Majbritt; Larsen, Kristian; Madsen, Inger Kirkegård
This study aimed to test whether group-based rehabilitation focusing on strength training, education and self-management is more effective than individual, supervised home-training after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......This study aimed to test whether group-based rehabilitation focusing on strength training, education and self-management is more effective than individual, supervised home-training after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....
Martin, Audrey J; Seagers, Kirsten A; Van Citters, Douglas W
Modular junctions in total hip arthroplasties have been associated with fretting, corrosion, and debris release. The purpose of this study is to analyze damage severity in total knee arthroplasties of a single design by qualitative visual assessment and quantitative material loss measurements to evaluate implant performance and patient impact via material loss. Twenty-two modular knee retrievals of the same manufacturer were identified from an institutional review board-approved database. Junction designs included tapers with an axial screw and tapers with a radial screw. Constructs consisted of 2 metal alloys: CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Components were qualitatively scored and quantitatively measured for corrosion and fretting. Negative values represent adhered material. Statistical differences were analyzed using sign tests. Correlations were tested with a Spearman rank order test (P material loss and the maximum linear depth for the total population were -0.23 mm(3) and 5.84 μm, respectively. CoCr components in mixed metal junctions had higher maximum linear depth (P = .007) than corresponding Ti components. Fretting scores of Ti6Al4V alloy components in mixed metal junctions were statistically higher than the remaining groups. Taper angle did not correlate with material loss. Results suggest that CoCr components in mixed metal junctions are more vulnerable to corrosion than other components, suggesting preferential corrosion when interfacing with Ti6Al4V. Overall, although corrosion was noted in this series, material loss was low, and none were revised for clinical metal-related reaction. This suggests the clinical impact from corrosion in total knee arthroplasty is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
No associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiographic features in knee osteoarthritis patients prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty: A cross-sectional analysis of the Longitudinal Leiden Orthopaedics Outcomes of Osteo-Arthritis study (LOAS) data.
Leichtenberg, Claudia S; Meesters, Jorit J L; Kroon, Herman M; Verdegaal, Suzan H M; Tilbury, Claire; Dekker, Joost; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van der Esch, Martin
To describe the prevalence of self-reported knee joint instability in patients with pre-surgery knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. A cross-sectional study including patients scheduled for primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). Self-reported knee instability was examined by questionnaire. Radiological features consisted of osteophyte formation and joint space narrowing (JSN), both scored on a 0 to three scale. Scores >1 are defined as substantial JSN or osteophyte formation. Regression analyses were provided to identify associations of radiological features with self-reported knee joint instability. Two hundred and sixty-five patients (mean age 69years and 170 females) were included. Knee instability was reported by 192 patients (72%). Substantial osteophyte formation was present in 78 patients (41%) reporting and 33 patients (46%) not reporting knee joint instability. Substantial JSN was present in 137 (71%) and 53 patients (73%), respectively. Self-reported knee instability was not associated with JSN (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.87 (0.30-2.54), 0.98 (0.38-2.52), 0.68 (0.25-1.86), respectively) or osteophyte formation (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.77 (0.36-1.64), 0.69 (0.23-1.45), 0.89 (0.16-4.93), respectively). Stratified analysis for pain, age and BMI showed no associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. Self-reported knee joint instability is not associated with JSN or osteophyte formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the US. It is important to have a comprehensive inpatient TKA program which maximizes outcomes while minimizing adverse events. The purpose of this study was to describe a TKA program – the Joint Replacement Program (JRP – and report post-surgical outcomes. Methods 74 candidates for a primary TKA were enrolled in the JRP. The JRP was designed to minimize complications and optimize patient-centered outcomes using a team approach including the patient, patient's family, and a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The JRP consisted of a pre-operative class, standard pathways for medical care, comprehensive peri-operative pain management, aggressive physical therapy (PT, and proactive discharge planning. Measures included functional tests, knee range of motion (ROM, and medical record abstraction of patient demographics, length of stay, discharge disposition, and complications over a 6-month follow-up period. Results All patients achieved medical criteria for hospital discharge. The patients achieved the knee flexion ROM goal of 90° (91.7 ± 5.4°, but did not achieve the knee extension ROM goal of 0° (2.4 ± 2.6°. The length of hospital stay was two days for 53% of the patients, with 39% and 7% discharged in three and four days, respectively. All but three patients were discharged home with functional independence. 68% of these received outpatient physical therapy compared with 32% who received home physical therapy immediately after discharge. Two patients ( Conclusion The comprehensive JRP for TKA was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes, short lengths of stay, a high percentage of patients discharged home with outpatient PT, and minimal complications. This JRP may represent an efficient, effective and safe protocol for providing care after a TKA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent condition that can result in disability and reduced quality of life. The evidence suggests that total knee replacement surgery (TKR is an effective intervention for patients with severe knee problems, but there is also an unmet need for this treatment in the UK. To help understand the reason for this unmet need, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence the decision-making process of TKR surgery by synthesising the available evidence from qualitative research on this topic. Methods A meta-synthesis was undertaken. This involved sevens steps: getting started, deciding what is relevant to the initial interest, reading the studies, determining how the studies are related, translating the studies into one another, synthesising translations, and finally, expressing the synthesis. Second-order and third-order interpretations regarding decision-making in TKR surgery were drawn from the literature. Results Ten qualitative studies were found and are included in the synthesis. The evidence suggests that social and cultural categories of aging have shaped the expectation of knee osteoarthritis, and this in turn shapes patients' expectations of treatment options. The role of the health care professional was the strongest theme to emerge across all ten studies. Coping strategies and life context determine short and longer-term outcomes of TKR. Conclusion The decision-making process regarding TKR surgery is extremely complex, as patients have weigh up numerous considerations before they can make a decision about surgery. By synthesising ten qualitative studies, we have illuminated the importance of the health care professional during this process.
Lazaro, Lionel E; Cross, Michael B; Lorich, Dean G
Iatrogenic disruption of the patellar vascular supply has been identified as a possible contributing factor to the commonly reported patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We performed an anatomic cadaveric study evaluating the extra-osseous vascular anatomy of the patella, and correlated our findings to routine TKA surgical dissection to determine how to better preserve patellar vascularity. In twenty-one cadaveric knees arterial cannulas were placed proximally and distally to the patella. A polyurethane compound was then injected producing a visible arterial network. Specimens underwent gross dissection. In all 21 specimens, the supreme genicular (SGA), medial/lateral superior genicular (MSGA/LSGA), medial/lateral inferior genicular and anterior tibial recurrent arteries communicate forming a peripatellar anastomotic ring supplying the intraosseous patellar system. Both the SGA (24%) and MSGA (76%) demonstrated dual medial ring contribution. Relating the arterial location to common TKA exposures suggested severe compromise of patellar vascularity. The medial sided vessels seem to contribute more significantly to the peripatellar anastomotic ring when compared to the lateral sided vessels. Careful soft tissue management has the potential to preserve key vascular structures that could maintain the intraosseous vascular supply to the patella. Understanding the anatomic locations of major arterial systems around the knee joint can potentially help during hemostasis, and can minimize blood loss during TKA. Recognition of major arterial systems around the knee joint has the potential to minimize iatrogenic disruption of the vascular supply and the complications that can follow (patella devascularization and blood lost). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burkhart, Timothy A; Perry, Kevin I; Dobbin, Emily; Howard, James; Lanting, Brent
The purpose of this study was to determine the gap achieved to the medial and lateral compartments following sectioning and release of the relevant soft tissues in preparation for a total knee arthroplasty. A custom-designed knee tensioner allowed the application of forces to the medial and lateral compartments of 12 cadaveric knee specimens. Loads of 100 N and 200 N were applied to each compartment, and the resulting displacement was measured in the following conditions: (1) All soft tissues intact, (2) an arthrotomy, (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sectioned, (4) posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sectioned, and (5) release of the anterior aspect of the deep medial collateral ligament (MCL) fibers. Tensions were applied for all conditions from 90° to 0° of knee flexion in 30° increments. No differences were found in medial or lateral displacement after the arthrotomy or releasing the ACL or PCL at either 100 N or 200 N. At the 100 N load application, there was a significant increase in gap width when the anterior portion of the deep MCL was released (7.49 mm) compared to the intact (5.28 mm) and arthrotomy (5.75 mm) conditions. With respect to the 200 N load application, there were statistically significant differences detected between the deep MCL fiber release (11.09 mm) and intact conditions (8.05 mm) and release of the deep MCL and arthrotomy conditions (8.77 mm). The medial parapetellar arthrotomy, ACL and PCL sectioning did not result in medial or lateral displacement changes. The release of the anterior fibers of the deep MCL as part of the surgical exposure increased the medial gap magnitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ren, J T; Xu, C; Wang, J S; Liu, X L
Objective: To evaluate the effects of three-dimensional printing patient-specific instrumentation(PSI) versus conventional instrumentation(CI) in the total knee arthroplasty. Methods: According to "patient-specific" , "patient-matched" , "custom" , "Instrumentation" , "Guide Instrumentation" , "cutting blocks" , "total knee arthroplasty" , "total knee replacement" , "TKA" and "TKR" , the literature on PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane library, CBM and WanFang were searched. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the high quality randomized control trial (RCT) studies about three-dimensional (3D) printing patient-specific instrumentation versus conventional instrumentation in the total knee arthroplasty were collected. The post-operative limb mechanical axis outlier, the position of the components outlier, post-operative knee function, operative time, post-operative blood transfusion and complications were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 software. Results: A total of 13 high quality RCT studies were included. The results of Meta-analysis show that there were no statistical differences in the post-operative limb mechanical axis outlier(Z=0.55, P=0.58, 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.56), femoral coronal component outlier(Z=0.38, P=0.71, 95% CI: 0.69 to 1.72), tibia coronal component outlier(Z=1.95, P=0.05, 95% CI: 1.00 to 3.38), femoral rotation angle outlier(Z=0.36, P=0.72, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.64), post-operative knee function(Z=1.18, P=0.24, 95% CI: -0.66 to 2.63), post-operative blood transfusions(Z=0.74, P=0.46, 95% CI: -0.10 to 0.05) and complications(Z=0.18, P=0.86, 95%CI: -0.07 to 0.05) between the PSI group and the CI group. But there are statistical differences in the operation time(Z=2.66, P=0.01, 95% CI: -15.97 to -2.41)and tibia sagittal component outlier (Z=3.69, P=0.00, 95% CI: 1.43 to 3.18)between the PSI group and the CI group. Conclusions: In the primary total knee arthroplasty the PSI is not superior over the CI for the knee without severe knee varus or valgus deformity
Suter, Lisa G; Smith, Savannah R; Katz, Jeffrey N; Englund, Martin; Hunter, David J; Frobell, Richard; Losina, Elena
To estimate the lifetime risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and total knee replacement (TKR) in persons sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear by age 25 years. We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model to project the cumulative incidence of symptomatic knee OA requiring TKR in varying situations: no prevalent or incident injury; isolated ACL tear, surgically treated; isolated ACL tear, nonoperatively treated; or a prevalent history or surgically treated ACL and meniscal tear (MT). We estimated MT prevalence and incidence and increased risk of knee OA associated with ACL injury and MT from published literature. We conducted a range of sensitivity analyses to examine the impact of uncertainty in input parameters. Estimated lifetime risk of symptomatic knee OA was 34% for the cohort with ACL injury and MT, compared to 14% for the no-injury cohort. ACL injury without MT was associated with a lifetime risk of knee OA between 16% and 17%, depending on ACL treatment modality. Estimated lifetime risk of TKR ranged from 6% in the no-injury cohort to 22% for the ACL injury and MT cohort. Subjects in the ACL injury and MT cohort developed OA approximately 1.5 years earlier (55.7 versus 57.1) and underwent TKR approximately 2 years earlier (66 versus 68) than the cohort without knee injuries. Sustaining ACL injury early in adulthood leads to greater lifetime risk and earlier onset of knee OA and TKR; concomitant MTs compound this risk. These data provide insight into the impact of sustainable injury prevention interventions in young adults. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile-bearing knee replacements were introduced as an alternative to fixed-bearing prosthesis to decrease the wear. Despite theoretical advantages of mobile bearings prosthesis, it is still controversial whether there is any clinically significant difference between the patients treated with fixed and mobile bearing prosthesis. The aim of this study is to compare the short-term clinical outcomes of fixed versus mobile-bearing prosthesises.Methodology: Patients who were diagnosed as grade 4 gonartrosis and operated for total knee arthroplasty between years 2010-2014 were evaluated and 33 patients (40 knees were included in the study. From hospital medical and radiological databases, age and gender of the patients, duration of operation, number of blood tranfusions postoperatively and pre-operative range of motions (ROM of the operated knees were recorded and all the patients were assessed with Knee Society Knee Score. Results: Twenty-two knees (12 female, 10 male were present in fixed bearing group (Group I and 18 knees (13 female, 5 male were present in mobile bearing group (Group II. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pre-operative range of motions (ROM, post-operative range of motions (ROM, number of blood transfusions. Knee Society Knee Score was 167.7±23.4 in Group I and 178.1±22.4 in Group II. Mobile bearing prosthesis group was found to have better knee score and this difference was near to statistically significance (p=0.055.Conclusions: Clinical outcomes of mobile bearing prosthesis seems to be better in short-term follow-up but long-term results should also be investigated before recommending the mobile bearing prosthesises.
Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik
Purpose: To explore the feasibility of progressive strength training commenced immediately after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: A pilot study was conducted at an outpatient training facility. Fourteen patients with unilateral TKA were included from a fast-track orthopedic arthroplasty unit....... They received rehabilitation including progressive strength training of the operated leg (leg press and knee-extension), using relative loads of 10 repetition maximum with three training sessions per week for 2 weeks. Rehabilitation was commenced 1 or 2 days after TKA. At each training session, knee pain, knee...... joint effusion and training load were recorded. Isometric knee-extension strength and maximal walking speed were measured before the first and last session. Results: The training load increased progressively (p strength training exercises...
Yue, Bing; Wang, Jun; Wang, You; Yan, Mengning; Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Yiming
To measure the distance from the intercondylar ceiling to the lowest point of the medial and lateral femoral condyles in a healthy population so to obtain a clearly discernible and accurate landmark for proper distal femoral resection during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Three-dimensional models of the lower extremities of 100 healthy Chinese subjects were constructed using computed tomography scans. The distance between the distal surface of the medial femoral condyle and the intercondylar notch ceiling, in the direction of the femoral mechanical axis, was measured. The mean distance from the distal surface of the medial femoral condyle to the intercondylar notch ceiling was 9.1 ± 1.4 and 8.2 ± 1.4 mm in male and female subjects, respectively. Interestingly, this distance did not differ significantly with varying sizes of the distal femur. The intercondylar notch ceiling could be used as an accurate landmark to determine the proper distal femoral resection level during TKA. For the clinical relevance, the distal femoral bone cut should be at the level of the intercondylar notch ceiling when using the most of the current TKA prosthesis systems.
Full Text Available OA Knee is the most common arthritis. Knee replacement Surgeries are being done increasingly in the present times. This has led to the violation of the standard indications and when knees are replaced ignoring other co - musculoskeletal conditions it results in the surgery failing early. This is about a patient who encountered a failed TKR due to improper selection as patient had bilateral OA Hip that was ignored in the initial stages. To overcome the problem she was advised bilateral hip replacement which would leave her with four replacements in the lower limb. She refused surgery and was told there are no alternative treatment options. This patient underwent a 3 week integrated course of IAYT at our center and she made a remarkable recovery. IAYT is a good non-surgical treatment that can be affective both before and after knee replacement and it should be considered as the first choice of treatment before surgery.
Ebnezar, John; Yogitha Bali, Mr; John, Rakesh; Gupta, Omisha
OA Knee is the most common arthritis. Knee replacement Surgeries are being done increasingly in the present times. This has led to the violation of the standard indications and when knees are replaced ignoring other co - musculoskeletal conditions it results in the surgery failing early. This is about a patient who encountered a failed TKR due to improper selection as patient had bilateral OA Hip that was ignored in the initial stages. To overcome the problem she was advised bilateral hip replacement which would leave her with four replacements in the lower limb. She refused surgery and was told there are no alternative treatment options. This patient underwent a 3 week integrated course of IAYT at our center and she made a remarkable recovery. IAYT is a good non-surgical treatment that can be affective both before and after knee replacement and it should be considered as the first choice of treatment before surgery.
Chen, Alvin; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Akhtar, Kashif; Makaram, Navnit; Gupte, Chinmay M
The aim of this study was to conduct a time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) analysis of the clinical pathway for total knee replacement (TKR) and to determine where the major cost drivers lay. The in-patient pathway was prospectively mapped utilising a TDABC model, following 20 TKRs. The mean age for these patients was 73.4 years. All patients were ASA grade I or II and their mean BMI was 30.4. The 14 varus knees had a mean deformity of 5.32° and the six valgus knee had a mean deformity of 10.83°. Timings were prospectively collected as each patient was followed through the TKR pathway. Pre-operative costs including pre-assessment and joint school were £ 163. Total staff costs for admission and the operating theatre were £ 658. Consumables cost for the operating theatre were £ 1862. The average length of stay was 5.25 days at a total cost of £ 910. Trust overheads contributed £ 1651. The overall institutional cost of a 'noncomplex' TKR in patients without substantial medical co-morbidities was estimated to be £ 5422, representing a profit of £ 1065 based on a best practice tariff of £ 6487. The major cost drivers in the TKR pathway were determined to be theatre consumables, corporate overheads, overall ward cost and operating theatre staffing costs. Appropriate discounting of implant costs, reduction in length of stay by adopting an enhanced recovery programme and control of corporate overheads through the use of elective orthopaedic treatment centres are proposed approaches for reducing the overall cost of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Overall medical complications have been reduced after fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but data on specific renal and urological (RU) complications are limited. METHODS: To describe the incidence and consequences of serious RU complications resulting in length...... postoperatively. Seven complications . (0.08 %) were urological, mainly haematuria after bladder catheterisation, whereas 5 (0.06 were urosepsis/pyelonephritis. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of serious RU complications after fast-track THA and TKA was 0.61 %. AKI occurred in 0.49% and was most often due...
Milandt, Nikolaj; Nymark, Tine; Jørn Kolmos, Hans
bacteria in the surgical field of an arthroplasty, and surgery in general, may increase the infection risk. We investigated whether IIID use increases bacterial recolonization compared to no drape use under conditions of simulated total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods - 20 patients scheduled for TKA were......Background and purpose - Iodine-impregnated incision drapes (IIIDs) are used to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). However, there is some evidence to suggest a potential increase in SSI risk as a result of IIID use, possibly from promotion of skin recolonization. A greater number of viable...
Andersen, Lasse; Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl Kri
.2% ropivacaine infiltration analgesia were randomized to receive a compression or a non-compression bandage, and pain was assessed at rest and with mobilization at regular intervals for 24 h postoperatively. RESULTS: Pain at rest, during flexion, or on straight leg lift was lower for the first 8 h in patients...... with compression bandage than in those with non-compression bandage and with a similar low use of oxycodone. Mean hospital stay was similar (2.8 days and 3.3 days, respectively). INTERPRETATION: A compression bandage is recommended to improve analgesia after high-volume local infiltration analgesia in total knee...
Park, Man Jun; Eun, Il-Soo; Jung, Chul-Young; Ko, Young-Chul; Kim, Young-June; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kang, Eun-Jin
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDSD), Lancefield group C streptococcus, is an animal pathogen which often causes pyogenic infection in domestic animals. Human infection by SDSD has been reported as a cellulitis on the upper arm, but a prosthetic joint infection caused by SDSD after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has not yet been reported in the literature demonstrating that its clinical manifestation and management have not been well established. In this case report, we aimed to present a case of SDSD prosthetic joint infection after TKA, which was successfully treated by two-stage re-implantation with an application of antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer.
Yao, Chen; Xu, Xingquan; Zhou, Sheng; Song, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Dongquan; Jiang, Qing
Abstract Rationale: High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been used widely for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis to correct the deformity and relieve symptoms, especially in young patients who are willing to maintain the high activity level. However, the change of bone morphology, ligament imbalance, limb malalignment, and other complications may influence the short-term outcomes of HTO. Some cases may even require conversion to TKA shortly after HTO because of the loss of correction or pain due to accelerated osteoarthritis. Patient concerns: A 43-year-old female patient presented with persistent pain of both the left knee and the ankle. She underwent a lateral closing wedge HTO two years ago. Radiographies showed The Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade IV osteoarthritic change and hyperextension (HE) of the left knee and the degeneration of the left ankle. Diagnoses: A failed lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with knee hyperextension and secondary ankle degeneration. Intervention: A posterior-stabilized TKA conversion and postoperative rehabilitation were performed. Outcomes: The operation corrected the HE deformity and relieved the pain at the level of the left knee. However, the secondary change of the left ankle was irreversible. Lessons: A failed lateral closing wedge HTO might speed up the degeneration of the knee and increase extra technical issues in the following TKA. What is more, the secondary osteoarthritis and deformity of the ankle cannot be ignored. PMID:28723758
Metsna, Vahur; Vorobjov, Sigrid; Lepik, Katrin; Märtson, Aare
Attempts to relate patellar cartilage involvement to anterior knee pain (AKP) have yielded conflicting results. We determined whether the condition of the cartilage of the patella at the time of knee replacement, as assessed by the OARSI score, correlates with postsurgical AKP. We prospectively studied 100 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. At surgery, we photographed and biopsied the articular surface of the patella, leaving the patella unresurfaced. Following determination of the microscopic grade of the patellar cartilage lesion and the stage by analyzing the intraoperative photographs, we calculated the OARSI score. We interviewed the patients 1 year after knee arthroplasty using the HSS patella score for diagnosis of AKP. 57 of 95 patients examined had AKP. The average OARSI score of painless patients was 13 (6-20) and that of patients with AKP was 15 (6-20) (p = 0.04). Patients with OARSI scores of 13-24 had 50% higher risk of AKP (prevalence ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) than patients with OARSI scores of 0-12. The depth and extent of the cartilage lesion of the knee-cap should be considered when deciding between the various options for treatment of the patella during knee replacement.
Sharma, Vineet; Maheshwari, Aditya V; Tsailas, Panagiotis G; Ranawat, Amar S; Ranawat, Chitranjan S
Stiffness after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) requiring manipulation has a reported incidence of 1.3-54%. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of stiffness warranting manipulation using two different pain management protocols. We also studied the effect of an intra-articular injection of local anesthetic and steroid given at the time of manipulation on the range-of-motion (ROM) at last follow-up. A total of 286 TKAs (248 patients between January 2002 and December 2003) were compared to a second group of 292 TKAs (251 patients between January 2004 and March 2006). The first group received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain management. The second group had a peri-articular injection of a steroid-containing local anesthetic at the time of surgery, but no postoperative PCA. All patients undergoing manipulation in the second group also received a similar intra-articular injection at the time of manipulation as well. Only patients with minimum 12 months follow-up after manipulation were included in the study. The overall incidence of stiffness requiring manipulation in both groups was similar at 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively (P = 0.1). The end results of manipulation with and without injection showed a significantly higher final ROM in patients who had had an injection at the time of manipulation (P = 0.001). The difference was due to the fact that patients who had an injection lost no motion from that achieved at the time of manipulation. We were unable to demonstrate a significant reduction in the incidence of stiffness after TKA using a modern pain management protocol. However, injection of a local anesthetic and steroid at the time of manipulation did have a significant influence on preserving the ROM that was obtained at the time of manipulation.
Tang, Xiao-Bo; Dong, Pei-Long; Wang, Jian
To compare therapeutic effects between patella replacement and patella osteotomy in total knee arthroplasty. From April 2004 to April 2011, 52 patients (54 knees) were enrolled in the clinical trail of total knee arthroplasty, who received patella replacement (24 knees, including 13 males and 11 females,ranging in age from 53 to 78 years old or patella osteotomy (30 knees,including 16 males and 12 females,ranging in age from 55 to 79 years old. The average follow-up period was 56 months,ranging from 20 to 80 months. The American HSS Score for knee, the Feller score for patella, range of motion (ROM) for knee, patient satisfaction and complications related to the patella were used to evaluate therapeutic effects. In the patella replacement group,the preoperative and final follow-up HSS scores of patients were 38.4 +/- 8.2 and 91.2 +/- 8.6 respectively; Feller scores were 13.6 +/- 6.2 and 25.2 +/- 4.2; scores of anterior knee pain were 3.9 +/- 3.2 and 11.2 +/- 3.7; ROM were (78 +/- 26) degrees and(108 +/- 18) degrees. In the patella osteotomy group,the preoperative and final follow-up HSS scores of patients were 39.5 +/- 8.4 and 91.0 +/- 8.5 respectively;Feller scores were 13.4 +/- 6.5 and 25.6 +/- 4.0; scores of anterior knee pain were 3.7 +/- 3.1 and 11.3 +/- 3.6; ROM were (76 +/- 27) degrees and (110 +/- 19) degrees. In the patella replacement group,patient's satisfaction was 91%, and complication related to the patella was 16.7%; in the patella osteotomy group, patient's satisfaction was 89%, and complications related to the patella was 10.0%. There were no statistically significant differeneces in final follow-up HSS scores, Feller scores, scores of anterior knee pain and ROM between the two groups. However,there was no significant difference of patient's satisfaction between them. There was statistically significant differenece of patella-related complications between the two groups, and the complication rate in the patella replacement group was higher than
Kluess, Daniel; Bergschmidt, Philipp; Mueller, Iris; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer
A certain failure mode using a newly developed cemented ceramic femoral component in total knee replacement was observed in clinical application, i.e. fracture of the femoral component during intraoperative impaction. This may be caused by unintentional deflection of the saw blades during cutting with consecutive higher resection angle of the distal femur than desired, leading to bending of the femoral component during implantation. A finite-element-analysis was carried out to simulate implantation of the femoral component and to evaluate the influence of distal femur preparation on implant stress. We developed and validated a numerical model of the ceramic femoral component including a contact formulation which allowed calculating the principal stresses of the implant during implantation onto the resected femur. The analysis considered different anterior and posterior resection angles with a total of 17 variations. By increasing the femoral resection angle in the finite-element-model it could be shown that a deviation of three degrees from the intended resection angle can cause critical stress amounts during implantation. When implanting the ceramic component in total knee arthroplasty, the femoral resection angles should be prepared very precisely, in particular anterior saw blade deflection has to be avoided. The implant manufacturer increased implant safety through an additional resection template. Moreover, the impaction of the ceramic femoral component during cementing was not further recommended by using a hammer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keshmiri, A; Wolf, T; Wiech, O; Benditz, A; Grifka, J; Springorum, H
It is known that implied memory of intraoperative noise influences postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different intraoperative noise protection methods during total knee arthroplasty on postoperative pain scores. A total of 83 patients were included in this prospectively designed, double-blind trial and underwent total knee arthroplasty with psoas compartment and sciatic nerve regional anesthesia and additionally propofol sedation. After randomization patients were assigned either to the noise protection group, the music group or the control group. Postoperative pain scores (VAS) were evaluated in each group. In the three different time intervals evaluated there were no significant differences between the groups. Also the pain maxima for each postoperative day showed no significant difference but there was a slight trend to the advantage of the music group. Even though there were no significant effects of music or noise protection on postoperative pain scores, it can be concluded, as has been done by many other authors that music should be used in the perioperative setting for general patient comfort.
Besalduch-Balaguer, M; Aguilera-Roig, X; Urrútia-Cuchí, G; Puntonet-Bruch, A; Jordan-Sales, M; González-Osuna, A; Celaya-Ibáñez, F; Colomina-Morales, J
Questionnaires measuring health-related quality of life are difficult to perform and obtain for patients and professionals. Computerised tools are now available to collect this information. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of patients undergoing total knee replacement to fill in health-related quality-of-life questionnaires using a telematic platform. Ninety eight consecutive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were included. Participants were given an access code to enter the website where they had to respond to 2 questionnaires (SF8 and the reduced WOMAC), and 3 additional questions about the difficulty in completing the questionnaires. A total of 98 patients agreed to participate: 45 males and 53 females (mean age 72.7 years). Fourteen did not agree to participate due to lack of internet access. Of the final 84 participants, 50% entered the website, and only 36 answered all questions correctly. Of the patients who answered the questionnaire, 80% were helped by a relative or friend, and 22% reported difficulty accessing internet. The use of telematic systems to respond to health-related quality of life questionnaires should be used cautiously, especially in elderly population. It is likely that the population they are directed at is not prepared to use this type of technology. Therefore, before designing telematics questionnaires it must be ensured that they are completed properly. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lindsay C Burns,1–3 Sarah E Ritvo,1 Meaghan K Ferguson,1 Hance Clarke,3–5 Ze’ev Seltzer,3,5 Joel Katz1,3–5 1Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Arthritis Research Centre of Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Centre for the Study of Pain, Faculties of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common and costly surgical procedure. Despite high success rates, many TKA patients develop chronic pain in the months and years following surgery, constituting a public health burden. Pain catastrophizing is a construct that reflects anxious preoccupation with pain, inability to inhibit pain-related fears, amplification of the significance of pain vis-à-vis health implications, and a sense of helplessness regarding pain. Recent research suggests that it may be an important risk factor for untoward TKA outcomes. To clarify this impact, we systematically reviewed the literature to date on pain catastrophizing as a prospective predictor of chronic pain following TKA. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles related to pain catastrophizing, TKA, risk models, and chronic pain. We reviewed titles and abstracts to identify original research articles that met our specified inclusion criteria. Included articles were then rated for methodological quality. including methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up, analyses, and outcomes reported across studies, a quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed. Results: We identified six prospective longitudinal studies with small-to-mid-sized samples that met the inclusion criteria. Despite considerable variability in reported pain outcomes, pain catastrophizing was identified as a significant
Savin, Liliana; Botez, Paul; Mihailescu, Dan; Predescu, Vlad; Grierosu, Carmen
This study outlines the benefits of the seated view radiograph of the knee in evaluation of the pre-operative individual distal femoral torsion (DFT) and for the follow-up of the post-operative rotational positioning of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. Study on 20 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty and the correlation between the DFT measured before surgery with this radiology view, the intra-operative external rotation (ER) necessary for the parallel positioning of the femoral component with the transepicondylar axis (TEA) and the post-operative femoral rotational alignment of the prosthesis on the same view. In 90 % of cases the values of internal DFT were between -1(0) and -8(0), while the mean value of the internal rotation (IR) was -4.45(0). The mean value of the ER applied to the posterior bone resection was 4.25(0) (0(0)-7(0)), showing a statistically significant correlation between the pre-operative measurement and the intra-operative one of the posterior condylar angle (PCA) (r = 0.890, p = 0.000). Residual internal femoral malrotation has been identified in four cases, its mean value being 0.4(0). In three patients the pre-operative value of the PCA was higher than the intra-operative one and an internal malrotation of the post-operative femoral component was observed. The results are encouraging for the further use of this pre-operative view with the premises of increasing the accuracy of prosthetic positioning and reducing the mechanical complications.
Petursson, Gunnar; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Gøthesen, Øystein; Haugan, Kristin; Dyrhovden, Gro Sævik; Hallan, Geir; Röhrl, Stephan M; Aamodt, Arild; Nilsson, Kjell G; Furnes, Ove
Background and purpose - Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been used in recent years in the hope of improving the alignment and positioning of the implant, thereby achieving a better functional outcome and durability. However, the role of computer navigation in TKA is still under debate. We used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether there are any differences in migration of the tibial component between CAS- and conventionally (CONV-) operated TKA. Patients and methods - 54 patients (CAS, n = 26; CONV, n = 28) with a mean age of 67 (56-78) years and with osteoarthritis or arthritic disease of the knee were recruited from 4 hospitals during the period 2009-2011. To estimate the mechanical stability of the tibial component, the patients were examined with RSA up to 24 months after operation. The following parameters representing tibial component micromotion were measured: 3-D vector of the prosthetic marker that moved the most, representing the magnitude of migration (maximum total point motion, MTPM); the largest negative value for y-translation (subsidence); the largest positive y-translation (lift-off); and prosthetic rotations. The precision of the RSA measurements was evaluated and migration in the 2 groups was compared. Results - Both groups had most migration within the first 3 months, but there was no statistically significant difference in the magnitude of the migration between the CAS group and the CONV group. From 3 to 24 months, the MTPM (in mm) was 0.058 and 0.103 (p = 0.1) for the CAS and CON groups, respectively, and the subsidence (in mm) was 0.005 and 0.011 (p = 0.3). Interpretation - Mean MTPM, subsidence, lift-off, and rotational movement of tibial trays were similar in CAS- and CONV-operated knees.
Chen, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Chien-Chung; Hu, Chih-Chien; Shih, Hsin-Nung; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin
The effectiveness of acupuncture in relieving acute postoperative pain is still controversial. This patient-evaluator blinded and sham auricular acupuncture (AA)-controlled study tested whether acupuncture is effective in controlling acute postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly assigned to receive true acupuncture (knee, scalp, and AA) or sham AA. All procedures were conducted under general anesthesia, and the AA needles were retained in situ for 3 days. Postoperative pain was managed with intravenous fentanyl using a patient-controlled analgesia pump. The amount of postoperative fentanyl required, the time to the first fentanyl request, pain intensity on a 100-mm visual analog scale, incidence of analgesia-related adverse effects, and success of patients' blinding were recorded. This study comprised 60 patients (30 in the study group and 30 in the control group). The fentanyl requirement via patient-controlled analgesia in the study group was lower [mean (SD), 620.7 (258.2) vs 868.6 (319.3) μg; P = 0.002). The time to first request for fentanyl was longer in the study group. Pain intensity on a 100-mm visual analog scale was lower in the study group in the first 24 hours after the operation. The incidence of analgesia-related adverse effects of nausea and vomiting was lower in the study group. The success of blinding was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.731). The data obtained from this clinical trial demonstrate the potential advantages of using acupuncture for postoperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty.
Moukarzel, Marcel; Di Rienzo, Franck; Lahoud, Jean-Claude; Hoyek, Fadi; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric; Hoyek, Nady
The aim of this study was to measure physical and functional outcomes during the acute postoperative recovery in patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty. Motor imagery has been shown to decrease pain and promote functional recovery after both neurological and peripheral injuries. Yet, whether motor imagery can be included as an adjunct effective method into physical therapy programs following total knee arthroplasty remains a working hypothesis that we aim to test in a pilot study. Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to either a motor imagery or a control group. Pain, range of motion, knee girth as well as quadriceps strength and Timed Up and Go Test time were the dependent variables during pre-test and post-test. The motor imagery group exhibited larger decrease of ipsilateral pain and knee girth, a slightly different evolution of range of motion and an increase of ipsilateral quadriceps strength compared to the control group. No effects of motor imagery on Timed Up and Go Test scores were observed. Implementing motor imagery practice into the course of physical therapy enhanced various physical outcomes during acute postoperative recovery after total knee arthroplasty. According to this pilot study, motor imagery might be relevant to promote motor relearning and recovery after total knee arthroplasty.Partial effect-sizes should be conducted in the future. Implications for rehabilitation Adding motor imagery to physical therapy sessions during the acute period following total knee arthroplasty: • Enhances quadriceps strength. • Alleviates pain. • Enhances range of motion. • Does not have any effect on basic functional mobility. • Does not have any effect on knee girth.
Mikkelsen, Elin Karin; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders
arthroplasty. One set of knee extensions was performed until contraction failure, using a predetermined 10 repetition maximum loading. In the operated leg, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lateral and medial vastus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles was recorded during the set. Muscle activity...... failure (P = 0.0006 and 0.0187). CONCLUSION: In patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty, 10 repetition maximum-loaded knee extensions performed in one set until contraction failure increases voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle during the set. CLINICAL TRIALS: Gov-identifier: NCT01713140...
Valle, Christina; Sperr, Michael; Lemhöfer, Christina; Bartel, Karla Elida; Schmitt-Sody, Marcus
Background Total knee replacement is the only surgical option to treat painful degenerative osteoarthritis, restore knee function, improve quality of life, and enable patients to return to sports activity. With an aging population expecting an active life after retirement, patients' expectations of improvement after surgery are increasing as well. In view of the growing demand for higher performance, exercise and athletic activity, clinicians have been increasingly forced to question how much athletic activity a patient may resume after total knee replacement, and what types of athletic activity seem to be acceptable. However, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate intensity of physical activity after total knee arthroplasty or how activity levels affect the rate of revision surgery. Patients, material and methods In a retrospective study with a follow-up period of 12 years, 130 patients were asked about their sport activities 22 months before and after total knee replacement. Based on their answers, the patients were divided into one sports group (group A) and one group without any sports activity (group B). Seven years after surgery the same patients were asked about their sports activity again, and 12 years postoperatively they were additionally asked about whether or not they underwent revision surgery. Results Twenty-two months after total knee replacement 88 (67.7 %) of the 130 patients practiced sports for a minimum of 3 times a week (group A), whereas 42 (32.3 %) patients reported that they practiced no sports (group B). In 2010 - 7 years postoperatively - 60 patients of group A and 27 patients of group B took part in the survey; their levels of sports activity had not changed over the previous 7 years. In 2015, 46 patients out of group A and 21 patients out of group B were questioned. We saw a revision rate of 15.2 % (7 out of 46 patients) in the group with continuous sports activity, whereas we found an increased revision rate
Kwong, Louis M; Turpie, Alexander G G; Tamayo, Sally; Peacock, W Frank; Yuan, Zhong; Sicignano, Nicholas; Hopf, Kathleen Pillsbury; Patel, Manesh R
Rivaroxaban is a novel oral anticoagulant indicated for prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. To evaluate major bleeding (MB) in THR/TKR patients receiving post-operative rivaroxaban. Electronic medical records of nearly 10 million US Department of Defense (DoD) beneficiaries were queried from 1 January 2013 through 30 June 2015. Using the validated Cunningham case-finding algorithm, post-surgical MB events in rivaroxaban users were identified and analyzed. The incidence of MB was determined, and descriptive statistics were used to compare patient characteristics and other covariates in those with and without MB. Two additional methods were used to explore and identify bleeding cases that were not considered MB events per the study case-finding algorithm. A total of 12,429 patients received THR and/or TKR surgery, and were post-operatively prescribed rivaroxaban. Nine patients had MB, yielding an incidence proportion of 0.07% (95% CI 0.02-0.13). The alternative case-finding methods found bleeding incidences of 0.46% and 0.21%, though it is not clear whether these are clinical MB cases, since the alternative methods were not validated. The incidence of MB in this retrospective analysis is lower than that observed in the clinical trials of rivaroxaban. Whether this is due to lower real-world MB rates or challenges with case-finding algorithms is unclear.
Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K; Bagger, Jens; Hornsleth, Mette; Kehlet, Henrik
Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss of knee-extension strength at discharge after fast-track TKA. Patients and methods - 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral TKA were randomized (1:1) to preoperative intravenous (IV) MP 125 mg (group MP) or isotonic saline IV (group C). All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia without tourniquet, and with a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was change in knee-extension strength from baseline to 48 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were knee joint circumference, functional performance using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, pain during the aforementioned tests, rescue analgesic requirements, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) changes. Results - 61 patients completed the follow-up. The loss in quadriceps muscle strength was similar between groups; group MP 1.04 (0.22-1.91) Nm/kg (-89%) vs. group C 1.02 (0.22-1.57) Nm/kg (-88%). Also between-group differences were similar for knee circumference, TUG test, and pain scores. MP reduced the inflammatory response (CRP) at 24 hours postoperatively; group MP 33 (IQR 21-50) mg/L vs. group C 72 (IQR 58-92) mg/L (p loss of knee-extension strength or other functional outcomes at discharge after fast-track TKA despite a reduced systemic inflammatory response.
Dayton Michael R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue using a cotton swab stick. If bone cement is then placed onto the cut and marked bone edges, the methylene blue leaches through the bone cement and clearly outlines the tibial keel and predrilled femoral and patellar peg holes. This allows excellent visualization of the bone preparations for each component, ensuring safe and prompt positioning of TKA components while minimizing intraoperative difficulties with component alignment while the cement hardens. Conclusion The presented technical note helps to improve the accuracy and ease of insertion when the components of total knee arthroplasty are impacted to their final position.
Frassanito, L; Messina, A; Vergari, A; Colombo, D; Chierichini, A; Della Corte, F; Navalesi, P; Antonelli, M
The effectiveness of combining magnesium (Mg) administration with both general and spinal anesthesia to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption is still debated. We evaluated the effects of an intravenous (IV) infusion of Mg sulphate on analgesic consumption and postoperative pain score after total knee arthroplasty performed under spinal anesthesia. We studied 40 patients who underwent spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine plus morphine. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups, each of 20 patients, who received either treatment (i.e., intravenous Mg sulphate 40 mg kg(-1) followed by an infusion of 10 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), or the same amounts of isotonic saline (controls). Irrespective of the group of randomization, all patients received postoperative paracetamol, ketorolac, and patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. The Mg postoperative blood level was 0.85 ± 0.02 mmol/L and 1.25 ± 0.11 mmol/L for C and Mg groups, respectively (Padverse effects were recorded after Mg infusion. IV perioperative administration of Mg did not influence postoperative pain control and analgesic consumption after total knee arthroplasty. More studies should be performed with different intra and postoperative pain protocols to enhance the potential anti-nociceptive effect of Mg.
the Telage Researchers
Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring patients’ perceptions regarding telerehabilitation services received post total knee replacement. In this qualitative embedded single case study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five patients who had previously received in-home telerehabilitation post total knee arthroplasty. Participants were asked to reflect on their 8-week rehabilitation process and on their experience with the home telerehabilitation program. Interviews were transcribed and a qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Six overarching themes emerged from the patients’ perceptions: (1 improving access to services with reduced need for transportation; (2 developing a strong therapeutic relationship with therapist while maintaining a sense of personal space; (3 complementing telerehabilitation with in-person visits; (4 providing standardized yet tailored and challenging exercise programs using telerehabilitation; (5 perceived ease-of-use of telerehabilitation equipment; and (6 feeling an ongoing sense of support. Gaining a better understating of the patient’s experience in telerehabilitation will be essential as programs continue to be developed and implemented.
Trueba-Davalillo, C; Suárez-Ahedo, C E; Trueba-Vasavilbaso, C; Obil-Chavarría, C; Gil-Orbezo, F
In Mexico, aging has become the daily routine of millions. Total Knee Arthroplasty is a procedure that is doing more and more with satisfactory results and survival of the implant up to 20 years in 90%. The tourniquet is a useful tool to the orthopedic surgeons to minimize blood loss and make the placement of implants easier, because it enhances the vision of the surgical field. We report the results of 75 total knee arthroplasties performed in January 2007 to January 2010, in terms of bleeding, duration of procedure and Haemoglobin levels with and without tourniquet, the patients were distributed in 3 different groups, In group 1 the tourniquet was kept inflated until the placement of the femoral and tibial components, in group 2 the tourniquet was kept inflated until the wound dressing and finally in group 3 we did not use tourniquet. We performed hematic biometry 24 hours after surgery and if the patient's hemoglobin was less than 9.0 g/dl or the patient had low cardiac output symptoms, regardless of hemoglobin level, blood transfusion was indicated. The results demonstrate that there significant differences between the amount of blood loss among the 3 groups (1:1.157 ml, 2:709 ml, 3:1.493 ml) and surgical time (1:100, 2:110, 3:135). So that demonstrates that tourniquet use has a direct relation to blood loss and surgical time.
Aunan, Eirik; Kibsgård, Thomas; Röhrl, Stephan M
The effect of patellar eversion on ligament laxity measurements is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of patellar eversion on medial and lateral ligament laxity measurements performed intra-operatively in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 49 knees (27 female) with mean age 70 years (42-83) and mean body mass index of 28.5 were operated consecutively with a cruciate-retaining prosthesis. Medial and lateral ligament laxity in extension and in 90° of flexion was measured with the spatula-method intra-operatively after implantation of the prosthetic components with the patella everted and thereafter with the patella repositioned. The corresponding changes in gap height and inclination were calculated. A statistically significant increase of 0.6 mm (p patella repositioned compared to everted. No differences were found in extension or medially in flexion. Correspondingly, the flexion gap increased by 0.4 mm (p patella was repositioned. Earlier research has shown that ligament laxity must be at least 1-2 mm to cause inferior function after TKA. In the current study, we found that the effect of patellar eversion on ligament laxity measurements is too small to be considered clinically relevant. PROSPECTIVE STUDY EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Level II.
Haas, Derek A; Kaplan, Robert S
The study examined the cost variation across 29 high-volume US hospitals and their affiliated orthopaedic surgeons for delivering a primary total knee arthroplasty without major complicating conditions. The hospitals had similar patient demographics, and more than 80% of them had statistically-similar Medicare risk-adjusted readmission and complication rates. Hospital and physician personnel costs were calculated using time-driven activity-based costing. Consumable supply costs, such as the prosthetic implant, were calculated using purchase prices, and postacute care costs were measured using either internal costs or external claims as reported by each hospital. Despite having similar patient demographics and readmission and complication rates, the average cost of care for total knee arthroplasty across the hospitals varied by a factor of about 2 to 1. Even after adjusting for differences in internal labor cost rates, the hospital at the 90th percentile of cost spent about twice as much as the one at the 10th percentile of cost. The large variation in costs among sites suggests major and multiple opportunities to transfer knowledge about process and productivity improvements that lower costs while simultaneously maintaining or improving outcomes.
Bistolfi, Alessandro; Zanovello, Jessica; Ferracini, Riccardo; Allisiardi, Fabrizio; Lioce, Elisa; Magistroni, Ernesta; Berchialla, Paola; Da Rold, Ilaria; Massazza, Giuseppe
to evaluate the efficacy of the use of the neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PEDro) using PICOS approach to formulate the research question, Controlled terms and Boolean operators. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined in advance. "Neuromuscular electrical stimulation" and "total knee arthroplasty" were used as keywords. The overall risk of bias was determined according to: random sequence generation, concealment, blinding mass of participants and staff, commissioning blind assessment results, incomplete data and loans received. out of the 36 identified studies, six were included in the review (496 participants). In these studies, one group of patients followed a rehabilitation protocol (control-group) and the other followed a rehabilitation program plus a session of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES-group). Patients of NMES-groups got the best scores (Timed Up and Go Test, Stair-Climbing Test and Walk Test). NMES benefits were strong in the first postoperative weeks/months and gradually diminished. NMES allows a slightly better functional recovery following TKA, especially in the first period, with more evident benefits in patients with a severe lack of muscular activation. Nevertheless, there is no difference at medium-long term.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical value of hybrid SPECT/CT for the assessment of patients with painful total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Methods Twenty-three painful knees in patients following primary TKA were assessed using Tc-99m-HDP-SPECT/CT. Rotational, sagittal and coronal position of the TKA was assessed on 3D-CT reconstructions. The level of the SPECT-tracer uptake (0-10 and its anatomical distribution was mapped using a validated localization scheme. Univariate analysis (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, Spearmean`s-rho test, p Results SPECT/CT imaging changed the suspected diagnosis and the proposed treatment in 19/23 (83% knees. Progression of patellofemoral OA (n = 11, loosening of the tibial (n = 3 and loosening of the femoral component (n = 2 were identified as the leading causes of pain after TKA. Patients with externally rotated tibial trays showed higher tracer uptake in the medial patellar facet (p = 0.049 and in the femur (p = 0.051. Patients with knee pain due to patellofemoral OA showed significantly higher tracer uptake in the patella than others (p Conclusions SPECT/CT was very helpful in establishing the diagnosis and guiding subsequent management in patients with painful knees after TKA, particularly in patients with patellofemoral problems and malpositioned or loose TKA.
Turajane, Thana; Larbpaiboonpong, Viroj; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon; Maungsiri, Samart
Mini-incision subvastus approach is soft tissue preservation of the knee. Advantages of the mini-incision subvastus approach included reduced blood loss, reduced pain, self rehabilitation and faster recovery. However, the improved visualization, component alignment, and more blood preservation have been debatable to achieve the better outcome and preventing early failure of the Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). The computer navigation has been introduced to improve alignment and blood loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short term outcomes of the combination of computer assisted mini-incision subvastus approach for Total Knee Arthroplasty (CMS-TKA). A prospective case series of the initial 80 patients who underwent computer assisted mini-incision subvastus approach for CMS-TKA from January 2007 to October 2008 was carried out. The patients' conditions were classified into 2 groups, the simple OA knee (varus deformity was less than 15 degree, BMI was less than 20%, no associated deformities) and the complex deformity (varus deformity was more than 15 degrees, BMI more was than 20%, associated with flexion contractor). There were 59 patients in group 1 and 21 patients in group 2. Of the 80 knees, 38 were on the left and 42 on the right. The results of CMS-TKA [the mean (range)] in group 1: group 2 were respectively shown as the incision length [10.88 (8-13): 11.92 (10-14], the operation time [118 (111.88-125.12): 131 (119.29-143.71) minutes, lateral releases (0 in both groups), postoperative range of motion in flexion [94.5 (90-100): 95.25 (90-105) degree] and extension [1.75 (0-5): 1.5 (0-5) degree] Blood loss in 24 hours [489.09 (414.7-563.48): 520 (503.46-636.54) ml] and blood transfusion [1 (0-1) unit? in both groups], Tibiofemoral angle preoperative [Varus = 4 (varus 0-10): Varus = 17.14 (varus 15.7-18.5) degree, Tibiofemoral angle postoperative [Valgus = 1.38 (Valgus 0-4): Valgus = 2.85 (valgus 2.1-3.5) degree], Tibiofemoral angle outlier (85% both
Hunter, J.C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.
Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.
Full Text Available Background: Extensor mechanism failure secondary to knee replacement could be due to tibial tubercle avulsion, Patellar tendon rupture, patellar fracture or quadriceps tendon rupture. An incidence of Patella tendon rupture of 0.17% and Quadriceps tendon rupture of around 0.1% has been reported after Total knee arthroplasty. These are considered a devastating complication that substantially affects the clinical results and are challenging situations to treat with surgery being the mainstay of the treatment. Case Description: We report here an interesting case of a patellar tendon rupture of one knee and Quadriceps tendon rupture of the contralateral knee following simultaneous bilateral knee replacement in a case of inflammatory arthritis patient. End to end repair for Quadriceps tear and augmentation with Autologous Hamstring tendon graft was done for Patella tendon rupture. OUTCOME: Patient was followed up for a period of 1 year and there was no Extension lag with a flexion of 100 degrees in both the knees. DISCUSSION: The key learning points and important aspects of diagnosing these injuries early and the management techniques are described in this unique case of bilateral extensor mechanism disruption following knee replacements.
Nedopil, Alexander J; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L
Eight patients treated with kinematically-aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) presented with tibial component failure. We determined whether radiographic measurements and clinical characteristics are different between patients with and without tibial component failure to identify mechanisms of failure and strategies to reduce the risk. Out of 3,212 primary TKAs (2,725 TKAs with a two-year minimum follow up), of which all were performed with KA, eight patients presented with tibial component failure. Radiographic measurements, clinical characteristics (e.g. age, gender, BMI, etc.), revision surgical records, and Oxford knee scores were compared to control cohort patients matched 1:3. Tibial component failure presented at an average of 28 ± 15 months after primary TKA. Patients with tibial component failure had a 6 kg/m2 greater body mass index (p = 0.034) and 5° greater posterior slope of the tibia component (p = 0.002) than controls. Final follow-up averaged 56 ± 19 months after the primary TKA and 28 ± 24 months after the revision TKA. The final Oxford knee score was 39 ± 4.6 for patients with tibial component failure and 44 ± 6.5 for the controls (p = 0.005). The incidence of tibial component failure after KA TKA was 0.3% and was caused by posterior subsidence or posterior edge wear and not varus subsidence. The strategy for lowering the risk of tibial component failure when performing KA is to set the tibial component parallel to the flexion-extension plane (slope) and varus-valgus plane of the native joint line.
Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Berend, Keith R; Lombardi, Adolph V; Barrack, Robert L
Custom cutting guides (CCGs) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) use preoperative three-dimensional (3-D) imaging to manufacture cutting blocks specific to a patient's anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of CCGs versus standard intramedullary and extramedullary guides on patient-reported satisfaction and residual symptoms following TKA. A retrospective, multicenter study was performed to compare a magnetic resonance imaging-based CCG system versus standard instrumentation. All patients received the same, cemented, fixed-bearing, cruciate-retaining component, and had a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Data was collected by an independent, third party survey center blinded to surgical technique that administered telephone questionnaires assessing patient satisfaction and symptoms. Patient age, gender, minority status, education level, income, length of follow-up, and pre-arthritic UCLA scores were considered potential confounders and accounted for using multivariate logistic regression analyses. 448 patients (107 CCGs, 341 standard) were successfully interviewed. At a mean follow-up of threeyears, there was no difference in percentage of patients reporting their knee to feel "normal" (74% CCG versus 78% standard, p=0.37). Residual symptoms including knee stiffness (37% CCG versus 28% standard, p=0.08) and difficulty getting in and out of car (34% CCG versus 30% standard, p=0.40) remained high. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated no differences between the two cohorts for both patient-reported satisfaction and residual symptoms (odds ratios 0.72 to 1.48; p=0.10 to 0.81). When interviewed by an independent, blinded third party, the use of CCGs in TKA did not improve patient-reported satisfaction or residual symptoms versus the use of standard alignment guides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maradit-Kremers, Hilal; Haque, Omar J; Kremers, Walter K; Berry, Daniel J; Lewallen, David G; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J
To resurface or not to resurface the patella remains a controversy in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes associated with selectively not resurfacing the patella. This was a historical cohort study of 15,497 patients with 21,371 primary TKA procedures performed at a single institution between 1985 and 2010. The cohort included 402 (2%) knees with unresurfaced patellae and 20,969 knees with all-polyethylene patellae designs. Reasons for not resurfacing the patella were documented. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of complications and revisions among procedures with unresurfaced patellae. According to the surgeon, reasons for not resurfacing were normal cartilage (226, 56%), young patient (30, 8%), thin patella (53, 13%), and surgeons' choice (93, 23%). In age, sex, and calendar year-adjusted analyses, the risk of complications (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.46) and all-cause revisions (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.89) were significantly higher after TKA with unresurfaced patellae. However, after adjusting for femoral component types and operative diagnoses, these associations were no longer significant. The only group with significantly worse outcomes were those with a thin patellae with increased risk of complications (HR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.70, 4.17) and revisions (HR: 5.94, 95% CI: 2.35, 15.02). Yet, the excess risk in the thin patellae group was mainly due to infections, and not related to unresurfaced patellae. Selectively not resurfacing the patella seemed to provide similar results compared with routine resurfacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luciano, V.; Sardini, E.; Serpelloni, M.; Baronio, G.
Monitoring the internal loads acting in a total knee prosthesis (TKP) is fundamental aspect to improve their design. One of the main benefits of this improvement is the longer duration of the tibial inserts. In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvesting system, which is implantable in a TKP, is presented. This is conceived for powering a future implantable system that is able to monitor the loads (and, possibly, other parameters) that could influence the working conditions of a TKP in real-time. The energy harvesting system (EHS) is composed of two series of NdFeB magnets, positioned into each condyle, and a coil that is placed in a pin of the tibial insert and connected to an implantable power management circuit. The magnetic flux variation and the induced voltage are generated by the knee's motion. A TKP prototype has been realized in order to reproduce the knee mechanics and to test the EHS performance. In the present work, the experimental results are obtained by adopting a resistive load of 2.2 kΩ, in order to simulate a real implanted autonomous system with a current consumption of 850 µA and voltage of 2 V. The tests showed that, after 7 to 30 s of walking with a gait cycle frequency of about 1.0 Hz, the EHS can generate an energy of about 70 μJ, guaranteeing a voltage between 2 and 1.4 V every 7.6 s. With this prototype we can verify that it is possible to power for 16 ms a circuit having a power consumption of 1.7 mW every 7.6 s. The proposed generator is a viable solution to power an implanted electronic system that is conceived for measuring and transmitting the TKP load parameters.
Springer, Bryan D; Mason, J Bohannon; Odum, Susan M
Intraoperative periarticular injections (PAIs) with local anesthetic are an important component of multimodal pain control in total joint arthroplasty. Liposomal bupivacaine is an extended-release formulation of bupivacaine designed to provide extended pain relief, approved for use in a single surgical site. The systemic safety profile for use in simultaneous bilateral TKA (bTKA) with a full dose in each knee has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of bilateral full-dose PAI liposomal bupivacaine in the blood collected in patients undergoing simultaneous bTKA. In this prospective study, patients had an identical PAI consisting of 20 cc of liposomal bupivacaine (266 mg), 30 cc of 0.25% bupivacaine (75 mg) with epinephrine, and 10 cc of normal saline injected into each knee during bTKA. Blood samples were collected at predefined intervals until patient discharge. No exogenous bupivacaine was administered. Pharmacokinetic evaluations were subsequently performed and compared to bupivacaine toxicity levels. Patients were monitored for adverse events related to anesthetic toxicity (cardiac and neurologic). Fifteen patients (mean age, 60.7 years; range, 57-64 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean peak level (Cmax) was 0.8 μg/mL (range, 0.4-1.2 μg/mL). All patients were well below the reported systemic cardiac and toxicity levels reported as 2-4 μg/mL. There were no reported cardiac and neurotoxic events in any patients. The use of full-dose PAI with liposomal bupivacaine placed into each knee during simultaneous bTKA is safe with systemic bupivacaine levels well below reported cardiac and neurotoxic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adravanti, Paolo; Tecame, Andrea; de Girolamo, Laura; Ampollini, Aldo; Papalia, Rocco
The management of patella in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The elevated risk of patellofemoral complications seems to support those who are not eager to perform such procedure. The aim of this study is to carry out a retrospective assessment of patients who underwent patellar resurfacing during TKA from 2004 to 2009. From January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2009, 1280 patients underwent TKA with patellar prosthesis implantation. Of them, 861 patients (639 women and 222 men with an average age of 67.7 ± 12.3 years) were available for a telephonic interview consisting of the questions included in the Knee Pain Score (KPS). Patients presenting KPS >36 and those subjected to reoperation were then evaluated clinically and radiologically. Of the 861 patients included in the study, 801 showed a KPS 36, while 27 had been reoperated at the target knee. In the former case, a decrease in normal Insall-Salvati index and patellar tilt values (from 1.08 to 1.02 and from 9.3 to 9.1, respectively) and average anatomic axis (from -2.6° to 1.1°) was found comparing preoperative with last follow-up evaluation. Only in 0.6% of the cases of reintervention, patellofemoral complications were found to be the cause. This study conducted on a large and homogenous group of patients confirms a very low rate of complications related to patella resurfacing during TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verra, Wiebe C; van den Boom, Lennard G H; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Schoones, Jan W; Wymenga, Ate B; Nelissen, Rob G H H
Background and purpose To retain or to sacrifice the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains a matter of discussion. In this systematic review, we wanted to find differences in functional and clinical outcome between the 2 methods. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis including all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that have compared PCL retention with PCL sacrifice in TKA with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Primary outcome was range of motion. Secondary outcomes were knee pain and clinical scoring systems that were preferably validated. Quality of evidence was graded using the GRADE approach. All outcomes available for data pooling were used for meta-analysis. Results 20 studies involving 1,877 patients and 2,347 knees were included. In meta-analysis, the postoperative flexion angle had a mean difference of 2 degrees (95% CI: 0.23–4.0; p = 0.03) and the KSS functional score was 2.4 points higher in favor of PCL sacrifice (95% CI: 0.41–4.3; p = 0.02). There were no statistically significant differences regarding other measured clinical outcomes such as WOMAC, KSS pain, clinical and overall score, HSS score, SF-12, radiolucencies, femoro-tibial angle, and tibial slope. The quality of the studies varied considerably. Risk of bias in most studies was unclear; 5 were judged to have a low risk of bias and 5 to have a high risk of bias. Interpretation We found no clinically relevant differences between retention and sacrifice of the PCL in TKA, in terms of functional and clinical outcomes. The quality of the studies ranged from moderate to low. Based on the current evidence, no recommendation can be made as to whether to retain or to sacrifice the PCL. PMID:25323799
Petersen, Tom; Hautopp, Holger; Duus, Benn
Objective: Acupuncture is a low risk option in pain management following total knee replacement as an alternative to opioid analgesics. Therefore, the benefit of acupuncture as adjunct to an exercise program was investigated. Furthermore, the modifying effect of previous benefit from acupuncture...... was explored. Design: Three weeks postoperatively, eligible patients were randomized to acupuncture and exercises or exercises alone. Setting: An outpatient rehabilitation centre in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 172 patients were included. Methods: Main outcome was proportion...... of the course of treatment were assessed. Results: No additional benefit of acupuncture was found on any of the main outcomes. Between-group differences were non-significant in proportions of patients with a clinically important reduction of night pain (Relative Risk: 0.98; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0...
Hsu, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Su-Ru; Tseng, Yen-Ting; Lin, Pi-Chu
This study investigated the effects of music listening on the anxiety, heart rate variability (HRV), and joint range of motion (ROM) of patients undergoing continuous passive motion (CPM) after total knee replacement surgery. An experimental design was used. Participants in the experimental group (n = 49) listened to music from 10 min before receiving CPM until the end of the session (25 min in total) on the first and second day following surgery, whereas participants in the control group (n = 42) did not listen to music but rested quietly in bed starting 10 min before and throughout CPM. Compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels (p Music listening can effectively reduce patient anxiety and enhance the ROM of their joints during postoperative rehabilitation. Health-care practitioners should consider including music listening as a routine practice for postoperative rehabilitation following orthopedic surgery. © The Author(s) 2015.
Electricwala, Ali J; Amanatullah, Derek F; Narkbunnam, Rapeepat I; Huddleston, James I; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B
Adequate preoperative planning is the first and most crucial step in the successful completion of a revision total joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability, adequacy and accuracy of operative notes of primary surgeries in patients requiring subsequent revision and to construct comprehensive templates of minimum necessary information required in the operative notes to further simplify re-operations, if they should become necessary. The operative notes of 144 patients (80 revision THA's and 64 revision TKA's) who underwent revision total joint arthroplasty at Stanford Hospital and Clinics in the year 2013 were reviewed. We assessed the availability of operative notes and implant stickers prior to revision total joint arthroplasty. The availability of implant details within the operative notes was assessed against the available surgical stickers for adequacy and accuracy. Statistical comparisons were made using the Fischer-exact test and a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The primary operative note was available in 68 of 144 revisions (47%), 39 of 80 revision THAs (49%) and 29 of 66 revision TKAs (44%, p = 0.619). Primary implant stickers were available in 46 of 144 revisions (32%), 26 of 80 revision THAs (32%) and 20 of 66 revision TKAs (30%, p = 0.859). Utilizing the operative notes and implant stickers combined identified accurate primary implant details in only 40 of the 80 revision THAs (50%) and 34 of all 66 revision TKAs (52%, p = 0.870). Operative notes are often unavailable or fail to provide the necessary information required which makes planning and execution of revision hip and knee athroplasty difficult. This emphasizes the need for enhancing the quality of operative notes and records of patient information. Based on this information, we provide comprehensive operative note templates for primary and revision total hip and knee arthroplasty.
Nicholas B. Frisch, MD, MBA
Full Text Available Background: Surgical site irrigation during total hip (THA and total knee (TKA arthroplasty is a routine practice among orthopaedic surgeons to prevent periprosthetic joint infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG irrigation on infection rates following THA and TKA. Methods: Arthroplasties performed before September 2014 served as controls. THA performed before September 2014 (N = 253 underwent intraoperative irrigation with 0.9% saline followed by a 2-minute soak with <2% dilute povidone-iodine. TKA (N = 411 patients underwent only intraoperative saline irrigation. After October 2014, all patients (248 TKA and 138 THA received intraoperative irrigation with 0.9% saline and periodic 0.05% CHG solution followed by a final 1-minute soak in CHG with immediate closure afterward. Results: In this 2:1 comparison of consecutive patients, there were no differences in patient demographics between the 2 groups. No difference was noted in wound healing concerns subjectively, and no statistically significant association in nonsurgical site infections, superficial surgical site infection, and deep surgical site infection rates between the 2 groups (nonsurgical site infections [THA: P = .244, TKA: P = .125]; superficial surgical site infection [THA: P = .555, TKA: P = .913]; and deep surgical site infection [THA: P = .302, TKA: P = .534]. Conclusions: We were unable to discern a difference in infection rates between chlorhexidine irrigation and our prior protocols using dilute Betadine for THA and 0.9% saline for TKA. The theoretic advantages of dilute CHG retention during closure appear to be safe without infectious concerns. Keywords: Total hip arthroplasty (THA, Total knee arthroplasty (TKA, Irrigation, Lavage, Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are recommended for multimodal postoperative pain management. We evaluated opioid-sparing effects and rehabilitative results after perioperative celecoxib administration for total knee arthroplasty. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, observer-blind control study. Eighty patients that underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized into two groups of 40 each. The study group received a single 400 mg dose of celecoxib, one hour before surgery, and 200 mg of celecoxib every 12 hours for five days, along with patient-controlled analgesic (PCA morphine. The control group received only PCA morphine for postoperative pain management. Visual analog scale (VAS pain scores, active range of motion (ROM, total opioid use and postoperative nausea/vomiting were analyzed. Results Groups were comparable for age, pre-operative ROM, operation duration and intraoperative blood loss. Resting VAS pain scores improved significantly in the celecoxib group, compared with controls, at 48 hrs (2.13 ± 1.68 vs. 3.43 ± 1.50, p = 0.03 and 72 hrs (1.78 ± 1.66 vs. 3.17 ± 2.01, p = 0.02 after surgery. Active ROM also increased significantly in the patients that received celecoxib, especially in the first 72 hrs [40.8° ± 17.3° vs. 25.8° ± 11.5°, p = 0.01 (day 1; 60.7° ± 18.1° vs. 45.0° ± 17.3°, p = 0.004 (day 2; 77.7° ± 15.1° vs. 64.3° ± 16.9°, p = 0.004 (day 3]. Opioid requirements decreased about 40% (p = 0.03 in the celecoxib group. Although patients suffering from post-operative nausea/vomiting decreased from 43% in control group to 28% in celecoxib group, this was not significant (p = 0.57. There were no differences in blood loss (intra- and postoperative between the groups. Celecoxib resulted in no significant increase in the need for blood transfusions. Conclusion Perioperative celecoxib significantly improved postoperative resting pain scores at 48 and 72 hrs, opioid
Turki, Abdulaziz Saud Al; Dakhil, Yazeed Al; Turki, Abdulah Al; Ferwana, Mazen Saleh
To examine the effects of patients' characteristics mainly obesity on operative duration and other outcome measures of knee arthroplasty. This is a retrospective chart review of 204 patients who had knee arthroplasty within the past five years (2007-2011) at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The data collection form was developed utilizing the literature review to gather all the needed variables. Data were gathered from admission notes, nursing notes, operative reports and discharge summaries. A feasible sample of 204 patients were included in the study. Of those patients, 155 (76%) were females. The mean age was 70.1 years for males (SD ± 9.4) and 62.7 years (SD ± 8) for females. Regarding the type of total knee replacement (TKR), 163 (79.9%) patients had unilateral TKR and 41 (20.1%) had bilateral TKR. Nine patients (4.4%) had a normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5 to < 25). Overweight patients (BMI 25 to < 30) represented 18.1%. Obesity class I (BMI 30 to < 35) and obesity class II (BMI from 35 to < 40) were present in 23% and 29.9% of the patients, respectively. Morbid obesity (BMI greater than 40) was present in 24.5%. The mean duration of surgery was 126.3 min (SD ± 30.8) for unilateral TKR and 216.6 min (SD ± 55.4) for bilateral TKR.The mean length of stay in the hospital was 12 d (SD ± 4.9). The complications that patients had after the operation included 2 patients (1%) who developed deep venous thrombosis, 2 patients (1%) developed surgical wound infections and none had pulmonary embolism. Patients' characteristics (including age, gender, BMI and co-morbidities) did not have an effect on the operative duration of knee replacement nor the length of hospital stay. Our study shows that obesity and other patients' characteristics do not have effect on the operative duration nor the length of hospital stay following TKR.
Turki, Abdulaziz Saud Al; Dakhil, Yazeed Al; Turki, Abdulah Al; Ferwana, Mazen Saleh
AIM: To examine the effects of patients’ characteristics mainly obesity on operative duration and other outcome measures of knee arthroplasty. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 204 patients who had knee arthroplasty within the past five years (2007-2011) at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The data collection form was developed utilizing the literature review to gather all the needed variables. Data were gathered from admission notes, nursing notes, operative reports and discharge summaries. RESULTS: A feasible sample of 204 patients were included in the study. Of those patients, 155 (76%) were females. The mean age was 70.1 years for males (SD ± 9.4) and 62.7 years (SD ± 8) for females. Regarding the type of total knee replacement (TKR), 163 (79.9%) patients had unilateral TKR and 41 (20.1%) had bilateral TKR. Nine patients (4.4%) had a normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5 to < 25). Overweight patients (BMI 25 to < 30) represented 18.1%. Obesity class I (BMI 30 to < 35) and obesity class II (BMI from 35 to < 40) were present in 23% and 29.9% of the patients, respectively. Morbid obesity (BMI greater than 40) was present in 24.5%. The mean duration of surgery was 126.3 min (SD ± 30.8) for unilateral TKR and 216.6 min (SD ± 55.4) for bilateral TKR.The mean length of stay in the hospital was 12 d (SD ± 4.9). The complications that patients had after the operation included 2 patients (1%) who developed deep venous thrombosis, 2 patients (1%) developed surgical wound infections and none had pulmonary embolism. Patients' characteristics (including age, gender, BMI and co-morbidities) did not have an effect on the operative duration of knee replacement nor the length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that obesity and other patients’ characteristics do not have effect on the operative duration nor the length of hospital stay following TKR. PMID:25793169
Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Madsbad, Sten; Kehlet, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for postoperative morbidity, which includes total hip and knee arthroplasty. However, no previous studies have been done in a fast-track setting with optimized perioperative care, including spinal anesthesia, multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, early...... mobilization, and discharge to home, which improved postoperative outcome. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study using prospective data in primary total hip and total knee arthroplasty with a standardized fast-track approach. Eight hundred ninety type 2 diabetics were successfully propensity......-∞) and 115 (35-∞), respectively. Insulin-treated type 2 diabetes was associated with increased risk of specific "diabetes-related" morbidity (1.95 [1.13-3.35]; P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes per se has limited influence on postoperative morbidity in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty....
Ebnezar, John; Yogitha Bali, Mr; John, Rakesh; Gupta, Omisha
.... She refused surgery and was told there are no alternative treatment options. This patient underwent a 3 week integrated course of IAYT at our center and she made a remarkable recovery. IAYT is a good non-surgical treatment that can be affective both before and after knee replacement and it should be considered as the first choice of treatment before surgery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 20,000 patients per year in the UK receive total knee arthroplasty (TKA. One of the problems faced by the health services of many developed countries is the length of time patients spend waiting for elective treatment. We therefore report the results of a study in which the Salisbury Priority Scoring System (SPSS was used by both the surgeon and their patients to ascertain whether there were differences between the surgeon generated and patient generated Salisbury Priority Scores. Methods The Salisbury Priority Scoring System (SPSS was used to assign relative priority to patients with knee osteoarthritis as part of a randomised controlled trial comparing the standard medial parapatellar approach versus the sub-vastus approach in TKA. The operating surgeons and each patient completed the SPSS at the same pre-assessment clinic. The SPSS assesses four criteria, namely progression of disease, pain or distress, disability or dependence on others, and loss of usual occupation. Crosstabs and agreement measures (Cohen's kappa were performed. Results Overall, the four SPSS criteria showed a kappa value of 0.526, 0.796, 0.813, and 0.820, respectively, showing moderate to very good agreement between the patient and the operating consultant. Male patients showed better agreement than female patients. Conclusion The Salisbury Priority Scoring System is a good means of assessing patients' needs in relation to elective surgery, with high agreement between the patient and the operating surgeon.
Felipe de Santana Bosmak
Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Delirium is a common disorder that can potentiate mortality and comorbidity rates of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgeries, such as knee and hip arthroplasty, are particularly vulnerable as they often have multiple risk factors for this disorder. Method: Descriptive study of the incidence of delirium in patients treated with total knee and hip arthroplasty, given the advanced age and comorbidities in this population. We evaluated the medical records of patients who had previously undergone the designated surgeries for identification of postoperative delirium. Results: We observed in this study an incidence of 8.92% of delirium, mostly affecting females with a mean age of 73 years and hypertension. Conclusion: The incidence of delirium in our study is similar to that observed in the general population, according to the literature. We found no correlation with sleep disorders, smoking or diabetes mellitus in this study, even though the importance of these factors for the onset of delirium is well-established in the literature.
Sandiford, Nemandra A; Alao, Uthman; Salamut, Wazirl; Weitzel, Stefan; Skinner, J A
Management of the patella during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. Multiple studies have examined mechanical and clinical results of TKA with native and resurfaced patellae with no clear consensus. We surveyed a large cohort of consultant surgeons in a questionnaire based study in order to assess the indications for patella resurfacing and to correlate practice with degree of specialization, experience and volume of procedures performed. Six hundred and nineteen surgeons were included. The main indication for patella resurfacing was patellofemoral arthritis. The ratio of those who always:sometimes:never resurfaced was 1:2:1 irrespective of experience or volume performed. There was no difference between knee specialists and non-specialists (p = 0.977) or between high and lower volume surgeons (p = 0.826). Senior and high volume surgeons tended to always resurface. The majority of surgeons only sometimes resurfaced the patella. The number who always and never resurfaced were similar. There was a tendency for more experienced and high volume surgeons to always resurface.
Tanavalee, Aree; Thiengwittayaporn, Satit; Ngarmukos, Srihatach
The authors evaluated the intraoperative data and early clinical results of 22 minimally invasive mini-incision total knee arthroplasties (mini-incision TKAs) performed between October 2002 and September 2003. Results were matched with 22 patients who underwent standard TKA in the same period. At a minimum 12-week follow up, results comparing the mini-incision TKA group and the standard TKA group were evaluated as follows: The average operative time was 137.1 vs 115.8min (p=0.02), the average wound length was 9.4 vs 13.7 cm, the average blood loss was 456 vs 512 ml (p=0.14) and the number of patients who could start to walk on postoperative day one was 17 vs 2. On postoperative day one, 82% of the mini-incision TKA group could do active knee extension meanwhile none of the standard group could. Postoperative pain score was not different at 24 hours or 48 hours. At 2 and6 weeks, the mini-incision TKA group had less pain with significant difference (p=0.002 and p=0.002). The postoperative range of motion in the mini-incision group was also significantly improved at 2 weeks (p=0.03). However, pain and range of motion were not different in both groups after 12 weeks. Early results of mini-incision TKA accelerated patient postoperative activity, ambulation and range of motion.
Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu
Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain.
Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu
BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335
Güney-Deniz, Hande; Irem Kınıklı, Gizem; Çağlar, Ömür; Atilla, Bülent; Yüksel, İnci
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of kinesiophobia on early functional outcomes in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and how kinesiophobia is related to functional outcomes and pain. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), 2-minute walk test (2-MWT), and the timed up and go test (TUG) were used to assess 46 TKA patients on discharge day. The pain levels and active knee flexion range of motion (ROM) were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups as high kinesiophobia (Group I, n = 22) and low kinesiophobia (Group II, n = 24) based on the TSK levels. The TUG results were similar between groups (p = 0.826). 2-MWT results (p kinesiophobia level. The results suggest that early outcomes following TKA were affected by the pain-related fear of movement. The clinicians need to consider the interrelationships between fear of movement and functional outcomes when designing, implementing, and monitoring daily therapeutic exercise programs.
Hasenkamp, W; Villard, J; Delaloye, J R; Arami, A; Bertsch, A; Jolles, B M; Aminian, K; Renaud, P
Ligament balance is an important and subjective task performed during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedure. For this reason, it is desirable to develop instruments to quantitatively assess the soft-tissue balance since excessive imbalance can accelerate prosthesis wear and lead to early surgical revision. The instrumented distractor proposed in this study can assist surgeons on performing ligament balance by measuring the distraction gap and applied load. Also the device allows the determination of the ligament stiffness which can contribute a better understanding of the intrinsic mechanical behavior of the knee joint. Instrumentation of the device involved the use of hall-sensors for measuring the distractor displacement and strain gauges to transduce the force. The sensors were calibrated and tested to demonstrate their suitability for surgical use. Results show the distraction gap can be measured reliably with 0.1mm accuracy and the distractive loads could be assessed with an accuracy in the range of 4N. These characteristics are consistent with those have been proposed, in this work, for a device that could assist on performing ligament balance while permitting surgeons evaluation based on his experience. Preliminary results from in vitro tests were in accordance with expected stiffness values for medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fregly, Benjamin J; Marquez-Barrientos, Carlos; Banks, Scott A; DesJardins, John D
Wear remains a significant problem limiting the lifespan of total knee replacements (TKRs). Though increased conformity between TKR components has the potential to decrease wear, the optimal amount and planes of conformity have not been investigated. Furthermore, differing conformities in the medial and lateral compartments may provide designers the opportunity to address both wear and kinematic design goals simultaneously. This study used a computational model of a Stanmore knee simulator machine and a previously validated wear model to investigate this issue for simulated gait. TKR geometries with different amounts and planes of conformity on the medial and lateral sides were created and tested in two phases. The first phase utilized a wide range of sagittal and coronal conformity combinations to blanket a physically realistic design space. The second phase performed a focused investigation of the conformity conditions from the first phase to which predicted wear volume was sensitive. For the first phase, sagittal but not coronal conformity was found to have a significant effect on predicted wear volume. For the second phase, increased sagittal conformity was found to decrease predicted wear volume in a nonlinear fashion, with reductions gradually diminishing as conformity increased. These results suggest that TKR geometric design efforts aimed at minimizing wear should focus on sagittal rather than coronal conformity and that at least moderate sagittal conformity is desirable in both compartments.
Skou, Søren Thorgaard; Roos, Ewa M.; Simonsen, Ole
BACKGROUND: The objective was to compare the effect of total knee replacement (TKR) followed by a 3-month non-surgical treatment with the non-surgical treatment alone in reducing pain sensitization and other pain-related measures in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: One hundred patients...... pain sensitization than non-surgical treatment alone. Both treatments are equally efficacious in reducing the pain-related measures of this study. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: Knee replacement followed by non-surgical treatment is more effective in reducing pain sensitization, but not other pain...... (PPTs) at the knee (localized sensitization) and the lower leg (spreading sensitization), (2) peak pain intensity during the previous 24 h, (3) pain intensity after 30 min of walking, (4) pain location and pattern, (5) spreading of pain on a region-divided body chart and (6) the usage of pain medication...
Tonelli Shalome M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men. Women also perform worse than men on function measures such as the 6-minute walk and timed up and go tests. Differences in pain sensitivity, pain during function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity levels are unclear. Further the ability of various biopsychosocial variables to explain physical activity, function and pain is unknown. Methods This study examined differences in pain, pain sensitivity, function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity between women and men with knee osteoarthritis (N = 208 immediately prior to total knee arthroplasty. We assessed: (1 pain using self-report measures and a numerical rating scale at rest and during functional tasks, (2 pain sensitivity using quantitative sensory measures, (3 function with self-report measures and specific function tasks (timed walk, maximal active flexion and extension, (4 psychosocial measures (depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and social support, and (5 physical activity using accelerometry. The ability of these mixed variables to explain physical activity, function and pain was assessed using regression analysis. Results Our findings showed significant differences on pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and function tasks, but not on psychosocial measures or physical activity. Women had significantly worse pain and more impaired function than men. Their levels of depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, social support, and physical activity, however, did not differ significantly. Factors explaining differences in (1 pain during movement (during gait speed test were pain at rest, knee extension, state anxiety, and pressure pain threshold; (2 function (gait speed test were sex, age, knee extension, knee flexion opioid medications, pain
Leichtle, Ulf G; Lange, Barbara; Herzog, Yvonne; Schnauffer, Peter; Leichtle, Carmen I; Wülker, Nikolaus; Lorenz, Andrea
In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), patellofemoral groove design varies greatly and likely has a distinct influence on patellofemoral biomechanics. To analyse the selective influence, five patellofemoral design variations were developed based on Genesis II total knee endoprosthesis (original design, being completely flat, being laterally elevated, being medially elevated, and both sides elevated) and made from polyamide using rapid prototyping. Muscle-loaded knee flexion was simulated on 10 human knee specimens using a custom-made knee simulator, measuring the patellofemoral pressure distribution and tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics. The measurements were carried out in the native knee as well as after TKA with the 5 design prototypes. The overall influence of the different designs on the patellofemoral kinematics was small, but we found detectable effects for mediolateral tilt (p < 0.05 for 35°-80° flexion) and translation of the patella (p < 0.045 for 20°-65° and 75°-90°), especially for the completely flat design. Considering patellofemoral pressures, major interindividual differences were seen between the designs, which, on average, largely cancelled each other out. These results suggest that the elevation of the lateral margin of the patellofemoral groove is essential for providing mediolateral guidance, but smooth contouring as with original Genesis II design seems to be sufficient. The pronounced interindividual differences identify a need for more patellofemoral design options in TKA.
Tabutin, J; Banon, F; Catonne, Y; Grobost, J; Tessier, J L; Tillie, B
Patellar resurfacing is a controversial issue in primary total knee replacement. So, we took advantage of a large study to try and answer this question. An open prospective multicentric study was conducted about the outcome of the Nex Gen Total Knee prosthesis with clinical and radiological follow-up at regular intervals (1, 2 and 5 years). The data were centrally collected and analyzed by independent observers. A total of whole 5,915 cases were included (487 in the French group); incidences of patello-femoral pain were observed in both French and international groups and compared between cases with or without resurfaced patellae. Only osteoarthritic cases were selected for this particular study. Statistical analysis was performed using a Pearson's Chi-square test with a 95% confidence interval. The frequency of preoperative pain was significantly higher in the French group; 85.1% versus 66.6% (p<0.05). No patello-femoral pain appeared in preoperatively painless patients in the French group. The frequency of lateral patellar release was similar in both groups. 35.7% of the patellae were resurfaced in the international group versus 98.8% in the French one. At 2 years, patello-femoral pain was observed in 6.3% of cases in the former group versus 0.7% in the latter one. The risk of having patello-femoral pain was 9.45 times higher in the international group. When considering resurfaced cases in both groups the risk of having anterior knee pain was not significantly different (p=0.35). In the French group, one case out of nine (11.1%) with patello-femoral pain had not been resurfaced, while 129 cases out of 151 (85.4%) had not had a resurfacing in the international group. This emphasizes the effect of patellar implant on pain. Although patello-femoral pain is multifactorial, this analysis tool is powerful in getting rid of the "center effect " (cf Swedish register). Even if a longer follow-up for confirmation is needed, our data favor patellar resurfacing with this
Alcerro, Jose C; Rossi, Mark D; Lavernia, Carlos J
Maintenance of the native patellar thickness has been deemed important for proper clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our objective was to study the effects of the change in patellar thickness on patient-perceived outcomes (PPOs) after TKA. We hypothesized that reestablishing native patellar thickness after TKA results in better PPOs. 819 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKA were studied. Patients were classified according to their postoperative patellar thickness into: (1) less than native patella thickness; (2) equal to native patella thickness; and (3) greater than native patella thickness. Difference in postoperative range of motion (ROM), PPOs and clinical scores, and delta-Δ-change were assessed. MANCOVA was used to assess for differences. No significant differences found based on postoperative patellar thickness (mean follow-up: 4.9 ± 2.1 years) for each ROM assessments. Those who reported more stiffness (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index stiffness; P = .011) and lower knee active flexion (P = .046) preoperatively had "greater than native patella thickness" after surgery. Postoperatively, the "equal to native patella thickness" group reported significantly better quality of life (quality of well-being scale 7 total; P = .008) as well as better physical score (Short Form-36 role physical score; P = .03). The amount of improvement (delta-Δ-change), when restoring patellar thickness equal to the native demonstrated greatest improvements in quality of life (quality of well-being scale 7 total; P = .016) physical measures (Short Form-36 role physical [P = .025], and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index stiffness scores [P = .006]). When compared with the native patellar thickness, a final postoperative difference (delta thickness) that ranges from -1.06 to 2.58 mm provides satisfactory results and does not seem to affect ROM after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All
Minoda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Shigeru; Sugama, Ryo; Ikawa, Tessyu; Noguchi, Takahiro; Hirakawa, Masashi
Postoperative knee flexion angle is one of the most important outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Intraoperative ligament balancing may affect the postoperative range of motion of the knee. However, the relationship between intraoperative ligament balancing and postoperative flexion angle was still controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intraoperative joint gap affects postoperative knee flexion angle or not. Prospective multicenter study of 246 knees with varus osteoarthritis undergoing a posterior-stabilized, mobile-bearing TKA was performed. The joint gap before implantation and after implantation was measured. The joint gap after implantation was measured using a specially designed tensor device with the same shape of a total knee prosthesis at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, and 145° of flexion with the reduction of the patellofemoral joint. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of the flexion angle of the knee after the operation. Predictors were identified in the following 3 categories: (1) preoperative flexion angle, (2) intraoperative flexion angle, and (3) joint gap looseness at 120° of flexion (joint gap after implantation at 120° of flexion - joint gap after implantation at 0° of flexion) (R = 0.472, P angle after TKA was not affected by the flexion joint gap looseness before implantation and the joint gap looseness after implantation from 30° to 90° of flexion. Surgeons should notice that joint gap looseness in mid-flexion range did not increase the postoperative knee flexion angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Woude, J A D; Nair, S C; Custers, R J H; van Laar, J M; Kuchuck, N O; Lafeber, F P J G; Welsing, P M J
In end-stage knee osteoarthritis the treatment of choice is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An alternative treatment is knee joint distraction (KJD), suggested to postpone TKA. Several studies reported significant and prolonged clinical improvement of KJD. To make an appropriate decision regarding the position of this treatment, a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis from healthcare perspective for different age and gender categories was performed. A treatment strategy starting with TKA and a strategy starting with KJD for patients of different age and gender was simulated. To extrapolate outcomes to long-term health and economic outcomes a Markov (Health state) model was used. The number of surgeries, QALYs, and treatment costs per strategy were calculated. Costs-effectiveness is expressed using the cost-effectiveness plane and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Starting with KJD the number of knee replacing procedures could be reduced, most clearly in the younger age categories; especially revision surgery. This resulted in the KJD strategy being dominant (more effective with cost-savings) in about 80% of simulations (with only inferiority in about 1%) in these age categories when compared to TKA. At a willingness to pay of 20.000 Euro per QALY gained, the probability of starting with KJD to be cost-effective compared to starting with a TKA was already found to be over 75% for all age categories and over 90-95% for the younger age categories. A treatment strategy starting with knee joint distraction for knee osteoarthritis has a large potential for being a cost-effective intervention, especially for the relatively young patient.
Tsjitske M Haanstra
Full Text Available The constructs optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are associated with outcomes of medical treatment. While these constructs are grounded in different theoretical models, they nonetheless show some conceptual overlap. The purpose of this study was to examine whether currently available measurement instruments for these constructs capture the conceptual differences between these constructs within a treatment setting.Patients undergoing Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty (THA and TKA (Total N = 361; 182 THA; 179 TKA, completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised for optimism and pessimism, the Hope Scale, the Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire for treatment credibility and treatment expectancy. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine whether the instruments measure distinct constructs. Four theory-driven models with one, two, four and five latent factors were evaluated using multiple fit indices and Δχ2 tests, followed by some posthoc models.The results of the theory driven confirmatory factor analysis showed that a five factor model in which all constructs loaded on separate factors yielded the most optimal and satisfactory fit. Posthoc, a bifactor model in which (besides the 5 separate factors a general factor is hypothesized accounting for the commonality of the items showed a significantly better fit than the five factor model. All specific factors, except for the hope factor, showed to explain a substantial amount of variance beyond the general factor.Based on our primary analyses we conclude that optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are distinguishable in THA and TKA patients. Postdoc, we determined that all constructs, except hope, showed substantial specific variance, while also sharing some general variance.
Haanstra, Tsjitske M; Tilbury, Claire; Kamper, Steven J; Tordoir, Rutger L; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Cuijpers, Pim; de Vet, Henrica C W; Dekker, Joost; Knol, Dirk L; Ostelo, Raymond W
The constructs optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are associated with outcomes of medical treatment. While these constructs are grounded in different theoretical models, they nonetheless show some conceptual overlap. The purpose of this study was to examine whether currently available measurement instruments for these constructs capture the conceptual differences between these constructs within a treatment setting. Patients undergoing Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty (THA and TKA) (Total N = 361; 182 THA; 179 TKA), completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised for optimism and pessimism, the Hope Scale, the Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire for treatment credibility and treatment expectancy. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine whether the instruments measure distinct constructs. Four theory-driven models with one, two, four and five latent factors were evaluated using multiple fit indices and Δχ2 tests, followed by some posthoc models. The results of the theory driven confirmatory factor analysis showed that a five factor model in which all constructs loaded on separate factors yielded the most optimal and satisfactory fit. Posthoc, a bifactor model in which (besides the 5 separate factors) a general factor is hypothesized accounting for the commonality of the items showed a significantly better fit than the five factor model. All specific factors, except for the hope factor, showed to explain a substantial amount of variance beyond the general factor. Based on our primary analyses we conclude that optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are distinguishable in THA and TKA patients. Postdoc, we determined that all constructs, except hope, showed substantial specific variance, while also sharing some general variance.
M. P. Zinoviev
Full Text Available Purpose of the study – to evaluate the influence of residual varus deformity of the lower leg on clinical, functional and dynamometric outcomes of TKR.Material and methods. In the period from September 2014 till May 2015 951 total knee replacement surgeries were performed in Ural clinical and rehabilitation center in 933 patients with initial varus deformity of lower limb. However, in 52 cases (5.5% residual varus deformity of >3° persisted. The main group included 36 patients with mean residual varus deformity of lower leg of 3.9°±0.74° (from 3.1° to 5.6°, the control group included 34 patients with neutral mechanic axis of the lower leg. Evaluation of treatment outcomes was performed on average 14.2±1.8 months after the procedure using functional assessment of the patients according to KSS (Knee Society Score, subjective assessment of life quality (SF36, as well as evaluation of the static-dynamic function of the lower leg on diagnostic and treatment complex Biodex Systems 4 Quick Set and assessment of stability of components fixation by F.C. Ewald scale in modification of O.A. Kudinov et al.Results. Functional assessment of the patients according to KSS (Knee Society Score for the main group was 84.0±4.6, in control group – 82.2±4.1 points (p>0.05. Subjective assessment of life quality (SF36 in the main group was 162.6±6.4 points, in control group – 164.3±8.1 points (p>0.05. In terms of flexion and extension of lower leg there were no significant differences between two groups when assessing static and dynamic function by treatment and diagnostic complex «Biodex Systems 4 Quick Set» on average in 14.2±1.8 months after procedure: neither isometric nor isokinetic parameters in both groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (p>0.05. Based on X-rays evaluation there were no abnormalities in components fixation in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences identified in KSS and SF36 scales
Xie, Xin; Rusly, Roy; DesJardins, John D; Voss, Frank; Chillag, Kim; LaBerge, Martine
In total knee replacement surgery, implant alignment is one of the most important criteria for successful long-term clinical outcome. During total knee replacement implantation, femoral and tibial alignment are determined through appropriate bone resections, which could vary based on patient anatomy, implant design and surgical technique and further influence loading conditions and clinical outcomes. The current research focused on three critical alignment parameters for total knee replacement insertion: femoral component internal/external (I/E) rotation, varus-valgus tibiofemoral angulation and posterior tibial slope. A computational finite element model of total knee replacement implant was developed and validated comparing with kinematic outputs generated from experimentally simulated knee joint motion. The FE model was then used to assess 12 different alignment scenarios based on previous case reports. Postoperative knee kinematics and joint contact pressure during simulated gait motion were assessed. According to the parametric study, FE model cases with femoral rotation revealed extra tibial I/E rotation in the predefined direction but negligible change in tibial anterior-posterior translation; cases with increased tibial slope showed notably increased tibial external rotation and anterior translation; cases with varus tibiofemoral angle presented slightly more tibial external rotation, whereas cases with valgus angle presented an observable increase in tibial internal rotation at the middle phase of the gait cycle. Finally, the response surface obtained from the postprocessing study demonstrated good statistical correlation with existing case study results, providing reliable estimation of peak tibiofemoral contact pressure affected by combinations of alignment parameters. The observations indicate that femoral external alignment should be favored clinically for enhanced patellar tracking and reduced contact pressure concentration for better long
Gao, Qin; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael
Density functional theory (DFT) provides an accurate and first-principles description of solid structures and total energies. However, it is highly time-consuming to calculate structures with hundreds of atoms in the unit cell and almost not possible to calculate thousands of atoms. We apply and adapt machine learning algorithms, including compressive sensing, support vector regression and artificial neural networks to fit the DFT total energies of substitutionally disordered boron carbide. The nonparametric kernel method is also included in our models. Our fitted total energy model reproduces the DFT energies with prediction error of around 1 meV/atom. The assumptions of these machine learning models and applications of the fitted total energies will also be discussed. Financial support from McWilliams Fellowship and the ONR-MURI under the Grant No. N00014-11-1-0678 is gratefully acknowledged.
De Caro, M F; Vicenti, G; Abate, A; Picca, G; Leoncini, V; Lomuscio, M; Casalino, A; Solarino, G; Moretti, B
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee causes pain and loss of joint mobility, leading to limitations in physical function. When conservative treatment fails total hip and knee replacement is a cost-effective surgical option. Patients have high expectations regarding functional outcome after these procedures. If such expectations are not met, they may still be dissatisfied with the outcome of a technically successful procedure. Recently, numerous studies reported that psychological factors can influence the outcome of total knee replacement (tkr) and total hip artrhoplasty with total hip replacement (thr). We conducted a prospective study on a consecutive sample of 280 patients affected by hip or knee OA who underwent total joint replacement. At patients admission, Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Knee Society Score (KSS) were used to assess pain and function. Furthermore, SF-36, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (BRIEF-COPE) and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) were administered. Patients had clinical and radio graphical follow up at 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively. The HHS and KSS values before surgery showed a linear correlation with both SCL-90-R and MMSE. None of the investigated variables influenced post-operative HHS and KSS scores; however, the improvement of functional scores resulted conditioned by SCL-90-R values, VAS score, schooling and MMSE. Psychological factors and mental status in primary total hip and knee replacement can affect outcome and patient satisfaction. Strategies focused on identification and facing of these conditions must be considered to improve outcome of total replacement.
Palsis, John A; Brehmer, Thomas S; Pellegrini, Vincent D; Drew, Jacob M; Sachs, Barton L
In an era of mandatory bundled payments for total joint replacement, accurate analysis of the cost of procedures is essential for orthopaedic surgeons and their institutions to maintain viable practices. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional accounting and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methods for estimating the total costs of total hip and knee arthroplasty care cycles. We calculated the overall costs of elective primary total hip and total knee replacement care cycles at our academic medical center using traditional and TDABC accounting methods. We compared the methods with respect to the overall costs of hip and knee replacement and the costs for each major cost category. The traditional accounting method resulted in higher cost estimates. The total cost per hip replacement was $22,076 (2014 USD) using traditional accounting and was $12,957 using TDABC. The total cost per knee replacement was $29,488 using traditional accounting and was $16,981 using TDABC. With respect to cost categories, estimates using traditional accounting were greater for hip and knee replacement, respectively, by $3,432 and $5,486 for personnel, by $3,398 and $3,664 for space and equipment, and by $2,289 and $3,357 for indirect costs. Implants and consumables were derived from the actual hospital purchase price; accordingly, both methods produced equivalent results. Substantial cost differences exist between accounting methods. The focus of TDABC only on resources used directly by the patient contrasts with the allocation of all operating costs, including all indirect costs and unused capacity, with traditional accounting. We expect that the true costs of hip and knee replacement care cycles are likely somewhere between estimates derived from traditional accounting methods and TDABC. TDABC offers patient-level granular cost information that better serves in the redesign of care pathways and may lead to more strategic resource-allocation decisions to optimize
Kösters, A; Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Dorn, U; Hofstaedter, T; Fink, C; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alpine skiing on patellar tendon properties in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty-one adults (70.4 ± 4.7 years) with unilateral TKA were recruited 2.7 ± 0.9 years after surgery and assigned to an intervention (IG) or a control group (CG). The IG underwent a 12-week guided skiing program. Tendon stiffness, Young's modulus, and cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured before and after the intervention. In both groups, mean tendon CSA was 28% (P alpine skiing appears to offer a suitable rehabilitation strategy for TKA patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Medel, Francisco J.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Sharkey, Peter; Parvizi, Javad; Klein, Gregg; Hartzband, Mark; Kraay, Matthew; Rimnac, Clare M.
The aim of this study was to better understand how in vivo oxidation contributes to fatigue damage in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 119 tibial inserts were consecutively collected after revision surgery. Of the 119 polyethylene retrievals, 29 were gamma sterilized in air (historical), while the remaining 90 were gamma sterilized in nitrogen (conventional). Surface damage assessment and characterization of oxidation were performed on all the retrievals. Delamination was significantly more prevalent and extensive in the longer-term, highly oxidized, historical tibial inserts. Pitting damage, in contrast, appeared to be equally prevalent between both retrieval groups, and was not correlated with in vivo oxidation. Our findings support our hypothesis that in vivo oxidation is a contributing factor to delamination, but not pitting, in TKA. Despite the lower oxidation displayed by conventional retrievals, this study provides strong evidence that delamination secondary to in vivo oxidation may occur during the second decade of implantation. PMID:20875942
Ranawat, C S; Meftah, M; Windsor, E N; Ranawat, A S
There has been a recent increase in interest for non-cemented fixation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the superiority of cement fixation is an ongoing debate. Whereas the results based on Level III and IV evidence show similar survivorship rates between the two types of fixation, Level I and II evidence strongly support cemented fixation. United Kingdom, Australia, Sweden, and New Zealand registry data show lower failure rates and greater usage of cemented than non-cemented fixation. Case series studies have also indicated greater functional outcomes and lower revision rates among cemented TKAs. Non-cemented fixation involves more patellofemoral complications, including increased susceptibility to wear due to a thinner polyethylene bearing on the cementless metal-backed component. The combination of results from registry data, prospective randomised studies, and meta-analyses support the current superiority of cemented fixation in TKAs.
Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg
, visual disturbances, and adverse reactions. Pain upon ambulation (visual analog scale, mean [95% confidence interval]) 24 hours after surgery in group A vs B vs C was as follows: 41 [37-46] vs 41 [36-45] vs 42 [37-47], P = 0.93. Sedation (numeric rating scale, median [range]) 6 hours after surgery......Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized......, and the secondary outcome was sedation 6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest and sedation during the first 48 hours and from days 2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, headache...
Kopec, Michael; Milbrandt, Joseph C; Duellman, Todd; Mangan, Doug; Allan, D Gordon
Gun pressurization in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may result in better cement penetration than hand packing, leading to fewer tibial plate failures. We compared cement intrusion characteristics between vacuum mixing and gun pressurization versus hand mixing and packing in the proximal tibia among patients undergoing TKA. We analyzed 6-week radiographs from 77 consecutive patients for cement area and zone-specific intrusion using computer-assisted image analysis. Penetration into tibial anteroposterior zones 1-6 was not significantly different between the techniques. Intrusion depths in anteroposterior zone 7 and lateral zone 2 were significantly increased with gun pressurization, but this increase was associated with significantly longer operating room and tourniquet times. We identified no obvious advantage of vacuum mixing with gun pressurization, suggesting that continued use of the hand-packing technique may be warranted. Additional long-term failure studies must be completed to compare these techniques.
Lunn, T H; Kristensen, B B; Gaarn-Larsen, L
BACKGROUND: Post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) admission must be well founded and the stay as short as possible without compromising patient safety. However, within the concept of fast-track surgery, studies are limited in addressing the question: why are patients staying in the PACU? METHODS: All...... patients operated with primary unilateral total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) under spinal anaesthesia were included in this hypothesis-generating, prospective, observati