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Sample records for substituted head groups

  1. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  2. Interpretation of substitution experiments by homogenisation two-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1970-02-01

    This paper describes methods for interpretation of progressive substitution experiments for determining material buckling in homogeneous two-group approximation. These methods were applied for experiments on the zero power RB reactor in Vinca. Experiments were done on the reflected heavy water reactor core, the lattice pitch had unisotropy properties

  3. The Use of Substitutes - Continuity and the-Group-as-a-Whole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    of continuity, i.e. the self- sustaining power of the group and the limits of this is illustrated and discussed in connection with planned versus unplanned substitute periods, showing the importance of preparation when the therapist has to be away, and a substitute is used. Key words: substitute, locum......, continuity, conductor, leadership, group-as-a-whole...

  4. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described

  5. Effect of substitution groups in carbon-13 NMR of tri-substituted camphors; Efeitos de substituintes em RMN de carbono-13 de canforas 3-substituidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Carlos R; Rittner, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Basso, Ernani A [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    1994-12-31

    This work presents and discusses the empirical effects of substitution groups in the carbon-13 NMR spectra of tri-substituted camphors and their correlation with the chemical properties of such substitution groups such as electronegativity. The obtained results are presented and discussed

  6. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  7. Selenomethionine substitution of orotidine-5-monophosphate decarboxylase causes a change in crystal contacts and space group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Harris, Pernille; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2001-01-01

    with the inhibitor 1-(5'-phospho- -D-ribofuranosyl)barbituric acid crystallizes under similar conditions as the native enzyme. In contrast to the native enzyme, where the crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, the SeMet-substituted enzyme crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21......-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique, both native and SeMet-substituted proteins have been produced and purified. During the production of SeMet ODCase, it was observed that SeMet was the only amino acid that it was necessary to add to the defined medium during expression. SeMet-substituted ODCase in complex...

  8. The amenability of the substitution group of formal power series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babenko, Ivan K; Bogatyi, Semen A

    2011-04-30

    We study the amenability property for the group J(k) of formal power series in one variable with coefficients in a commutative ring k with identity. We show that there exists an invariant mean on the space C{sub u}*(J(k)) of uniformly continuous bounded functions on this group. This is equivalent to the fact that every continuous action of J(k) on every compact space has an invariant probability measure.

  9. Synthesis of Thioethers by InI3-Catalyzed Substitution of Siloxy Group Using Thiosilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishimoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of a siloxy group using thiosilanes smoothly occurred in the presence of InI3 catalyst to yield the corresponding thioethers. InI3 was a specifically effective catalyst in this reaction system, while other typical Lewis acids such as BF3⋅OEt2, AlCl3, and TiCl4 were ineffective. Various silyl ethers such as primary alkyl, secondary alkyl, tertiary alkyl, allylic, benzylic, and propargylic types were applicable. In addition, bulky OSitBuMe2 and OSiiPr3 groups, other than the OSiMe3 group, were successfully substituted. The substitution reaction of enantiopure secondary benzylic silyl ether yielded the corresponding racemic thioether product, which suggested that the reaction of tertiary alkyl, secondary alkyl, benzylic, and propargylic silyl ethers would proceed via a SN1 mechanism.

  10. Synthesis, Reactivity and Stability of Aryl Halide Protecting Groups towards Di-Substituted Pyridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptoton Mnangat Brian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis and reactivity of different Benzyl derivative protecting groups. The synthesis and stability of Benzyl halides, 4-methoxybenzyl halides, 3,5-dimethoxybenzyl halides, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl halides, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl halide protecting groups and their reactivity towards nitrogen atom of a di-substituted pyridine ring in formation of pyridinium salts is also reported.

  11. Head Start’s Impact is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552

  12. Polystyrene Backbone Polymers Consisting of Alkyl-Substituted Triazine Side Groups for Phosphorescent OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Salert, Beatrice Ch. D.; Wedel, Armin; Grubert, Lutz; Eberle, Thomas; Anémian, Rémi; Krueger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of new electron-transporting styrene monomers and their corresponding polystyrenes all with a 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine basic structure in the side group. The monomers differ in the alkyl substitution and in the meta-/paralinkage of the triazine to the polymer backbone. The thermal and spectroscopic properties of the new electron-transporting polymers are discussed in regard to their chemical structures. Phosphorescent OLEDs were prepared using the obta...

  13. Relationship between ABO blood groups and head and neck cancer among Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakava, Kassiani; Karelas, Ioannis; Koutrafouris, Ioannis; Damianidis, Savvas; Stampouloglou, Paulos; Papadakis, Georgios; Xenos, Antonios; Krania, Foteini; Sarof, Paulos; Tasopoulos, Georgios; Petridis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers. 195 diagnosed cases and 801 controls were selected from a Greek tertiary cancer center. Information regarding type of head and neck cancer and ABO blood group was collected and registered. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by A, B and AB among the controls, whereas blood group A followed by O, B and AB was most prevalent among cancer patients. The difference among the distribution between the cases and controls was statistically significant in blood group A (pblood group A had 1.52-fold higher risk of developing head and neck cancer compared to people of other blood groups. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of head and neck cancers.

  14. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-03

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  15. On the group of substitutions of formal power series with integer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, I K; Bogatyi, S A

    2008-01-01

    We study certain properties of the group J(Z) of substitutions of formal power series in one variable with integer coefficients. We show that J(Z), regarded as a topological group, has four generators and cannot be generated by fewer elements. In particular, we show that the one-dimensional continuous homology of J(Z) is isomorphic to Z oplus Z oplus Z 2 oplus Z 2 . We study various topological and geometric properties of the coset space J(R)/J(Z). We compute the real cohomology H-tilde*(J(Z);R) with uniformly locally constant supports and show that it is naturally isomorphic to the cohomology of the nilpotent part of the Lie algebra of formal vector fields on the line

  16. When Two Heads Aren't Better than One: Conformity in a Group Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, C. Melissa; Stickney, Lisa T.

    2017-01-01

    Group and team class decision-making activities often focus on demonstrating that "two heads are better than one." Typically, students solve a problem or complete an assessment individually, then in a group. Generally, the group does better and that is what the students learn. However, if that is all such an activity conveys, then a…

  17. On the nature of hydrogen bonding between the phosphatidylcholine head group and water and dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Lawrence, M. Jayne; McLain, Sylvia E.; Lorenz, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to provide a detailed investigation of the hydrogen bond networks around the phosphatidylcholine (PC) head group in 1,2-dipropionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in pure water, 10 mol.% and 30 mol.% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-water solutions. Specifically, it is observed that DMSO replaces those water molecules that are within the first solvation shell of the choline, phosphate and ester groups of the PC head group, but are not hydrogen-bonded to the group. The effect of the presence of DMSO on the hydrogen bond network around the PC head groups of the lipid changes with the concentration of DMSO. In comparison to the hydrogen bond network observed in the pure water system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules increases slightly for the 10 mol.% DMSO system, while, in the 30 mol.% DMSO system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules decreases.

  18. Polystyrene Backbone Polymers Consisting of Alkyl-Substituted Triazine Side Groups for Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ch. D. Salert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of new electron-transporting styrene monomers and their corresponding polystyrenes all with a 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine basic structure in the side group. The monomers differ in the alkyl substitution and in the meta-/paralinkage of the triazine to the polymer backbone. The thermal and spectroscopic properties of the new electron-transporting polymers are discussed in regard to their chemical structures. Phosphorescent OLEDs were prepared using the obtained electron-transporting polymers as the emissive layer material in blend systems together with a green iridium-based emitter 13 and a small molecule as an additional cohost with wideband gap characteristics (CoH-001. The performance of the OLEDs was characterized and discussed in regard to the chemical structure of the new electron-transporting polymers.

  19. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  20. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Matoba

    Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  1. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New MKC-442 Analogues with an Alkynyl-Substituted 6-Benzyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and antiviral activities are reported of a series of 6-(3-alkynyl benzyl)-substituted analogues of MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil), a highly potent agent against HIV. The 3-alkynyl group is assumed to give a better stacking of the substituted benzyl group to reverse...... transcriptase (RT) and this was believed to improve antiviral activity against HIV-1. The bromo derivatives, 5-alkyl-6-(3-bromo-benzyl)-1-ethoxymethyl derivatives 7a, b and 5-alkyl-6-(3-bromobenzyl)-1-allyloxymethyl derivatives 9a, b, showed activity against HIV on the same level as their corresponding...

  2. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  3. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  4. One-group Perturbation Theory Applied to Substitution Measurements with Void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, R

    1962-06-15

    Formulas suitable for evaluating substitution measurements or single-rod experiments by means of one-group perturbation theory are derived. The diffusion coefficient may depend on direction and position. By using the buckling concept the expressions derived are quite simple and the perturbed flux can be taken into account in a comparatively simple way. By using an unconventional definition of cells a transition region is introduced quite logically. Experiments with voids around metal rods, diam. 3.05 cm, have been analysed. The agreement between extrapolated and directly measured buckling values is excellent, the buckling difference between lattices with water-filled and voided shrouds being 0.263 {+-} 0.015/m{sup 2} and 0.274 {+-} 0.005 /m{sup 2} resp. The differences between diffusion coefficients are also determined, {delta}D{sub r}/D = 0.083 {+-} 0.004 and {delta}D{sub z}/D = 0.120 {+-} 0.018.

  5. Effect of symmetric substitution on the phenyl groups of Eu{sup 3+}-dibenzoyl methane complexes on their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P. [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Nayak, S.K. [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: schatt@barc.gov.i [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Complexes of Eu{sup 3+} ion and ligands like dibenzoylmethane (DBM) as well as flouro- and methoxy-substituted DBMs have been prepared and characterized. Peak maxima and line shapes of the {pi}-{pi}{sup *} transitions arising from the ligands in these complexes were very sensitive to the nature of the substituents attached to the phenyl groups of DBM. Symmetric substitution at both the phenyl groups led to improved luminescence in terms of higher quantum yields of emission and longer lifetime of the excited state ({sup 5}D{sub 0}) of Eu{sup 3+} ions. Effective averaging/cancellation of the dipole-dipole interactions in symmetrically substituted ligands and the associated decrease in the extent of quenching were responsible for the improved luminescence from such complexes.

  6. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  7. Photoinduced intramolecular substitution reaction of aryl halide with carbonyl oxygen of amide group

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y T; Kim, M S; Kwon, J H

    2002-01-01

    Photoreaction of N-(o-halophenyl)acetamide in basic acetonitrile produces an intramolecular substituted product, 2-methylbenzoxazole in addition to reduced product, acetanilide, whereas photoreaction of N-(o-halobenzyl)acetamide affords a reduced product, N-benzylacetamide only. On the basis of preparative reaction, kinetics, and UV/vis absorption behavior, an electrophilic aromatic substitution of aryl halide with oxygen of its amide bond are proposed.

  8. Photoinduced intramolecular substitution reaction of aryl halide with carbonyl oxygen of amide group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Tae; Song, Myong Geun; Kim, Moon Sub; Kwon, Jeong Hee [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    Photoreaction of N-(o-halophenyl)acetamide in basic acetonitrile produces an intramolecular substituted product, 2-methylbenzoxazole in addition to reduced product, acetanilide, whereas photoreaction of N-(o-halobenzyl)acetamide affords a reduced product, N-benzylacetamide only. On the basis of preparative reaction, kinetics, and UV/vis absorption behavior, an electrophilic aromatic substitution of aryl halide with oxygen of its amide bond are proposed.

  9. Photoinduced intramolecular substitution reaction of aryl halide with carbonyl oxygen of amide group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tae; Song, Myong Geun; Kim, Moon Sub; Kwon, Jeong Hee

    2002-01-01

    Photoreaction of N-(o-halophenyl)acetamide in basic acetonitrile produces an intramolecular substituted product, 2-methylbenzoxazole in addition to reduced product, acetanilide, whereas photoreaction of N-(o-halobenzyl)acetamide affords a reduced product, N-benzylacetamide only. On the basis of preparative reaction, kinetics, and UV/vis absorption behavior, an electrophilic aromatic substitution of aryl halide with oxygen of its amide bond are proposed

  10. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Interpretation of substitution experiments by homogenisation two-group method; Interpretacija supstitucionih eksperimenata homogenom dvo-grupnom metodom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1970-02-15

    This paper describes methods for interpretation of progressive substitution experiments for determining material buckling in homogeneous two-group approximation. These methods were applied for experiments on the zero power RB reactor in Vinca. Experiments were done on the reflected heavy water reactor core, the lattice pitch had unisotropy properties.

  12. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  13. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Boyle, Glen M; McIntyre, Lachlan; Nolan, Matthew J; Parsons, Peter G; Smith, Jennifer J; Tribolet, Leon; Loukas, Alex; Liddell, Michael J; Rash, Lachlan D; Daly, Norelle L

    2017-10-27

    Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA 366 , containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA 366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  14. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA366, containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  15. Anticonvulsants Based on the α-Substituted Amide Group Pharmacophore Bind to and Inhibit Function of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshein, Arcadius V

    2016-03-16

    Although the antiepileptic properties of α-substituted lactams, acetamides, and cyclic imides have been known for over 60 years, the mechanism by which they act remains unclear. I report here that these compounds bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and inhibit its function. Using transient kinetic measurements with functionally active, nondesensitized receptors, I have discovered that (i) α-substituted lactams and cyclic imides are noncompetitive inhibitors of heteromeric subtypes (such as α4β2 and α3β4) of neuronal nAChRs and (ii) the binding affinity of these compounds toward the nAChR correlates with their potency in preventing maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in mice. Based on the hypothesis that α-substituted amide group is the essential pharmacophore of these drugs, I found and tested a simple compound, 2-phenylbutyramide. This compound indeed inhibits nAChR and shows good anticonvulsant activity in mice. Molecular docking simulations suggest that α-substituted lactams, acetamides, and cyclic imides bind to the same sites on the extracellular domain of the receptor. These new findings indicate that inhibition of brain nAChRs may play an important role in the action of these antiepileptic drugs, a role that has not been previously recognized.

  16. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  17. Volumetric analysis of bone substitute material performance within the human sinus cavity of former head and neck cancer patients: A prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jonas; Eichler, Kathrin; Barbeck, Mike; Lerner, Henriette; Stübinger, Stefan; Seipel, Catherine; Vogl, Thomas J; Kovács, Adorján F; Ghanaati, Shahram; Sader, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    In numerous animal and human studies, it could be detected that in bone augmentation procedures, material's physicochemical characteristics can influence the cellular inflammatory pattern and therefore the integration in the host tissue. Histological, histomorphometrical, and clinical analyses of the integration of the biomaterial in the surrounding tissue are well established methodologies; however, they do not make a statement on volume and density changes of the augmented biomaterial. The aim of the present study was to assess the volume and density of a xenogeneic (Bio-Oss ® , BO) and a synthetic (NanoBone ® , NB) bone substitute material in split-mouth sinus augmentations in former tumor patients to complete histological and histomorphometrical assessment. Immediately and 6 months after sinus augmentation computed tomography scans were recorded, bone grafts were marked, and the volume was calculated with radiologic RIS-PACS software (General Electric Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, Great Britain) to determine the integration and degradation behavior of both biomaterials. Radiographic analysis revealed a volume reduction of the initial augmented bone substitute material (i.e. 100%) to 77.36 (±11.68) % in the BO-group, respectively, 75.82 (±22.28) % in the NB-group six months after augmentation. In both materials, the volume reduction was not significant. Bone density significantly increased in both groups. The presented radiological investigation presents a favorable method to obtain clinically relevant information concerning the integration and degradation behavior of bone substitute materials.

  18. Influence of the substitution of β-cyclodextrins by cationic groups on the complexation of organic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hbaieb, S.; Kalfat, R.; Chevalier, Y.; Amdouni, N.; Parrot-Lopez, H.

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion complexation of the organic anion, dansyl-acid, by cationic derivatives of β-cyclodextrin has been investigated. A series of cationic β-cyclodextrins with various positive charge has been synthesized by selective functionalization of the primary face of β-cyclodextrin with amino groups. The complexes were of the 1:1 stoichiometry; the stability constants (K 11 ) have been evaluated from UV-Vis measurements by application of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The presence of amino groups increased the complexation ability. β-cyclodextrin fully substituted at the primary face with amino groups showed the strongest inclusion binding ability towards the dansyl-acid guest. The enhanced complexation for anions was ascribed to the cationic amino groups. A simple thermodynamic model of the electrostatic contribution to the complexation is presented

  19. Influence of the substitution of {beta}-cyclodextrins by cationic groups on the complexation of organic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hbaieb, S. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)], E-mail: Souhairabouchaira@yahoo.fr; Kalfat, R. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Chevalier, Y. [Laboratoire d' Automatique et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UMR 5007 CNRS-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: chevalier@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr; Amdouni, N. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Parrot-Lopez, H. [Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires (ICBMS), UMR 5246 CNRS-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: helene.parrot@univ-lyon1.fr

    2008-07-01

    The inclusion complexation of the organic anion, dansyl-acid, by cationic derivatives of {beta}-cyclodextrin has been investigated. A series of cationic {beta}-cyclodextrins with various positive charge has been synthesized by selective functionalization of the primary face of {beta}-cyclodextrin with amino groups. The complexes were of the 1:1 stoichiometry; the stability constants (K{sub 11}) have been evaluated from UV-Vis measurements by application of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The presence of amino groups increased the complexation ability. {beta}-cyclodextrin fully substituted at the primary face with amino groups showed the strongest inclusion binding ability towards the dansyl-acid guest. The enhanced complexation for anions was ascribed to the cationic amino groups. A simple thermodynamic model of the electrostatic contribution to the complexation is presented.

  20. Anchor-dependent lipofection with non-glycerol based cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Srilakshmi, Gollapudi; Sen, Joyeeta; Chaudhuri, Arabinda; Ramadas, Yerramsetti; Madhusudhana Rao, Nalam

    2002-02-15

    Detailed structure-activity investigations aimed at probing the anchor chain length dependency for glycerol-based lipofectins have been reported previously. Herein, we report on the first detailed investigation on the anchor-dependent transfection biology of non-glycerol based simple monocationic cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head group functionality using 11 new structural analogs of our previously published first generation of non-glycerol based transfection lipids (lipids 1-11). The C-14 and C-16 analogs of DOMHAC (lipids 4 and 5, respectively) were found to be remarkably efficient in transfecting COS-1 cells. In addition, the present anchor-dependency investigation also revealed that the C-14 analog of DOHEMAB (lipid 10) is significantly efficient in transfecting both COS-1 and NIH3T3 cells. Our results also indicate that too strong lipid-DNA interactions might result in weaker transfection for non-glycerol based cationic lipids. In summary, the anchor-dependence investigations presented here convincingly demonstrate that non-glycerol based cationic lipids containing a single hydroxyethyl head group and hydrophobic C-14 or C-16 anchors are promising non-toxic cationic transfection lipids for future use in liposomal gene delivery.

  1. Effects of concentration, head group, and structure of surfactants on the degradation of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Danyue; Jiang Xia; Jing Xin; Ou Ziqing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of concentration, polar/ionic head group, and structure of surfactants on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aqueous phase, as well as their effects on the bacterial activity were investigated. The toxicity ranking of studied surfactants is: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij30, 10LE and Brij35) -1 ) served the sole carbon and energy resource. However, the degradation of 14 C-phenanthrene showed either a decrease or no obvious change with the surfactants present at all tested concentrations (5-40 mg L -1 ). Thus, the surfactant addition is not beneficial to the removal of phenanthrene or other PAH contaminants due presumably to the preferential utilization of surfactants at low levels as the non-toxic nutrient resource and to the high toxicity of the surfactants at high levels to the microorganism activity. Biodegradation of phenanthrene was also influenced by the surfactant concentration, head group type, and structure. Much more research has yet to be completed on the use of surfactants for soil remediation due to the surfactant toxicity or biodegradation effect

  2. Head Start's Impact Is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data ("n" = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this article examined the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes…

  3. New core-substituted with electron-donating group 1,8-naphthalimides towards optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa, E-mail: eschab-balcerzak@cmpw-pan.edu.pl [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Street, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesian, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Siwy, Mariola [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Street, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Filapek, Michal; Kula, Slawomir; Malecki, Grzegorz [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesian, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Laba, Katarzyna; Lapkowski, Mieczyslaw [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Street, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, 9 Strzody Steet, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Janeczek, Henryk; Domanski, Marian [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Street, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    New 1,8-naphthalimides with thiophene or bithiophene structure attached by an imine linkage to naphthalene core were synthesized. The structures of obtained compounds were characterized by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and for elected compounds by HRMS (ESI) spectrometry. Thermal, optical and electrochemical properties of obtained 1,8-naphthalimides were investigated. Most of them exhibited glass-forming properties with glass transition temperatures in the range of 73–278 °C. Optical properties of the prepared compounds were examined by UV–vis and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. They emitted light in chloroform solution with emission maximum at ca. 500 nm with the highest quantum yield of fluorescence around 0.46 and green one in NMP solution. In blend with PMMA blue emission was observed with the highest quantum yield of fluorescence around 0.24. All compounds are electrochemically active, and undergo reversible reduction and irreversible or quasi-reversible oxidation process as was found in cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV) studies. They showed electrochemical band gaps in the range 2.28–2.68 eV. Additionally, the electronic properties, that is, orbital energies and resulting energy gap were calculated by density functional theory (DFT). Additionally, selected compounds were preliminary tested as electroluminescence materials in devices with structure ITO/PVK:NI blend/Al. - Highlights: • We obtained new core substituted 1,8-naphthalimides. • They emitted light in CHCl{sub 3} with the largest PL quantum yield measure for these compounds of 0.46. • They emitted blue light in a blend with PMMA with the largest Φ{sub f} 0.24 measured for these compounds. • Their electrochemical energy band gap was in the range of 2.28–2.68 eV. • Preliminary investigations showed that green electroluminescence was observed.

  4. Photophysical properties and localization of chlorins substituted with methoxy groups, hydroxyl groups and alkyl chains in liposome-like cellular membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, S [Department of Physics, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2007-06-01

    Some of the photophysical properties (stationary absorbance and fluorescence, fluorescence decay times and singlet oxygen quantum yields) of chlorins substituted with methoxy groups, hydroxyl groups and hydrocarbonic chains were studied in ethanol and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. The photophysical behaviors of the chlorins in liposomes like cellular membrane were compared with those obtained from chlorin-liposome systems delivered to Jurkat cells in order to select potent photosensitizers for the photodynamic treatment of cancer. The localization of the studied chlorins inside liposomes was found to depend strongly on the substituents of chlorins. Absorption spectra of chlorins embedded in DPPC-liposomes have been recorded in the temperature range of 20-70 deg. C. It is demonstrated that the location of the chlorin molecules depends on the phase state of the phospholipids. These observations are confirmed by the fluorescence lifetimes, singlet oxygen lifetimes and singlet oxygen quantum yields results.

  5. Survival benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for a limited group of patients with pancreatic head cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Sonshin; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Maemura, Kosei; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Natsugoe, Shoji; Aikou, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for patients with pancreatic head cancer. One hundred and one patients underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic head cancer between 1980 and 2001. Of these, 40 patients in the extended resection (ER) group had an extended lymphadenectomy and neural plexus dissection as a Japanese fashion, while 61 patients in the conventional resection (CR) group. Tumor status, morbidity, mortality, survival and pattern of recurrence were retrospectively studied. The incidence of R0 operations in the ER group was higher than that in the CR group (pJapanese fashion with an adequate extended resection might bring a survival benefit for patients with pStage IIA or IIB pancreatic head cancer.

  6. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindi, Luca; Cipriani, Curzio; Pratesi, Giovanni; Trosti-Ferroni, Renza

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe 2 ; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe 2 ; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe 2 ) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe 2 and CuSe 2 exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe 2 and CoSe 2 . The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents

  7. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bindi@unifi.it; Cipriani, Curzio [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Trosti-Ferroni, Renza [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2008-07-14

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe{sub 2}; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe{sub 2}; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe{sub 2}) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CuSe{sub 2} exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CoSe{sub 2}. The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents.

  8. The Effectiveness of Group Social Work Intervention With Developmental Approach on Psychosocial Empowerment of Female-Headed Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Torabi Momen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion According to the study results, group social work intervention sessions with psychosocial developmental approach to empowering female-headed households is effective. The wider use of this type of intervention by professionals can empower and improve the lives of this group of people.

  9. Identification of ortho-Substituted Benzoic Acid/Ester Derivatives via the Gas-Phase Neighboring Group Participation Effect in (+)-ESI High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blincoe, William D; Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Saurí, Josep; Pierson, Nicholas A; Joyce, Leo A; Mangion, Ian; Sheng, Huaming

    2018-04-01

    Benzoic acid/ester/amide derivatives are common moieties in pharmaceutical compounds and present a challenge in positional isomer identification by traditional tandem mass spectrometric analysis. A method is presented for exploiting the gas-phase neighboring group participation (NGP) effect to differentiate ortho-substituted benzoic acid/ester derivatives with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS 1 ). Significant water/alcohol loss (>30% abundance in MS 1 spectra) was observed for ortho-substituted nucleophilic groups; these fragment peaks are not observable for the corresponding para and meta-substituted analogs. Experiments were also extended to the analysis of two intermediates in the synthesis of suvorexant (Belsomra) with additional analysis conducted with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), density functional theory (DFT), and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) studies. Significant water/alcohol loss was also observed for 1-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles but not for the isomeric 2-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs. IMS-MS, NMR, and DFT studies were conducted to show that the preferred orientation of the 2-substituted triazole rotamer was away from the electrophilic center of the reaction, whereas the 1-subtituted triazole was oriented in close proximity to the center. Abundance of NGP product was determined to be a product of three factors: (1) proton affinity of the nucleophilic group; (2) steric impact of the nucleophile; and (3) proximity of the nucleophile to carboxylic acid/ester functional groups. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Effect of the Length of Side Group Substitution on Optical and Electroluminescene Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hwan Gyu; Kang, Hyeon Mi; Kim, Beom Jin; Park, Young Il [The Catholic University, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Young Jun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Wook [LG display Co., Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Blue emitting materials, 9,10-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-anthracene (AC-P), 9,10-bis-[1,1';4',1'']terphenyl-4-yl-anthracene (AC-DP), and 9,10-bis[3'',5''-deiphenyltriphenyl-4'-yl]anthracene (AC-TP) were synthesized through boration and Suzuki aryl-aryl coupling reaction. EL performance of blue light-emitters was optimized and improved by varying the chemical structures of the side groups. In the thin film state, the three materials exhibit PLmax values in the range of 442-456 nm. EL device with the synthesized compounds in the following configuration was fabricated: ITO/4,4',4''-tris(N-(2-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)triphenylamine (2-TNATA) 60nm/N,N'-bis (naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) 15nm/synthesized blue emitting materials (30nm)/1,3,5- tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBi) 20nm/LiF 1nm/Al 200nm. The current efficiency and C.I.E. value of AC-TP were 3.87 cd/A and (0.15, 0.12). A bulky and non-planar side group helps to prevent π-π* stacking interaction, which should lead to the formation of more reliable amorphous film. This is expected to have a positive effect on the high efficiency of the operating OLED device.

  11. Effect of a bulky lateral substitution by chlorine atom and methoxy group on self-assembling properties of lactic acid derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanović, M.; Bubnov, Alexej; Obadović, D.Ž.; Hamplová, Věra; Cvetinov, M.; Kašpar, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 146, 1-2 (2014), s. 18-25 ISSN 0254-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14133S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystal * lactic acid derivative * lateral substitution * methoxy group * chlorine substitution * dielectric spectroscopy Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2014

  12. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  13. An algorithm for the construction of substitution box for block ciphers based on projective general linear group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Altaleb

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to synthesize 8*8 substitution boxes (S-boxes for block ciphers. The confusion creating potential of an S-box depends on its construction technique. In the first step, we have applied the algebraic action of the projective general linear group PGL(2,GF(28 on Galois field GF(28. In step 2 we have used the permutations of the symmetric group S256 to construct new kind of S-boxes. To explain the proposed extension scheme, we have given an example and constructed one new S-box. The strength of the extended S-box is computed, and an insight is given to calculate the confusion-creating potency. To analyze the security of the S-box some popular algebraic and statistical attacks are performed as well. The proposed S-box has been analyzed by bit independent criterion, linear approximation probability test, non-linearity test, strict avalanche criterion, differential approximation probability test, and majority logic criterion. A comparison of the proposed S-box with existing S-boxes shows that the analyses of the extended S-box are comparatively better.

  14. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  15. Pretreatment quality of life predicts for locoregional control in head and neck cancer patients : A radiation therapy oncology group analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional

  16. The features of nucleophilic substitution of the nitro group in 4-alkyl-6-nitro-1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ulomsky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The nucleophilic substitution of the nitro group of 4-alkyl-6-nitro-4,7-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazine-7-ones on the example of interactionwith morpholine was studied. It is established that under the action of excess cycloalkylimine at room temperature the unusual easy disclosure of triazine cycle with the formation of sterically hindered hydrazones occurs which are the key intermediates for further transformations. The carrying of reaction at elevated temperatures leads to the formation of products of substitution of the nitro group with the amine and also with morpholyl hydrazones which are the products of hydrolysis of amides of hydrazones and subsequent decarboxylation. Thus, the nucleophilic substitution of the nitro group in the described triazolotriazines flows through the ANRORC mechanism.

  17. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Oliver

    Full Text Available Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  18. Snake cytotoxins bind to membranes via interactions with phosphatidylserine head groups of lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia G Konshina

    Full Text Available The major representatives of Elapidae snake venom, cytotoxins (CTs, share similar three-fingered fold and exert diverse range of biological activities against various cell types. CT-induced cell death starts from the membrane recognition process, whose molecular details remain unclear. It is known, however, that the presence of anionic lipids in cell membranes is one of the important factors determining CT-membrane binding. In this work, we therefore investigated specific interactions between one of the most abundant of such lipids, phosphatidylserine (PS, and CT 4 of Naja kaouthia using a combined, experimental and modeling, approach. It was shown that incorporation of PS into zwitterionic liposomes greatly increased the membrane-damaging activity of CT 4 measured by the release of the liposome-entrapped calcein fluorescent dye. The CT-induced leakage rate depends on the PS concentration with a maximum at approximately 20% PS. Interestingly, the effects observed for PS were much more pronounced than those measured for another anionic lipid, sulfatide. To delineate the potential PS binding sites on CT 4 and estimate their relative affinities, a series of computer simulations was performed for the systems containing the head group of PS and different spatial models of CT 4 in aqueous solution and in an implicit membrane. This was done using an original hybrid computational protocol implementing docking, Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. As a result, at least three putative PS-binding sites with different affinities to PS molecule were delineated. Being located in different parts of the CT molecule, these anion-binding sites can potentially facilitate and modulate the multi-step process of the toxin insertion into lipid bilayers. This feature together with the diverse binding affinities of the sites to a wide variety of anionic targets on the membrane surface appears to be functionally meaningful and may adjust CT action against

  19. Thermodynamics on the micellization of various pure and mixed surfactants: Effects of head- and tail-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam-Min; Lee, Byung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The values of critical micelle concentration of various pure and mixed surfactants are measured. • Thermodynamic parameters’ values are calculated to analyze the effects of head- and tail-groups on the micellization. • All the thermodynamic parameters’ values are decreasing with the increase of temperature. • The thermodynamic parameters’ values are depending severely on the chain length of alkyl group. - Abstract: The values of critical micelle concentration (CMC) for the micellization of various pure and mixed surfactants are determined by the UV–Vis spectrophotometric method. And the effects of temperature on the CMC values have been measured and thermodynamic parameters’ values are calculated to analyse the effects of head- and tail-groups on the micellization of surfactant molecules. The results show that the values of ΔG"o are negative and those of ΔS"o are positive for the micellization of all the surfactants within the measured temperature range. But the values of ΔH"o are positive or negative, depending on the kinds of surfactants. All these thermodynamic parameters’ values are decreasing together with the increase of temperature for all the surfactants. And these thermodynamic parameters’ values are depending severely on the chain length of alkyl group also as much as on the head-groups of surfactant molecules.

  20. Effect of a bulky lateral substitution by chlorine atom and methoxy group on self-assembling properties of lactic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanović, Maja; Bubnov, Alexej; Obadović, Dušanka Ž.; Hamplová, Věra; Cvetinov, Miroslav; Kašpar, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Several chiral liquid crystalline materials derived from the lactic acid have been studied with the aim to establish the effect of bulky lateral substituents on their self-assembling properties. A chlorine atom and methoxy group have been used as lateral substituents in ortho position to ether group position on phenyl ring far from the chiral centre. All the studied materials possess tilted ferroelectric smectic C* phase in a broad temperature range. In dependence on the molecular structure namely type of lateral substituent and length of the chiral chain, the cholesteric mesophase, orthogonal paraelectric smectic A* and crystal mesophases have been detected. Lateral chlorine substitution results in decrease of both the clearing point and crystallisation temperature as well as in a distinct increase of spontaneous polarization. Bulky methoxy substitution slightly suppresses the spontaneous polarisation but strongly increases the melting point that results in monotropic peculiarity of the SmC* phase. Mesomorphic, spontaneous, structural and dielectric properties of the substituted compounds were established and compared to those of the non-substituted ones in order to contribute to better understanding of the structure–property relationship for such chiral self-assembling materials. - Highlights: • Chiral liquid crystalline materials derived from the lactic acid have been studied. • Effect of bulky lateral substituents on self-assembling properties has been established. • Bulky methoxy substitution suppresses spontaneous polarisation but increases the melting point. • The compounds might have a strong potential for many advanced electro-optic applications

  1. Increased Water Solubility of the Curcumin Derivatives via Substitution with an Acetoxy Group at the Central Methylene Moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Mok, Hyejung; Chong, Youhoon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane), a natural yellow pigment in the roots of turmeric, has been considered as one of the most promising chemopreventive agents against a variety of human cancers. Curcumin is known to exhibit its antiproliferative effect against various cancer cells through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Although not as potent as many other cytotoxic agents, curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in humans at relatively high doses (10 grams/day), making it an attractive target for chemotherapeutic drug discovery efforts. Two compounds with meta-methoxy substituents (2 and 3) maintained comparable antiproliferative activity with curcumin (1). In contrast, the acetoxy-curcuminoids (8-14) showed moderate to potent activity against all three cancer cell lines tested (Table 1). In particular, the colon cancer cell (HCT116) was most susceptible to the acetoxy-curcuminoids (8-12, Table 1) to show 2-2.5 times increase in EC{sub 50} values compared with that of curcumin (1, Table 1). In this series, like the simple curcuminoids (2-7), the aromatic meta-methoxy substituent turned out to be critical for the antiproliferative effect, and the corresponding acetoxy-curcuminoids 10 and 11 showed the most potent activity against HCT116 with EC{sub 50} values of 18.5 μM and 16.9 μM, respectively. Also noteworthy is the broad spectrum antiproliferative effect of the acetoxy-curcuminoid 11 with a free catechol moiety, which exhibited almost similar antiproliferative activity against all three cancer cell lines tested. Taken together, through evaluation of solubility as well as antiproliferative effect of the acetoxy-curcuminoids, we figured out that the acetoxy group substituted at the central methylene unit which served to enhance the solubility of the corresponding curcuminoids also played a key role in potentiating their antiproliferative effect. Thus, upon combination of the methylenyl acetoxy group and the aromatic meta-methoxy group on the curcumin

  2. Increased Water Solubility of the Curcumin Derivatives via Substitution with an Acetoxy Group at the Central Methylene Moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Mok, Hyejung; Chong, Youhoon

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane), a natural yellow pigment in the roots of turmeric, has been considered as one of the most promising chemopreventive agents against a variety of human cancers. Curcumin is known to exhibit its antiproliferative effect against various cancer cells through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Although not as potent as many other cytotoxic agents, curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in humans at relatively high doses (10 grams/day), making it an attractive target for chemotherapeutic drug discovery efforts. Two compounds with meta-methoxy substituents (2 and 3) maintained comparable antiproliferative activity with curcumin (1). In contrast, the acetoxy-curcuminoids (8-14) showed moderate to potent activity against all three cancer cell lines tested (Table 1). In particular, the colon cancer cell (HCT116) was most susceptible to the acetoxy-curcuminoids (8-12, Table 1) to show 2-2.5 times increase in EC 50 values compared with that of curcumin (1, Table 1). In this series, like the simple curcuminoids (2-7), the aromatic meta-methoxy substituent turned out to be critical for the antiproliferative effect, and the corresponding acetoxy-curcuminoids 10 and 11 showed the most potent activity against HCT116 with EC 50 values of 18.5 μM and 16.9 μM, respectively. Also noteworthy is the broad spectrum antiproliferative effect of the acetoxy-curcuminoid 11 with a free catechol moiety, which exhibited almost similar antiproliferative activity against all three cancer cell lines tested. Taken together, through evaluation of solubility as well as antiproliferative effect of the acetoxy-curcuminoids, we figured out that the acetoxy group substituted at the central methylene unit which served to enhance the solubility of the corresponding curcuminoids also played a key role in potentiating their antiproliferative effect. Thus, upon combination of the methylenyl acetoxy group and the aromatic meta-methoxy group on the curcumin framework

  3. A nucleotide substitution at the 5′ splice site of intron 1 of rice HEADING DATE 1 (HD1 gene homolog in foxtail millet, broadly found in landraces from Europe and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fukunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated genetic variation of a rice HEADING DATE 1(HD1 homolog in foxtail millet. First, we searched for a rice HD1 homolog in a foxtail millet genome sequence and designed primers to amplify the entire coding sequence of the gene. We compared full HD1 gene sequences of 11 accessions (including Yugu 1, a Chinese cultivar used for genome sequencing from various regions in Europe and Asia, found a nucleotide substitution at a putative splice site of intron 1, and designated the accessions with the nucleotide substitution as carrying a splicing variant. We verified by RT-PCR that this single nucleotide substitution causes aberrant splicing of intron 1. We investigated the geographical distribution of the splicing variant in 480 accessions of foxtail millet from various regions of Europe and Asia and part of Africa by dCAPS and found that the splicing variant is broadly distributed in Europe and Asia. Differences of heading times between accessions with wild type allele of the HD1 gene and those with the splicing variant allele were unclear. We also investigated variation in 13 accessions of ssp. viridis, the wild ancestor, and the results suggested that the wild type is predominant in the wild ancestor.

  4. Structure-transfection activity relationships in a series of novel cationic lipids with heterocyclic head-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Maslov, Mikhail A; Kabilova, Tatyana O; Puchkov, Pavel A; Alekseeva, Anna S; Boldyrev, Ivan A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Serebrennikova, Galina A; Morozova, Nina G; Zenkova, Marina A

    2013-11-07

    Cationic liposomes are promising candidates for the delivery of various therapeutic nucleic acids. Here, we report a convenient synthesis of carbamate-type cationic lipids with various hydrophobic domains (tetradecanol, dialkylglycerol, cholesterol) and positively charged head-groups (pyridinium, N-methylimidazolium, N-methylmorpholinium) and data on the structure-transfection activity relationships. It was found that single-chain lipids possess high surface activity, which correlates with high cytotoxicity due to their ability to disrupt the cellular membrane by combined hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Liposomes containing these lipids also display high cytotoxicity with respect to all cell lines. Irrespective of chemical structures, all cationic lipids form liposomes with similar sizes and surface potentials. The characteristics of complexes composed of cationic liposomes and nucleic acids depend mostly on the type of nucleic acid and P/N ratios. In the case of oligodeoxyribonucleotide delivery, the transfection activity depends on the type of cationic head-group regardless of the type of hydrophobic domain: all types of cationic liposomes mediate efficient oligonucleotide transfer into 80-90% of the eukaryotic cells, and liposomes based on lipids with N-methylmorpholinium cationic head-group display the highest transfection activity. In the case of plasmid DNA and siRNA, the type of hydrophobic domain determines the transfection activity: liposomes composed of cholesterol-based lipids were the most efficient in DNA transfer, while liposomes containing glycerol-based lipids exhibited reasonable activity in siRNA delivery under serum-free conditions.

  5. Effect of substituted hydroxyl groups in the changes of solution turbidity in the oxidation of aromatic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, N; Jm, Lomas; Lm, Camarero

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the changes of turbidity that are generated in aqueous solutions of phenol when they are oxidized by using different Fenton technologies. Results revealed that if the Fenton reaction was promoted with UV light, the turbidity that was generated in the water doubled. Alternatively, the use of ultrasonic waves produced an increase in turbidity which initially proceeded slowly, reaching intensities eight times higher than in the conventional Fenton treatment. As well, the turbidity showed a high dependence on pH. It is therefore essential to control acidity throughout the reaction. The maximum turbidity was generated when operating at pH = 2.0, and it slowly decreased with increasing to a value of pH = 3.0, at which the turbidity was the lowest. This result was a consequence of the presence of ferric ions in solution. At pH values greater than 3.5, the turbidity increased almost linearly until at pH = 5.0 reached its maximum intensity. In this range, ferrous ions may generate an additional contribution of radicals that promote the degradation of the phenol species that produce turbidity. Turbidity was enhanced at ratios R = 4.0 mol H 2 O 2 /mol C 6 H 6 O. This value corresponds to the stoichiometric ratio that leads to the production of turbidity-precursor species. Therefore, muconic acid would be a species that generate high turbidity in solution according to its isomerism. Also, the results revealed that the turbidity is not a parameter to which species contribute additively since interactions may occur among species that would enhance their individual contributions to it. Analyzing the oxidation of phenol degradation intermediates, the results showed that meta-substituted compounds (resorcinol) generate high turbidity in the wastewater. The presence of polar molecules, such as muconic acid, would provide the structural features that are necessary for resorcinol to act as a clip between two carboxylic groups, thus establishing

  6. Substituted group and side chain effects for the porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin derivatives: A DFT and TD-DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Chin-Kuen; Chuang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Bo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ and TD-DFT calculations have been performed to generate the optimized structures, electronic and photo-physical properties for the porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin (metalloporphyrin) derivatives. The substituted group and side chain effects for these derivatives are discussed in this study. According to the calculation results, the side chain moiety extends the π-delocalization length from the porphyrin core to the side chain moiety. The substituted group with a stronger electron-donating ability increases the energy level of highest occupied molecular orbital (E HOMO ). The side chain moiety with a lower resonance energy decreases E HOMO , the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E LUMO ), and the energy gap (E g ) between HOMO and LUMO in the porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin derivatives. The natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis determines the possible electron transfer mechanism from the electron-donating to -withdrawing groups (the side chain moiety) in these porphyrin derivatives. The projected density of state (PDOS) analysis shows that the electron-donating group affects the electron density distribution in both HOMO and LUMO, and the side chain moiety influence the electron density distribution in LUMO. The calculated photo-physical properties (absorption wavelengths and the related oscillator strength, f) in dichloromethane environment for porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin derivatives have been simulated by using the TD-DFT method within the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM). The present of both of the substituted group and the side chain moiety in these derivatives results in a red shift and broadening of the range of the absorption peaks of the Q/Soret band as compared to porphin. -- Highlights: • Side chain moiety extends the π-delocalization for the porphyrins. • Substituted group increases the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital. • Side chain moiety influences the Q/Soret band of

  7. Social Determinants of Tooth Loss among a Group of Iranian Female Heads of Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Tooth loss may lead to mastication disability, which in turn has important impact on individual’s quality of life. Social and psychological factors have been shown to be associated with tooth loss. This study aimed to in-vestigate the social determinants and prevalence of tooth loss, and presence of functional dentition among female heads of household under support of Welfare Organization in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and methods. In current study 556 participants aged 16-76 years were recruited. Sociodemographic character-istics (age, level of education, family size, and monthly income were collected using interviewer-led questionnaire. Data about number of teeth and functional dentition were obtained by oral examination. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, T-test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results. Four percent of participants were edentulous. Tooth loss was significantly associated with level of education, age and family size (P < 0.001. There was no significant association between level of income and tooth loss (P = 0.88. Only 37.5% of dentate subjects had functional dentition (anterior and premolar teeth. Women older than 40 years were 0.63 times less likely to have functional dentition than those younger than 40 years. Females with at least a high-school diploma were six times more likely to have functional dentition than their illiterate counterparts. Conclusion. Social determinants of functional dentition should be taken into account when planning oral health promoting programs for female heads of household. For reducing oral health inequalities access to dental services should be facilitated.

  8. Epidemiology and management of head injury in paediatric age group in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Chinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric head injury (HI is the single most common cause of death and permanent disability in children world over, and this is increasingly becoming worrisome in our society because of increased risks and proneness to road traffic accidents on our highways and streets. The study set to determine causes and management of HI among children in our society. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of all children aged 0-15 years with traumatic head injury (THIs who were managed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between July, 2006 and August, 2008. Results: A total of 45 children with THIs presented to the casualty unit of the hospital; 30 (66.7% were boys and 15 (33.3% were girls. Three (6.7% children were less than 1 year of age, 21 (46.7% were between 1 years and 6 years while 16 (35.6% and 5 (11.0% were aged 7-11 years and 12-15 years respectively. Thirty six (80.0% of the children were pedestrians, 6 (13.4% fell from a height, while 2 (4.4% and 1 (2.2% were as a result of home accident and assault, respectively. Twenty one patients (46.7% had mild HI, while 53.3% had moderate to severe category. Forty one (91.1% of children were managed as in-patients, mostly (95.1% by conservative non-operative management, while 4 (8.9% were treated on the out-patient basis. The mortality rate was 17.8%. Conclusion: H1 among children is of a great concern, because of its incremental magnitude, due to increasing child labour and interstate religious discipleship among children, with attendant high mortality and permanent disabilities. Necessary laws and legislations should be formulated and implemented with organized campaigns and public enlightenment to prevent and mitigate this menace.

  9. Pretreatment Quality of Life Predicts for Locoregional Control in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control (LRC) and/or overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: HRQOL questionnaires, using a validated instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H and N), version 2, were completed by patients before the start of treatment. OS and LRC were the outcome measures analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Baseline FACT-H and N data were available for 1,093 patients and missing for 417 patients. No significant difference in outcome was found between the patients with and without baseline FACT-H and N data (p = 0.58). The median follow-up time was 27.2 months for all patients and 49 months for surviving patients. Multivariate analyses were performed for both OS and LRC. Beyond tumor and nodal stage, Karnofsky performance status, primary site, cigarette use, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and altered fractionation schedules, the FACT-H and N score was independently predictive of LRC (but not OS), with p = 0.0038. The functional well-being component of the FACT-H and N predicted most significantly for LRC (p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study represents, to our knowledge, the largest analysis of HRQOL as a prognostic factor in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. The results of this study have demonstrated the importance of baseline HRQOL as a significant and independent predictor of LRC in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

  10. More heads choose better than one: Group decision making can eliminate probability matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christin; Newell, Ben R

    2016-06-01

    Probability matching is a robust and common failure to adhere to normative predictions in sequential decision making. We show that this choice anomaly is nearly eradicated by gathering individual decision makers into small groups and asking the groups to decide. The group choice advantage emerged both when participants generated responses for an entire sequence of choices without outcome feedback (Exp. 1a) and when participants made trial-by-trial predictions with outcome feedback after each decision (Exp. 1b). We show that the dramatic improvement observed in group settings stands in stark contrast to a complete lack of effective solitary deliberation. These findings suggest a crucial role of group discussion in alleviating the impact of hasty intuitive responses in tasks better suited to careful deliberation.

  11. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah

    2009-10-01

    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  12. Design and Synthesis of New Chacones Substituted with Azide/Triazole Groups and Analysis of Their Cytotoxicity Towards HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. F. P. Villar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new chalcones substituted with azide/triazole groups were designed and synthesized, and their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against the HeLa cell line. O-Alkylation, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and Cu(I-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes were applied in key steps. Fifteen compounds were tested against HeLa cells. Compound 8c was the most active molecule, with an IC50 value of 13.03 µM, similar to the value of cisplatin (7.37 µM.

  13. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense group 1 is distinguished by a unique amino acid substitution in the HpHb receptor implicated in human serum resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Symula

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr and T. b. gambiense (Tbg, causative agents of Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in Africa, have evolved alternative mechanisms of resisting the activity of trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs, components of innate immunity in human serum that protect against infection by other African trypanosomes. In Tbr, lytic activity is suppressed by the Tbr-specific serum-resistance associated (SRA protein. The mechanism in Tbg is less well understood but has been hypothesized to involve altered activity and expression of haptoglobin haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR. HpHbR has been shown to facilitate internalization of TLF-1 in T.b. brucei (Tbb, a member of the T. brucei species complex that is susceptible to human serum. By evaluating the genetic variability of HpHbR in a comprehensive geographical and taxonomic context, we show that a single substitution that replaces leucine with serine at position 210 is conserved in the most widespread form of Tbg (Tbg group 1 and not found in related taxa, which are either human serum susceptible (Tbb or known to resist lysis via an alternative mechanism (Tbr and Tbg group 2. We hypothesize that this single substitution contributes to reduced uptake of TLF and thus may play a key role in conferring serum resistance to Tbg group 1. In contrast, similarity in HpHbR sequence among isolates of Tbg group 2 and Tbb/Tbr provides further evidence that human serum resistance in Tbg group 2 is likely independent of HpHbR function.

  14. Four-Component Damped Density Functional Response Theory Study of UV/Vis Absorption Spectra and Phosphorescence Parameters of Group 12 Metal-Substituted Porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Thomas; Saue, Trond; Norman, Patrick

    2016-05-10

    The influences of group 12 (Zn, Cd, Hg) metal-substitution on the valence spectra and phosphorescence parameters of porphyrins (P) have been investigated in a relativistic setting. In order to obtain valence spectra, this study reports the first application of the damped linear response function, or complex polarization propagator, in the four-component density functional theory framework [as formulated in Villaume et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2010 , 133 , 064105 ]. It is shown that the steep increase in the density of states as due to the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling yields only minor changes in overall computational costs involved with the solution of the set of linear response equations. Comparing single-frequency to multifrequency spectral calculations, it is noted that the number of iterations in the iterative linear equation solver per frequency grid-point decreases monotonously from 30 to 0.74 as the number of frequency points goes from one to 19. The main heavy-atom effect on the UV/vis-absorption spectra is indirect and attributed to the change of point group symmetry due to metal-substitution, and it is noted that substitutions using heavier atoms yield small red-shifts of the intense Soret-band. Concerning phosphorescence parameters, the adoption of a four-component relativistic setting enables the calculation of such properties at a linear order of response theory, and any higher-order response functions do not need to be considered-a real, conventional, form of linear response theory has been used for the calculation of these parameters. For the substituted porphyrins, electronic coupling between the lowest triplet states is strong and results in theoretical estimates of lifetimes that are sensitive to the wave function and electron density parametrization. With this in mind, we report our best estimates of the phosphorescence lifetimes to be 460, 13.8, 11.2, and 0.00155 s for H2P, ZnP, CdP, and HgP, respectively, with the corresponding transition

  15. The experts from the Review of LHC Superconducting Cables and Magnet Production, accompanied by the committee's secretary and the Head of the Magnets and Superconductors Group.

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: Ron Scanlan (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US), Taka Shintomi (KEK Laboratory, Japan), Claudine Bosteels (Secretary of the Review, AT-MAS Group, CERN), Lucio Rossi (Head of AT-MAS Group, CERN), Ettore Salpietro (EDFA-Iter project), Bruce Strauss (US Department of Energy, Chairman of the committee), and Pierre Vedrine (CEA-DAPNIA-SACM, France).

  16. Knowledge of human papillomavirus and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of dental patients in pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichki, Abdul Samad; Buajeeb, Waranun; Doungudomdacha, Sombhun; Khovidhunkit, Siribang-On Pibooniyom

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) remain a serious world health problem due to their association with cervical and head and neck cancers. While over 100 HPV types have been identified, only a few subtypes are associated with malignancies. HPV 16 and 18 are the most prevalent oncogenic types in head and neck cancers. Although it has been proven that some subsets of benign and malignant head and neck lesions are associated with HPV, the general population have very little awareness and knowledge of their association with HPV. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of HPV and its links with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of Pakistani dental patients who attended the Dental Department of the Sandeman provincial hospital in Quetta, Pakistan. One hundred and ninety-two patients were recruited and requested to answer a questionnaire. It was revealed that there was a low level of knowledge about HPV and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions among the participants. This result suggested that more education regarding the relationship of HPV in inducing head and neck benign and malignant lesions is required in this group of patients.

  17. Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette use in a Group of “Vapers” Who Had Achieved Complete Substitution of Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2013-01-01

    capacity and improved olfactory and gustatory senses. Perceived EC dependenct was significantly lower compared to smoking. Conclusions Nicotine levels appear to play an important role in achieving and maintaining smoking cessation in the group of motivated subjects studied. High nicotine-containing liquids were used while few mild and temporary side effects were reported. Proposals about regulation should consider the pragmatic use patterns of ECs, especially in consumers who have completely substituted smoking.

  18. Effect of glass-forming biopreservatives on head group rotational dynamics in freeze-dried phospholipid bilayers: A 31P NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Sen, S.; Risbud, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    P31 NMR spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the role of glass-forming sugars in the preservation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers. P31 wideline NMR spectra of freeze-dried pure DPPC, DPPC/trehalose, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mixtures collected in the temperature range of 25-80 °C have been simulated to obtain quantitative information about rotational dynamics and orientation of the lipid head groups in these media. In the case of pure DPPC, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/HES, the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of DPPC bilayer is characterized by a sudden increase in the rate of rotational diffusion of the PO4 head groups near 40 °C. The corresponding rotational jump frequency increases from a few kilohertz in the gel phase to at least several megahertz in the liquid crystalline phase. On the other hand, in the case of DPPC/trehalose mixture the temperature of this onset of rapid head group dynamics is increased by ˜10 °C. Trehalose reduces the lipid head group motions most effectively in the temperature range of T ≤50 °C relevant for biopreservation. Additionally, and possibly more importantly, trehalose is found to strongly restrict any change in the orientation of the diffusion axis of the PO4 head groups during the phase transformation. This unique ability of trehalose to maintain the dynamical and orientational rigidity of lipid head groups is likely to be responsible for its superior ability in biopreservation.

  19. Dramatic inversion of charge polarity in diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic field-effect transistors via a simple nitrile group substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hui-Jun; Kang, Seok-Ju; Xu, Yong; Kim, Seul Ong; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Kwon, Soon-Ki

    2014-11-19

    A record-breaking high electron mobility of 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for n-channel polymer OFETs is reported. By the incorporation of only one nitrile group as an electron-withdrawing function in the vinyl linkage of the DPP-based copolymer, a dramatic inversion of majority charge-carriers from holes to electrons is achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of Cationic Surfactant Head Groups on Synthesis, Growth and Agglomeration Behavior of ZnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta SK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colloidal nanodispersions of ZnS have been prepared using aqueous micellar solution of two cationic surfactants of trimethylammonium/pyridinium series with different head groups i.e., cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC and cetyltrimethylpyridinium chloride (CPyC. The role of these surfactants in controlling size, agglomeration behavior and photophysical properties of ZnS nanoparticles has been discussed. UV–visible spectroscopy has been carried out for determination of optical band gap and size of ZnS nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to measure sizes and size distribution of ZnS nanoparticles. Powder X-ray analysis (Powder XRD reveals the cubic structure of nanocrystallite in powdered sample. The photoluminescence emission band exhibits red shift for ZnS nanoparticles in CTAC compared to those in CPyC. The aggregation behavior in two surfactants has been compared using turbidity measurements after redispersing the nanoparticles in water. In situ evolution and growth of ZnS nanoparticles in two different surfactants have been compared through time-dependent absorption behavior and UV irradiation studies. Electrical conductivity measurements reveal that CPyC micelles better stabilize the nanoparticles than that of CTAC.

  1. t-Butyl group-substituted triphenylamine-containing orange-red fluorescent emitters for organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Chi Sik [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-30

    Efficient orange-red fluorescent compounds, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-adamantyl-6-(4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl) -N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene)vinyl-4H-pyran (DCATP) and 2,6-bis[4-(N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)amino)benzene] vinyl-4-(dicyanomethylene)-4H-pyran (BDCTP) containing the tert-butylated triphenylamine in donor moieties, were synthesized and characterized. In these red emitters, bulky groups, such as t-butyl group and adamantane were introduced to increase the steric hindrance between the red emitters. In particular, an efficient orange-red device containing the emitter DCATP as a dopant showed a luminous and power efficiency of 6.87 cd/A and 2.70 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} with the CIE coordinates of (0.48, 0.50) at 7.0 V. In addition, an efficient red organic light-emitting diode using BDCTP as a dopant exhibited a luminous and power efficiency of 2.30 cd/A and 1.31 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and CIE coordinates of (0.61, 0.39). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two orange-red emitters with t-butylated triphenylamine derivatives were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in electron D-A and electron D-A-D type in the terminal groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron D-A-D type material shows improved color chromaticity.

  2. Risk-group definition by recursive partitioning analysis of patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, JA; Slotman, BJ; van der Waal, [No Value; Doornaert, P; Berkof, J; Leemans, CR

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to define different prognostic groups with regard to locoregional control (LRC) derived from recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). METHODS. Eight hundred one patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma underwent with primary surgery and received

  3. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  4. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  5. Ricinus communis agglutinin-mediated agglutination and fusion of glycolipid-containing phospholipid vesicles: effect of carbohydrate head group size, calcium ions, and spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, D; Düzgüneş, N

    1986-03-25

    The glycolipids galactosylcerebroside (GalCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and trihexosylceramide (Gb3) were inserted into phospholipid vesicles, consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid. The extent to which their carbohydrate head groups protruded beyond the vesicle surface and their interference with membrane approach were examined by determining vesicle susceptibility toward type I Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) induced agglutination and Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion either in the presence or in the absence of the lectin. The initial agglutination rates increased in the order GalCer much less than LacCer less than Gb3, while a reversed order was obtained for Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion, indicating an enhanced steric interference on close approach of bilayers with increasing head group size. The lectin-mediated agglutination rates for LacCer- and Gb3-containing vesicles increased by an order of magnitude when Ca2+ was also included in the medium, at a concentration that did not induce aggregation per se. Charge neutralization could not account for this observation as the polyvalent cation spermine did not display this synergistic effect with RCA1. Addition of Ca2+ to preagglutinated vesicles substantially reduced the threshold cation concentration for fusion (micromolar vs. millimolar). Quantitatively, this concentration decreased with decreasing carbohydrate head group size, indicating that the head group protrusion determined the interbilayer distance within the vesicle aggregate. The distinct behavior of Ca2+ vs. spermine on RCA1-induced agglutination on the one hand and fusion on the other indicated that Ca2+ regulates the steric orientation of the carbohydrate head group, which appears to be related to its ability to dehydrate the bilayer. As a result, lectin agglutinability becomes enhanced while fusion will be interrupted as the interbilayer distance increases, the threshold head group size

  6. Contribution to the study of the substitution of the thiol group of cysteine in presence of pyridoxal or pyridoxal phosphate; Contribution a l'etude de la substitution du groupe thiol de la cysteine en presence de pyridoxal ou de phosphate de pyridoxal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratsisalovanina-Rajaonarivelo, Olga

    1960-11-15

    This academic work shows that the detachment of SH{sup -}, OH{sup -} and OPO{sub 3}H{sub 2}{sup -}, respectively from cysteine, serine and phosphoserine can occur with its substitution by a sulphur-containing group. The author first shows the ability of pyridoxal and of pyridoxal phosphate to catalyse the exchange between the sulphur of the cysteine thiol group and the sulphur of the mineral sulphide, and to catalyse the cysteine synthesis from serine or phosphoserine in presence of mineral sulphur. Then, she studied various parameters of the synthesis reaction: influence of concentrations, of temperature, of reaction time, of metal nature, of oxygen presence, and of pH on efficiency in terms of cysteic acid.

  7. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air-water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Federica; Campbell, Richard A.; Rastogi, Kunal; Pfrang, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air-water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA), palmitoleic acid (POA), methyl oleate (MO) and stearic acid (SA) to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR) to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air-water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7) × 10-8, (2.4±0.5) × 10-8and (3.3±0.6) × 10-8 cm2 molecule-1 s-1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5) × 10-3, (1.7±0.3) × 10-3 and (2.1±0.4) × 10-3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1) × 10-12 cm2 molecule-1 s-1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1) × 10-7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air-water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of O3. Furthermore, the relative contributions of NO3 and O3 to the oxidative

  8. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air–water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sebastiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air–water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA, palmitoleic acid (POA, methyl oleate (MO and stearic acid (SA to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air–water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7 × 10−8, (2.4±0.5 × 10−8and (3.3±0.6 × 10−8 cm2 molecule−1 s−1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5 × 10−3, (1.7±0.3 × 10−3 and (2.1±0.4 × 10−3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1 × 10−12 cm2 molecule−1 s−1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1 × 10−7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air–water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher

  9. Operator substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Substitution of an operator into an operator-valued map is defined and studied. A Bezout-type remainder theorem is used to derive a number of results. The tensor map is used to formulate solvability conditions for linear matrix equations. Some applications to system theory are given, in particular

  10. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  11. Tonemic Substitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezenwafor

    grammatical constructions. The choice of substitutable tonemes as observed from the analyzed data is highly. Ezenwafordependent on the intuitive judgement of the native speaker. This work shows with adequate data, that regular tonemic changes are not always meaningful in Ekwulobia lect. Such tonemic alternations are ...

  12. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  13. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas R. Waterloo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films, thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA, cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives. X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices.

  14. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterloo, Andreas R; Sale, Anna-Chiara; Lehnherr, Dan; Hampel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Summary A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films), thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA), cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives). X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices. PMID:25161729

  15. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 67 Revision 2 (FGE.67Rev2): Consideration of 28 furan-substituted compounds evaluated by JECFA at the 55th, 65th and 69th meetings (JECFA, 2001, 2006a, 2009b)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    on metabolism and toxicity. The present consideration concerns a group of 28 furan-substituted compounds evaluated by the JECFA. This revision of FGE.67 is due to new data on toxicity for 3-(-methyl-2-furyl) butanal [FL-no: 13.058] providing an appropriate NOAEL for the evaluation of candidate substance [FL...

  16. Splitting of 9-iodo-1,7-carborane by potassium hydroxide in butanol with butoxy group substitution for iodine atom when formation of anions of 1-butoxy- and 5-butoxy-nido-7,9-dicarbaundecaborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharkin, L.I.; Ol'shevskaya, V.A.; Guseva, V.V.; Panfilova, S.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The 9-iodo-1,7-carborane by heating in the potassium hydroxide butanol solution is splitted into the stereoisomeric anions of the nido-7,9-dicarbaundecaborate substituting under the reaction conditions the butoxy-group for iodine atom with formation of anions of the 1-butoxy- and -butoxy-nido-7,9-dicarbaundecaborate [ru

  17. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...

  18. Social skills training and play group intervention for children with oppositional-defiant disorders/conduct disorder: Mediating mechanisms in a head-to-head comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Josepha; Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Hautmann, Christopher; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-01-19

    Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD. 91 children (age 6-12 years) with ODD/CD were randomized to receive either social skills training or to a resource activating play group. Mediator analyses were conducted using path analyses. The assumed mediating effects were not significant. However, alternative models with the putative mediators and outcome in reversed positions showed significant indirect effects of the oppositional-defiant symptoms as mediator for the decrease of disturbance of social-information processing, social skills, and social interactions. The proposed model for mechanisms of change could not be confirmed, with the results pointing to a reversed causality. Variables other than those hypothesized must be responsible for mediating the effects of the intervention on child oppositional-defiant behavior. Possible mechanisms of change were discussed.

  19. Estudo de propriedades de PVC modificado com grupos alquila e benzila Study of the properties of PVC modified through substitution by alkyl and benzyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M Vinhas

    2005-07-01

    variety of transformation processes. The resin is non toxic and inert, therefore the choice of additives having these properties allows for the fabrication of films for food packaging and medical products. On the other hand, the PVC properties can be altered by sterilization processes, in particular through gamma radiation. In this paper we present a study of the flexibility and stability to gamma radiation of chemically-modified PVC. PVC was modified through substitution of chlorine by alkyl and benzyl groups using Grignard reagents. Modified PVC samples were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric analyses. Degradation of the polymers when submitted to gamma irradiation was evaluated by their viscometric parameters. The modified PVCs generally presented higher stability to gamma radiation than the original polymer. The benzyl substituted polymer exhibited the highest stability when submitted to the sterilization dosage of 25 kGy. The modified PVCs presented glass transition temperatures slightly lower than the original polymer pointing to an increase in flexibility due to the presence of alkyl and benzyl groups as substituents in the main chain.

  20. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine H.; Wong, Stuart; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  1. Carbolanthanation of substituted alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, V.N.; Kazimirchuk, E.I.; Vitt, S.V.; Khandozhko, V.N.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1993-01-01

    Using the reaction between CH 3 YbI and substituted alkynes as an example, agents can enter into carbolanthanation reaction via transfer of a methyl group to carbon atom of acetylene bond with the production of a new olefin carbanion. 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  2. Influence of ortho-substitution homolog group on polychlorobiphenyl bioaccumulation factors and fugacity ratios in plankton and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willman, E.J.; Manchester-Neesvig, J.B.; Agrell, C.; Armstrong, D.E.

    1999-07-01

    The accumulation of a set of non- and mono-ortho (coplanar) PCB congeners in aquatic ecosystems is of interest due to their dioxin-like toxicities. Chemical properties (octanol-water partition coefficients) suggest that the coplanar congeners may accumulate in organisms to a greater extent than homologs with greater ortho substitution. The authors analyzed a set of 65 PCB congeners with zero to four ortho-chlorines from seven homolog groups in water, suspended particulate matter, and zebra mussels from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, on four dates throughout the ice-free season. The suspended particulate matter was separated by size and characterized as phytoplankton or zooplankton using diagnostic carotenoid pigments and light microscopy. Median bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for accumulation from water by phytoplankton and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for accumulation from water plus food by zooplankton and zebra mussels ranged from 1 x 10{sup 4} to 1 x 10{sup 6} and were generally the greatest for the tetra- to heptachlorobiphenyls. The average coplanar congener BCFs and BAFs for accumulation from water by phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zebra mussels for the tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls were 54% larger than corresponding values for their homologs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) of the tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorobiphenyls between zooplankton and zebra mussels and their food source, phytoplankton, typically ranged between 1 and 10, but the average coplanar congener BMFs were 25% less than values for their corresponding homologs. The tendency for coplanar congeners to accumulate to a lesser extent between trophic levels was not as large as their tendency to accumulate from water to a greater extent. Based on accumulation factors, the authors conclude that the dioxin-like tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls generally accumulate in the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zebra mussels of the Green Bay ecosystem to a greater extent than other congeners. Fugacity

  3. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  4. Synthesis and reactivity of novel sulfur pentafluorides-Effect of the SF5 group on reactivity of nitrobenzenes in nucleophilic substitution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beier, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 2 (2017), s. 212-215 ISSN 1042-6507. [International Symposium on the Organic Chemistry of Sulfur (ISOCS) /27./. Jena, 26.07.2016-29.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleophilic substitution * sulfur * fluorine * reaction rate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2016

  5. If two heads are better than one, why do I have bruises on my forehead? Managing the group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, F C

    1991-01-01

    Managers are using groups more frequently for solving complex organizational problems because of numerous organizational and environmental factors. Yet, many managers see group decision-making meetings as more of a problem than a solution. This article discusses situations where groups should and should not be used and recommends specific skills a leader can use to improve the effectiveness of group decision making. Emphasis is placed on managing the group process to achieve a satisfactory outcome. An exercise to test the validity of the suggestions is provided.

  6. Influence of length and conformation of saccharide head groups on the mechanics of glycolipid membranes: Unraveled by off-specular neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akihisa, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de; Tanaka, Motomu, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Abuillan, Wasim; Körner, Alexander [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Burk, Alexandra S. [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ries, Annika [Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Werz, Daniel B. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Demé, Bruno [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-21

    The mechanical properties of multilayer stacks of Gb3 glycolipid that play key roles in metabolic disorders (Fabry disease) were determined quantitatively by using specular and off-specular neutron scattering. Because of the geometry of membrane stacks deposited on planar substrates, the scattered intensity profile was analyzed in a 2D reciprocal space map as a function of in-plane and out-of-plane scattering vector components. The two principal mechanical parameters of the membranes, namely, bending rigidity and compression modulus, can be quantified by full calculation of scattering functions with the aid of an effective cut-off radius that takes the finite sample size into consideration. The bulkier “bent” Gb3 trisaccharide group makes the membrane mechanics distinctly different from cylindrical disaccharide (lactose) head groups and shorter “bent” disaccharide (gentiobiose) head groups. The mechanical characterization of membranes enriched with complex glycolipids has high importance in understanding the mechanisms of diseases such as sphingolipidoses caused by the accumulation of non-degenerated glycosphingolipids in lysosomes or inhibition of protein synthesis triggered by the specific binding of Shiga toxin to Gb3.

  7. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  8. Planar geometry of 4-substituted-2,2'-bipyridines synthesized by Sonogashira and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong Thi, T. T., E-mail: thuyltt@hnue.edu.vn; Nguyen Bich, N.; Nguyen, H. [Hanoi National University of Education, Chemistry Department (Viet Nam); Van Meervelt, L., E-mail: luc.vanmeervelt@chem.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Chemistry Department (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Two 4-substituted 2,2'-bipyridines, namely 4-(ferrocenylethynyl)-2,2'-bipyridine (I) and 4-ferrocenyl-2,2'-bipyridine (II) have been synthesized and fully characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses. The π-conjugated system designed from 2,2'-bipyridine modified with the ferrocenylethynyl and ferrocenyl groups shows the desired planarity. In the crystal packing of I and II, the molecules arrange themselves in head-to-tail and head-to-head motifs, respectively, resulting in consecutive layers of ferrocene and pyridine moieties.

  9. Differences within the groups of physicians and managers in Dutch hospitals providing leads for intergroup cooperation : Running head: group differences in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective cooperation between physicians and managers is difficult to achieve but is an important factor in successfully implementing improvement initiatives in hospitals. Intergroup literature suggests that large differences between groups hinder effective cooperation. - Purposes:

  10. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival.

  11. Effects of heterocyclic-based head group modifications on the structure-activity relationship of tocopherol-based lipids for non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosangi, Mallikarjun; Mujahid, Thasneem Yoosuf; Gopal, Vijaya; Patri, Srilakshmi V

    2016-07-12

    Gene therapy, a promising strategy for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, is greatly dependent on the development of efficient vectors. In this study, we designed and synthesized several tocopherol-based lipids varying in the head group region. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of stable aqueous suspensions of lipids that were synthetically prepared and formulated with 1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) as the co-lipid. The physicochemical properties such as the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, stability and morphology of these formulations were investigated. Interaction with plasmid DNA was clearly demonstrated through gel binding and EtBr displacement assays. Further, the transfection potential was examined in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a, hepatocarcinoma HepG2, human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovarian cell lines, all of different origins. Cell-uptake assays with N-methylpiperidinium, N-methylmorpholinium, N-methylimidazolium and N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium head group containing formulations evidently depicted efficient cell uptake as observed by particulate cytoplasmic fluorescence. Trafficking of lipoplexes using an endocytic marker and rhodamine-labeled phospholipid DHPE indicated that the lipoplexes were not sequestered in the lysosomes. Importantly, lipoplexes were non-toxic and mediated good transfection efficiency as analyzed by β-Gal and GFP reporter gene expression assays which established the superior activity of lipids whose structures correlate strongly with the transfection efficiency.

  12. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  13. Roles of head group architecture and side chain length on colorimetric response of polydiacetylene vesicles to temperature, ethanol and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2011-08-15

    In this contribution, we report the relationship between molecular structures of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles, fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid (TCDA), 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) and N-(2-aminoethyl)pentacosa-10,12-diynamide (AEPCDA), and their color-transition behaviors. The modification of side chain length and head group of the PDA vesicles strongly affects the colorimetric response to temperature, ethanol and pH. A shorter side chain of poly(TCDA) yields weaker inter- and intra-chain dispersion interactions in the bilayers compared to the system of poly(PCDA), which in turn results in a faster color transition upon exposure to all stimuli. A change of head group in poly(AEPCDA) slightly reduces the transition temperature. Interestingly, the colorimetric response of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles to the addition of ethanol is found to occur in a two-step fashion while the response of poly(PCDA) vesicles takes place in a one-step process. The amount of ethanol required for inducing complete color-transition of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles is also much higher, about 87% v/v. The increase of pH to ~9 and ~10 causes a color-transition of poly(TCDA) and poly(PCDA) vesicles, respectively. The poly(AEPCDA) vesicles, on the other hand, change color upon decreasing pH to ~0. The colorimetric response also occurs in a multi-step fashion. These discrepancies are attributed to the architecture of surface layers of poly(AEPCDA), constituting amine and amide groups separated by ethyl linkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of femoral head osteonecrosis in two groups of patients: Legg-Perthes-Calve and Avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Betul Duran; Ozel, Deniz; Ozkan, Fuat; Halefoglu, Ahmet M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in patients with osteonecrosis. Patients were divided into two subgroups as avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head for adult group and Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) patients for children. Seventeen patients with femoral head AVN (mean age 42.3 years) and 17 patients with LCP (mean age 8.2 years) were included in this study. Diagnosis confirmed with clinical and other imaging procedures among the patients complaining hip pain. DW images were obtained using the single-shot echo planar sequence and had b values of 0, 500, 1000 s/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured from ADC maps in epiphysis of patients with AVN, both from metaphysis and epiphysis in patients with LCP, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare ADC values. The mean ADC value of femoral heads (1.285 ± 0.204 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was increased in patients with AVN when compared to normal bone tissue (0.209 ± 0.214 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) (p < 0.01). The mean ADC values (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) of both metaphysis (0.852 ± 0.293) and epiphysis (0.843 ± 0.332) were also increased in patients with LCP and differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). As a result, osteonecrosis shows increased ADC values. But it is a controversial concept that DWI offers a valuable data to conventional MRI or not. However, as there are report states, there is a correlation between the stage of the disease with ADC values in the LCP disease. DWI is a fast, without-contrast administration technique and provides quantitative values additional to conventional MR techniques; we believe DWI may play an additional assistance to the diagnosis and treatment for LCP patients. Multicentric larger group studies may provide additional data to this issue.

  15. Alkyl group dependence on structure and magnetic properties in layered cobalt coordination polymers containing substituted glutarate ligands and 4,4'-bipyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettleman, Joseph H.; Supkowski, Ronald M.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Five two-dimensional divalent cobalt coordination polymers containing 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy) and substituted or unsubstituted glutarate ligands have been prepared hydrothermally and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Co(mg)(bpy)] n (1, mg=3-methylglutarate) forms a (4,4) rhomboid grid structure based on the connection of {Co 2 (CO 2 ) 2 } dimeric units. Using the more sterically encumbered ligands 3,3-dimethylglutarate (dmg) and 3-ethyl, 3-methylglutarate (emg) generated {[Co(dmg)(bpy)(H 2 O)].2H 2 O} n (2) and {[Co(emg)(bpy)(H 2 O)].H 2 O} n (3), respectively. These complexes manifest {Co(CO 2 )} n chains linked into 2-D by aliphatic dicarboxylate and bpy ligands. The 'tied-back' substituted glutarate ligand 1,1-cyclopentanediacetate (cda) afforded [Co(cda)(bpy)] n (4), and the unsubstituted glutarate (glu) generated [Co(glu)(bpy)] n (5), both of which exhibit a topology similar to that of 1. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-4 were analyzed successfully with a recently developed phenomenological chain model accounting for both magnetic coupling (J) and zero-field splitting effects (D), even though 1 and 4 contain isolated, discrete {Co 2 (CO 2 ) 2 } dimers. The D parameter in this series varied between 21.8(8) and 48.0(9) cm -1 . However weak antiferromagnetic coupling was observed in 1 (J=-2.43(4) cm -1 ) and 4 (J=-0.89(2) cm -1 ), while weak ferromagnetic coupling appears to be operative in both 2 (J=0.324(5) cm -1 ) and 3 (J=0.24(1) cm -1 ). - Five two-dimensional divalent cobalt coordination polymers containing 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy) and substituted or unsubstituted glutarate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Three contain dimeric {Co 2 (CO 2 ) 2 } units, while two manifest {Co(CO 2 )} n chains, depending on the steric bulk of the substituent. The magnetic properties of the complexes were analyzed successfully with a recently developed phenomenological chain model

  16. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  17. Effect of point substitutions within the minimal DNA-binding domain of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein on interaction with DNA intermediates of nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, E A; Krasikova, Y S; Naegeli, H; Lavrik, O I; Rechkunova, N I

    2014-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum factor A (XPA) is one of the key proteins in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. The effects of point substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of XPA (positively charged lysine residues replaced by negatively charged glutamate residues: XPA K204E, K179E, K141E, and tandem mutant K141E/K179E) on the interaction of the protein with DNA structures modeling intermediates of the damage recognition and pre-incision stages in NER were analyzed. All these mutations decreased the affinity of the protein to DNA, the effect depending on the substitution and the DNA structure. The mutant as well as wild-type proteins bind with highest efficiency partly open damaged DNA duplex, and the affinity of the mutants to this DNA is reduced in the order: K204E > K179E > K141E = K141/179E. For all the mutants, decrease in DNA binding efficiency was more pronounced in the case of full duplex and single-stranded DNA than with bubble-DNA structure, the difference between protein affinities to different DNA structures increasing as DNA binding activity of the mutant decreased. No effect of the studied XPA mutations on the location of the protein on the partially open DNA duplex was observed using photoinduced crosslinking with 5-I-dUMP in different positions of the damaged DNA strand. These results combined with earlier published data suggest no direct correlation between DNA binding and activity in NER for these XPA mutants.

  18. Theoretical studies of one- and two-photon absorption properties for three molecules with different centers (B and N) and peripheral substituted groups [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} and CN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Deming [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Feng Jikang, E-mail: jikangf@yahoo.co [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Ren Aimin [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Shang Xiaohong [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Liu Xiaojuan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Three molecules with different centers (boron and nitrogen) and peripheral substituted groups [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} and CN] have been theoretically studied with B3LYP/6-31G(d) associated with ZINDO and sum-over-states methods. The maximum two-photon absorption cross-section delta{sub max} of the molecule with boron (B) center and N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} peripheral group is larger than that of the molecule with nitrogen (N) center and N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} peripheral group. As for the two molecules with N center, the delta{sub max} is obviously increased with the change from N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} to CN group. This indicates that the large intramolecular charge transfer is in favor of the TPA response.

  19. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Alkylation of Tertiary Carbon via Directing-Group-Mediated C(sp(3))-H Activation: Synthesis of Chiral 1,1,2-Trialkyl Substituted Cyclopropanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiya, Naoyuki; Takenaka, Kei; Shuto, Satoshi; Uenishi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-04

    A Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed alkylation reaction of the tertiary carbon of chiral cyclopropane substrates with alkyl iodides and bromides via C(sp(3))-H activation has been developed. This is an elusive example of a C-H activation-mediated alkylation of tertiary carbon to effectively construct a quaternary carbon center. The alkylation proceeded with various alkyl halides, including those of functional groups, to provide a variety of chiral cis- and trans-1,1,2,-trialkyl substituted cyclopropanes of medicinal chemical importance.

  20. Group Work: Pleasure or Pain? An Effective Guidance Activity or a Poor Substitute for One-to-One Interactions with Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of personal learning and development (PLD) group work as a guidance activity in both career counselling and youth support practice. It introduces the FAAST model-a framework for planning, preparing and delivering PLD group sessions (Westergaard in Effective group work with young people. Open University, Maidenhead,…

  1. Substituent effects on the electronic characteristics of pentacene derivatives for organic electronic devices: dioxolane-substituted pentacene derivatives with triisopropylsilylethynyl functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Olga Lobanova; Anthony, John E; Jones, Adolphus G; Shu, Ying; Lichtenberger, Dennis L

    2012-08-29

    The intramolecular electronic structures and intermolecular electronic interactions of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS pentacene), 6,14-bis-(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-1,3,9,11-tetraoxa-dicyclopenta[b,m]-pentacene (TP-5 pentacene), and 2,2,10,10-tetraethyl-6,14-bis-(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-1,3,9,11-tetraoxa-dicyclopenta[b,m]pentacene (EtTP-5 pentacene) have been investigated by the combination of gas-phase and solid-phase photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Further insight has been provided by electrochemical measurements in solution, and the principles that emerge are supported by electronic structure calculations. The measurements show that the energies of electron transfer such as the reorganization energies, ionization energies, charge-injection barriers, polarization energies, and HOMO-LUMO energy gaps are strongly dependent on the particular functionalization of the pentacene core. The ionization energy trends as a function of the substitution observed for molecules in the gas phase are not reproduced in measurements of the molecules in the condensed phase due to polarization effects in the solid. The electronic behavior of these materials is impacted less by the direct substituent electronic effects on the individual molecules than by the indirect consequences of substituent effects on the intermolecular interactions. The ionization energies as a function of film thickness give information on the relative electrical conductivity of the films, and all three molecules show different material behavior. The stronger intermolecular interactions in TP-5 pentacene films lead to better charge transfer properties versus those in TIPS pentacene films, and EtTP-5 pentacene films have very weak intermolecular interactions and the poorest charge transfer properties of these molecules.

  2. Phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. Dramatic effects of phosphorus chirality on the deuterium NMR properties of the choline head group of phospholipids in the liquid crystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffredo, W.M.; Jiang, Rutai; Tsai, Mingdaw

    1990-01-01

    To probe the motional and conformational propertis of the choline head group of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-thiophosphocholine (DPPsC), the R p , S p , and R p + S p isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC, [β-D 2 ]DPPsC, and [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC in the subgel, gel, and liquid crystalline phases were investigated with deuterium NMR, and the results were compared with those of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) labeled at the same positions. In the subgel phase (5 degree C) all isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC and [β-D 2 ]DPPsC displayed amorphous line shapes characteristic of a restricted and disordered motional environment, whereas [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC showed narrower and symmetric line shapes indicating substantial motions. For all three labeled positions the apparent line width of the R p isomer is larger than those of S p and R p + S p isomers, and the amorphous line shape of the R p isomer also persists at 25 and 35 degree C. These results indicate that the motional and conformational properties of the C α -C β segment of DPPsC is very sensitive to the configuration at phosphorus. Structurally, this provides strong support for noncovalent interactions between the quaternary ammonium group of choline and the phosphate group of a neighboring molecule in the bilayers of phosphatidylcholine and suggests that such interactions are important to the motion of the choline chain

  3. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This curriculum created and implemented at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center was designed to educate our emergency medicine (EM residents, PGY-1 to PGY-3, as well as medical students and attending physicians. Introduction: Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat (HEENT complaints are very commonly seen in the Emergency Department. Numbers vary as to exact prevalence, but sources show that there are about 2 million annual emergency department (ED visits in the United States for non-traumatic dental problems, representing 1.5% of all ED visits.1 Other sources show that symptoms referable to the throat encompass 2,496,000 visits or 1.9% of total visits.2 Notably, about 8% of the written exam in emergency medicine covers the topic of head and neck complaints, making it the second most tested topic behind cardiovascular.3 Residents must be proficient in the differential diagnosis and management of the wide variety of HEENT emergencies. The flipped classroom curricular model emphasizes self-directed learning activities completed by learners, followed by small group discussions pertaining to the topic reviewed. The active learning fostered by this curriculum increases faculty and learner engagement and interaction time typically absent in traditional lecture-based formats.4-6 Studies have revealed that the application of knowledge through case studies, personal interaction with content experts, and integrated questions are effective learning strategies for emergency medicine residents.6-8 The Ohio State University EM Residency didactic curriculum recently transitioned to a “flipped classroom” approach.9-13 We created this innovative curriculum aimed to improve our residency education program and to share educational resources with other EM residency programs. Our curriculum utilizes an 18-month curricular cycle to cover the defined emergency medicine content. The flipped classroom curriculum maximizes didactic time and resident

  4. Recovering function and surviving treatments are primary motivators for health behavior change in patients with head and neck cancer: Qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Melissa; Bdira, Ala; Cherba, Maria; Lambert, Sylvie; Carnevale, Franco A; MacDonald, Christina; Hier, Michael; Zeitouni, Anthony; Kost, Karen; Mlynarek, Alex; Black, Martin; Rosberger, Zeev; Frenkiel, Saul

    2016-08-01

    Against medical advice, head and neck cancer (HNC) patients have been shown to continue to smoke and misuse alcohol post-diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of health behavior change (HBC) in HNC patients. We conducted nine focus groups following a standard protocol. Eligible patients were diagnosed less than three years previously with a primary HNC and selected using maximum variability sampling (gender, age, cancer stage, smoking, and alcohol misuse). Thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10 software. Participants were mostly men (79%), 65 years of age (SD = 10.1), and married/common-law (52%, n = 15). Mean time from diagnosis was 19 months (SD = 12.3, range = 5.0-44.5), and most had advanced cancer (65.5%, n = 19). Participants provided a larger than anticipated definition of health behaviors, encompassing both traditional (smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, UV protection) and HNC-related (e.g., dental hygiene, skin care, speech exercises, using a PEG, gaining weight). The main emerging theme was patient engagement, that is, being proactive in rehabilitation, informed by the medical team, optimistic, flexible, and seeking support when needed. Patients were primarily motivated to stay proactive and engage in positive health behaviors in order to return to normal life and reclaim function, rather than to prevent a cancer recurrence. Barriers to patient engagement included emotional aspects (e.g., anxiety, depression, trauma, demoralization), symptoms (e.g., fatigue, pain), lack of information about HBC, and healthcare providers' authoritarian approach in counseling on HBC. We found some commonalities in barriers and facilitators according to behavior type (i.e., smoking/drinking/UV protection vs. diet/exercise). This study underlines the key challenges in addressing health behaviors in head and neck oncology, including treatment-related functional impairments, symptom burden, and the disease

  5. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: david.schwartz@utsw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern School of Medicine, Dallas, Texas (United States); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yao, Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Opanowski, Adam; Levering, Anthony [American College of Radiology Imaging Network, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Trotti, Andy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Sutter Medical Group, Sacramento, California (United States); Harari, Paul [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Foote, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.

  6. Effects of a compound from the group of substituted thiadiazines with hypothermia inducing properties on brain metabolism in rats, a study in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O B Shevelev

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine how administration of a compound of 1,3,4- thiadiazine class 2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine, hydrobromide (L-17 with hypothermia inducing properties affects the brain metabolism. The mechanism by which L-17 induces hypothermia is unknown; it may involve hypothalamic central thermoregulation as well as act via inhibition of energy metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that L-17 may induce hypothermia by directly inhibiting energy metabolism. The study in vivo was carried out on Sprague-Dawley adult rats. Two doses of L-17 were administered (190 mg/kg and 760 mg/kg. Brain metabolites were analyzed in control and treated groups using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with blood flow rate measurements in carotid arteries and body temperature measurements. Further in vitro studies on primary cultures from rat hippocampus were carried out to perform a mitochondria function test of L-17 pre-incubation (100 μM, 30 min. Analysis of brain metabolites showed no significant changes in 190 mg/kg treated group along with a significant reduction in body temperature by 1.5°C. However, administration of L-17 in higher dose 760 mg/kg provoked changes in brain metabolites indicative of neurotoxicity as well as reduction in carotid arteries flow rate. In addition, a balance change of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters was observed. The L-17 pre-incubation with cell primary cultures from rat brain showed no significant changes in mitochondrial function. The results obtained in the study indicate that acute administration of L-17 190 mg/kg in rats induces mild hypothermia with no adverse effects onto brain metabolism.

  7. Convergent synthesis of 6-substituted phenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical equation presented The addition of organometallic derivatives to the cyano group of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)benzonitrile followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution produces 6-substituted phenanthridines. Alkyllithiums, aryllithiums, and sterically nondemanding lithium amides reacted ...

  8. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  9. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  10. Overexpression of cyclin D1 correlates with recurrence in a group of forty-seven operable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalides, R.; van Veelen, N.; Hart, A.; Loftus, B.; Wientjens, E.; Balm, A.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic significance of overexpression of cyclin D1 in 47 patients with surgically resected squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was detected immunohistochemically using an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody directed against the

  11. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  12. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  13. Influence of methoxy- and nitro-substitutions in the aromatic ring on proton donation ability in hydrogen bond and on the amino group parameters of free and H-bonded molecules of 2-aminopyrimidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, V. E.; Krekov, S. A.; Fomenko, M. Yu.; Koll, A.; Lipkovski, P.

    2008-06-01

    Amino- and imino- forms of pyrimidine are widely presented as part of antibiotics, corrective medications for heart failures and metabolic stimulators. Hydrogen bonding is one of the fundamental interactions between biologically active molecules. This type of interactions provides flexibility, speed and variety of the biochemical processes. Proton donation properties of aminopyrimidines significantly depend on the position, number and kind of the substituent in its aromatic ring. In present work we studied the influence of the methoxy- and nitro-substitutions in the phenyl radical of pyridine and pyrimidine cycles on the proton donation ability of the amino group in hydrogen bonds as well as on its geometrical, force, electro-optical and thermodynamical characteristics in free and H-bonded (1:1 and 1:2, with various proton acceptors) molecules of primary aromatic amines. Acetonitrile, dioxane, tetrahydrofourane, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide (whose proton accepting properties vary within a wide range) were used as proton acceptors in our research. In the region of the amino group stretching and deformation vibrations the IR spectra of free and H-bonded (1:1) molecules of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy- and 2-amino-5-nitropyrimidine were studied in complexes with proton acceptors in CCl 4 within the temperature range 288-328 K. The spectra of 1:2 complexes were studied in undiluted aprotic solvents. The following spectral characteristics of absorption bands in amino group stretching vibrations were determined: M(0) (zero spectral moment, integrated intensity B); M(1) (first spectral moment, band "centre of gravity"); effective half width, related to the second central moment (Δ ν1/2) eff = 2( M(2)) 1/2, frequencies of the deformation vibrations δ(HNH) of free and H-bonded molecules. It was shown that changes of the absorption band spectral characteristics of the amino group stretching and deformation vibrations in the analyzed

  14. DAHANCA 10 – Effect of darbepoetin alfa and radiotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial by the Danish head and neck cancer group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jens; Hoff, Camilla Molich; Hansen, Hanne Sand

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if correction of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels by means of darbepoetin alfa improves the outcomes of radiotherapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Patients and methods: Patients eligible for primary radiotherapy and who had Hb values below 14.......0 g/dl were randomized to receive accelerated fractionated radiotherapy with or without darbepoetin alfa. Patients also received the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. Darbepoetin alfa was given weekly during radiotherapy or until the Hb value exceeded 15.5 g/dl. Results: Following a planned interim...... distributed according to the stratification parameters (gender, T and N staging, tumor site). Treatment with darbepoetin alfa increased the Hb level to the planned value in 81% of the patients. The compliance was good without excess serious adverse events. The results showed a poorer outcome with a 5-year...

  15. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  16. Arylazoindazole Photoswitches : Facile Synthesis and Functionalization via SNAr Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travieso-Puente, Raquel; Budzak, Simon; Chen, Juan; Stacko, Peter; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Jacquemin, Denis; Otten, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    A straightforward synthetic route to arylazoindazoles via nucleophilic aromatic substitution is presented. Upon deprotonation of the NH group, a C6F5-substituted formazan undergoes facile cyclization as a result of intermolecular nucleophilic substitution (SNAr). This new class of azo photoswitches

  17. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...... in our empirical investigation support the predicted role of the elasticity of substitution as we find a significant negative relation between the elasticity of substitution and the final anti-dumping duties for the ‘lesser duty rule’ group of countries. The countries which do not follow the ‘lesser duty...

  18. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a low incidence European area. A prospective observational analysis from the Head and Neck Study Group of the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology (AIRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonoli, S.; Bruschieri, L. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Alterio, D. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Caspiani, O. [Isola Tiberina Hospital, Rome (Italy); Bacigalupo, A. [IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino IST Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bunkheila, F. [S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Cianciulli, M. [S. Camillo Hospital, Rome (Italy); Merlotti, A. [Busto Arsizio Hospital, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Podhradska, A. [Milan University - Monza S. Gerardo Hospital, Milan (Italy); Rampino, M. [Turin University, Turin (Italy); Cante, D. [Treviglio Hospital, Treviglio (Italy); Gatta, R. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Prato Hospital, Prato (Italy); Magrini, S.M.

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the outcomes with respect to long-term survival and toxicity in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in a European country with low incidence. A prospective observational study carried out by the AIRO Head and Neck group in 12 Italian institutions included 136 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy (CHT) for NPC (without distant metastasis) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. The disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 92 (±2), 91 (±3), and 69 % (±5 %), respectively. Distant failure was the most frequent modality of relapse. The local, regional, and locoregional control at 5 years were 89 (±3), 93 (±3), and 84 % (±4 %), respectively. The incidence of acute and late toxicity and the correlations with different clinical/technical variables were analyzed. Neoadjuvant CHT prolongs radiotherapy overall treatment time (OTT) and decreases treatment adherence during concomitant chemoradiotherapy. An adequate minimum dose coverage to PTV(T) is a predictive variable well related to outcome. Our data do not substantially differ in terms of survival and toxicity outcomes from those reported in larger series of patients treated in countries with higher incidences of NPC. The T stage (TNM 2002 UICC classification) is predictive of DSS and OS. The GTV volume (T ± N) and an adequate minimum PTV(T) coverage dose (D95 %) were also identified as potential predictive variables. Sophisticated technologies of dose delivery (IMRT) with image-guided radiotherapy could help to obtain better minimum PTV(T) coverage dose with increased DFS; distant metastasis after treatment still remains an unresolved issue. (orig.) [German] Bewertung von langfristigem Ueberleben und Toxizitaet bei Patienten mit Nasopharynxkarzinom (NPC), die in einem europaeischen Land mit geringer Inzidenz behandelt wurden. Die prospektive Beobachtungsanalyse, durchgefuehrt von der

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that these 27 candidate substances do not give rise to safety...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  20. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountzilas, G.; Skarlos, D.; Kosmidis, P.; Samantas, E.; Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Papaspyrou, S.; Tzitzikas, J.; Sridhar, K.S.; Makrantonakis, P.; Pantelakos, P.; Nikolaou, A.; Bacoyiannis, H.; Sinodinou, M.; Banis, C.; Daniilidis, J.

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a 60 Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m 2 on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.)

  1. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  2. 6th July 2010 - United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council W. Whitehorn signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss, visiting the Computing Centre with Information Technology Department Head Deputy D. Foster, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department P. Strubin,the Centre Control Centre with Operation Group Leader M. Lamont and the CLIC/CTF3 facility with Project Leader J.-P. Delahaye.

    CERN Multimedia

    Teams : M. Brice, JC Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    6th July 2010 - United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council W. Whitehorn signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss, visiting the Computing Centre with Information Technology Department Head Deputy D. Foster, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department P. Strubin,the Centre Control Centre with Operation Group Leader M. Lamont and the CLIC/CTF3 facility with Project Leader J.-P. Delahaye.

  3. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  4. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  5. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  6. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A systematic review by the Italian Head and Neck Radiotherapy Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursino, Stefano; Morganti, Riccardo; Cristaudo, Agostino; Paiar, Fabiola; D'Angelo, Elisa; Lohr, Frank; Mazzola, Rosario; Merlotti, Anna; Russi, Elvio Grazioso; Musio, Daniela; Alterio, Daniela; Bacigalupo, Almalina

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most important treatment-related side effects in head and neck cancer (HNC), as it can lead to severe life-threating complications such as aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could reduce swallowing dysfunction by producing a concave dose distribution and reducing doses to the swallowing-related organs at risk (SWOARs). The aim of this study was to review the current literature in order to compare swallowing outcomes between IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). A search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases to identify studies on swallowing outcomes, both clinically and/or instrumentally assessed, after 3DCRT and IMRT. Dysphagia-specific quality of life and objective instrumental data are summarized and discussed. A total of 262 papers were retrieved from the searched databases. An additional 23 papers were retrieved by hand-searching the reference lists. Ultimately, 22 papers were identified which discussed swallowing outcomes after 3DCRT and IMRT for HNC. No outcomes from randomized trials were identified. Despite several methodological limitations, reports from the current literature seem to suggest better swallowing outcomes with IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Further improvements are likely to result from the increased use of IMRT plans optimized for SWOAR sparing. (orig.) [de

  7. Studies of muonium-substituted molecules in 2-propanone and in aqueous solutions of 2-propanone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.; Renzi, R. De; Scott, C.A.; Hill, A.; Symons, M.C.R.; Bucci, C.; Vecli, A.

    1984-04-01

    The paper deals with muonium substituted molecules, which are formed when positive muons are implanted in pure 2-propanone and in binary aqueous systems; and are studied by the muon spin rotation technique. Studies of muonium substituted molecules are discussed under five topic headings: hyperfine interaction, influence of the solvent, radical formation, diamagnetic fraction and linewidths. (U.K.)

  8. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  9. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes.

  10. Genomic amplification of Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FancA) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): Cellular mechanisms of radioresistance and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julia; Unger, Kristian; Orth, Michael; Schötz, Ulrike; Schüttrumpf, Lars; Zangen, Verena; Gimenez-Aznar, Igor; Michna, Agata; Schneider, Ludmila; Stamp, Ramona; Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Hieber, Ludwig; Drexler, Guido A; Kuger, Sebastian; Klein, Diana; Jendrossek, Verena; Friedl, Anna A; Belka, Claus; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Lauber, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Radio (chemo) therapy is a crucial treatment modality for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but relapse is frequent, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Therefore, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. Previously, we identified gains on 16q23-24 to be associated with amplification of the Fanconi anemia A (FancA) gene and to correlate with reduced progression-free survival after radiotherapy. Here, we analyzed the effects of FancA on radiation sensitivity in vitro, characterized the underlying mechanisms, and evaluated their clinical relevance. Silencing of FancA expression in HNSCC cell lines with genomic gains on 16q23-24 resulted in significantly impaired clonogenic survival upon irradiation. Conversely, overexpression of FancA in immortalized keratinocytes conferred increased survival accompanied by improved DNA repair, reduced accumulation of chromosomal translocations, but no hyperactivation of the FA/BRCA-pathway. Downregulation of interferon signaling as identified by microarray analyses, enforced irradiation-induced senescence, and elevated production of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) appeared to be candidate mechanisms contributing to FancA-mediated radioresistance. Data of the TCGA HNSCC cohort confirmed the association of gains on 16q24.3 with FancA overexpression and impaired overall survival. Importantly, transcriptomic alterations similar to those observed upon FancA overexpression in vitro strengthened the clinical relevance. Overall, FancA amplification and overexpression appear to be crucial for radiotherapeutic failure in HNSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  12. Muon substituted free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Gygax, F.N.; Brinkman, G.A.; Louwrier, P.W.F.; McKenna, D.; Ramos, M.; Webster, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Spin polarized energetic positive muons are injected as magnetic probes into unsaturated organic liquids. They are implemented via fast chemical processes ( -10 s) in various molecules. Of particular interest among these are muonium substituted free radicals. The technique allows determination of accurate rate coefficients for fast chemical reactions of radicals. Furthermore, radiochemical processes occuring in picoseconds after injection of the muon are studied. Of fundamental interest are also the structural and dynamical implications of substituting a proton by a muon, or in other terms, a hydrogen atom by a muonium atom. Selected examples for each of these three types of experiments are given. (Auth.)

  13. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  14. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A systematic review by the Italian Head and Neck Radiotherapy Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursino, Stefano; Morganti, Riccardo; Cristaudo, Agostino; Paiar, Fabiola [University Hospital S. Chiara, Radiation Oncology, Pisa (Italy); D' Angelo, Elisa; Lohr, Frank [University Hospital, Radiation Oncology, Modena (Italy); Mazzola, Rosario [Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Cancer Care Center, Radiation Oncology, Negrar-Verona (Italy); Merlotti, Anna; Russi, Elvio Grazioso [S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Radiation Oncology, Cuneo (Italy); Musio, Daniela [University Hospital La Sapienza, Radiation Oncology, Roma (Italy); Alterio, Daniela [European Institute of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Advanced Radiotherapy Center, Milan (Italy); Bacigalupo, Almalina [AOU IRCCS San Martino - IST National Cancer Research Institute and University, Radiation Oncology, Genoa (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Dysphagia is one of the most important treatment-related side effects in head and neck cancer (HNC), as it can lead to severe life-threating complications such as aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could reduce swallowing dysfunction by producing a concave dose distribution and reducing doses to the swallowing-related organs at risk (SWOARs). The aim of this study was to review the current literature in order to compare swallowing outcomes between IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). A search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases to identify studies on swallowing outcomes, both clinically and/or instrumentally assessed, after 3DCRT and IMRT. Dysphagia-specific quality of life and objective instrumental data are summarized and discussed. A total of 262 papers were retrieved from the searched databases. An additional 23 papers were retrieved by hand-searching the reference lists. Ultimately, 22 papers were identified which discussed swallowing outcomes after 3DCRT and IMRT for HNC. No outcomes from randomized trials were identified. Despite several methodological limitations, reports from the current literature seem to suggest better swallowing outcomes with IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Further improvements are likely to result from the increased use of IMRT plans optimized for SWOAR sparing. (orig.) [German] Dysphagie ist eine der wichtigsten Nebenwirkungen bei der Behandlung von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNC), da sie zu lebensbedrohlichen Komplikationen wie Aspirationspneumonien und Mangelernaehrung fuehren kann. Durch Erzeugung konkaver Dosisverteilungen und durch die Reduzierung der Dosis an schluckrelevanten Strukturen (SWOAR) kann die IMRT Schluckstoerungen moeglicherweise vermindern. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die gegenwaertige Literaturlage hinsichtlich der Schluckfunktion nach IMRT und konformaler dreidimensionaler Strahlentherapie (3DCRT) systematisch zu ueberpruefen. Studien, die die

  15. Substitution of commercial concentrate with soy bean meal protected by tannin from banana stem juice for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to evaluate the optimal utilization of protected soy bean meal with secondary compound from banana stem juice in ration for sheep and its effect on sheep performance. Soy bean meal was mixed with banana stem juice at ratio 1:1 (w/v then dried in the oven at temperature 90oC. This protected soy bean meal was used to substitute commercial concentrate in sheep ration. The experiment used 24 head male lamb Sumatera composite breed. The lambs were grouped into six group based on its body weight and was assigned to one of 4 diets treatment. The sheep was fed on grass basal diet and supplemented with commercial concentrate. Data recorded were feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, average daily gain, feed efficiency and nitrogen utilization. Study was conducted in randomized complete block design and data obtained were analyzed using general linier model from SAS program. Results show that dry matter intake (DMI significantly (P 0.05 between R10, R20 and R30. The increasing in DMI is followed by the increasing crude protein (CP from 8.75 (R0 to 10.64; 11.68 and 12.32 g/BB0.75 respectively for R10; R20 and R30. Commercial concentrate substitution by protected soy bean meal significantly increased DM and CP digestibility at all levels. However, this substitution did not significantly affected organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF digestibility. Nitrogen excretion in urine was only increased at this level 30% substitution but nitrogen retention increased at substitution levels 20 and 30%. From this study can be concluded that commercial concentrate substitution with protected soy bean meal in the diet only increased CP consumption and CP digestibility but not average daily gain of lamb.

  16. The impact of concurrent granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective Phase III study by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9901

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Janice K.; Swann, Suzanne; LeVeque, Francis; Scarantino, Charles W.; Johnson, Darlene J.; Chen, Allan; Fortin, Andre; Pollock, JonDavid; Kim, Harold; Ang, Kian K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Based on early clinical evidence of potential mucosal protection by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the efficacy and safety of GM-CSF in reducing the severity and duration of mucosal injury and pain (mucositis) associated with curative radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with head-and-neck cancer with radiation ports encompassing >50% of oral cavity and/or oropharynx. Standard RT ports were used to cover the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at risk in standard fractionation to 60-70 Gy. Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy was allowed. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of GM-CSF 250 μg/m 2 or placebo 3 times a week. Mucosal reaction was assessed during the course of RT using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and the protocol-specific scoring system. Results: Between October 2000 and September 2002, 130 patients from 36 institutions were accrued. Nine patients (7%) were excluded from the analysis, 3 as a result of drug unavailability. More than 80% of the patients participated in the quality-of-life endpoint of this study. The GM-CSF did not cause any increase in toxicity compared with placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in the average mean mucositis score in the GM-CSF and placebo arms by a t test (p = 0.4006). Conclusion: This placebo-controlled, randomized study demonstrated no significant effect of GM-CSF given concurrently compared with placebo in reducing the severity or duration of RT-induced mucositis in patients undergoing definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer

  17. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  18. Prognostic index for patients with parotid carcinoma - External validation using the nationwide 1985-1994 Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vander Poorten, Vincent L. M.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; van der Laan, Bernardus F. A. M.; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Marres, Henri A. M.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; Lubsen, Herman; Terhaard, Chris H. J.; Balm, Alfonsus J. M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Validation of the prognostic indices for the recurrence-free interval of patients with parotid carcinoma, the development of which was described in a previous report, is needed to be confident of their generalizability and justified prospective use. METHODS. The Dutch Cooperative Group

  19. A randomised trial of accelerated and conventional radiotherapy for stage III and IV squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Michael G.; Denham, James W.; Peters, Lester J.; Lamb, David S.; Spry, Nigel A.; Hindley, Andrew; Krawitz, Hedley; Hamilton, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Walker, Quenten

    2001-01-01

    , with the exception of late mucosal effects. This trial has confirmed that tumour cell repopulation occurs during conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. However, it has also provided additional evidence that overall improvements in the therapeutic ratio using accelerated fractionation strategies are seriously constrained by the need to limit total doses to levels that do not exceed acute mucosal tolerance. The accelerated schedule tested has been shown in this trial to be an acceptable alternative to conventionally fractionated irradiation to 70 Gy

  20. Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution via Organic Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Nicholas E S; Nicewicz, David A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S N Ar) is a direct method for arene functionalization; however, it can be hampered by low reactivity of arene substrates and their availability. Herein we describe a cation radical-accelerated nucleophilic aromatic substitution using methoxy- and benzyloxy-groups as nucleofuges. In particular, lignin-derived aromatics containing guaiacol and veratrole motifs were competent substrates for functionalization. We also demonstrate an example of site-selective substitutive oxygenation with trifluoroethanol to afford the desired trifluoromethylaryl ether.

  1. Restitution report of the working group called 'access to the information' implemented in the framework of the public debate EPR ''head of series'' at Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The works realized by this working group show some strong conclusions. The citizen confidence in the information access availability must be reinforced. The existence of secrets protecting the industrialists and the Nation interests seems all the more legitimate since they are well limited.The respect of the industrial and commercial secret is not an opposition to a better access to the nuclear safety documents. The defense secret is an indispensable element of the nuclear safety but its role and limits must be debated. (A.L.B.)

  2. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  3. FORMING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF THE PROSPECTIVE HEADS OF CHILDREN'S DANCE GROUPS DURING THE CHOREOGRAPHIC ACTIVITIES IN THE COURSE "FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the urgent problem of contemporary art pedagogy – involvement to training future professional choreographic traditions of different nations. Addressing to this problem is caused by a number of socio-political events in Ukraine, mainstreaming of national and international education, integration of Ukrainian education with the European educational space, intensive development of domestic students’ intercultural communication with young people from different countries, which is the basis for updating national art education. Prospective choreographers, who are being training at pedagogical universities to manage children's dance groups, should actively be involved into creating their own productions of folk dance various genres. It promotes the formation of choreographers’ professional competence and pedagogical skills. The development of Georgian "Lezginka" is proposed – a joint creative work of the teacher and students who get higher education degree in SHEE “Donbass State Pedagogical University” (Bachelor's Degree. Development of the dance contains schematic drawings of dance figures, it is recommended for use in forming choreographers’ professional skills while studying the course "Folk Dance Theory and Methodology". The author admits that folklore material requires a cautious, respectful attitude. Therefore, modern folk stage dances are integrally to combine traditional choreographic manner with its new interpretations. The author believes the actual capture of different nations’ choreographic culture improves intercultural youth communication; involves future professionals into the traditions of different nations; form professional skills of managers of children’s dance groups. The author concluded that a dance always reflects consciousness of different nations; future choreographers should be aware of characteristic features of dances of different world nations so that on the basis of traditional

  4. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  5. Eight Ways to Make Sure Substitute Teachers Aren't Baby-Sitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, William R.

    1988-01-01

    Substitutes might never be as good as regular teachers, but they still can provide high-quality instruction. Suggestions include meeting with them as a group twice a year, principal and peer support, and development workshops specifically for substitutes. (TE)

  6. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  7. Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects Date (12 May 2011) Gene McKinley ASC/WNV (937) 255-3596 Gene.McKinley@wpafb.af.mil Aeronautical Systems...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 12 MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent ...A-10) – AETC (T-6, T-38 and T1A) • Both Cr Primers & Non-Cr primers as well as Cr Surface Treatment – F-22 8 Non- Chrome Tie-coat & touch-up

  8. Muonium substituted molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1990-12-01

    The manner in which Muon Spin Rotation and Level Crossing Resonance are used to characterise muonium substituted organic radicals is described, and illustrated with spectra for the ethyl radical and related species. Comparison with electron spin resonance data for the unsubstituted radicals reveals significant structural and hyperfine isotope effects which can be traced to the effects of zero point motion. The first comparable results for a diamagnetic species, exhibiting a quadrupole isotope effect by comparison with conventional nuclear quadrupole resonance data, are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  10. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Various Molecules Based on the 4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene System With an Evaluation of the Effect Differing Molecular Substitution Patterns Has on the Space Group Symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faldt, André; Krebs, Frederik C; Thorup, Niels

    1997-01-01

    of opposite chirality are present within the unit cell, Finally compound 13 crystallises in a centrosymmetric space group. The room temperature pyroelectric coefficient of 3 has been determined, The spatial extent of the trioxatriangulene ground system has been perturbed by chemical substitution......4,8,12-Trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo [cd,mn]pyrene (3),2,6,10-tri-tert-butyl-4,8,12 -trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo [cd,mn]pyrene (11) and 2,6,10-tri-tert-butyl-4,8,12-trioxa-12c -methyl-4,8,12,12c -tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene (12)have been synthesised and their crystal structures...... and the effect: of the substitutions upon the space group symmetry of the chemical derivative has been uncovered by X-ray structural resolution, The non-centrosymmetric point group symmetry of the molecules is reflected in a non-centrosymmetric space group symmetry whenever the spatial perturbations do...

  11. Eosin-sensitized photooxidation of substituted phenylalanines and tyrosines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzuto, F.; Spikes, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The cosin-sensitized photooxidation of tyrosine and a number of compounds related to tyrosine (substituted phenylalanines) was studied by steady-state kinetic and flash photolysis techniques. In particular, the role of the phenolic group and the amino and carboxyl groups of the alanyl side chain in the photooxidation mechanism was investigated in detail. Several relationships between substrate structure and susceptibility to photooxidation as well as effects of substrate structure on photooxidation mechanisms were found. For example, phenylalanine is not photooxidizable, but substitution of electron-donating (activating) groups such as -OH (as in tyrosine) or -NH/sub 2/ (as in p-aminophenylalanine) results in rapidly photooxidized derivatives. However, substituting deactivating groups such as -Cl (as in p-chlorophenylalanine) or weakly activating groups such as -OCH/sub 3/ (as in 4-methoxyphenylalanine) result in non-photooxidizable derivatives. Substitution of additional activating groups to the ring of hydroxy-substituted phenylalanines results in increased rates of photooxidation, whereas additional deactivating groups result in decreased photooxidation rates. The rate-determining step in the photooxidation mechanism is shown to be dependent on the presence and position of an electron-donating substituent on the benzenoid ring. Only minor involvement of the side chain amino and carboxyl groups was found. Both singlet oxygen and hydrogen abstraction mechanisms are involved in the eosin-sensitized photooxidation of hydroxy-substituted phenylalanines (e.g., tyrosine). The hydrogen abstraction mechanism probably predominates at both pH 8 and 11.

  12. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  13. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  14. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  15. Why Does Trigonometric Substitution Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel W.

    2018-01-01

    Modern calculus textbooks carefully illustrate how to perform integration by trigonometric substitution. Unfortunately, most of these books do not adequately justify this powerful technique of integration. In this article, we present an accessible proof that establishes the validity of integration by trigonometric substitution. The proof offers…

  16. Substitution of matrices over rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    For a given commutative ring with an identity element, we define and study the substitution of a matrix with entries in into a matrix polynomial or rational function over . A Bezout-type remainder theorem and a "partial-substitution rule" are derived and used to obtain a number of results. The

  17. Substitution in recreation choice behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson; Daniel J. Stynes; Donald H. Rosenthal; John F. Dwyer

    1985-01-01

    This review discusses concepts and theories of substitution in recreation choice. It brings together the literature of recreation research, psychology, geography, economics, and transportation. Parallel and complementary developments need integration into an improved theory of substitution. Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice...

  18. Biological background of dermal substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; van der Wal, M.B.; van Leeuwen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects, both in acute and chronic wounds. In this review we will outline specific requirements of three classes of dermal substitutes:-natural biological materials, with a more or less intact extracellular matrix

  19. Low-head hydro power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemer, E. J.

    1980-11-01

    With a view toward increasing the U.S. electric output, the Army Corps of Engineers has estimated that 55 GW can be obtained immediately from new capacity at existing dams and 40 GW more over the long term. Given the long lead times needed to build new dams, most interest has centered on the existing dams. The Corps of Engineers has established that 21 GW can be obtained from hydroelectric and 34 GW from nonpower dams. Existing hydroelectric sites are being expanded by the utilities, but exploitation of the nonpower dams will require governmental encouragement, because the vast majority are low-head sites (dams less than 40 m high). In the present paper, the question of economics and national policy is examined. The advantages which would accrue from substituting axial turbines for the Kaplan turbine are noted.

  20. 12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

  1. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  2. Acute toxicity and cost analysis of a phase III randomized trial of accelerated and conventional radiotherapy for squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a trans- tasman radiation oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, M.; Williamson, S.; Tripcony, L.; Spry, N.; Peters, L.; Penniment, M.; Lamb, D.; Krawitz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present analysis was to assess the feasibility and acute toxicity of a pure accelerated fractionation regimen in a cooperative group setting. This analysis included the first 320 patients entered on to the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) randomized controlled trial which compared accelerated radiotherapy (ART) with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in stage lIl and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. Patients were randomized to either 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions over 24 days (ART) or to 70 Gy 35 fractions over 49 days (CRT) after being stratified for site and stage. Accrual began in 1991 and the trial was closed on 3 April 1998 with the targeted 350 patients. The 3-year survival for the whole group was 54%, and the 3-year disease-free survival was 41%. Toxicity data were available on 303 patients (148 ART; 155 CRT). Mucosal toxicity was worse in the accelerated grup, and it peaked ∼ 3 weeks earlier than the conventional grup. Skin toxicity was equivalent but occurred ∼ 7 days earlier in the accelerated grup. Acute effects in both grups healed completely. Hospitalization was more common in the ART grup (71 vs 52 patients; P=0.01) but the total bed days in hospital was not greatly different (1707 bed days for ART and 1607 bed days for CRT). Patients were more likely to require nasogastric (NG) feeding in the ART grup (49 vs 33 patients; P = 0.02). There were 1157 NG feeding days for ART and 1154 NG feeding days for CRT. The average cost of radiation treatment per patient including hospitalisation, NG feeding and accommodation was $11 750 in the ART grup and $11 587 in the CRT grup. The accelerated grup has been shown to be a tolerable, practical and cost-equivalent regimen. The assessment of the therapeutic ratio of this accelerated protocol (ART) will be determined when the analysis of late effects and loco-regional control is made when the data are more mature. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  8. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  9. Single histidine residue in head-group region is sufficient to impart remarkable gene transfection properties to cationic lipids: evidence for histidine-mediated membrane fusion at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V V; Pichon, C; Refregiers, M; Guerin, B; Midoux, P; Chaudhuri, A

    2003-08-01

    Presence of endosome-disrupting multiple histidine functionalities in the molecular architecture of cationic polymers, such as polylysine, has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance their in vitro gene delivery efficiencies. Towards harnessing improved transfection property through covalent grafting of endosome-disrupting single histidine functionality in the molecular structure of cationic lipids, herein, we report on the design, the synthesis and the transfection efficiency of two novel nonglycerol-based histidylated cationic amphiphiles. We found that L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine)ethylamide (lipid 1) and L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine,-N-methyl)ethylamide (lipid 2) in combination with cholesterol gave efficient transfections into various cell lines. The transfection efficiency of Chol/lipid 1 lipoplexes into HepG2 cells was two order of magnitude higher than that of FuGENE(TM)6 and DC-Chol lipoplexes, whereas it was similar into A549, 293T7 and HeLa cells. A better efficiency was obtained with Chol/lipid 2 lipoplexes when using the cytosolic luciferase expression vector (pT7Luc) under the control of the bacterial T7 promoter. Membrane fusion activity measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that the histidine head-groups of Chol/lipid 1 liposomes mediated membrane fusion in the pH range 5-7. In addition, the transgene expression results using the T7Luc expression vector convincingly support the endosome-disrupting role of the presently described mono-histidylated cationic transfection lipids and the release of DNA into the cytosol. We conclude that covalent grafting of a single histidine amino acid residue to suitable twin-chain hydrophobic compounds is able to impart remarkable transfection properties on the resulting mono-histidylated cationic amphiphile, presumably via the endosome-disrupting characteristics of the histidine functionalities.

  10. Multicenter Study of Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck: Subanalysis of the Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group (J-CROS) Study (1402 HN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koto, Masashi, E-mail: koto.masashi@qst.go.jp [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Demizu, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno (Japan); Saitoh, Jun-ichi [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Suefuji, Hiroaki [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA-HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Okimoto, Tomoaki [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA-HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Takagi, Ryo [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiation therapy (RT) for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN) in the Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group study. Methods and Materials: Patients with MMHN with N0-1M0 status who were treated with carbon-ion RT at 4 institutions in Japan between November 2003 and December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Two hundred sixty patients (male, 111; female, 149; median age, 68 years) with histologically proven MMHN were enrolled. Results: Primary sites included the nasal cavity in 178 patients, paranasal sinuses in 43, oral cavity in 27, and pharynx in 12. Eighty-six patients had T3 tumors, 147 had T4a tumors, and 27 had T4b tumors. Two hundred fifty-one patients were diagnosed with N0 disease, and 9 with N1 disease. The median total dose and number of fractions were 57.6 Gy RBE (relative biological effectiveness) and 16, respectively. Chemotherapy including dimethyl traizeno imidazole carboxamide was used concurrently in 129 patients. The median follow-up duration was 22 months (range, 1-132 months). The 2-year overall survival and local control rates were 69.4% and 83.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that gross tumor volume and concurrent chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Grade 3 and grade 4 late morbidities were observed in 27 and 7 patients (5 developed ipsilateral blindness, 1 mucosal ulcer, and 1 second malignant disease in the irradiated volume), respectively. No patients developed grade 5 late morbidities. Conclusion: Carbon-ion RT is a promising treatment option for MMHN.

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  12. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  13. Management of post-traumatic elbow instability after failed radial head excision: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Touloupakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Radial head excision has always been a safe commonly used surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome for isolated comminuted radial head fractures. However, diagnosis of elbow instability is still very challenging and often underestimated in routine orthopaedic evaluation. We present the case of a 21-years old female treated with excision after radial head fracture, resulting in elbow instability. The patient underwent revision surgery after four weeks. We believe that ligament reconstruction without radial head substitution is a safe alternative choice for Mason III radial head fractures accompanied by complex ligament lesions.

  14. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  16. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  17. Stores, Prices, and Currency Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Camera; Winkler, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    We study endogenous currency substitution in a decentralized trade environment. Sellers maximize profits from sales of imperfectly substitutable goods by posting prices in either one of two currencies. A unique symmetric equilibrium exists where goods are priced only in the local currency. This occurs if foreign trade is sporadic, there is sufficient but not excessive liquidity, and discounting is low. Excess or scarcity of liquidity, however, induces sellers to extract all surplus from bu...

  18. Substitution reactions of technetium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, T.

    1997-01-01

    Substitution reactions of a series of technetium complexes are considered in comparison with corresponding reactions of rhenium. Rhenium and technetium complexes are rather inert in substitution reactions, the latter are characterized by greater rate constants when they proceed according to dissociative mechanism. In rare cases when k Tc /k Re id little it is assumed that the reaction proceeds according to the associative mechanism. (author)

  19. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  20. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  1. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile accumulated a wealth of experience, e.g. in the development of research on health care services, guidelines and the implementation of quality assurance measures. Implementing substitution treatment with concomitant effects and treatment elements such as drug history-taking, dosage setting, co-use of other psychoactive substances (alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, management of 'difficult patient populations', and integration into the social environment has been arranged successfully. Also psychosocial counseling programmes adjuvant to substitution treatment have been established and, in the framework of a pilot project on heroin-based treatment, standardised manuals were developed. Research on allocating opioid users to the 'right' form of therapy at the 'right' point in time is still a challenge, though the pilot project 'heroin-based treatment' brought experience with patients who do not benefit from methadone treatment. There is also expertise in the treatment of specific co-morbidity such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and psychiatric disorders. The promotion and involvement of self-help groups plays an important part in the process of successful substitution treatment.

  2. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-02-02

    accumulated a wealth of experience, e.g. in the development of research on health care services, guidelines and the implementation of quality assurance measures. Implementing substitution treatment with concomitant effects and treatment elements such as drug history-taking, dosage setting, co-use of other psychoactive substances (alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine), management of 'difficult patient populations', and integration into the social environment has been arranged successfully. Also psychosocial counseling programmes adjuvant to substitution treatment have been established and, in the framework of a pilot project on heroin-based treatment, standardised manuals were developed. Research on allocating opioid users to the 'right' form of therapy at the 'right' point in time is still a challenge, though the pilot project 'heroin-based treatment' brought experience with patients who do not benefit from methadone treatment. There is also expertise in the treatment of specific co-morbidity such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and psychiatric disorders. The promotion and involvement of self-help groups plays an important part in the process of successful substitution treatment.

  3. Randomized Phase III Trial to Test Accelerated Versus Standard Fractionation in Combination With Concurrent Cisplatin for Head and Neck Carcinomas in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0129 Trial: Long-Term Report of Efficacy and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, K. Kian; Weber, Randal S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Soulieres, Denis; Kim, Harold; Silverman, Craig; Raben, Adam; Galloway, Thomas J.; Fortin, André; Gore, Elizabeth; Westra, William H.; Chung, Christine H.; Jordan, Richard C.; Gillison, Maura L.; List, Marcie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We tested the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin plus accelerated fractionation with a concomitant boost (AFX-C) versus standard fractionation (SFX) in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LA-HNC). Patients and Methods Patients had stage III to IV carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx. Radiation therapy schedules were 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks (SFX) or 72 Gy in 42 fractions over 6 weeks (AFX-C). Cisplatin doses were 100 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for two (AFX-C) or three (SFX) cycles. Toxicities were scored by using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by using the one-sided log-rank test. Locoregional failure (LRF) and distant metastasis (DM) rates were estimated by using the cumulative incidence method and Gray's test. Results In all, 721 of 743 patients were analyzable (361, SFX; 360, AFX-C). At a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 0.3 to 10.1 years) for 355 surviving patients, no differences were observed in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.18; P = .37; 8-year survival, 48% v 48%), PFS (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.24; P = .52; 8-year estimate, 42% v 41%), LRF (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.38; P = .78; 8-year estimate, 37% v 39%), or DM (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.24; P = .16; 8-year estimate, 15% v 13%). For oropharyngeal cancer, p16-positive patients had better OS than p16-negative patients (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.42; P < .001; 8-year survival, 70.9% v 30.2%). There were no statistically significant differences in the grade 3 to 5 acute or late toxicities between the two arms and p-16 status. Conclusion When combined with cisplatin, AFX-C neither improved outcome nor increased late toxicity in patients with LA-HNC. Long-term high survival

  4. Fracturing of revision of a cobalt-chrome femoral head after fracturing of a ceramic femoral head, with diffuse metallosis. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We presente a case of a fracture of a cobalt-chrome femoral head after revision of a hip total prosthesis with ceramic femoral head fracture. During surgery we found the cobalt-chrome femoral head fracture, wear of the polyethylene and massive metallosis in muscular and cartilaginous tissue. Both femoral stem and acetabular cup were stable and without apparent wearing. After surgical debridement, we promoted the substitution of the femoral head and the acetabular polyethylene by similar ones. After 12 months of follow-up, the patient has no pain complaints, function limit or systemic signs associated with malign metallosis

  5. Approaches in Substitution of Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In substitution of harmful chemicals or products with less harmful or harmless ones, there are different approaches according to the different situations, the technical requirements to the substitutes, and the goals for the substitution. Three different cases are presented. The substitution process...

  6. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  7. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  8. Protein substitute for children and adults with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2015-02-27

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited metabolic disorder characterised by an absence or deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. The aim of treatment is to lower blood phenylalanine concentrations to the recommended therapeutic range to prevent developmental delay and support normal growth. Current treatment consists of a low-phenylalanine diet in combination with a protein substitute which is free from or low in phenylalanine. Guidance regarding the use, dosage, and distribution of dosage of the protein substitute over a 24-hour period is unclear, and there is variation in recommendations among treatment centres. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005, and previously updated in 2008. To assess the benefits and adverse effects of protein substitute, its dosage, and distribution of dose in children and adults with phenylketonuria who are adhering to a low-phenylalanine diet. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which consists of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also contacted manufacturers of the phenylalanine-free and low-phenylalanine protein substitutes for any data from published and unpublished randomised controlled trials.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 03 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing: any dose of protein substitute with no protein substitute; an alternative dosage; or the same dose, but given as frequent small doses throughout the day compared with the same total daily dose given as larger boluses less frequently. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Three trials (69 participants) are included in this review. One trial investigated the use of protein substitute in 16 participants, while a further two trials investigated the

  9. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl...

  10. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  11. Substitution determination of Fmoc‐substituted resins at different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In solid‐phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc‐substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc‐protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert–Beer's law, together with the substance‐specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol−1 cm−1 and 8100 l mol−1 cm−1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28635051

  12. Substitution determination of Fmoc-substituted resins at different wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Stefan; Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In solid-phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc-substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc-protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert-Beer's law, together with the substance-specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol -1  cm -1 and 8100 l mol -1  cm -1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Antimalarial Activity of C-10 Substituted Triazolyl Artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gab-Man; Park, Hyun; Oh, Sangtae; Lee, Seokjoon

    2017-12-01

    We synthesized C-10 substituted triazolyl artemisinins by the Huisgen cycloaddition reaction between dihydroartemisinins (2) and variously substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles (8a-8h). The antimalarial activities of 32 novel artemisinin derivatives were screened against a chloroquine-resistant parasite. Among them, triazolyl artemisinins with electron-withdrawing groups showed stronger antimalarial activities than those shown by the derivatives having electron-donating groups. In particularly, m-chlorotriazolyl artemisinin (9d-12d) showed antimalarial activity equivalent to that of artemisinin and could be a strong drug candidate.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  16. Micellar solubilization of ibuprofen: influence of surfactant head groups on the extent of solubilization Solubilização micelar do ibuprofeno: influência do grupo polar dos tensoativos no grau de solubilização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota O. Rangel-Yagui

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An important property of micelles with particular significance in pharmacy is their ability to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in water, thus increasing their bioavailability. In this work, the solubilization of ibuprofen (IBU was studied in micellar solutions of three surfactants possessing the same hydrocarbon tail but different hydrophilic head groups, namely sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, and n-dodecyl octa(ethylene oxide (C12EO8. The results showed that, irrespective of the surfactant type, the solubility of IBU increased linearly with increasing surfactant concentration, as a consequence of the association between the drug and the micelles. The 80 mM DTAB and the 80 mM C12EO8 micellar solutions resulted in a 16-fold increase in solubility of IBU when compared to the buffer solution, whereas the 80 mM SDS micellar solution resulted in a 5.5-fold increase in IBU solubility. The highest value of molar solubilization capacity (chi was obtained with DTAB, chi = 0.97, followed by C12EO8 ,chi = 0.72, and finally SDS, chi = 0.23. However, due to the stronger tendency of the nonionic surfactant in forming micelles in solution, at the same surfactant concentration, we obtained the same solubility of IBU in both DTAB and C12EO8.Uma propriedade importante das micelas, do ponto de vista farmacêutico, refere-se ao potencial destas em solubilizar fármacos pouco solúveis em água, aumentando sua biodisponibilidade. No presente trabalho, estudou-se a solubilização de ibuprofeno (IBU em soluções micelares constituídas de três tensoativos apresentando a mesma cauda apolar, porém diferentes grupos hidrofílicos. Os tensoativos estudados foram dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS, brometo de dodeciltrimetilamônio (DTAB e óxido de n-dodecil octaetileno (C12EO8. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a solubilidade do IBU aumentou linearmente com o aumento da concentração de todos os tensoativos

  17. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  18. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  19. prismane structure by silicon substitution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation (MP2) theoretic method and the cc-pVDZ basis set, it is shown that with an increase in the number of carbon atoms substituted by silicon, the [6]-prismane structure becomes increasingly more stable, relative to the two isolated benzene (like) structures. A similar trend is ...

  20. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values are extensively used to define aromaticity quantitatively.3 In a recent study on ... studies were directed to unravel the subtle ways in which the stability, reactivity, and ..... The singlet–triplet gaps of all the skeletally substituted benzenes ...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following criteria, derived from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards and recommended... Substitutes] Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HFC... Sector [Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits] Application Substitute Decision Comments Electronics...

  2. Accounting for product substitution in the analysis of food taxes targeting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhen; Beghin, John C; Jensen, Helen H

    2013-11-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. We calibrate this demand system approach using recent food intake data and existing estimates of price and income elasticities of demand. The demand system accounts for both the within-food group substitution and the substitution across these groups. Simulations of taxes on added sugars and solid fat show that the tax impact on consumption patterns is understated and the induced welfare loss is overstated when not allowing for the substitution possibilities within food groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmody, R.F.; Seeger, J.F.; Smith, R.L.; Horsley, W.W.; Miller, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally. (orig.)

  4. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, R F; Seeger, J F; Smith, R L; Horsley, W W; Miller, R W

    1984-07-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally.

  5. Photophysical investigation of cyano-substituted terrylenediimide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, Koen; Baeten, Yannick; Vosch, Tom; Sempels, Wouter; Yordanov, Stoyan; Stappert, Sebastian; Chen, Long; Müllen, Klaus; Hofkens, Johan; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Fron, Eduard

    2014-12-18

    Two new terrylenediimide (TDI) chromophores with cyano substituents in the bay and core area (BCN-TDI and OCN-TDI, respectively) have been characterized by a wide range of techniques, and their applicability for stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy has been tested. By cyano substitution an increase of the fluorescence quantum yield and a decrease of the nonradiative rate constant is achieved and attributed to a reduced charge-transfer character of the excited state due to a lower electron density of the TDI core. For BCN-TDI, the substitution in the bay area induces a strong torsional twist in the molecule which, similar to phenoxy bay-perylenediimide (PDI), has a strong effect on the fluorescence lifetime but appears to prevent the aggregation that is observed for OCN-TDI. The single-molecule photobleaching stability of BCN- and OCN-TDI is lower than that of a reference TDI without cyano substitution (C7-TDI), although less so for OCN-TDI. The photophysical properties of the excited singlet state are only slightly influenced by the cyano groups. The observed intense stimulated emission, the pump-dump-probe experiments, and STED single-molecule imaging indicate that STED experiments with the cyano-substituted TDIs are possible. However, because of aggregation and more efficient photobleaching, the performance of BCN- and OCN-TDI is worse than that of the reference compound without cyano groups (C7-TDI). Bay-substituted TDIs are less suitable for STED microscopy.

  6. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  7. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  8. Transfer Pricing; Charging of head office costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    The key issues discussed in this presentation are (1) What are head office costs?, (2) Why is the charging an area of concern for international companies?, (3) Which part of head office costs should be charged?, (4) OECD guidelines on charging. Head office costs are classified as Shareholder costs, Stewardship costs, Costs related to a specific subsidiary or group of subsidiaries (on call), and Costs related to operational activities in the parent company. The OECD reports of 1984 and 1996 are discussed. In Norsk Hydro's experience, the practising of the OECD guidelines by national authorities are confusing and not consistent over time or across borders. To get a better understanding of how charging of corporate head office costs are dealt with on an international level, Norsk Hydro asked Deloitte and Touche in London to carry out a study on international companies' behaviour. Their conclusions are included.

  9. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  10. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  11. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  13. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  15. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  1. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  3. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  5. The exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.

  6. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  7. 40 CFR 721.4420 - Substituted hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted hydroxylamine. 721.4420... Substances § 721.4420 Substituted hydroxylamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted hydroxylamine (PMN P-84-492) is...

  8. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  9. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  10. Age and marital status linked to quality of life of long term survivors of head and neck or prostate cancer: report from a survey of radiation therapy oncology group patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.; Stern, J.; Asbell, S.; Osborne, D.; Peer, J.; Wasserman, T.; Hinrich, S.; Paulus, R.; Scarantino, C.; Bruner, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This research project was designed to evaluate the QOL of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) or head and neck cancer survivors (HNCS) enrolled on RTOG clinical trials. Materials and Methods: Patients alive >4 years from registration on RTOG clinical trials were eligible to participate. Potential PCS or HNCS were identified in the RTOG database and institutions (INST) that agreed to participate were sent surveys and a list of eligible survivors. All eligible PCS or HNCS at that INST were given an informed consent and a survey. The survey consists of questionnaires on QOL, insurance issues, mood, sexual function, alcohol and tobacco use, and mental status. Results: To date, 460 survivors were approached from 40 INST and 276 (60%) have signed the informed consent. Twenty-one percent are HNCS. Sixteen percent of PCS are African American, as are 12% in HNCS. The current average age of PCS is 75 (range of 55-91 years); 65 (41-84) for HNCS. PCS were less likely to be current smokers (8%) compared to HNCS (15%, p=0.057). In HNCS age was associated with speech impairment: 61% under 65 had normal speech vs. 88%>65, p=0.023. Elderly HNCS reported less disfigurement (p=0.037) and greater spiritual well-being than younger survivors (p=0.0005). HNCS reported greater distress from illness (p=0.002) and anger (p=0.03) than PCS. HNCS reported more sexual dysfunction than PCS (p=0.017). In PCS married survivors had greater sexual dysfunction than non-married survivors (p=0.04). Conclusion: Survivors over age 65 that had head and neck cancer had less chronic effects of disease and treatment than their younger counterparts. They also had greater spiritual well-being. Survivors of head and neck cancer had greater sexual dysfunction than prostate cancer survivors, likely linked to their younger age. In addition, sexual function was of greater interest to married patients; therefore, of greater consequence with dysfunction. Younger patients report more long term effects of disease

  11. Pressure-induced polymerization in substituted acetylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa, Raja S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David (LANL)

    2012-04-10

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression combined with temperature provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates under extreme P-T conditions. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C=CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-SiC=CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is higher under static compression (TBA: 12 GPa and ETMS: 17.6 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). At elevated temperatures, reactivity was observed to occur at pressures comparable to shock conditions. The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation.

  12. Os grupos-nome: efeitos da substituição do imaginário pelo virtual na constituição dos grupos sociais Name-groups: the substitution of virtual for imaginary in social groups constitution and its effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Coin de Carvalho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos sociais categoriais são alvo, desde o pós-guerra, de uma intenso esforço de compreensão e demarcação conceitual, principalmente por parte dos psicólogos sociais europeus. A ampliação desta importância na pauta dos pesquisadores se deve ao aumento da presença relativa deste tipo de grupo no cenário das relações sociais e de suas conseqüências na produção das identidades sociais. Neste trabalho indicamos como o crescimento da importância dada aos grupos categoriais acompanha o esvaziamento progressivo do imaginário dos grupos, que passam a operar socialmente menos a partir das relações efetivas entre os indivíduos que os compõem e mais pela sua borda, isto é, o nome do grupo. Chamamos de grupos-nome a esses grupos virtualizados, que não têm presença material mas apenas imagética. Os grupos-nome tendem a ser mais freqüentes do que os grupos "vivos" na medida em que facilitam um relacionamento mais descompromissado entre os indivíduos e portanto mais confortável pela facilidade com a qual os indivíduos poderiam "trocar" de grupo social. Como efeitos da incidência dos grupos-nome destacam-se a transformação dos grupos face a face, a ampliação de mecanismos de controle e manipulação social e o incremento da violência.Categorial social groups have been studied with more interest by the European social psychologists after Second World War. This research has been supported on the increase of this kind of group in the reality of social relations and in its effects on production of social identities. In this work we indicated how the importance of the categorial social groups goes along with the imaginary group fainting. Groups have become outline presences than organizations based on relations. We nominated name-group these virtual groups, which doesn't have organic but only imagetic existence. Nowadays, name-groups are more common than "live" groups and this contributes to unreliable individual

  13. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I.; Morton, Randall P.; Hay, K. David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T.; Fraser-Browne, Carol L.; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility

  14. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: amacann@adhb.govt.nz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  15. Phase 3 trial of domiciliary humidification to mitigate acute mucosal toxicity during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: first report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G; Porceddu, Sandro V; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I; Morton, Randall P; Hay, K David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L; King, Madeleine T; Fraser-Browne, Carol L; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H&N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  20. Ionic Liquids: An Environmentally Friendly Media for Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorapur, Yogesh R.; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids are alternative reaction media of increasing interest and are regarded as an eco-friendly alternatives, of potential use in place of the volatile organic solvents typically used in current chemical processing methods. They are emerging as the smart and excellent solvents, which are made of positive and negative ions that they are liquids near room temperature. The nucleophilic substitution reaction is one of the important method for inserting functional groups into a carbon skeleton. Many nucleophilic substitution reactions have been found with enhanced reactivity and selectivity in ionic liquid. In this review, some recent interesting results of nucleophilic substitution reactions such as hydroxylations, ether cleavages, carbon-X (X = carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine) bond forming reactions, and ring opening of epoxides in ionic liquids are discussed

  1. Synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Mori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines are attracting attention as functional dyes that are applicable to organic solar cells, photodynamic therapy, organic electronic devices, and other applications. However, phthalocyanines are generally difficult to handle due to their strong ability to aggregate, so this property must be controlled for further applications of phthalocyanines. On the other hand, trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines are known to suppress aggregation due to repulsion of the trifluoroethoxy group. Furthermore, the electronic characteristics of phthalocyanines are significantly changed by the strong electronegativity of fluorine. Therefore, it is expected that trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines can be applied to new industrial fields. This review summarizes the synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanine and subphthalocyanine derivatives.

  2. A test of the substitution-habitat hypothesis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Galán, Pedro

    2017-12-08

    Most examples that support the substitution-habitat hypothesis (human-made habitats act as substitutes of original habitat) deal with birds and mammals. We tested this hypothesis in 14 amphibians by using percentage occupancy as a proxy of habitat quality (i.e., higher occupancy percentages indicate higher quality). We classified water body types as original habitat (no or little human influence) depending on anatomical, behavioral, or physiological adaptations of each amphibian species. Ten species had relatively high probabilities (0.16-0.28) of occurrence in original habitat, moderate probability of occurrence in substitution habitats (0.11-0.14), and low probability of occurrence in refuge habitats (0.05-0.08). Thus, the substitution-habitat hypothesis only partially applies to amphibians because the low occupancy of refuges could be due to the negligible human persecution of this group (indicating good conservation status). However, low occupancy of refuges could also be due to low tolerance of refuge conditions, which could have led to selective extinction or colonization problems due to poor dispersal capabilities. That original habitats had the highest probabilities of occupancy suggests amphibians have a good conservation status in the region. They also appeared highly adaptable to anthropogenic substitution habitats. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Synthesis of Novel Benzimidazolyl-substituted Acrylonitriles and Amidino-substituted Benzimidazo[1,2-a]Quinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Karminski-Zamola

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives 3-10 were synthesized. Benzimidazolyl-substituted acrylonitriles 3 and 4 underwent a photochemical dehydrocyclization reaction to give the corresponding mono- and dicyano-substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a] quinolines 5 and 6. Pinner reaction of these compounds did not give the expected mono- and diamidines, but rather only compounds 7-10, with amido groups at 6-position were isolated. A mechanism for the reaction is proposed. Acyclic compounds 3 and 4, as well as cyclic benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines 5-8, exhibit interesting spectroscopic properties and are potential biologically active compounds.

  4. Double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial of low-dose 13-cis retinoic acid in the prevention of second primaries in head and neck cancer: Long-term follow-up of a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (C0590).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aarti K; Lee, Ju-Whei; Pinto, Harlan A; Jacobs, Charlotte D; Limburg, Paul J; Rubin, Philip; Arusell, Robert M; Dunphy, Eamonn P; Khandekar, Janardan D; Reiner, Seth A; Baez-Diaz, Luis; Celano, Paul; Li, Shuli; Li, Yi; Burtness, Barbara A; Adams, George L; Pandya, Kishan J

    2017-12-01

    13-Cis retinoic acid (13-CRA) is a synthetic vitamin A derivative. High-dose 13-CRA in patients with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck (SCCHNs) reduces the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). The authors report long-term results from a phase 3 randomized trial that compared treatment with low-dose 13-CRA versus placebo for patients who had early stage SCCHN, with a focus on the development of SPTs and overall survival (OS). In total, 176 patients who received treatment for stage I/II SCCHN were randomized to receive either low-dose 13-CRA (weight-based dose of 7.5 mg or 10 mg) or placebo for 2 years. A competing-risk approach and the log-rank test were used to compare the time to SPT and OS, respectively, between groups. 13-CRA neither significantly reduced the cumulative incidence of SPT (P = .61) nor improved the time to SPT (hazard ratio [HR] for 13-CRA/placebo; 0.86; P = .61). Despite limited power, there was a trend toward improved OS for the 13-CRA arm (HR, 0.75; P = .14), particularly among patients whose index tumor was surgically excised (N = 26; HR, 0.50; P = .057) and among women (N = 39; HR, 0.44; P = .065) and never/former smokers (N = 129; HR, 0.61; P = .055), with a median follow-up of 16 years. The main 13-CRA related toxicities were dry skin and cheilitis. Treatment with low-dose 13-CRA for 2 years did not decrease the incidence of SPT; subset analysis indicates a potential survival advantage among patients who are women and never/former smokers. More targeted interventions based on clinical risk factors and molecular characterization of tumors may yield greater success in future prevention trials. Cancer 2017;123:4653-4662. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. PEDIATRIC HEAD INJURIES, MECHANISM TO MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Head injury is very common in modern life. Patients of any age group may have head injury however mechanism of head injury, pathophysiology and outcome of head injury is quite different in adults as compared to children. Road traffic accident is a common mode of head injury in adults while fall from height and household abuse is common mode in children. In Western countries, there is a separate registry system for pediatric head injury but there is no such system exist in india. Our present study is focused on pediatric head injury and evaluation of factors that affect the final outcome in pediatric patients.

  6. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  7. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  8. Treatment, patient and tumor characteristics impact quality of life (QOL) in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer: Report of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) trial 90-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.; Scott, C.; Fu, K.; Trotti, A.; Spencer, S.; Garden, A.; Phillips, T.; Movsas, B.; Byhardt, R.; Ang, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine factors that effect QOL in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck randomized to standard fractionation radiotherapy (SFX), hyperfractionation (HFX), Accelerated Fractionation with Split (AFX-S) and Accelerated Fractionation with Concomitant Boost (AFX-C). Materials and Methods: RTOG 90-03 used the Head and Neck Performance Status Scale (HNPSS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-H and N), version 2 to assess QOL. The HNPSS has three components Normalcy of Diet, Eating in Public, and Understandability of Speech. The FACT-H and N has two components: a global QOL questionnaire (FACT-G) consisting of 4 domains; Physical Well Being (PWB), Social Well Being (SWB), Emotional Well Being (EWB), Functional Well Being (FWB), and an additional H and N specific questionnaire (AC). Between 3/92 and 8/97, 1113 pts. were randomized; 718 completed a pretreatment FACT-H and N. Pts. completed the HNPSS and FACT-H and N; pretreatment, 4 weeks post-RT, every 3 months for 1 year. Results: Prior to the start of radiotherapy (RT) 48% of pts had normal diets, 64% had normal public eating, and 77% had normal speech. Age ( 60), KPS, tumor site (oral cavity vs. other), T-stage (T3+T4 vs. T1+T2+TX), N-stage (N0 vs. other), Race (Non-White vs. White), and marital status (single vs. married), FACT-G, PWB, EWB, FWB, AC, use of oral nutrient supplements, feeding tube, and parenteral nutrition predicted for pretreatment diet, public eating, and speech. During the acute toxicity phase diet, eating, and speech were related to the intensity of RT (HFX or AFX-C), marital status (single), tumor site (oral cavity), use of oral nutrient supplements, and feeding tube. At one-year oral cavity tumors, AFX-C, oral nutrient supplements, feeding tube, and single patients had worse diet, eating, and speech. Conclusion: Pretreatment patient and tumor characteristics impact on QOL prior to the initiation of therapy. Intensification of

  9. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  10. Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations Team User Focus Group Report - Law Enforcement Advanced Protection (LEAP) Duty Uniforms, Integrated Head Protection, Chemical/Biological Protection and Human Systems Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, II, Thomas E; Hibbard, Bradley; Doherty, Stephen; McManus, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    ...) from representatives within the law enforcement community. This focus group consisted exclusively of personnel assigned to the Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations (STOP) Team...

  11. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  12. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  13. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  14. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-09-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  15. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  16. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  17. Not All Female-Headed Families Are Created Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Quin, Alison J.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in parenting behavior have led to the troubling situation called the "feminization of poverty." Families headed by divorced women are doing better than is commonly supposed. Families headed by never-married women are doing worse. Public policy should reflect the differing needs of these two groups. (VM)

  18. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  19. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structural and Dynamical Properties of Putative Arsenic Substituted Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Juwita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell membranes are composed mainly of phospholipids which are in turn, composed of five major chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of sustaining life if the phosphorus is substituted by arsenic. Although this issue is still controversial, it is of interest to investigate the properties of arsenated-lipid bilayers to evaluate this possibility. In this study, we simulated arsenated-lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-arsenocholine (POAC, lipid bilayers using all-atom molecular dynamics to understand basic structural and dynamical properties, in particular, the differences from analogous 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (POPC lipid bilayers. Our simulations showed that POAC lipid bilayers have distinct structural and dynamical properties from those of native POPC lipid bilayers. Relative to POPC lipid bilayers, POAC lipid bilayers have a more compact structure with smaller lateral areas and greater order. The compact structure of POAC lipid bilayers is due to the fact that more inter-lipid salt bridges are formed with arsenate-choline compared to the phosphate-choline of POPC lipid bilayers. These inter-lipid salt bridges bind POAC lipids together and also slow down the head group rotation and lateral diffusion of POAC lipids. Thus, it would be anticipated that POAC and POPC lipid bilayers would have different biological implications.

  20. Environmental Sensitivity in Nuclear Emergencies in Rural and Semi-natural Environments. Report of Working Group 8, Environmental Sensitivity of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by comparison with measured values in the environment or by comparing them with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. The programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in transfer data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. The following topics were addressed in nine working groups: Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment - Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases; - Working Group 2: Reference Approaches to Modelling for Management and Remediation at NORM and Legacy Sites; - Working Group 3: Reference Models for Waste Disposal Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment; - Working Group 4: Biota Modelling; - Working Group 5: Wildlife Transfer Coefficient Handbook; - Working Group 6: Biota Dose

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  4. The Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more

  5. Computational study of cation substitutions in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Toomas; Peld, Merike

    2006-01-01

    Density-functional theory plane-wave modeling of fluor- and hydroxyapatites has been performed, where one or two calcium ions per unit cell were replaced with cadmium or zinc cations. It was found that cadmium ions favor Ca(1) positions in fluorapatites and Ca(2) positions in hydroxyapatites, in agreement with experiment. A similar pattern is predicted for zinc substitutions. In the doubly substituted cases, where only hydroxyapatites were modeled, a preference for the substituting ions to be located in Ca(2) position was also observed. Displacement of the hydroxide ions from their symmetrical positions on the hexagonal axis can be used to explain the preferred configurations of substituting ions around the axis. -- Deformation of the hydroxide ion chain due to substitutions around the ion channel in substituted hydroxyapatites

  6. Influence of substitution on the optical properties of functionalized pentacene monomers and crystals: Experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir; Zhao, Kui; Singh, Nirpendra; Li, Ruipeng; Anthony, John Edward; Amassian, Aram; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The influence of solubilizing substitutional groups on the electronic structure of prototypical functionalized pentacene molecules and crystals is studied by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We experimentally establish

  7. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  8. The Morishima Gross elasticity of substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Blackorby, Charles; Primont, Daniel; Russell, R. Robert

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Hotelling-Lau elasticity of substitution, an extension of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity to allow for optimal output-quantity (or utility) responses to changes in factor prices, inherits all of the failings of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity identified by Blackorby and Russell [1989 AER]. An analogous extension of the Morishima elasticity of substitution to allow for output quantity changes preserves the salient properties of the original Hicksian notion of elasticity of substitution.

  9. Statistical Physics of Complex Substitutive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing

    Diffusion processes are central to human interactions. Despite extensive studies that span multiple disciplines, our knowledge is limited to spreading processes in non-substitutive systems. Yet, a considerable number of ideas, products, and behaviors spread by substitution; to adopt a new one, agents must give up an existing one. This captures the spread of scientific constructs--forcing scientists to choose, for example, a deterministic or probabilistic worldview, as well as the adoption of durable items, such as mobile phones, cars, or homes. In this dissertation, I develop a statistical physics framework to describe, quantify, and understand substitutive systems. By empirically exploring three collected high-resolution datasets pertaining to such systems, I build a mechanistic model describing substitutions, which not only analytically predicts the universal macroscopic phenomenon discovered in the collected datasets, but also accurately captures the trajectories of individual items in a complex substitutive system, demonstrating a high degree of regularity and universality in substitutive systems. I also discuss the origins and insights of the parameters in the substitution model and possible generalization form of the mathematical framework. The systematical study of substitutive systems presented in this dissertation could potentially guide the understanding and prediction of all spreading phenomena driven by substitutions, from electric cars to scientific paradigms, and from renewable energy to new healthy habits.

  10. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  11. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  12. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Substituted Phenylnitrenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Neloni R.; Da Fonte, Maria; Wenthold, Paul G.

    2009-06-01

    Nitrenes are unusual molecular structures with unfilled electronic valences that are isoelectronic with carbenes. Although, both can be generated by either thermal or photochemical decomposition of appropriate precursors they usually exhibit different reactivities. In this work, we carry out spectroscopic studies of substituted phenylnitrene to determine how the introduction of substituents will affect the reactivity and its thermochemical properties. All studies were carried out by using the newly constructed time-of-flight negative ion photoelectron spectrometer (NIPES) at Purdue University. The 355 nm photoelectron spectra of the o-, m-, and p-chlorophenyl nitrene anions are fairly similar to that measured for phenylnitrene anion. All spectra show low energy triplet state and a high energy singlet state. The singlet state for the meta isomer is well-resolved, with a well defined origin and observable vibrational structure. Whereas the singlet states for the ortho and para isomers have lower energy onsets and no resolved structure. The isomeric dependence suggests that the geometry differences result from the resonance interaction between the nitrogen and the substituent. Quinoidal resonance structures are possible for the open-shell singlet states of the o- and p-chlorinated phenyl nitrenes. The advantages of this type of electronic structures for the open-shell singlet states is that the unpaired electrons can be more localized on separate atoms in the molecules, minimizing the repulsion between. Because the meta position is not in resonance with the nitrenes, substitution at that position should not affect the structure of the open-shell singlet state. The measured electron affinities (EA) of the triplet phenylnitrenes are in excellent agreement with the values predicted by electronic structure calculations. The largest EA, 1.82 eV is found for the meta isomer, with para being the smallest, 1.70 eV.

  13. Nonsynonymous substitution in abalone sperm fertilization genes exceeds substitution in introns and mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Edward C.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Vacquier, Victor D.

    1998-01-01

    Strong positive Darwinian selection acts on two sperm fertilization proteins, lysin and 18-kDa protein, from abalone (Haliotis). To understand the phylogenetic context for this dramatic molecular evolution, we obtained sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI), and genomic sequences of lysin, 18-kDa, and a G protein subunit. Based on mtDNA differentiation, four north Pacific abalone species diverged within the past 2 million years (Myr), and remaining north Pacific species diverged over a period of 4–20 Myr. Between-species nonsynonymous differences in lysin and 18-kDa exons exceed nucleotide differences in introns by 3.5- to 24-fold. Remarkably, in some comparisons nonsynonymous substitutions in lysin and 18-kDa genes exceed synonymous substitutions in mtCOI. Lysin and 18-kDa intron/exon segments were sequenced from multiple red abalone individuals collected over a 1,200-km range. Only two nucleotide changes and two sites of slippage variation were detected in a total of >29,000 nucleotides surveyed. However, polymorphism in mtCOI and a G protein intron was found in this species. This finding suggests that positive selection swept one lysin allele and one 18-kDa allele to fixation. Similarities between mtCOI and lysin gene trees indicate that rapid adaptive evolution of lysin has occurred consistently through the history of the group. Comparisons with mtCOI molecular clock calibrations suggest that nonsynonymous substitutions accumulate 2–50 times faster in lysin and 18-kDa genes than in rapidly evolving mammalian genes. PMID:9724763

  14. Virtual substitution scan via single-step free energy perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Wang, Yi

    2016-02-05

    With the rapid expansion of our computing power, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to microseconds or even milliseconds have become increasingly common. The majority of these long trajectories are obtained from plain (vanilla) MD simulations, where no enhanced sampling or free energy calculation method is employed. To promote the 'recycling' of these trajectories, we developed the Virtual Substitution Scan (VSS) toolkit as a plugin of the open-source visualization and analysis software VMD. Based on the single-step free energy perturbation (sFEP) method, VSS enables the user to post-process a vanilla MD trajectory for a fast free energy scan of substituting aryl hydrogens by small functional groups. Dihedrals of the functional groups are sampled explicitly in VSS, which improves the performance of the calculation and is found particularly important for certain groups. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we employ VSS to compute the solvation free energy change upon substituting the hydrogen of a benzene molecule by 12 small functional groups frequently considered in lead optimization. Additionally, VSS is used to compute the relative binding free energy of four selected ligands of the T4 lysozyme. Overall, the computational cost of VSS is only a fraction of the corresponding multi-step FEP (mFEP) calculation, while its results agree reasonably well with those of mFEP, indicating that VSS offers a promising tool for rapid free energy scan of small functional group substitutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  19. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  20. Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Anne-Sylvie Catherin has been appointed Head of the Human Resources Department with effect from 1 August 2009. Mrs Catherin is a lawyer specialized in International Administration and joined CERN in 1996 as legal advisor within the Office of the HR Department Head. After having been promoted to the position of Group Leader responsible for social and statutory conditions in 2000, Mrs Catherin was appointed Deputy of the Head of the Human Resources Department and Group Leader responsible for Strategy, Management and Development from 2005 to date. Since 2005, she has also served as a member of CCP and TREF. In the execution of her mandate as Deputy HR Department Head, Mrs Catherin closely assisted the HR Department Head in the organization of the Department and in devising new HR policies and strategies. She played an instrumental role in the last five-yearly review and in the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations.

  1. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  2. Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuming; Seim, Inge; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection. PMID:26549748

  3. The Implications of Nasal Substitutions in the Early Phonology of Toddlers With Repaired Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Jones, Mary A; Chapman, Kathy L

    2018-01-01

    To examine the implications of nasal substitutions in the early words of toddlers with cleft palate. Retrospective. Thirty-four toddlers with nonsyndromic cleft palate and 20 noncleft toddlers, followed from ages 13 to 39 months. The groups were compared for the percentage of toddlers who produced nasal substitutions in their early words. The percentage of toddlers with repaired cleft palate who produced nasal substitutions and were later suspected of having velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) was also examined. Seventy-six percent of the toddlers in the cleft group (n = 26) and 35% of toddlers in the noncleft group (n = 7) produced nasal substitutions on one or more of their early words. Only 38% (10/26) of the toddlers with cleft palate who produced nasal substitutions in their early words were later diagnosed as having moderate-severe hypernasality and suspected VPD. The presence of nasal substitutions following palatal surgery was not always an early sign of VPD. These substitutions were present in the early lexicon of children with and without cleft palate.

  4. MRI in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  5. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  6. MRI in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Kyo

    1986-01-01

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  7. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  8. [The exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  9. Where are we heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  10. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  11. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  12. Head injuries in snowboarders compared with head injuries in skiers. A prospective analysis of 1076 patients from 1994 to 1999 in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, O; Takaba, M; Saito, T; Endo, S

    2001-01-01

    We investigated snowboarding-related head injury cases and skiing-related head injury cases during five ski seasons at one resort area. There were 634 snowboarding-related head injuries and 442 skiing-related head injuries. The number of snowboarding head injuries increased rapidly over the study period. More male snowboarders than female snowboarders suffered head injuries. For both snowboarders and skiers, head injuries frequently occurred on the easy and middle slopes. Falls were the most frequent causes of injury in both groups. Jumping was a more frequent cause of injury in the snowboarders (30%) than in the skiers (2.5%). Injury to the occipital region predominated in the snowboarders as compared with the skiers. There were 49 organic lesions in 37 snowboarders and 46 organic lesions in 33 skiers. Subdural hematoma was frequent in the snowboarding head injury group, and fracture was frequent in the skiing head injury group compared with the snowboarding group (not significant). Subdural hematoma was likely to be caused by a fall rather than by a collision, and bone fracture was likely to be caused by a collision rather than by a fall. Four snowboarders and one skier died as a result of their head injuries. Our data suggest that snowboarding head injuries may be prevented by protection of the occipital region and refraining from jumping by beginners.

  13. Management of post-traumatic elbow instability after failed radial head excision: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloupakis, Georgios; Theodorakis, Emmanouil; Favetti, Fabio; Nannerini, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    Radial head excision has always been a safe commonly used surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome for isolated comminuted radial head fractures. However, diagnosis of elbow instability is still very challenging and often underestimated in routine orthopaedic evaluation. We present the case of a 21-years old female treated with excision after radial head fracture, resulting in elbow instability. The patient underwent revision surgery after four weeks. We believe that ligament reconstruction without radial head substitution is a safe alternative choice for Mason III radial head fractures accompanied by complex ligament lesions. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereochemistry of substitution at trico-ordinate phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1984-01-01

    A series of reactions of ring-substituted 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-oxazaphospholanes, 1,2-oxaphospholes, and phosphetanes bearing the leaving groups Cl, OR, or NR2 on phosphorus, with the nucleophiles HCl, MeO-, MeOH, PhOH, Me2NH, Et2NH, and [CH 2]5NH have been studied. N.m.r. signals (1H...

  15. Radioselective tritiation of acetanilide and para-substituted acetanilides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, K.; Nakamura, T.; Aoyama, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Acetanilide and para-substituted acetanilides were tritiated by heating with HTO in the presence of RhCl 3 .3H 2 O as a catalyst in an N,N-dimethylformamide solution at 105-107 deg C for 18 h. Under such conditions, tritium introduced into the anilide molecules was found at the adjacent ortho positions to the acetamido group with virtually 100% regioselectivity. The substituent effect on the rate of tritiation was observed. (author) 13 refs

  16. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  17. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  18. Educators Take Another Look at Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    The mythology surrounding the substitute teacher is not a pretty one: Paper airplanes, lost learning, bullying. But as schools collect more information about teacher absenteeism and its consequences, districts and schools are exploring ways to professionalize substitute teaching--or experiment with alternative ways of coping with teacher absences.…

  19. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  20. Group Capability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  1. Educating T-Shaped professionals to meet substitution challenges and developing business models for substitution and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ana; Mendibil Eguiluz, Javier; Sánchez Cupido, Laura

    2018-03-01

    One strategy to overcome the challenges related to critical raw materials (CRMs) is their substitution and recycling. However, the bright scientific idea, proof of concept or laboratory demonstration need to cross the valley of death in order to become stated as ‘a substitute’ instead of ‘a potential substitute’. Most PhD students and Post Docs specialize within a given thematic area; for example on specific materials or on substitution in a certain application. This specialization could limit the ability to generate innovations and profitable business models if there are not enough tools and skills to transform new knowledge and research results into an appealing value proposition towards customers and to a business opportunity for the current markets. The project proposes a framework for developing substitution and recycling related cross-sectorial skills and tools. These are applied for training business-related competences e.g. teamwork, management, communication, value proposition and business models design, especially within RTOs and industries. The proposed learning itinerary can radically improve the path from scientific proof of concept into innovation and lean start up or industrial market launch. The developed framework is tested by a pilot group having several topics within the areas of substitution and recycling of critical raw materials.

  2. Late xerostomia after intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: study 2004-03 by the head and neck oncology and radiotherapy Group (Gortec)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, I.; Lapeyre, M.; Graff, P.; Serre, C.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.; Racadot, S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a retrospective assessment of late xerostomia according to the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) classification of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) among patients treated by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and suffering from upper aero-digestive tract carcinomas of different stages. Some of these patients have bee operated, and some have been treated by chemotherapy. It appears that the IMRT results in a reduction of late xerostomia, and even in an absence of salivary toxicity. Short communication

  3. Effects of saliva substitutes on oral status in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, L; Montaldo, P; Papa, A; Caramico, N; Toro, G

    2010-11-01

    To assess oral status in a sample of Type 2 diabetic patients before and after therapy with saliva substitutes and oral status in a control group of diabetic patients who were not given saliva substitutes. Salivary flow rate was determined in 134 patients (mean age 47.9 ± 2.9 years) with Type 2 diabetes. Mean salivary rate was significantly low compared with a healthy control group. The sample of 134 patients was randomly divided into two groups of 67 people each. One group was given immunologically active salivary substitutes for 6 months, the other group was given nothing. Each patient of the two groups underwent a dental and periodontal examination at the beginning of the study and 6 months later. As regards carious teeth and teeth loss, there was no statistical difference between the first group after 6 months of treatment with salivary substitutes and the control group (P>0.01). Salivary substitutes did not significantly reduce the periodontal disease (P>0.01). In the group treated with salivary substitutes, after 6 months of therapy, the average dental plaque index decreased from 2.3 ± 0.73 to 1.6 ± 0.56, patients with gingivitis decreased from 66 to 43% and patients with positive yeast counts decreased from 60 to 37%. These differences were statistically significant (Pdiabetes, in the case of hyposalivation, a therapy with immunologically active saliva substitutes can be of help in reducing the amount of plaque, gingivitis and positive yeast counts. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK.

  4. Otolith function in patients with head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don; Park, Ji Yun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Sung, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the otolith function of patients with head trauma, postulating that otolith dysfunction is a cause of nonspecific dizziness after head trauma. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients referred within 3 months after head trauma between March 2007 and December 2009. Pure tone audiometry, caloric testing and otolith function tests, including cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests, were performed on all patients. The relationship between otolith function and otologic symptoms was analyzed. Of the 28 patients with head trauma, 18 complained of dizziness and 12 experienced hearing loss, including 6 patients who complained of both. On defining otolith dysfunction as an abnormal cVEMP or abnormal SVV, a significant difference in otolith dysfunction existed between the groups with and without dizziness [72 (13/18) vs. 20% (2/10)]. In contrast, no significant difference in otolith dysfunction was detected between the abnormal and normal hearing groups. A significant number of the patients who complained of nonspecific dizziness after trauma had abnormal otolith function. After trauma, when patients complain of dizziness, vestibular function tests, including otolith function tests, should be considered.

  5. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion sizes served to children at Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Start caregivers are responsible for educating and feeding preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program. Amongst pre-school aged children, portion size served is positively associated with intake of those foods. Researchers conducted eight focus groups with Hispanic and African American Head...

  6. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kolmas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  7. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  8. Stereotype threat and social function in opioid substitution therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this

  9. Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group

  10. Transfer of Tritium in the Environment after Accidental Releases from Nuclear Facilities. Report of Working Group 7 Tritium Accidents of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (Emras II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for assessing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Tritium Accidents Working Group

  11. Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group.

  12. Neural Correlates of Sensory Substitution in Vestibular Pathways Following Complete Vestibular Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory substitution is the term typically used in reference to sensory prosthetic devices designed to replace input from one defective modality with input from another modality. Such devices allow an alternative encoding of sensory information that is no longer directly provided by the defective modality in a purposeful and goal-directed manner. The behavioral recovery that follows complete vestibular loss is impressive and has long been thought to take advantage of a natural form of sensory substitution in which head motion information is no longer provided by vestibular inputs, but instead by extra-vestibular inputs such as proprioceptive and motor efference copy signals. Here we examined the neuronal correlates of this behavioral recovery after complete vestibular loss in alert behaving monkeys (Macaca mulata). We show for the first time that extra-vestibular inputs substitute for the vestibular inputs to stabilize gaze at the level of single neurons in the VOR premotor circuitry. The summed weighting of neck proprioceptive and efference copy information was sufficient to explain simultaneously observed behavioral improvements in gaze stability. Furthermore, by altering correspondence between intended and actual head movement we revealed a four-fold increase in the weight of neck motor efference copy signals consistent with the enhanced behavioral recovery observed when head movements are voluntary versus unexpected. Thus, taken together our results provide direct evidence that the substitution by extra-vestibular inputs in vestibular pathways provides a neural correlate for the improvements in gaze stability that are observed following the total loss of vestibular inputs. PMID:23077054

  13. Substitution and complementarity of alcohol and cannabis: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether alcohol and cannabis are used as substitutes or complements remains debated, and findings across various disciplines have not been synthesized to date. Objective This paper is a first step towards organizing the interdisciplinary literature on alcohol and cannabis substitution and complementarity. Method Electronic searches were performed using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. Behavioral studies of humans with ‘alcohol’ (or ‘ethanol’) and ‘cannabis’ (or ‘marijuana”) and ‘complement*’ (or ‘substitut*’) in the title or as a keyword were considered. Studies were organized according to sample characteristics (youth, general population, clinical and community-based). These groups were not set a priori, but were informed by the literature review process. Results Of the 39 studies reviewed, 16 support substitution, ten support complementarity, 12 support neither and one supports both. Results from studies of youth suggest that youth may reduce alcohol in more liberal cannabis environments (substitute), but reduce cannabis in more stringent alcohol environments (complement). Results from the general population suggest that substitution of cannabis for alcohol may occur under more lenient cannabis policies, though cannabis-related laws may affect alcohol use differently across genders and racial groups. Conclusions Alcohol and cannabis act as both substitutes and complements. Policies aimed at one substance may inadvertently affect consumption of other substances. Future studies should collect fine-grained longitudinal, prospective data from the general population and subgroups of interest, especially in locations likely to legalize cannabis. PMID:27249324

  14. Substitution and Complementarity of Alcohol and Cannabis: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2016-09-18

    Whether alcohol and cannabis are used as substitutes or complements remains debated, and findings across various disciplines have not been synthesized to date. This article is a first step towards organizing the interdisciplinary literature on alcohol and cannabis substitution and complementarity. Electronic searches were performed using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. Behavioral studies of humans with "alcohol" (or "ethanol") and "cannabis" (or "marijuana") and "complement(*)" (or "substitut(*)") in the title or as a keyword were considered. Studies were organized according to sample characteristics (youth, general population, clinical and community-based). These groups were not set a priori, but were informed by the literature review process. Of the 39 studies reviewed, 16 support substitution, ten support complementarity, 12 support neither and one supports both. Results from studies of youth suggest that youth may reduce alcohol in more liberal cannabis environments (substitute), but reduce cannabis in more stringent alcohol environments (complement). Results from the general population suggest that substitution of cannabis for alcohol may occur under more lenient cannabis policies, though cannabis-related laws may affect alcohol use differently across genders and racial groups. Alcohol and cannabis act as both substitutes and complements. Policies aimed at one substance may inadvertently affect consumption of other substances. Future studies should collect fine-grained longitudinal, prospective data from the general population and subgroups of interest, especially in locations likely to legalize cannabis.

  15. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  16. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution

  17. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  18. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  19. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  20. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  1. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  2. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  3. Preparation and Reaction Chemistry of Novel Silicon-Substituted 1,3-Dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha P. Choudhury

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 2-Silicon-substituted 1,3-dienes containing non transferrable groups known to promote transmetallation were prepared by Grignard chemistry and enyne metathesis. These dienes participated in one pot metathesis/Diels-Alder reactions in regio- and diastereoselective fashions. Electron-rich alkenes showed the fastest rates in metathesis reactions, and ethylene, a commonly used metathesis promoter slowed enyne metathesis. 2-Pyridyldimethylsilyl and 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted Diels-Alder cycloadducts participated in cross-coupling chemistry and the 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted cycloadducts underwent cross-coupling under very mild reaction conditions.

  4. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  5. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  6. Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, S H; Wang, H W; El-Leithy, E Saddar; Chebli, C; Cartilier, L

    2007-01-01

    High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process

  7. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  8. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd. Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substit...

  9. Primary tendinitis of the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, M; Benca, P

    1989-09-01

    Seventeen patients with chronic painful shoulders who showed evidence of isolated bicipital tendinitis involving only the extracapsular, intertubercular portion of the long head of the biceps were chosen for surgical treatment when conservative treatment failed. The patients were thought to have primary bicipital tendinitis. The latter condition is secondary to other shoulder pathologies. Thirteen patients had tenodeses and four patients had transfer of the long head of the biceps to the origin of the conjoined tendon. Overall, excellent and good results were noted in 94% of both groups of patients when the long head of the biceps was tenodesed or transferred. Whether or not the long head of the biceps is a significant depressor of the humeral head requires further investigation.

  10. Comparison of Toxicity Associated With Early Morning Versus Late Afternoon Radiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (HN3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Georg A.; MacKenzie, Robert G.; Nabid, Abdenour; Hodson, Ian D.; El-Sayed, Samy; Grimard, Laval; Brundage, Michael; Wright, James; Hay, John; Ganguly, Pradip; Leong, Carson; Wilson, Jane; Jordan, Richard C.K.; Walker, Melanie; Tu Dongsheng; Parulekar, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on our demonstration of a circadian rhythm in the human oral mucosa cell cycle, with most cells in the G 1 phase in the morning and M phase at night, we hypothesized that morning radiotherapy (RT) would lead to less oral mucositis than afternoon RT. Methods and Materials: A total of 216 patients were randomized to morning (8-10 AM) vs. afternoon (4-6 PM) RT and stratified by radiation dose, smoking status, and center. Patients receiving primary or postoperative RT alone were eligible. Oral mucositis was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria and a validated scoring system. Results: Of 205 evaluable patients, 52.9% vs. 62.4% developed RTOG Grade 3 or greater mucositis after morning vs. afternoon RT, respectively (p = 0.17). Morning RT was also associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months (p = 0.024). In a subgroup of 111 patients treated to a dose of 66-70 Gy in 33-35 fractions, exploratory analyses revealed a significant reduction in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (44.6% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.022) and a longer interval to the development of Grade 3 or greater mucositis (median, >7.9 vs. 5.6 weeks, p = 0.033). In 53 patients, who smoked during therapy, a significant reduction was found in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (42.9% vs. 76%, p = 0.025). Conclusion: In this proof of principle study, morning RT was associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months and an apparent reduction in oral mucositis in a subset of patients receiving ≥66 Gy and in patients who smoked during therapy

  11. Catalogue of tooth brush head designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Marsha A; Bayne, Stephen C; Liu, Ying; Walker, Mary P

    2013-06-01

    Manual toothbrushes (MTBs) and power toothbrushes (PTBs) are effective oral physiotherapy aids for plaque removal. End-rounded bristles are safer and reduce damage to oral tissues. Nylon bristles are more effective in plaque removal because the bristle is stiffer than natural bristles. In the last 10 years the number of options for MTBs and PTBs has expanded significantly and there is very little information providing a reference frame for the design characteristics of the heads. The present in vitro study characterized a variety of MTB and PTB heads to provide a reference library for other research comparisons which might be made. Various commercial MTB and PTB heads were used to characterize the following: bristle size, shape, diameter, number of tufts, number of bristles per tuft and surface characteristics. Photographs were collected from the side, at 45 degrees and the top of each toothbrush (TB) head using a scanning electron microscope and digital camera. Images were analyzed (Soft Imaging System) for bristle features and designs. One-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) was performed to detect differences among TB types within MTB and PTB groups and between pooled values for MTB and PTB groups. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in toothbrush bristle diameter and bristle shape. In contrast, there were no significant differences between PTB vs. MTB in regards to bristle diameter, bristle count and tuft count. The results suggest that although there are wide variations in toothbrush head designs, significant differences were found only in relation to bristle diameter and shape.

  12. Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasle, Veronique; Riffaud, Laurent; Longuet, Romain; Martineau-Curt, Marie; Collet, Yann; Le Fournier, Luc; Pladys, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Post-concussion syndrome is a well-described complication following moderate and severe head trauma but whether it occurs after mild head injury in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to mild head injury with potential additional risk factors (non-surgical lesion on computed tomographic, high kinetic trauma, or Glasgow Coma Scale <15) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after the head trauma. This study was performed in an emergency department on children admitted between 2009 and 2013. It compared victims of mild head injury aged 6-16 years with matched children presenting isolated non-surgical forearm fracture (ratio1/2). ADHD was assessed using Conners' Global Index-Parent short version 3-40 months after the trauma. The patients were compared using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, t test or u-test as appropriate with a p value set at 0.05. During the study period, 676 patients were admitted for mild head injury. Among them, 34 (5 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared with 64 matched patients admitted for a forearm fracture. The groups were comparable. ADHD was observed in both groups (18 % in the mild head injury group, 11 % in the control group) with no significant differences between groups. The prevalence was high when compared to an expected frequency of 3.5-5.6 % in children aged 6-12 years in the general population. These results suggest that pre-existing ADHD may have contributed to injury proneness in both groups and does not argue for a specific risk of ADHD induced by mild head injury. The diagnosis of ADHD should be evoked at admission of children aged 6-16 years presenting with a trauma.

  13. Modeling charge transport properties of cyano-substituted PPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Helena M.G.; Ramos, Marta M.D.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, poly (p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and its derivatives have attracted much interest due to their applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One of the issues that determine device performance is the transport of charge carriers along the polymer strands. For that reason, we investigate the influence of cyano substitution on geometry and electronic behaviour of PPV chains using self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Our results suggest that substitution by cyano groups induce distortion in the PPV chains and a charge rearrangement among the polymer atoms. Specifically addressed is the issue concerning estimates of charge (electron and hole) mobility by computer experiments. Significant differences have been found both in the strength of the electric field needed to move positive and negative charge carriers along the polymer chain as well as in charge mobility

  14. Substitution urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures: buccal versus lingual mucosal graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Das, Suren K; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Udai S; Singh, Pratap B

    2010-01-01

    To compare the results of substitution urethroplasty and donor site morbidity between buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and lingual mucosal graft (LMG). Patients who underwent single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft substitution urethroplasty by Barbagli's technique between January 2004 and August 2008 were included in this study. Patients who underwent buccal (cheek, lip) mucosal graft urethroplasty were included in group I and those who underwent LMG urethroplasty (tongue) were included in group II. All patients underwent complete evaluation of the stricture including inspection of the oral cavity. Exclusion criteria were stricture length speech complications was seen in group II, but not in group I. The long-term complications of persistent oral discomfort, perioral numbness and tightness of the mouth were seen only in group I. LMG urethroplasty is a good substitute for BMG urethroplasty with equally good results of urethroplasty with lower donor site morbidity. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Tactile pavement for guiding walking direction: An assessment of heading direction and gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluijter, Nanda; de Wit, Lieke P W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Plaisier, Myrthe A

    2015-10-01

    For maintaining heading direction while walking we heavily rely on vision. Therefore, walking in the absence of vision or with visual attention directed elsewhere potentially leads to dangerous situations. Here we investigated whether tactile information from the feet can be used as a (partial) substitute for vision in maintaining a stable heading direction. If so, participants should be better able to keep a constant heading direction on tactile pavement that indicates directionality than on regular flat pavement. However, such a pavement may also be destabilizing. Thus we asked participants to walk straight ahead on regular pavement, and on tactile pavement (tiles with ridges along the walking direction) while varying the amount of vision. We assessed the effects of the type of pavement as well as the amount of vision on the variability of the heading direction as well as gait stability. Both of these measures were calculated from accelerations and angular velocities recorded from a smartphone attached to the participants trunk. Results showed that on tactile pavement participants had a less variations in their heading direction than on regular pavement. The drawback, however, was that the tactile pavement used in this study decreased gait stability. In sum, tactile pavement can be used as a partial substitute for vision in maintaining heading direction, but it can also decrease gait stability. Future work should focus on designing tactile pavement that does provided directional clues, but is less destabilizing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 3-fluoro-5-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ajenjo, Javier; Greenhall, M.; Zarantonello, C.; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, Feb 3 (2016), s. 192-197 ISSN 1860-5397 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 607787 - FLUOR21 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : direct fluorination * fluorine * nucleophilic aromatic substitution * pentafluorosulfanyl group * vicarious nucleophilic substitution Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2016 http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/single/articleFullText.htm?publicId=1860-5397-12-21

  17. Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine bone substitute (Compact Bone B. ® alone versus bovine bone substitute and simvastatin for human maxillary sinus augmentation.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 16 sinuses in eight patients. Radiographic assessments were done preoperatively (T0, immediately (T1 and at nine months after sinus grafting (T2. Alveolar bone height and density were assessed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2.Results: The change in alveolar bone height and density between T0, T1 and T2 was significant in both groups. Alveolar bone height (h0, h1, h2 and vertical height of the grafted bone (g1, g2 in three lines (anterior, middle and posterior were not significantly different between groups. The grafted bone height shrinkage (% in the anterior, middle and posterior limits of the augmented area were not significantly different between groups. The existing alveolar and grafted bone density increased significantly in both groups between T1 and T2, except for the existing alveolar bone density in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the alveolar bone density values obtained in TI and T2 between groups, except for the existing alveolar bone density at T1.Conclusions: This study did not show any significant positive effect for simvastatin in maxillary sinus augmentation based on radiographic examination.

  18. Substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry and this work was recently finished. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study......The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... total 15 substances) were found in the Danish printing industry. This paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results on preparing for actual substitutions....

  19. Substituted hydroxyapatites for biomedical applications: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2015), s. 9203-9231 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bioapatite * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * substitution Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2015

  20. Dodecatungstocobaltate and Sn (IV)-Substituted Polyoxometalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    work metals, or substituting different cations for the protons to make their acidic or neutral ... corrosive materials in comparison with traditional Lewis acids. The importance of .... salt by treatment with potassium chloride. Finally, the cobalt (II).

  1. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  2. DOES CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AFFECT EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kumamoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  3. Development of a diesel substitute fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Anton; Mair-Zelenka, Philipp [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Zeymer, Marc [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria). MRDI-D Product Development and Innovation

    2013-06-01

    Substitute fuels composed of few real chemical compounds are an alternative characterisation approach for conventional fuels as opposed to the traditional pseudo-component method. With the algorithm proposed in this paper the generation of such substitutes will be facilitated and well-established thermodynamic methods can be applied for physical property-data prediction. Based on some quality criteria like true boiling-point curve, liquid density, C/H ratio, or cloud point of a target fuel a surrogate which meets these properties is determined by fitting its composition. The application and capabilities of the algorithm developed are demonstrated by means of an exemplary diesel substitute fuel. The substitute mixture obtained can be generated and used for evaluation of property-prediction methods. Furthermore this approach can help to understand the effects of mixing fossil fuels with biogenic compounds. (orig.)

  4. Management of common head and neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  5. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemqvist, B.

    1983-01-01

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  6. Adaptive algorithm of magnetic heading detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gong-Xu; Shi, Ling-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic data obtained from a magnetic sensor usually fluctuate in a certain range, which makes it difficult to estimate the magnetic heading accurately. In fact, magnetic heading information is usually submerged in noise because of all kinds of electromagnetic interference and the diversity of the pedestrian’s motion states. In order to solve this problem, a new adaptive algorithm based on the (typically) right-angled corridors of a building or residential buildings is put forward to process heading information. First, a 3D indoor localization platform is set up based on MPU9250. Then, several groups of data are measured by changing the experimental environment and pedestrian’s motion pace. The raw data from the attached inertial measurement unit are calibrated and arranged into a time-stamped array and written to a data file. Later, the data file is imported into MATLAB for processing and analysis using the proposed adaptive algorithm. Finally, the algorithm is verified by comparison with the existing algorithm. The experimental results show that the algorithm has strong robustness and good fault tolerance, which can detect the heading information accurately and in real-time.

  7. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  8. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: k.brzozka@uthrad.pl [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  9. Trace maps of general substitutional sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.; Nori, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that for arbitrary n, there exists a trace map for any n-letter substitutional sequence. Trace maps are explicitly obtained for the well-known circle and Rudin-Shapiro sequences which can be defined by means of substitution rules on three and four letters, respectively. The properties of the two trace maps and their consequences for various spectral properties are briefly discussed

  10. Product portfolio optimization based on substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Moseley, A.; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The development of production capabilities has led to proliferation of the product variety offered to the customer. Yet this fact does not directly imply increase of manufacturers' profitability, nor customers' satisfaction. Consequently, recent research focuses on portfolio optimization through...... substitution and standardization techniques. However when re-defining the strategic market decisions are characterized by uncertainty due to several parameters. In this study, by using a GAMS optimization model we present a method for supporting strategic decisions on substitution, by quantifying the impact...

  11. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  12. Identification of Novel Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Mutations in Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooziyan, Samira; Sadaghianifar, Ali; Taghilou, Behrooz; Galavani, Hossein; Ghaffari, Eslam; Gholizadeh, Saber

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the increase of head louse infestation in Iran (7.4%) and especially in West-Azerbaijan Province (248%) has raised the hypothesis of insecticide resistance development. There are different mechanisms of resistance to various groups of insecticides, and knockdown resistance (kdr) is a prominent mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids, an insecticide group which is used conventionally for pediculosis control. For detection of kdr-type well-known amino acid substitutions (M815I-T917I-L920F) and additional sodium channel mutations potentially associated with kdr resistance in head and body lice, louse populations were collected from West-Azerbaijan and Zanjan Provinces of Iran. Six novel mutations were found to be located in the IIS1-2 extracellular loop (H813P) and IIS5 (I927F, L928A, R929V, L930M, and L932M) of the α-subunit. Genotyping results showed that all specimens (100%) have at least one of these or the well-known mutations. Therefore, the presence of kdr-related and novel mutations in the sodium channel is likely to be the reason for the frequent use of pyrethroid insecticides due to treatment failure against lice. Further studies are now required to evaluate the prevalence of the kdr-like mutant allele for monitoring of insecticide resistance and the management of head and body lice in other provinces of the country. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  14. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Carlos; Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: → Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. → The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. → We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. → The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. → The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  15. A preliminary examination of neurocognitive performance and symptoms following a bout of soccer heading in athletes wearing protective soccer headbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbin, R J; Beatty, Amanda; Covassin, Tracey; Schatz, Philip; Hydeman, Ana; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    This study compared changes in neurocognitive performance and symptom reports following an acute bout of soccer heading among athletes with and without protective soccer headgear. A total of 25 participants headed a soccer ball 15 times over a 15-minute period, using a proper linear heading technique. Participants in the experimental group completed the heading exercise while wearing a protective soccer headband and controls performed the heading exercise without wearing the soccer headband. Neurocognitive performance and symptom reports were assessed before and after the acute bout of heading. Participants wearing the headband showed significant decreases on verbal memory (p = 0.02) compared with the no headband group, while the no headband group demonstrated significantly faster reaction time (p = 0.03) than the headband group following the heading exercise. These findings suggest that protective soccer headgear likely does not mitigate the subtle neurocognitive effects of acute soccer heading.

  16. Synthesis of substituted mono- and diindole C-nucleoside analogues from sugar terminal alkynes by sequential sonogashira/heteroannulation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyi; Mu, Delong; Wang, Liming; Du, Pengfei; Han, Fen; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-10-17

    The synthesis of substituted mono- and diindole C-nucleoside analogues has been achieved in good to excellent yields by sequential Sonogashira coupling/NaAuCl4-catalyzed heteroannulation reactions of substituted 2-iodoanilines with various sugar terminal alkynes in one pot. The method is general, mild, and efficient and suitable for a wide range of sugar substrates, and 42 examples are given. The amino group of the substituted 2-iodoanilines is unprotected. The sugar terminal alkynes include furanosides, pyranosides, and acyclic glycosides with free hydroxyl groups, sensitive functional subtituents, and various protecting groups having different steric hindrance.

  17. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  18. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    In our cases of acute and subacute subdural hematoma, the use of CT was evaluated. In our department of surgery, acute subdural hematoma was found in 46 of 388 patients of head trauma who underwent CT. Acute subdural hematoma, like epidural hematoma was usually visualized as a high-density area along the cranial inner table, and this was easily differenciated from epidural hematoma because of difference in shape from the other. The picture of acute subdural hematoma was occasionally confused with that of intracerebral hematoma or cerebral contusion. Single use of CT does not differenciate subacute subdural hematoma from chronic subdural hematoma. However, CT usually visualized acute hematoma as a high-density area, showing the extent of hematoma. Comparison of the thickness of hematoma with the axis deviation of the median part such as the 3rd cerebral ventricle suggested severity of cerebral edema. CT also revealed bilateral or multiple lesions of cerebral contusion or intracerebral hematoma. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  20. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  1. Energy conservation and petroleum substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebbekus, J; Kraft-Woelfel, G

    1982-04-01

    Shortage and price increases for energy have caused large population groups to give new thought to the subject. For the knowledge on energy necessary to make a decision, ultimate consumers mostly rely on their social environment, personal contacts and the media. Important information on energy conservation should be provided by regional electric utilities. A concept for this purpose is discussed.

  2. A Modified Rabbit Ulna Defect Model for Evaluating Periosteal Substitutes in Bone Engineering: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Backly, Rania M. [DIMES, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Chiapale, Danilo [IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Muraglia, Anita [Biorigen S.R.L., Genova (Italy); Tromba, Giuliana [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.P.A., Trieste (Italy); Ottonello, Chiara [Biorigen S.R.L., Genova (Italy); Santolini, Federico [IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena, E-mail: maddalena.mastrogiacomo@unige.it [DIMES, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy)

    2015-01-06

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX{sup ®}) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12–16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX{sup ®}) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.

  3. A Modified Rabbit Ulna Defect Model for Evaluating Periosteal Substitutes in Bone Engineering: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Backly, Rania M.; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX ® ) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12–16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX ® ) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.

  4. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: poorer prognosis than non-head and neck sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, G B; Madana, J; Da Silva, S D; Hier, M P; Mlynarek, A M; Black, M J

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neurocutaneous malignancy. This study investigated whether patients with Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck had poorer outcomes than patients with Merkel cell carcinoma located elsewhere. A retrospective study was performed of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Jewish General Hospital in Montréal, Canada, from 1993 to 2013. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were examined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-seven patients were identified. Although basic clinicopathological characteristics and treatments were similar between head and neck and non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma groups, disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were significantly lower in the head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma group (log-rank test; p = 0.043 and p = 0.001, respectively). Mortality was mainly due to distant metastasis. Patients with head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma had poorer survival rates than patients with non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma in our study. The tendency to obtain close margins, a less predictable metastatic pattern, and/or intrinsic tumour factors related to the head and neck may explain this discrepancy.

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make an appointment for a prompt examination. Early treatment may well be the key to complete recovery. ... a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It is provided to help you communicate effectively ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neck Pathology Download Download the ebook for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the ... well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cancer is often discovered late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the ... here is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It is provided ...

  9. [Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Maguet, O

    2005-01-01

    Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of

  10. Synthesis, characterization and structural refinement of polycrystalline uranium substituted zirconolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, O.P.; Narendra Kumar; Sharma, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic precursors of Zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ) family have a remarkable property of substitution Zr 4+ cationic sites. This makes them potential material for nuclear waste management in 'synroc' technology. In order to simulate the mechanism of partial substitution of zirconium by tetravalent actinides, a solid phase of composition CaZr 0.95 U 0.5 Ti 2 O 7 has been synthesized through ceramic route by taking calculated quantities of oxides of Ca, Ti and nitrates of uranium and zirconium respectively. Solid state synthesis has been carried out by repeated pelletizing and sintering the finely powdered oxide mixture in a muffle furnace at 1050 degC. The polycrystalline solid phase has been characterized by its typical powder diffraction pattern. Step analysis data has been used for ab initio calculation of structural parameters. The uranium substituted zirconolite crystallizes in monoclinic symmetry with space group C2/c (15). The following unit cell parameters have been calculated: a =12.4883(15), b =7.2448(5), c 11.3973(10) and β = 100.615(9)0. The structure was refined to satisfactory completion. The Rp and Rwp are found to be 7.48% and 9.74% respectively. (author)

  11. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  14. Arsenic in ZnO and GaN: substitutional cation or anion sites?

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Ulrich; Rita, Elisabete; Marques, Ana Claudia; Alves, Eduardo; Carvalho Soares, José

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the lattice location of ion implanted As in ZnO and GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. In contrast to what one might expect from its nature as a group V element, we find that As does not occupy substitutional O sites in ZnO but in its large majority substitutional Zn sites. Arsenic in ZnO is thus an interesting example for an impurity in a semiconductor where the major impurity lattice site is determined by atomic size and electronegativity rather than its position in the periodic system. In contrast, in GaN the preference of As for substitutional cation sites is less pronounced and about half of the implanted As atoms occupy Ga and the other half N sites. Apparently, the smaller size-mismatch between As and N and the chemical similarity of both elements make it feasible that As partly substitutes for N atoms.

  15. Substitutional reality system: a novel experimental platform for experiencing alternative reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Wakisaka, Sohei; Fujii, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel experimental platform, referred to as a substitutional reality (SR) system, for studying the conviction of the perception of live reality and related metacognitive functions. The SR system was designed to manipulate people's reality by allowing them to experience live scenes (in which they were physically present) and recorded scenes (which were recorded and edited in advance) in an alternating manner without noticing a reality gap. All of the naïve participants (n = 21) successfully believed that they had experienced live scenes when recorded scenes had been presented. Additional psychophysical experiments suggest the depth of visual objects does not affect the perceptual discriminability between scenes, and the scene switch during head movement enhance substitutional performance. The SR system, with its reality manipulation, is a novel and affordable method for studying metacognitive functions and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use. CFC-12 Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Retrofit and New... Conditions Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air... refrigerant. CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New equipment only) R-152a as a substitute for...

  18. Postmortem CT of severe head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaru; Tsukahara, Yoshio; Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Horikoshi, Satoru; Yodonawa, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    CT findings of fatal head injuries were analysed for the cause of death. Postmortem CT examinations were undertaken on 14 cases who died before reaching the hospital or shortly after arrival at the hospital (immediate death group). CT were also examined in non-operative 20 cases who were comatose and who died within 24 hours after severe head injuries (early death group). In the immediate death group, the following findings were demonstrated: a huge amount of free intracranial and intraventricular air in 8 cases; traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 3 cases; a mixture of pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2 cases, and intracranial hematoma in 1 case. In the early death group: a mixture of pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2 cases; traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in 5 cases; intracranial hematoma in 11 cases, and brain contusion in 2 cases. The huge amount of intracranial free air due to the severe fracture of the skull base will make the CNS collapse immediately. Basal subarachnoid hemorrhage with signs of brain-stem injuries may result in instantaneous death. Acute subdural hematoma with contusion and edema in elderly patients was the most frequent cause of death in the early death group. (author)

  19. Optimal ordering quantities for substitutable deteriorating items under joint replenishment with cost of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod Kumar

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop an inventory model, to determine the optimal ordering quantities, for a set of two substitutable deteriorating items. In this inventory model the inventory level of both items depleted due to demands and deterioration and when an item is out of stock, its demands are partially fulfilled by the other item and all unsatisfied demand is lost. Each substituted item incurs a cost of substitution and the demands and deterioration is considered to be deterministic and constant. Items are order jointly in each ordering cycle, to take the advantages of joint replenishment. The problem is formulated and a solution procedure is developed to determine the optimal ordering quantities that minimize the total inventory cost. We provide an extensive numerical and sensitivity analysis to illustrate the effect of different parameter on the model. The key observation on the basis of numerical analysis, there is substantial improvement in the optimal total cost of the inventory model with substitution over without substitution.

  20. Femoral head necrosis; Hueftkopfnekrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.; Scheurecker, A.; Stoeger, A.; Huber, A. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.) [German] Bei der avaskulaeren Femurkopfnekrose handelt es sich um ein Krankheitsbild, dessen Ursachen noch immer nicht vollstaendig geklaert sind. Da die Erkrankung stadienhaft verlaeuft und ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum betrachtet nahezu immer in einem prothetischen Hueftersatz muendet, ist eine genaue radiologische Abklaerung fuer die Behandlung von enormer Bedeutung. Um Langzeiterfolge verschiedener Therapiekonzepte vergleichen zu koennen, sind eine exakte Beschreibung und darauf basierend die Verwendung einer einheitlichen Stadieneinteilung wuenschenswert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die ARCO-Stadieneinteilung im Detail beschrieben, die alle bildgebenden Methoden beruecksichtigt und histopathologische Veraenderungen mit einbezieht. (orig.)

  1. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    It has been said that chronic subdural hematoma cannot be diagnosed by CT. In our cases, CT was used, and the results were described. According to the density of the picture, CT findings of chronic subdural hematoma could be classified into 3 types, those of higher density than that of the cerebral paranchyma, those of isodensity, and those of lower density than that of the cerebral parenchyma. The difference among them appeared to be due to variation in the fluid in hematoma, especially that in hemoglobin concentration. Chronic subdural hematoma was found in 27 of 388 cases of head trauma in which CT was undertaken in our department of surgery for last 2 years. It is difficult to differenciate this disease from subdural edema or subarachnoideal retention of the cerebrospinal fluid. In many cases, use of contrast medium added no change to the CT picture. Cerebral angiography is necessary for definite diagnosis of the disease. Chronic subdural hematoma gives more varieties of findings than other intracranial hematomas. However, if the film is very carefully read, CT is still useful for diagnosing this disease in spite of initially remarked difficulties. (Ueda, J.)

  2. Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin eluted from a regenerating bone graft substitute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stravinskas, M; Horstmann, P; Ferguson, J

    2016-01-01

    . Emerging bacterial resistance poses a major threat and new innovative treatment modalities are urgently needed to curb its current trajectory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a new biphasic ceramic bone substitute consisting of hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate for local antibiotic delivery...... in patients treated surgically for chronic corticomedullary osteomyelitis. RESULTS: The release pattern in vitro was comparable with the obtained release in the patient studies. No recurrence was detected in the osteomyelitis group at latest follow-up (minimum 1.5 years). CONCLUSIONS: This new biphasic bone...

  3. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...... zones. We find that the structural inelasticity is very significant – in particular for transportation over less than 500 km. Moreover, the inelasticity varies greatly with commodity groups and between OD pairs, and it depends strongly on the port and rail infrastructure. The results suggest that pure...

  4. Iridium-Catalyzed Regioselective Borylation of Substituted Biaryls

    KAUST Repository

    Chotana, Ghayoor

    2018-03-28

    Biarylboronic esters are generally prepared by directed ortho­ -metalation or by Miyaura borylation and hence rely on the presence of a directing group or pre-functionalization. In this paper, the preparation of biarylboronic esters by direct C–H borylation of biaryl substrates is reported. Sterically governed regioselectivities were observed in the borylation of appropriately substituted biaryls by using [Ir(OMe)(COD)] precatalyst and di- tert -butylbipyridyl ligand. The resulting biarylboronic esters were isolated in 38–98% yields. The synthesized biarylboronic esters were further successfully employed in C–O, C–Br, and C–C coupling reactions.

  5. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel' man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    The efficiency of corrosion protection of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in chloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylanthranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys.

  6. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel'man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

  7. UV action spectroscopy of protonated PAH derivatives. Methyl substituted quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klærke, Benedikte; Holm, Anne; Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2011-01-01

    using the electrostatic storage ring ELISA, an electrospray ion source and 3 ns UV laser pulses. Results. It is shown that the absorption profile is both redshifted and broadened when moving the methyl group from the heterocycle containing nitrogen to the homoatomic ring. The absorption profiles......Aims. We investigate the production of molecular photofragments upon UV excitation of PAH derivatives, relevant for the interstellar medium. Methods. The action absorption spectra of protonated gas-phase methyl-substituted quinolines (CH3−C9H7NH+) have been recorded in the 215–338 nm spectral range...

  8. [Contingency management in opioid substitution treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specka, M; Böning, A; Scherbaum, N

    2011-07-01

    The majority of opiate-dependent patients in substitution treatment show additional substance-related disorders. Concomitant use of heroin, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cocaine compromises treatment success. Concomitant drug use may be treated by using contingency management (CM) which is based on learning theory. In CM, abstinence from drugs, as verified by drug screenings, is reinforced directly and contingently. Reinforcers used in CM studies with substituted patients were, amongst others, vouchers and take-home privileges. Studies in the USA show a medium average effect of CM on drug consumption rates and abstinence. The effects decrease markedly after the end of the intervention. We discuss whether CM is applicable within the German substitution treatment system and how it can be combined with other interventions such as selective detoxification treatments or cognitive-behavioural programmes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  11. Substitute energy resource policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Katsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Japan depends 88% of energy resources and 99.8% of petroleum on imports. The solution of energy problems is now made internationally. As the means for Japan, there are the substitution of other resources for petroleum and its promotion. However, this involves the considerable funds for the development and utilization, which must be borne by the people in the form of tax. For governmental financing, a special account must be set up for the particular purpose. In the research and development of new energy resources, new institution is required. The following matters are described: petroleum shortage coming even in 1980s, the international need of substitute energy development, the need for establishing measures for substitute energy resources, acquisition of the funds, special-account governmental financing, and an institute of new energy development. (author)

  12. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  13. Head waves in ultrasonic testing. Physical principle and application to welded joint testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Erhard, A.

    1984-01-01

    A head wave sensor is developed from distinct emitter and receiver sensors using longitudinal waves under a 70 0 incidence. These heat wave sensors present a high sensitivity for underlying cracks and are not influenced by surface accidents like liquid drops or welding projection. They are multi mode sensors emitting simultaneously longitudinal head waves, a main longitudinal lobe and a transverse wave with a maximum at about 38 0 . This wave combination can be used for automatic testing of welded joints even with austenitic materials for defect detection near internal or external surfaces. This process can substitute or complete liquid penetrant inspection or magnetic inspection for testing pipes (13 references are given) [fr

  14. Codon adaptation and synonymous substitution rate in diatom plastid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian R; Sorhannus, Ulf; Fox, Martin

    2002-07-01

    Diatom plastid genes are examined with respect to codon adaptation and rates of silent substitution (Ks). It is shown that diatom genes follow the same pattern of codon usage as other plastid genes studied previously. Highly expressed diatom genes display codon adaptation, or a bias toward specific major codons, and these major codons are the same as those in red algae, green algae, and land plants. It is also found that there is a strong correlation between Ks and variation in codon adaptation across diatom genes, providing the first evidence for such a relationship in the algae. It is argued that this finding supports the notion that the correlation arises from selective constraints, not from variation in mutation rate among genes. Finally, the diatom genes are examined with respect to variation in Ks among different synonymous groups. Diatom genes with strong codon adaptation do not show the same variation in synonymous substitution rate among codon groups as the flowering plant psbA gene which, previous studies have shown, has strong codon adaptation but unusually high rates of silent change in certain synonymous groups. The lack of a similar finding in diatoms supports the suggestion that the feature is unique to the flowering plant psbA due to recent relaxations in selective pressure in that lineage.

  15. Improving the interpersonal competences of head nurses through Peplau's theoretical active learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhariyanto; Hariyati, Rr Tutik Sri; Ungsianik, Titin

    2018-02-01

    Effective interpersonal skills are essential for head nurses in governing and managing their work units. Therefore, an active learning strategy could be the key to enhance the interpersonal competences of head nurses. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Peplau's theoretical approach of active learning on the improvement of head nurses' interpersonal skills. This study used a pre-experimental design with one group having pretests and posttests, without control group. A total sample of 25 head nurses from inpatient units of a wellknown private hospital in Jakarta was involved in the study. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test. The results showed a significant increase in head nurses' knowledge following the training to strengthen their interpersonal roles (P=.003). The results also revealed significant increases in the head nurses' skills in playing the roles of leader (P=.006), guardian (P=.014), and teacher/speaker (P=.015). Nonetheless, the results showed no significant increases in the head nurses' skills in playing the roles of counselor (P=.092) and stranger (P=.182). Training in strengthening the interpersonal roles of head nurses significantly increased the head nurses' knowledge and skills. The results of the study suggested the continuation of active learning strategies to improve the interpersonal abilities of head nurses. Furthermore, these strategies could be used to build the abilities of head nurses in other managerial fields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  17. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  18. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  19. A New Substitution Cipher - Random-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciphers are the encryption methods to prepare the algorithm for encryption and decryption. The currently known ciphers are not strong enough to protect the data. A new substitution cipher Random-X that we introduce in this paper can be used for password encryption and data encryption. Random-X cipher is a unique substitution cipher which replaces the units of plaintext with triplets of letters. The beauty of this cipher is that the encrypted string of the same plain text is not always same. This makes it strong and difficult to crack. This paper covers the principle the implementation ideas and testing of Random-X cipher.

  20. Hydrophosphorylation of substituted alkynes by phosphonic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifant'ev, E.F.; Solovetskaya, L.A.; Maslennikova, V.I.; Sergeev, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrophosphorylation of functionally substituted alkynes by phosphonic acids can be a convenient method for synthesis of functionally substituted mono- and diphosphine oxides. The ease of hydrophosphorylation is determined by the strength of the negative inductive effect of the substituents on the triple bond and the steric factor. The structure of the bis-adducts was confirmed by elementary analysis and the 31 P and 13 C NMR spectra. The 31 P NMR spectrum is an AB two-spin system. The values of the chemical shifts and spin-spin interaction constants 3 J/sub PP/ are in agreement with the data in the literature for similar compounds

  1. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  2. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  3. Oral mucosa: an alternative epidermic cell source to develop autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes from diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GUZMÁN-URIBE

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral mucosa has been highlighted as a suitable source of epidermal cells due to its intrinsic characteristics such as its higher proliferation rate and its obtainability. Diabetic ulcers have a worldwide prevalence that is variable (1%-11%, meanwhile treatment of this has been proven ineffective. Tissue-engineered skin plays an important role in wound care focusing on strategies such autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes. Objective The aim of this study was to obtain autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes from oral mucosa from diabetic subjects as a first step towards a possible clinical application for cases of diabetic foot. Material and Methods Oral mucosa was obtained from diabetic and healthy subjects (n=20 per group. Epidermal cells were isolated and cultured using autologous fibrin to develop dermal-epidermal in vitro substitutes by the air-liquid technique with autologous human serum as a supplement media. Substitutes were immunocharacterized with collagen IV and cytokeratin 5-14 as specific markers. A Student´s t- test was performed to assess the differences between both groups. Results It was possible to isolate epidermal cells from the oral mucosa of diabetic and healthy subjects and develop autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes using autologous serum as a supplement. Differences in the expression of specific markers were observed and the cytokeratin 5-14 expression was lower in the diabetic substitutes, and the collagen IV expression was higher in the diabetic substitutes when compared with the healthy group, showing a significant difference. Conclusion Cells from oral mucosa could be an alternative and less invasive source for skin substitutes and wound healing. A difference in collagen production of diabetic cells suggests diabetic substitutes could improve diabetic wound healing. More research is needed to determine the crosstalk between components of these skin substitutes and damaged tissues.

  4. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  5. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paillet-Loilier M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magalie Paillet-Loilier,1 Alexandre Cesbron,1 Reynald Le Boisselier,2 Joanna Bourgine,1 Danièle Debruyne1,2 1Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, 2Centre d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance – Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre, Caen, France Abstract: Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension and psychiatric

  6. Sheep head frame validation for CT and MRI studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marco trovatelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Introductions Aim of EDEN 2020 project’s Milestone 5 is the development of a steerable catheter for CED system in glioblastoma therapy. The VET group is involved in realization and validation of the proper animal model. Materials and methods In this part of the study two fresh sheep’s head from the local slaughter were used. The heads were located into an ad hoc Frame system based on anatomical measures and CT images, producted by Renishaw plc partner in this project. The frame was adapted and every components were checked for the ex vivo validation tests. CT imaging was taken in Lodi at Università degli studi di Milano, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, with CT scanner and MRI imaging was taken in La Cittadina, Cremona Results System validation was approved by the ex vivo trial. The frame system doesn’t compromise the imaging acquisition in MRI and CT systems. Every system components are functional to their aims. Discussion The Frame system is adapted to the sheep head. It is composed by elements able to lock the head during the imaging acquisition. Frame system is characterized by a support base helpings the animals to keep the head straight forward during imaging time, under general anesthesia. The design of these device support the airways anatomy, avoiding damaging or obstruction of airflows during anesthesia period. The role of elements like mouth bar and ovine head pins is to lock the head in a stable position during imaging acquisition; fixing is guaranteed by V shape head pins, that are arranged against the zygomatic arches. Lateral compression forces to the cranium, and the V shape pins avoid the vertical shifting of the head and any kind of rotations. (fig. 1

  7. Substituting freshwater: Can ocean desalination and water recycling capacities substitute for groundwater depletion in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiuzzaman, Pierre; McLaughlin, Eoin; McCauley, Darren

    2017-12-01

    While the sustainability of resource depletion is a longstanding environmental concern, wider attention has recently been given to growing water scarcity and groundwater depletion. This study seeks to test the substitutability assumption embedded in weak sustainability indicators using a case study of Californian water supply. The volume of groundwater depletion is used as a proxy for unsustainable water consumption, and defined by synthesising existing research estimates into low, medium and high depletion baselines. These are compared against projected water supply increases from ocean desalination and water recycling by 2035, to determine whether new, drought-proof water sources can substitute for currently unsustainable groundwater consumption. Results show that the maximum projected supply of new water, 2.47 million acre-feet per year (MAF/yr), is sufficient to meet low depletion estimates of 2.02 MAF/yr, but fails to come near the high depletion estimate of 3.44 MAF/yr. This does not necessarily indicate physical limitations of substitutability, but more so socio-economic limitations influenced by high comparative costs. By including capacities in demand-substitutability via urban water conservation, maximum predicted capacities reach 5.57 MAF/yr, indicating wide room for substitution. Based on these results, investment in social and institutional capital is an important factor to enhance demand-side substitutability of water and other natural resources, which has been somewhat neglected by the literature on the substitutability of natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and head gear come in many sizes and styles for many sports and must properly fit to ... to play or practice." The "Concussion Diagnosis and Management" section details circumstances in which an athlete should ...

  9. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and may add approximately 15 minutes to the total exam time. top of page What will I ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Oral, Head ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... gadolinium contrast, it may still be possible to use it after appropriate pre-medication. Patient consent will ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  1. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... for immediate assistance. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the interpreting radiologist. Frequently, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  10. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  11. Multiple Drosophila Tracking System with Heading Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudith Sirigrivatanawong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems have been widely used for image analysis, especially that which is beyond human ability. In biology, studies of behavior help scientists to understand the relationship between sensory stimuli and animal responses. This typically requires the analysis and quantification of animal locomotion. In our work, we focus on the analysis of the locomotion of the fruit fly D r o s o p h i l a m e l a n o g a s t e r , a widely used model organism in biological research. Our system consists of two components: fly detection and tracking. Our system provides the ability to extract a group of flies as the objects of concern and furthermore determines the heading direction of each fly. As each fly moves, the system states are refined with a Kalman filter to obtain the optimal estimation. For the tracking step, combining information such as position and heading direction with assignment algorithms gives a successful tracking result. The use of heading direction increases the system efficiency when dealing with identity loss and flies swapping situations. The system can also operate with a variety of videos with different light intensities.

  12. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John

    2001-01-01

    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed by asy...... the allylic stereocenter and the alkene geometry. Thus, a single $gamma@-substituted ester was obtained as the overall product, in high isomeric purity. The method was applied to a synthesis of a subunit of the iejimalides, a group of cytotoxic macrolides.......A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed...... by asymmetric HWE reactions into mixtures of two major $alpha@,$beta@-unsaturated esters, possessing opposite configurations at their allylic stereocenters as well as opposite alkene geometry. Subsequently, these isomeric mixtures of alkenes could be subjected to palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution...

  13. Cross-Cultural Comparison between German, French and Dutch Consumer Preferences for Meat Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Weinrich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is becoming an increasingly important consideration for consumers when purchasing food. As meat production has a significant impact on the environment, meat substitutes are becoming more and more popular in Europe. However, consumers who regularly buy meat substitutes are still the exception. Although there are some initial results indicating why this proportion is still low, most research has been concentrated in the Netherlands. This paper aims to compare reasons for consuming or not consuming meat substitutes in three European countries—Germany, the Netherlands and France. As very little is known about the underlying reasons, an explorative approach was chosen. Focus group discussions were carried out in all three countries, six altogether. The results show that all participants can enumerate meat substitutes. The main reason for not consuming meat substitutes is the taste of meat. Further, eating habits seem to be fixed and convenience might also be an impediment to reducing meat consumption in favour of meat substitutes, as is confusion regarding healthy eating.

  14. Topiramate Responsive Exploding Head Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Palikh, Gaurang M.; Vaughn, Bradley V.

    2010-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  15. Topiramate responsive exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikh, Gaurang M; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2010-08-15

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  16. MRI of persistent cloaca: Can it substitute conventional imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar, E-mail: shaimaa96@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University (Egypt); AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid, E-mail: amrabdelhamid@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To define the role of MRI in the preoperative assessment of patients with persistent cloaca and whether it can substitute other imaging modalities. Methods: We prospectively examined eleven patients with persistent cloaca between July 2007 and March 2012. Non contrast MRI examinations were performed on 1.5 T magnet using head coil. Multiple pulse sequences (T1WI, T2WI, fat suppression) were obtained in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis, abdomen, and spine. The scans were reviewed for the following: the level and type of rectal termination, the developmental state of striated muscle complex (SMC), associated genitourinary and spinal anomalies. MRI findings were compared to conventional fluoroscopic imaging, operative and endoscopic findings. We applied novel MRI parameters (urethral length, relative hiatal distance and vaginal volume). The relation between different parameters was tested statistically using Pearson correlation test. Results: MRI could accurately demonstrate the level of bowel termination in patients with persistent cloaca, in addition to its high sensitivity for detection of mullerian anomalies which were present in 73% of patients. Furthermore, MRI could disclose associating renal and spinal anomalies, and assess the developmental state of SMC. The shorter the urethra (higher urogenital confluence), the narrower the pelvic hiatus, and the more was the obstruction (vaginal distension). Conclusion: MRI is a valuable tool in exploring the different internal anatomical features of the cloacal anomaly; and when combined with endoscopy, MRI can make other preoperative conventional imaging unnecessary.

  17. Synthetic bone substitute material comparable with xenogeneic material for bone tissue regeneration in oral cancer patients: First and preliminary histological, histomorphometrical and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Lorenz, Jonas; Stuebinger, Stefan; Seitz, Oliver; Landes, Constantin; Kovács, Adorján F; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    The present study was first to evaluate the material-specific cellular tissue response of patients with head and neck cancer to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute NanoBone (NB) in comparison with a deproteinized bovine bone matrix Bio-Oss (BO) after implantation into the sinus cavity. Eight patients with tumor resection for oral cancer and severely resorbed maxillary bone received materials according to a split mouth design for 6 months. Bone cores were harvested prior to implantation and analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically. Implant survival was followed-up to 2 years after placement. Histologically, NB underwent a higher vascularization and induced significantly more tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP-positive) multinucleated giant cells when compared with BO, which induced mainly mononuclear cells. No significant difference was observed in the extent of new bone formation between both groups. The clinical follow-up showed undisturbed healing of all implants in the BO-group, whereas the loss of one implant was observed in the NB-group. Within its limits, the present study showed for the first time that both material classes evaluated, despite their induction of different cellular tissue reactions, may be useful as augmentation materials for dental and maxillofacial surgical applications, particularly in patients who previously had oral cancer.

  18. P. Electricity demand, substitution and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the demand for electricity in New Zealand, the accuracy of demand predictions, and whether some other form of energy could be substituted for electricity. It then discusses past and possible future electricity generation in New Zealand by geothermal steam and hydro power and the resources of gas and coal that could be made available for electricity generation

  19. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  20. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  1. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  2. Trace maps for arbitrary substitution sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of quasi-crystals and their 1-dimensional modeling have led to a deep mathematical study of Schroedinger operators with an arbitrary deterministic potential sequence. In this work we address this problem and find trace maps for an arbitrary substitution sequence. our trace maps have lower dimensionality than those of Kolar and Nori, which make them quite attractive for actual applications. (authors)

  3. Fossil Fuels, Backstop Technologies, and Imperfect Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the transition from fossil fuels to backstop technologies in a general equilibrium model in which growth is driven by research and development. The analysis generalizes the existing literature by allowing for imperfect substitution between fossil fuels and the new energy

  4. 3-Substituted 2-phenyl-indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Jørgensen, T.B.; Gloriam, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    -indoles with a variety of substituents at the indole 3-position. Herein we describe the development of optimised and efficient synthetic routes to a series of new 2-phenyl-indole building blocks 3 to 9 and show that these can be used to generate a broad variety of 3-substituted 2-phenyl-indoles of interest to medicinal...

  5. Law of substitution for mixed arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear safety justification of a mixed array of dissimilar fissile units of metal units and dilute solution units, according to Clayton, has been a persistent and nagging problem. Dissimilar uranium metal or dissimilar uranium solution units in a mixed array can also create a modeling nightmare for the nuclear criticality safety engineer. Now, a calculational method known as the Law of Substitution has been developed to ensure that the k/sub eff/ of an array of uranium metal and uranium solution units will satisfy any k/sub eff/ limit set by the nuclear safety engineer. The nuclear criticality safety engineer can utilize the Law of Substitution to safely mix or substitute different uranium metal units, different uranium solution units, and more importantly, uranium metal and dilute UO 2 solution units in an array. The Law of Substitution is as follows: (1) calculate the k/sub eff/ of each unit type in its own infinite planar array. (2) Determine the edge-to-edge spacing of the infinite planar array of each type of unit to satisfy a desired k/sub eff/. (3) Select the largest edge-to-edge spacing from among the similar units in their infinite planar arrays and use that spacing for the finite or infinite planar array of mixed units

  6. Thermal stability of 4-substituted benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of tetraborates of 4-methyl-, 4-phenyl- and 4-dimethylaminobenzenediazonium at 95, 120 and 148 deg, correspondingly, causes their autocatalytic destruction, two moles of gas (nitrogen, boron fluoride) being liberated. The thermal stability of 4-substituted benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates increases with the increase of the electron-donor activity of the substituent at benzene ring

  7. complexes based on meso-substituted dipyrrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Coordination polymers; meso-substituted dipyrrins; heteroleptic; acetylacetonato; ... Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements were ... After cooling to ambient tem- perature it ... crystals of 1 were obtained from CH2Cl2/ hexane (1. : 1) solution. .... are air-stable, crystalline solids, soluble in common.

  8. Facile Synthesis of N -Substituted Benzimidazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurhade, Santosh; Rossetti, Arianna; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A particularly mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was developed. 2-Fluoro-5-nitrophenylisocyanide reacts with a diverse set of primary amines to afford the respective products in moderate to very good yield (35-95%; 20 examples).

  9. Symptomatic hemorrhagic complications associated with dural substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The increased risk of hemorrhagic complications associated with craniotomy is modified by choice of dural replacement. Our results could assist clinicians in their decision-making with respect to the optimal timing for synthetic dural substitutes in patients with tumor infiltration of the patient's dura, severe brain swelling in traumatic brain injury, or a result of shrinkage from exposure and electrocautery.

  10. Stochastic diffusion models for substitutable technological innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of firms' stochastic adoption behaviour, this paper first points out the necessity to build more practical stochastic models. And then, stochastic evolutionary models are built for substitutable innovation diffusion system. Finally, through the computer simulation of the

  11. Ultrasound Promoted Synthesis of Bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-Substituted Thioureas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-substituted thioureas have been synthesized by the reactions of substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl isothiocyanates with different diamines under ultrasound irradiation and classical heating method at 20-25 °C. In general, substantial improvement in rates and modest yields increases were observed when reactions were carried out under sonication, compared with the classical heating method. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR analysis.

  12. Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-11-15

    Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/{tau} + 1/L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L{sup 2} >> {tau}, e.g. D{sub 2}O, contributes with {radical}{tau} to the thickness. In cores where {tau} >> L{sup 2} , e.g. H{sub 2}O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D{sub 2}O and on test regions of D{sub 2}O alone (where B{sup 2} = - 1/L{sup 2} ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of {radical}2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D{sub 2}O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis.

  13. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  14. Personality change following head injury: assessment with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, E; de Deyne, C; Colardyn, F; de Soete, G; Jannes, C

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated personality change following head injury in 68 patients at 6 months postinjury using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess the five personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. All items had to be rated twice, once for the preinjury and once for the current status. Twenty-eight trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head-injured group, 63 relatives also completed the questionnaire. The results showed no differences between the ratings of head-injured patients and the ratings of trauma control patients. Both groups showed significant change in the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Compared to their relatives, head-injured patients report a smaller change in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Changes were not reported on the Openness and Agreeableness scales, by neither the head-injured or their relatives, nor by the trauma controls.

  15. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  16. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  17. [The substitution effect of leadership substitutes for transformational leadership in nursing organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2006-04-01

    This paper was conducted to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors, within the substitutes for leadership model (Kerr & Jermier, 1978). Data was collected from 181 staff nurses in 3 general hospitals, with self-reporting questionnaires (MLQ developed by Bass, rd-SLS developed by Podsakoff, et al., and MSQ developed by Weiss, et al.). Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and moderated regression analysis were used. 1) The transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership each had correlations with job satisfaction. 2) The total amount of variance accounted for by the substitutes for leadership was substantially greater than by the transformational leadership behaviors. 3) Few of the substitutes variables moderated the relationships between the transformational leader behaviors and job satisfaction in a manner consistent with that specified by Howell, Dorfman, and Kerr (1986). The finding of this study suggest that leaders need to have a better understanding of those contextual variables that influence job satisfaction. Thus future research should focus attention on the moderating effects of substitutes, as well as the things that leaders can do to influence them. In addition, it may be good to examine the effects of substitutes on other criterion variables.

  18. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  19. The Dielectric Behavior of Cyano-Substituted Poly imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, E.S.; Abdelrahman, A.A.M.; Elmasry, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of amorphous poly imides containing polar functional groups, cyano group, have been synthesized and investigated for potential use as high temperature piezoelectric sensors. The piezoelectric constants are related to the polarization. The remanent polarization and hence piezoelectric response of a material is determined by dielectric relaxation strength which is the difference in dielectric constant at the glass transition temperature vicinity. The intent of this work is to clarify the mechanism and key components required for developing piezoelectricity in amorphous polymers and further to apply this understanding in designing a unique high temperature piezoelectric polyimide. In this paper, experimental investigations of dielectric constant of piezoelectric cyano -substituted poly imides have been tested as a function of temperature to measure the dielectric relaxation strength in the glass transition temperature region.

  20. Cull Vegetables As Substitute For Conventional Forages In Goats Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSultan, S.I

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of certain responses of kids and nannies to a cull-vegetable diet as a substitute to the conventional diet (Barseem and Rhodes) was investigated. Kids after eight weeks of the experiment showed a significant increase in weight on all the three types of diet with more pronounced growth in the conventional diet containing Barseem and concentrate. On the other hand nannies exposed to the three types of diet following eight weeks of feeding displayed no significant increase in body weight as compared with the initial weight within each group or among the different groups. Similarly milk quality remained the same with no observable influence induced by the type of diet except that there was a slight increase in fat content of the cull -vegetable diet which require further investigation. (author)

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one of your body's most important early warning systems. Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores. Should you discover something, make an appointment for a prompt examination. Early treatment may well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  2. Different saliva substitutes for treatment of xerostomia following radiotherapy. A prospective crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Volegova-Neher, N.J.; Guttenberger, R.; Schulte-Moenting, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: xerostomia is an important chronic side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area. The authors investigated the efficacy of different artificial saliva compounds in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. Patients and methods: in 120 patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, four different saliva substitute compounds (gel, carmellose spray, oil, mucin spray) were tested in a prospective crossover design. Xerostomia at baseline and under treatment with each compound was measured with a questionnaire approved in a pilot trial. Results: all compounds significantly improved xerostomia when compared to baseline situation (p < 0.0001). The gel was rated best, the carmellose spray was rated worst by the patients, but the single compounds did not differ significantly in their effects. In spite of this result, most patients chose the carmellose spray as their favorite compound. This is due to its good taste and easy handling, which play an important role for the acceptance of the products. Big individual differences in the preference of the single compounds were found. Conclusion: for most patients considerable relief from xerostomia can be reached by saliva substitutes. Thus, every patient with xerostomia should be given different artificial saliva compounds for a test period. This will help to find the individually best way to cope with the dry mouth. (orig.)

  3. Impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.

  4. Mummified trophy heads from Peru: diagnostic features and medicolegal significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verano, John W

    2003-05-01

    Several forms of mummified human trophy heads were produced by prehistoric and historic native groups in South America. This paper describes the diagnostic features of trophy heads produced by the Nasca culture of ancient Peru. A growing interest in these mummified heads among collectors of Pre-Columbian art and antiquities has led to their illegal exportation from Peru, in violation of national and international antiquities laws. Requests from the Peruvian government to protect its cultural patrimony led the United States in 1997 to declare these heads as items subject to U.S. import restriction, along with six other categories of human remains. Despite such restrictions, Nasca trophy heads continue to reach private collectors outside of Peru and thus may be encountered by local, state, or federal law enforcement officials unfamiliar with their characteristic features and origin. The objective of this paper is to describe the features that allow Nasca trophy heads to be identified and distinguished from other archaeological and forensic specimens that may be submitted to a forensic anthropologist for identification.

  5. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  6. Primary stability of different plate positions and the role of bone substitute in open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryohei; Woon-Hwa, Jung; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Osawa, Katsunari; Akamatsu, Yasushi; Kuroda, Koichi

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical fixation strengths of anteromedial and medial plate positions in osteotomy, and clarify the effects of bone substitute placement into the osteotomy site. Twenty-eight sawbone tibia models were used. Four different models were prepared: Group A, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was anteromedial; Group B, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was anteromedial; Group C, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was medial; and Group D, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was medial. The loading condition ranged from 0 to 800N and one hertz cycles were applied. Changes of the tibial posterior slope angle (TPS), stress on the plate and lateral hinge were measured. The changes in the TPS and the stress on the plate were significantly larger in Group A than in Group C. These were significantly larger in Group A than in Group B, and in Group C than in Group D. There was no significant difference between Group B and Group D, and no significant difference between knee flexion angles of 0° and 10°. Stress on the lateral hinge was significantly smaller when bone substitute was used. A medial plate position was biomechanically superior to an anteromedial position if bone substitute was not used. Bone substitute distributed the stress concentration around the osteotomy gap and prevented an increase in TPS angle regardless of the plate position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Assessment of forward head posture in females: observational and photogrammetry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahzadeh, Zahra; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Behtash, Hamid; Razmjoo, Arash; Gohari, Mahmoud; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    There are different methods to assess forward head posture (FHP) but the accuracy and discrimination ability of these methods are not clear. Here, we want to compare three postural angles for FHP assessment and also study the discrimination accuracy of three photogrammetric methods to differentiate groups categorized based on observational method. All Seventy-eight healthy female participants (23 ± 2.63 years), were classified into three groups: moderate-severe FHP, slight FHP and non FHP based on observational postural assessment rules. Applying three photogrammetric methods - craniovertebral angle, head title angle and head position angle - to measure FHP objectively. One - way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in three categorized group's craniovertebral angle (P< 0.05, F=83.07). There was no dramatic difference in head tilt angle and head position angle methods in three groups. According to Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA) results, the canonical discriminant function (Wilks'Lambda) was 0.311 for craniovertebral angle with 79.5% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified. Our results showed that, craniovertebral angle method may discriminate the females with moderate-severe and non FHP more accurate than head position angle and head tilt angle. The photogrammetric method had excellent inter and intra rater reliability to assess the head and cervical posture.

  8. Bone apatite composition of necrotic trabecular bone in the femoral head of immature piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruwajoye, Olumide O; Kim, Harry K W; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IOFH) can lead to excessive resorption of the trabecular bone and collapse of the femoral head as a structure. A well-known mineral component to trabecular bone is hydroxyapatite, which can be present in many forms due to ionic substitution, thus altering chemical composition. Unfortunately, very little is known about the chemical changes to bone apatite following IOFH. We hypothesized that the apatite composition changes in necrotic bone possibly contribute to increased osteoclast resorption and structural collapse of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to assess the macroscopic and local phosphate composition of actively resorbed necrotic trabecular bone to isolate differences between areas of increased osteoclast resorption and normal bone formation. A piglet model of IOFH was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES), and Raman spectroscopy were performed on femoral heads to characterize normal and necrotic trabecular bone. Backscattered SEM, micro-computed tomography and histology showed deformity and active resorption of necrotic bone compared to normal. XANES and Raman spectroscopy obtained from actively resorbed necrotic bone and normal bone showed increased carbonate-to-phosphate content in the necrotic bone. The changes in the apatite composition due to carbonate substitution may play a role in the increased resorption of necrotic bone due to its increase in solubility. Indeed, a better understanding of the apatite composition of necrotic bone could shed light on osteoclast activity and potentially improve therapeutic treatments that target excessive resorption of bone.

  9. Characterization of hydroxyapatite substituted with silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.M. da; Soares, G.A.; Mateescu, M.; Anselme, K.; Palard, M.; Champion, E.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of silicon (Si) ions into hydroxyapatite structure (HA) influences on physical, chemical and physiological properties. Some studies reported the improved bioactivity Si substitution, and it also accelerates the biomineralization process. The main objective of this work is to characterize stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite substituted with 1.13% in weight of Si (SiHA) using a wet precipitation method followed by a heat treatment. SEM/EDS, AFM, DRX and FTIR analyses were used to characterize the samples. EDS and FTIR results confirmed the presence of Si. Silicon induces small changes on crystal structure of HA, not detected on X-ray diffraction patterns of sintered tablets of SiHA and HA. No secondary phases were observed, that indicates the Si had entered the HA lattice. (author)

  10. The substitution bias of the consumer price index

    OpenAIRE

    Frenger, Petter

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The paper uses elementary consumer theory to propose an inflation independent ratio definition of the substitution bias of the Laspeyres consumer price index, and derives an approximate substitution bias which depends on the size of the price change as measured by a norm in the Laspeyres plane and on the elasticity of substitution in the direction of the price change. This norm or distance measure can be interpreted as a price substitution index which yields useful in...

  11. Unemployment, Factor Substitution, and Capital Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Kaas; Leopold von Thadden

    2001-01-01

    We incorporate a wage bargaining structure in a dynamic general equilibrium model and show how this feature changes short and long-run properties of equilibria compared with a perfectly competitive setting. We discuss how employment, capital, and income shares respond to wage setting shocks and show that adjustment dynamics depend decisively on the magnitude of the elasticity of substitution between labour and capital. Values of the elasticity below unity add persistence, tend to preserve sta...

  12. Mindfulness as substitute for transformational leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kroon, B.; van Woerkom, M.; Menting, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Transformational leaders spark the intrinsic motivation of employees, thereby stimulating their extra-role performance. However, not all employees are lucky enough to have a transformational leader. The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent mindfulness can function as a substitute for transformational leadership. By being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, mindfulness provides employees with a source of intrinsic motivation that lies within...

  13. Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Lovesey, S.W.

    1985-06-01

    The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)

  14. Substitution biases in price indices during transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Filer, Randall K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2004), s. 167-177 ISSN 0167-8000 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : price liberalization * substitution bias * transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=17109091&site=ehost-live

  15. Synthesis of 2-azetidinones substituted quinoline derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashelkar Uday C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetanilide is converted into 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline by reacting with DMF-POCl3 at 80-90ºC and then condensed with aromatic primary amines to give Schiff bases (3a-3c. These Schiff bases are then reacted with acid chlorides in the presence of base in toluene to give 1, 3, 4-substituted 2-azetidinones.

  16. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  17. Theoretical Study on the Rational Design of Cyano-Substituted P3HT Materials for OSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Meng; Brandt, Rasmus Guldbæk; Niu, Yingli

    2015-01-01

    Calculations have been made regarding the strong electron-withdrawing cyano (-CN) group, which was introduced onto the backbone of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), as an effective way to improve the parameters essential for the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells (OSCs). The substitution...... useful information for better design strategy for OSCs....

  18. Hydroxylation of nitro-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes via vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beier, Petr; Pastýříková, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 34 (2011), s. 4392-4394 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : pentafluorosulfanyl group * vicarious nucleophilic substitution * hydroxylation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.683, year: 2011

  19. Supply chain network downsizing with product line pruning using a new demand substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Ma, N.; Sotirov, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for downsizing a multi-product supply chain facing bankruptcy risk, where multi-functional production facilities are shared for producing a group of substitutable products. In order to determine the potential demand after discontinuation of certain product

  20. Oxidative nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen in nitro(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes with alkyl Grignard and lithium reagents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vida, Norbert; Beier, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 143, SI (2012), s. 130-134 ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/0072 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : pentafluorosulfanyl group * nucleophilic aromatic substitutions * oxidations Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.939, year: 2012