WorldWideScience

Sample records for substance exposure prevention

  1. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  2. [Exposure to addictogenic substances, conditioned response and treatment of the exposure with response prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Y; Frésard, E; Zullino, D

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to drugs or related cues is associated with psycho-physiological reactivity. These responses are conditioned during periods of active consumption. Exposure with response prevention (EPR) is a treatment established for anxiety disorder and aims to reduce anxiety by an extinction of previously conditioned responses. The conditioning recognized in additive processes has led to research into EPR's therapeutic potential for treating addiction. This paper is a review of the main studies on reactivity to cues, and EPR, particularly with respect to addiction to alcohol, opiates, cocaine and tobacco. This review is based on information from the Medline database, dealing with cue reactivity, attentional bias during exposure to cues and exposure treatment for addiction in general and, in particular, for each of the aforementioned substances. Exposure to drug-related cues is clearly associated with psycho-physiological reactivity and with attentional bias. Those phenomena are associated with craving and more difficulty in maintaining abstinence. The subject's attention is thus held by a large number of drug-related environmental stimuli. These observations are linked with conditioning phenomena and suggest the possibility of treatment by EPR conditioning extinction procedures. EPR has been most widely studied for abuse and alcohol addiction. Case reports give favourable outcomes. Results from controlled studies are less clear. Studies on patients addicted to cocaine or heroine are still limited and not conclusive. Different controlled studies on EPR for nicotine addiction have not produced conclusions in favour of this treatment. Generally, the EPR procedures used vary among studies. Studies focussing particularly on the evolution of physiological responses in a laboratory setting after EPR have demonstrated reduced autonomic nervous system activity. These results do not consistently lead to a reduction in consumption behaviour and in craving when the patient is in

  3. Prevention-intervention strategies to reduce exposure to e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Michelle; Trottier, Brittany; Adhikary, Sharad; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Basu, Nil; Brune, Marie-Noel; Caravanos, Jack; Carpenter, David; Cazabon, Danielle; Chakraborty, Paromita; Chen, Aimin; Barriga, Fernando Diaz; Ericson, Bret; Fobil, Julius; Haryanto, Budi; Huo, Xia; Joshi, T K; Landrigan, Philip; Lopez, Adeline; Magalini, Frederico; Navasumrit, Panida; Pascale, Antonio; Sambandam, Sankar; Aslia Kamil, Upik Sitti; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter; Suk, Ann; Suraweera, Inoka; Tamin, Ridwan; Vicario, Elena; Suk, William

    2018-05-11

    As one of the largest waste streams, electronic waste (e-waste) production continues to grow in response to global demand for consumer electronics. This waste is often shipped to developing countries where it is disassembled and recycled. In many cases, e-waste recycling activities are conducted in informal settings with very few controls or protections in place for workers. These activities involve exposure to hazardous substances such as cadmium, lead, and brominated flame retardants and are frequently performed by women and children. Although recycling practices and exposures vary by scale and geographic region, we present case studies of e-waste recycling scenarios and intervention approaches to reduce or prevent exposures to the hazardous substances in e-waste that may be broadly applicable to diverse situations. Drawing on parallels identified in these cases, we discuss the future prevention and intervention strategies that recognize the difficult economic realities of informal e-waste recycling.

  4. Translation of associative learning models into extinction reminders delivered via mobile phones during cue exposure interventions for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Kutlu, Munir G

    2014-09-01

    Despite experimental findings and some treatment research supporting the use of cues as a means to induce and extinguish cravings, interventions using cue exposure have not been well integrated into contemporary substance abuse treatments. A primary problem with exposure-based interventions for addiction is that after learning not to use substances in the presence of addiction cues inside the clinic (i.e., extinction), stimuli in the naturalistic setting outside the clinic may continue to elicit craving, drug use, or other maladaptive conditioned responses. For exposure-based substance use interventions to be efficacious, new approaches are needed that can prevent relapse by directly generalizing learning from the therapeutic setting into naturalistic settings associated with a high risk for relapse. Basic research suggests that extinction reminders (ERs) can be paired with the context of learning new and more adaptive conditioned responses to substance abuse cues in exposure therapies for addiction. Using mobile phones and automated dialing and data collection software, ERs can be delivered in everyday high-risk settings to inhibit conditioned responses to substance-use-related stimuli. In this review, we describe how associative learning mechanisms (e.g., conditioned inhibition) can inform how ERs are conceptualized, learned, and implemented to prevent substance use when delivered via mobile phones. This approach, exposure with portable reminders of extinction, is introduced as an adjunctive intervention that uses brief automated ERs between clinic visits when individuals are in high-risk settings for drug use.

  5. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. Objective To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). Methods We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use

  6. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William; Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-06-27

    Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use; attitudes toward social media

  7. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  8. Drama-based education to motivate participation in substance abuse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Amura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing

  9. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  10. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross-cultural and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Willebrand, Mimmie; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2018-04-01

    The negative effects of community violence exposure on child and adolescent mental health are well documented and exposure to community violence has been linked both to a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate cross-cultural and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure and substance abuse. A self-report survey was conducted among 10,575, 12-18 year old adolescents in three different countries, Czech Republic (N = 4537), Russia (N = 2377) and US (N = 3661). We found that in all three countries both substance use and problem behavior associated with it increased similarly along with severity of violence exposure and this association was not gender-specific. It was concluded that in spite of the differences in the levels of violence exposure and substance use cross-culturally and by gender, the pattern of their association is neither culturally nor gender bound.

  11. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  12. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  13. Perceived importance of substance use prevention in juvenile justice: a multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M; Wasserman, Gail; Elkington, Katherine S; Lehman, Wayne; Gardner, Sheena; McReynolds, Larkin; Wiley, Tisha; Knudsen, Hannah

    2018-05-15

    Youth under juvenile justice (JJ) supervision are at high-risk of adverse outcomes from substance use, making prevention important. Few studies have examined prevention-related attitudes of JJ employees, yet such attitudes may be important for implementing prevention programs. Attitudes toward prevention may reflect individual characteristics and organizational contexts. Mixed effects regression was used to analyze data from 492 employees in 36 sites participating in the Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) cooperative agreement. JJ employees' perceived importance of substance use prevention was measured. Staff-level variables included attitudes, job type, and demographic characteristics. Site-level variables focused on use of evidence-based screening tools, prevention programs, and drug testing. On average, JJ employees rated substance use prevention as highly important (mean = 45.9, out of 50). JJ employees generally agreed that preventing substance use was part of their agency's responsibility (mean = 3.8 on scale ranging from 1 to 5). At the site level, 72.2% used an evidence-based screening tool, 22.2% used one or more evidence-based prevention program, and 47.2% used drug testing. Reported importance of prevention was positively associated with site-level use of screening tools and drug testing as well as staff-level attitudes regarding prevention being consistent with the agency's mission. The associations between screening and prevention attitudes suggest that commitment to identifying youth needs may result in greater openness to preventing substance use. Future efforts to implement substance use prevention within JJ agencies charged with supervising youth in the community may benefit from highlighting the fit between prevention and the agency's mission.

  14. Adolescent substance use in Israel: The roles of exposure to political traumas and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have not examined the potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and moderating roles of gender and ethnicity among adolescents in the aftermath of political traumas, especially in the Middle East. This study of Israeli adolescents aimed to begin bridging these gaps in knowledge. We addressed the following hypotheses: (a) greater exposure to multiple political traumas would be associated with adolescent substance use; (b) greater PTS would be associated with adolescent substance use; (c) PTS would mediate the association of exposure to multiple political traumas on substance use; and (d) gender and ethnicity would moderate the pathways from exposure and PTS to substance use. A nationally representative sample included 4,733 Grade 10 and 11 students (half were females; 36.8% were Arabs). Results of bootstrapping estimations found a significant direct link between exposure to multiple political traumas and substance use, as well as an indirect link through PTS. Gender moderated the relationship between PTS and substance use, while ethnicity moderated the association between exposure and substance use. Specifically, female adolescent substance use decreased when their PTS increased. Arab adolescents who had greater exposure to multiple political traumas used more substances. PTS may be an important mechanism by which trauma exposure is associated with increased substance use. Screening adolescents for PTS and substance use, shortly after political trauma, is essential to address the potential risk factors in vulnerable adolescents.

  15. Risky substance exposure during pregnancy: a pilot study from Lebanese mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachidi S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Samar Rachidi,1 Sanaa Awada,1 Amal Al-Hajje,1 Wafaa Bawab,1 Salam Zein,1 Nadine Saleh,1,2 Pascale Salameh1,21Laboratory of Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Public Health Labanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: The harmful effects of medication and licit substance use during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern. Our study aims to assess risky exposure of Lebanese pregnant women to drugs, tobacco, caffeine, and alcohol, and to determine their effect on postnatal outcomes.Methods: Women at term were addressed after delivery in five university hospitals of Beirut and Mount Lebanon between February and June 2012. A standardized questionnaire was administered to them. Moreover, medical files of both mothers and their respective newborns were checked to confirm information given by mothers, and to assess the health outcome of the babies.Results: Among the interviewed 350 women, active and passive smoking of tobacco (cigarette or water pipe, and consumption of category C, D, and X drugs were common during pregnancy in Lebanon; they were shown to negatively affect the neonatal outcome in multivariate analyses: they significantly decreased Apgar scores and increased the risk of underweight and medical complications of babies (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Lebanese women were exposed during pregnancy to multiple medications and licit substances that affected the neonates' health. Our findings have implications for clinical obstetric practice and prevention programs in Lebanon. Efforts should be made to decrease exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy.Keywords: pregnancy, smoking, cigarette, water pipe, caffeine, alcohol, drugs, Apgar score

  16. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  17. Trends in Teenagers' Nonopiod Substance Exposures Reported to Poison Control Centers, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brad; Mestan, Samantha; Ahrens, Monica; Bottei, Edward

    2018-05-01

    To describe current trends in nonopioid substance exposures and associated outcomes among teenagers nationwide. In this cross-sectional study, we used 2010-2015 data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System and Poisson tests to document trends in the rate of calls to poison control centers involving adolescents stratified by sex, exposures by substance category, proportion of intentional exposures, and severity of exposures. The number of calls per 1000 persons increased from 5.7 to 6.8 for teenage girls and decreased from 4.7 to 4.3 for boys. Reported exposures to prescription and over-the-counter medications and illicit street drugs increased between 24% and 73%, and reported opioid exposures decreased by 16%. Among teenage girls, intentional exposures increased from 57% to 68%, with cases increasingly managed in health care facilities and more likely to result in worse health outcomes. The increase in intentional nonopioid substance exposures among teenage girls, with serious and potentially life-threatening consequences, is a matter of serious concern. Similar trends were not observed among teenage boys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children and the unborn child, Exposure and susceptibility to chemical substances – an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Thorup, I.; Schnipper, Anette

    Children are at risk of exposure to a lot of high-production-volume synthetic chemical substances which have been introduced into the market within the past 50 years; these chemical substances are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. Children as well as the unbor...... knowledge about the biological susceptibility and exposure of chemical substances to children during the embryonic, foetal, and postnatal periods....

  19. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  20. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  1. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health for... involves exposure to ionizing radiations in excess of 0.5 rem per year. (b) Definitions. As used in this...

  2. Substance exposure in utero and developmental consequences in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk

    2012-01-01

    Background: The impacts of maternal substance use have been observed in both research and clinical experience. Several studies have shown that preschool children are at heightened risk of developing various cognitive, behavioral, and socioemotional difficulties. Most knowledge has been generated...... brain-imaging studies have provided important evidence of serious effects of other substance exposure on the developing brain and recent follow-up studies have found an association with deficits in language, attention, areas of cognitive performance and delinquent behavior in adolescence....

  3. Pathways to Preventing Substance Use Among Youth in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K; Buchanan, Rohanna; Price, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    Substance use problems are highly prevalent among youth in foster care. Such problems in adolescence have long-lasting implications for subsequent adjustment throughout adulthood and even across generations. Although several programs have demonstrated positive results in reducing substance use in at-risk youth, few studies have systemically examined how such programs work for foster youth and whether they are effective for both genders. This study examined the efficacy of KEEP SAFE, a family-based and skill-focused program designed to prevent substance use and other related health risking behaviors among youth in foster care. We hypothesized that improving the caregiver-youth relationship would lead to later reductions in youths' involvement with deviant peers, which subsequently would lead to less substance use, and that this mechanism would work comparably for both genders. A sample of 259 youth (154 girls, ages 11-17 years) in foster care and their caregivers participated in a randomized controlled trial and was followed for 18 months post-baseline. Results indicated that the intervention significantly reduced substance use in foster youth at 18 months post-baseline and that the intervention influenced substance use through two processes: youths' improved quality of relationships with caregivers at 6 months post-baseline and fewer associations with deviant peers at 12 months post-baseline. This suggests that these two processes may be fruitful immediate targets in substance use prevention programs for foster youth. We also found little gender differences in direct and mediating effects of the intervention, suggesting KEEP SAFE may be effective for both genders in foster care.

  4. Gender differences in the effects of exposure to violence on adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A

    2013-01-01

    To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence-substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence-direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)-independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences.

  5. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  6. Substance misuse prevention and economic analysis: challenges and opportunities regarding international utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max; Spoth, Richard; Cornish, Marilyn A

    2012-01-01

    Economic analyses of substance misuse prevention assess the intervention cost necessary to achieve a particular outcome, and thereby provide an additional dimension for evaluating prevention programming. This article reviews several types of economic analysis, considers how they can be applied to substance misuse prevention, and discusses challenges to enhancing their international relevance, particularly their usefulness for informing policy decisions. Important first steps taken to address these challenges are presented, including the disease burden concept and the development of generalized cost-effectiveness, advances that facilitate international policy discussions by providing a common framework for evaluating health care needs and program effects.

  7. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurocognitive correlates of inhibitory control success and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; Berkman, Elliot T; Capaldi, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with prenatal substance (drug and alcohol) exposure exhibit inhibitory control (IC) deficits and aberrations in associated neural function. Nearly all research to date examines exposure to individual substances, and a minimal amount is known about the effects of heterogeneous exposure-which is more representative of population exposure levels. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated IC (Go/NoGo) in heterogeneously exposed (n = 7) vs. control (n = 7) at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17). The fMRI results indicated multiple IC processing differences consistent with a more immature developmental profile for exposed adolescents (Exposed  >  Nonexposed: NoGo > Go: right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right cuneus, and left inferior parietal lobe; NoGo > false alarm: occipital lobe; Go > false alarm: right anterior prefrontal cortex). Simple effects suggest exposed adolescents exhibited exaggerated correct trial but decreased incorrect trial activation. Results provide initial evidence that prenatal exposure across substances creates similar patterns of atypical brain activation to IC success and failure.

  8. Effects of prenatal alcohol and cigarette exposure on offspring substance use in multiplex, alcohol-dependent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jessica W; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-12-01

    Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-risk families were selected based on the presence of 2 alcohol-dependent sisters. Low-risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second-degree relatives with AD. High-risk (HR = 99) and Low-risk offspring (LR = 110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit, mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. High-risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than low-risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Women with a family history of

  9. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  10. Substance Use among Medical Students in Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Khanal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance use including tobacco and alcohol is the most important cause of preventable morbidity, disability, and premature mortality. The study aims to specify the prevalence and the pattern of use of different substance. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed amongst first year and final year students in four medical colleges in Kathmandu using self administered anonymous questionnaire.Data collectedfrom 446 students were analyzed. Results: Prevalence of substance use was found to be 60.3% among the medical students. Alcohol (57.6% was the substance most prevalently used followed by tobacco (27.58% and cannabis (12.8%. Mean age of first exposure was 17.94 (Confidence interval: 17.91-17.97. There was significant difference in the useof tobacco and cannabis amongst final year students than first year students. Male and female differed significantly in use of every substance except for benzodiazepine. Medical college, college and school were place of first exposure in 17.26%, 15.92% and 13.23% of the cases respectively. Family history was associated with substance use in medical students and was statistically significant (P<0.0001.Experimentation was the major reason for the use of most of the substances. Conclusions: Substance use is prevalent in male medical students of both first and final year. Hence steps should be initiated early in school, college and medical college to prevent substance use. Keywords: alcohol, medical students, substance use, tobacco.

  11. Exposure Plus Response-Prevention Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, Harold; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated exposure plus response-prevention treatment of bulimia nervosa among 47 women. Subjects were assigned to either exposure plus response-prevention in one setting, exposure plus response-prevention in multiple settings, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or waiting-list control conditions. Found three treatment groups improved significantly on…

  12. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  13. Substance use by Egyptian youth: current patterns and potential avenues for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Christopher A; Boulos, Dina N K; Saleh, Doa'a A; Jillson, Irene A; Garas, Magdy; Loza, Nasser; Samuel, Philip; Shaker, Yousri Edward; Ostrowski, Mar-Jan; Amr, Sania

    2015-04-01

    Substance abuse in Egypt is a serious public health threat. Recent studies have demonstrated increases in the prevalence of the use of tobacco, illegal drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, particularly among youth. We conducted focus groups with a total of 40 male and female youth participants, ages 12-14 and 15-18, recruited from two different areas (Cairo and Alexandria) in 2012. We investigated their knowledge and perceptions regarding current substance use, its sources, and promoting and protecting factors, broadly addressing the use of tobacco products, illicit and prescription drugs, inhaled substances such as glue and solvents, and alcohol. Our findings suggest that: (1) youth in Egypt had access to and were actively using substances encountered in similar research worldwide, including tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, glue sniffing, and pharmaceutical agents; (2) smoking cigarettes and using hashish were the most common practices, and Tramadol was the most commonly used pharmaceutical drug; (3) peer pressure from friends stood out as the most common reason to start and continue using substances, followed by adverse life events and having a parent or family member who used substances; (4) strict parenting, religiosity, and having non-user friends were among the factors perceived by youth to prevent substance use or help them quit using substances; (5) most youths were aware of the adverse health effects of substance use. These findings will inform the design of quantitative surveys aimed at estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors related to substance use among youth and potential avenues for prevention.

  14. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  15. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  16. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  17. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; 7Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, NC, USA Objectives: To examine qualitatively how women's social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women's Health CoOp were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women's CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women's social action (eg, educating peers or family members in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women's descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women's substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results: Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants and social action (eg, engaging others in the

  18. Impact of Substance Messages in Music Videos on Youth: Beware the Influence of Connectedness and Its Potential Prevention-Shielding Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Régnier-Denois, Véronique; Chapoton, Boris; Buhrau, Denise

    2017-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the role of connectedness with music videos in affecting youths' beliefs about substances (alcohol and tobacco) embedded therein and the potential for a prevention message to limit the impact of these images. The first study used cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,023 adolescents (54.3% male) to evaluate the relationship between youths' consumption of music videos and their beliefs about the consequences of consuming alcohol and tobacco. A controlled experiment with 151 participants (57% male) then tested whether exposure to smoking in a video affects youths' smoking beliefs and the preventive potential of a pre-video warning. Connectedness to music videos, not overall amount of viewing, is the main correlate of beliefs about the positive outcomes of consuming alcohol/tobacco. A single exposure to a music video with smoking images can increase beliefs that smoking leads to positive consequences, and connected viewers are especially receptive to these images. Alerting youths to the presence of substance messages in a video leads to differential results as a function of connectedness. Many youths spend hours every day watching music videos in which positive visuals about drinking and smoking abound. Rather than the quantity of viewing, it is the degree to which youths immerse themselves in these music videos that enhances their beliefs that smoking and drinking have positive consequences. Interventions that warn youths about the presence of substances in music videos can minimize their influence, but youths highly connected with the music video content are especially resistant to warnings.

  19. Estimating the human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. Definition report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report aims at boosting the human exposure assessment activities of the RIVM with regard to chemical substances and radiation. It is the result of thorough discussions with RIVM-experts. The report starts with an overview of past developments in the area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM and continues describing recent projects. Major developments outside the Institute are also discussed. An attempt is made to harmonize definitions which are relevant for exposure assessment, i.e. definitions on exposure, intake, uptake and dose. Important gaps in the human exposure assessment work at the RIVM are identified, leading to proposals for future work. 2 figs., 31 refs., 3 appendices

  20. Preventing substance use among early Asian-American adolescent girls: initial evaluation of a web-based, mother-daughter program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P; Cole, Kristin C A

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy and generalizability of a family-oriented, web-based substance use prevention program to young Asian-American adolescent girls. Between September and December 2007, a total of 108 Asian-American girls aged 10-14 years and their mothers were recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies. Mother-daughter dyads were randomly assigned to an intervention arm or to a test-only control arm. After pretest measurement, intervention-arm dyads completed a 9-session web-based substance use prevention program. Guided by family interaction theory, the program aimed to improve girls' psychological states, strengthen substance use prevention skills, increase mother-daughter interactions, enhance maternal monitoring, and prevent girls' substance use. Study outcomes were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At posttest, relative to control-arm girls, intervention-arm girls showed less depressed mood; reported improved self-efficacy and refusal skills; had higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, and maternal monitoring; and reported more family rules against substance use. Intervention-arm girls also reported fewer instances of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit prescription drug use, and expressed lower intentions to use substances in the future. A family-oriented, web-based substance use prevention program was efficacious in preventing substance use behavior among early Asian-American adolescent girls. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  2. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  3. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention approaches include avoiding exposure to risk factors like tobacco smoke, radon, radiation, asbestos, and other substances. Learn more about preventing lung cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Internalizing, social competence, and substance initiation: influence of gender moderation and a preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Wickrama, K A S

    2004-05-01

    Using latent growth curve modeling, the current study investigated gender moderation of the longitudinal pathways from internalizing to both social competency (i.e., social assertiveness) and the initiation of substance use (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, marijuana), as well as the effect of a preventive intervention on that process. Rural Midwestern adolescents who were participating in a school-based preventive intervention study were an average of 12.3 years old at the pretest assessment conducted in 1998. A latent growth curve comparison analysis found that internalizing was related inversely to initial levels of social assertiveness skill among girls; further, internalizing was related positively to substance use initiation growth trajectories among girls. Girls who participated in the preventive intervention demonstrated a slower increase over time in substance use initiation and a faster increase in social assertiveness. Gender moderation of the impact of internalizing and social assertiveness on substance use initiation and response to the intervention, as well as the utility of latent growth curve modeling in the study of longitudinal change, are discussed.

  5. THE EFFECT OF A CULTURALLY TAILORED SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION INTERVENTION WITH PLAINS INDIAN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchell, Beverly A; Robbins, Leslie K; Lowe, John A; Hoke, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of incorporating tribal specific cultural beliefs into a tailored substance abuse prevention intervention for at risk rural Oklahoma Native American Indian (NAI) Plains adolescents. The 10 hour Native American Talking Circle Intervention, a school-based, group substance abuse prevention program, was implemented over a 8.5 week period and evaluated using a one group, pretest-posttest design. Measurements were from the Native Self-Reliance Questionnaire and the Substance Problems Scale from Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Quick (GAIN-Q). One-tailed, paired sample t-tests demonstrated significant increase in self-reliance, from 86.227 to 92.204 (t (43) = -2.580, p = .007) and a decrease in substance abuse/use, from 2.265 to 1.265 (t (33) = 1.844, p = .007). The Native Talking Circle Intervention based on tribal-specific values and beliefs was shown to be effective with substance abuse/use at-risk NAI Plains tribal adolescents.

  6. Parent-based interventions for preventing or reducing adolescent substance use - A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in preventing, curbing or reducing substance use (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) among 10 to 18-year-olds. The databases PubMed, PsychInfo, Eric and Google Scholar were used to identify randomized trials published within the past 12years evaluating effects on adolescent substance use. Of the 653 identified in the first screening, 39 publications dealing with 13 programs were included. Results reveal desirable effects of parenting measures such as rule-setting, monitoring and parent-child communication. There was also some evidence in terms of preventing, curbing or reducing adolescent substance use. However, this appears to depend particularly on the age group of the adolescents in question, the kind of parents included and the intensity of the program. To conclude, the results of this systematic review underline the importance of including parents in programs aiming to impede initiation of substance use or curb or reduce already existing substance use in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery in the mid-1970s that occupational exposures to pesticides could diminish or destroy the fertility of workers sparked concern about the effects of hazardous substances on male reproductive health. More recently, there is evidence that sperm quantity and quality may ...

  8. Work environments and exposure to hazardous substances in korean tire manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Naroo; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m(3), the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended.

  9. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community.

  10. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  11. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  12. The prediction of human exposure to substances and radiation. The status of RIVM research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, T.; Veeren, M. van; Janssen, M.

    1998-03-01

    In 1994, the substances and risks sector of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) decided to strengthen its research into risk assessment methodology strategically. To further this goal, this report describes the area of RIVM research dealing with the prediction of human exposure. A representative selection of the models used to predict human exposure to both chemical substances and radiation is analysed. The analysis considers aspects of the models such as the aims, basic principles, the extent to which the models have been analysed and values of default parameters. For comparison purposes, a model used to assess human exposure to micro-organisms is also included. All models are being, or are about to be, used operationally to produce risk assessments in the substances and risks sector and also in the public health and environmental research sectors. All the models discussed have a defined area of application and are directly available in support of policy implementation. Comparison of areas of research dealing with exposure assessment for substances and radiation reveals many methodological similarities. However, at the level of models and parameters, an in-depth analysis of these similarities and explained or unexplained differences is lacking. A first attempt is made in this report. Detailed examination of organisational aspects and RIVM-models for human exposure prediction reveals that all relevant areas of interest are covered. The range of methodology for the prediction of actual risks and exposures is great, for all exposure routes. The coverage is more uniform for radiation than for chemical substances, however. For both areas the prediction and recording of emissions could be improved. The development of risk assessment systems and related harmonisation projects have been underway for many years (for example CSOIL, USES, RIBRON). The methodology for the prediction of actual exposures and risks still requires further

  13. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Harrie E; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; van Burgsteden, Johan A; de Heer, Cees

    2005-10-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of repeated exposure. The influence of repeated and single exposure to representative biocidal active substances on the skin barrier was investigated in vitro. The biocidal active substances selected were alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC), boric acid, deltamethrin, dimethyldidecylammonium chloride (DDAC), formaldehyde, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, sodium bromide, and tebuconazole. Of these nine compounds, only the quaternary ammonium chlorides ADBAC and DDAC had a clear and consistent influence on skin permeability of the marker compounds tritiated water and [(14)C]propoxur. For these compounds, repeated exposure increased skin permeability more than single exposure. At high concentrations the difference between single and repeated exposure was quantitatively significant: repeated exposure to 300 mg/L ADBAC increased skin permeability two to threefold in comparison to single exposure. Therefore, single and repeated exposure to specific biocidal products may significantly increase skin permeability, especially when used undiluted.

  14. Community and school mental health professionals' knowledge and use of evidence based substance use prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W; Randy Koch, J; Brady, Christine; Meszaros, Peggy; Sadler, Joanna

    2013-07-01

    Youth with learning and behavioral problems are at elevated risk for substance use during adolescence. Although evidence-based substance use prevention and screening practices are described in the literature, the extent with which these are provided to these youth is unclear. Mental health professionals in schools and community mental health centers are in an ideal position to conduct substance use screening and prevention practices since they have frequent contact with this high risk group. In order to determine whether these mental health professionals were using evidence based substance use screening and prevention programs with these youth, we analyzed 345 completed surveys from mental health professionals in schools and community clinics throughout a mid-Atlantic state. Results indicated that a large portion of the respondents were unfamiliar with evidence based practices and they were infrequently used. Implications for the division of labor at schools and community mental health centers are discussed in relation to time allotment and priority for these procedures.

  15. Two-year outcomes of a randomized, family-based substance use prevention trial for Asian American adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. POST-EXPOSURE IMMUNOLOGICAL PREVENTION AGAINST VARICELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Tatochenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on immunological prevention of varicella, particularly efficacy and advisability of vaccinating contact individuals in a pocket (post-exposure vaccination: its role in reducing the epidemiological process and economic burden of the infection, in achieving control over outbreak disease incidence. It features data obtained by foreign researchers and own research results. It demonstrates that vaccination of children and adults immediately after contact with the individual suffering from varicella allows significant reduction in disease incidence. Key words: varicella, vaccination, post-exposure immunological prevention, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:30-33

  17. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross‑cultural and gender perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löfving‑Gupta, S.; Willebrand, M.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab‑Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1018-8827 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : community violence exposure * substance use * gender * adolescents Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00787-017-1097-5

  18. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross‑cultural and gender perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löfving‑Gupta, S.; Willebrand, M.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab‑Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1018-8827 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : community violence exposure * substance use * gender * adolescents Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry , Sexuology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00787-017-1097-5

  19. Hip-hop to prevent substance use and HIV among African-American youth: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.

  20. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and mercury (Hg. Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd, and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg. The dietary exposure level (median value of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.

  1. What is the place of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Man, Jeroen; Colebunders, Robert; Florence, Eric; Laga, Marie; Kenyon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    New tools are needed to bring down ongoing high HIV incidence. This review aims to evaluate the place of one of these new tools (pre-exposure prophylaxis) in a comprehensive prevention strategy. Several trials have demonstrated the safety and the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV prevention. Two large trials have, however, failed to show such efficacy. This was likely due to poor adherence in these trials. New forms of long-acting pre-exposure prophylaxis currently in trials may deal with these problems of low adherence. Pre-exposure prophylaxis has been demonstrated to be cost-effective within certain settings. The introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis into prevention programs needs to be carefully thought through. For example, pre-exposure prophylaxis-induced risk compensation, at both an individual and population level, could undermine other aspects of a comprehensive HIV prevention program. In conclusion, pre-exposure prophylaxis could be a useful additional tool for the prevention of HIV in specific high-risk groups. It should be implemented in a way that deals with issues such as ensuring high adherence and ensuring that pre-exposure prophylaxis does not detract from, but complements, other more fundamental elements of HIV prevention programs.

  2. The Effectiveness of Substance Abuse Prevention Videotapes with Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Joan M.; Buki, Lydia P.; Horan, John J.; Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Burows, Deborah Dyer

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of three substance-abuse-prevention videotapes derived from contrasting theoretical frameworks was evaluated using 312 rural Mexican-American students in grades seven through eight. The assertion-training video produced higher levels of assertiveness among ninth-graders; the others had no impact. Discusses the importance of…

  3. Improving substance information in usetox®, part 2: Data for estimating fate and ecosystem exposure factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saouter, Erwan; Aschberger, Karin; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    substance properties, USEtox® quantifies potential human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts by combining environmental fate, exposure and toxicity effects information, considering multimedia fate and multi-pathway exposure processes. The main source to obtain substance properties for USEtox® 1......The scientific consensus model USEtox® is developed since 2003 under the auspices of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative as a harmonized approach for characterizing human and freshwater toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA) and other comparative assessment frameworks. Using physicochemical.......01 and 2.0 is the Estimation Program Interface (EPI SuiteTM ) from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, since the development of the original USEtox® substance databases, new chemical regulations have been enforced in Europe such as the REACH and the Plant Protection Products regulations...

  4. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  5. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  6. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bro, Elisabeth; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk; Devillers, James

    2015-01-01

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥ 5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥ 1 AS and 67% to ≥ 2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April–June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TER lt ) < 5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TER lt < 5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1–4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed. - Highlights: • 71% of clutches and 13% of coveys are exposed to active substances. • Partridge clutches/coveys are mostly exposed to 32/3 substances. • Fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) dominate. • Some substances have the potential to

  7. Examining the protective effects of brand equity in the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using cross-sectional data (n = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, the keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes, including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus, it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  8. Examining the Protective Effects of Brand Equity in the keepin’ it REAL Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding’s effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin’ it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

  9. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267

  10. Comparison of the rationale used in setting occupational exposure standards for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1986-12-01

    Ten chemicals which create significant occupational hazard are reviewed. They are toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulphide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica and vinyl chloride. Each is discussed under the headings of physiological intake and elimination in humans, characteristics of acute and chronic toxicity, sites of occupational exposure and rationale for limits of such exposure. Since radioactive substances yield ionizing radiation as the common hazard the treatment of the current permissible levels of exposure is somewhat simpler. Having set out industrial standards for exposure to hazardous substances and radionuclides, a detailed comparison is made. Exposure limits to ioninzing radiation are sufficiently low to remove the appearance of directly related injury. It is expected however that low level exposure may have a stochastic effect, that is, there is the possibility of a slightly increased incidence of neoplasms in a large exposed population, but numbers will be too small to be able to attribute any particular case to the exposure. TLVs on the other hand, depending on the particular chemical, may be high enough in the workplace to permit some directly related signs or symptoms in the exposed individual. 244 refs

  11. Diagnosis, injury and prevention of internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure is classified into three categories: external exposure, surface contamination, and internal exposure (also called internal contamination). Internal exposure is an exposure by the ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive materials taken into a human body. Uptake of radioactive materials can go through inhalation, ingestion, or wound contamination. Not like external exposure, alpha ray or beta ray, which has a limited penetration, is also important in internal exposure. Diagnosis of internal exposure is based on measurement and dose assessment in addition to the history taking. Two methods, direct measurement and/or bioassay (indirect measurement), are used for the measurement. These measurements provide information of radioactive materials in the body at the time of the measurement. The exposure dose to the body needs to be calculated in a process of dose assessment, based on the results of these measurements and history of intake, either acute intake or chronic intake. Another method, measurement of environmental samples or food stuff, is also used for dose assessment. For internal exposure, radiation dose to the body is expressed as committed effective dose or committed equivalent dose, which are accumulation of dose over a defined period. Radioactive materials taken into body are transferred among many body components depending on the type of radionuclide or chemicals etc. Some radioactive materials concentrate in a specific organ. Symptoms and signs depend on the distribution of the radioactive materials in the body. Monitoring the concentration in air or foods is conducted in order to control human activities and foods and consequently reduce the amount of intake to human bodies as a preventive measure. Prevention of internal exposure is also conducted by protective gears such as full face masks. Iodine prophylaxis could be used against radioactive iodine intake. Stable iodine, mostly potassium iodide, could be taken into the thyroid and

  12. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mora, Ana M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481-487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303.

  13. Policy statement--children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-10-01

    The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.

  14. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bro, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.bro@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Millot, Florian, E-mail: florian.millot@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Decors, Anouk, E-mail: anouk.decors@oncfs.gouv.fr [National Game and Wildlife Institute (ONCFS), Research Department, Saint Benoist, BP 20, F 78 612 Le Perray en Yvelines Cedex (France); Devillers, James, E-mail: j.devillers@ctis.fr [Centre de Traitement de l' Information Scientifique (CTIS), 3 chemin de la Gravière, 69140 Rillieux La Pape (France)

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥ 5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥ 1 AS and 67% to ≥ 2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April–June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TER{sub lt}) < 5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TER{sub lt} < 5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1–4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed. - Highlights: • 71% of clutches and 13% of coveys are exposed to active substances. • Partridge clutches/coveys are mostly exposed to 32/3 substances. • Fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) dominate. • Some substances have the

  15. Application of environmental sensitivity theories in personalized prevention for youth substance abuse: a transdisciplinary translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; August, Gerald J; Cicchetti, Dante; Symons, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Preventive interventions that target high-risk youth, via one-size-fits-all approaches, have demonstrated modest effects in reducing rates of substance use. Recently, substance use researchers have recommended personalized intervention strategies. Central to these approaches is matching preventatives to characteristics of an individual that have been shown to predict outcomes. One compelling body of literature on person × environment interactions is that of environmental sensitivity theories, including differential susceptibility theory and vantage sensitivity. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that environmental sensitivity (ES) factors moderate substance abuse outcomes. We propose that ES factors may augment current personalization strategies such as matching based on risk factors/severity of problem behaviors (risk severity (RS)). Specifically, individuals most sensitive to environmental influence may be those most responsive to intervention in general and thus need only a brief-type or lower-intensity program to show gains, while those least sensitive may require more comprehensive or intensive programming for optimal responsiveness. We provide an example from ongoing research to illustrate how ES factors can be incorporated into prevention trials aimed at high-risk adolescents.

  16. Current and Future Prospects for Epigenetic Biomarkers of Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan M. Andersen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse has an enormous impact on economic and quality of life measures throughout the world. In more developed countries, overutilization of the most common forms of substances of abuse, alcohol and tobacco, is addressed primarily through prevention of substance use initiation and secondarily through the treatment of those with substance abuse or dependence. In general, these therapeutic approaches to substance abuse are deemed effective. However, there is a broad consensus that the development of additional tools to aid diagnosis, prioritize treatment selection and monitor treatment response could have substantial impact on the effectiveness of both substance use prevention and treatment. The recent demonstrations by a number of groups that substance use exposure is associated with robust changes in DNA methylation signatures of peripheral blood cells suggests the possibility that methylation assessments of blood or saliva could find broad clinical applications. In this article, we review recent progress in epigenetic approaches to substance use assessment with a particular emphasis on smoking (and alcohol related applications. In addition, we highlight areas, such as the epigenetics of psychostimulant, opioid and cannabis abuse, which are markedly understudied and could benefit from intensified collaborative efforts to define epigenetic biomarkers of abuse and dependence.

  17. Examining the Contemporaneous, Short-Term, and Long-Term Effects of Secondary Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Kushner, Mackenzie

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between secondary exposure to violence-defined as witnessing violence in the home, community, or school-and adolescent substance use is well-documented. Yet, multi-wave empirical studies examining this relationship are sparse. In addition, studies have only begun to examine whether this relationship varies by the situational components of the violent event. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this study examines the contemporaneous, short-term, and long-term effects of secondary exposure to violence on substance use, and whether witnessing violence in which a weapon is present has a different impact on adolescent substance use than does witnessing violence without a weapon. Hierarchical logistic regression models on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 1670 youth (51.5% female) residing in 79 neighborhoods indicated that: (1) the effects of secondary exposure to violence on alcohol and marijuana use were enduring, albeit attenuated, over time; (2) the effect of secondary exposure to violence on illicit drug use was suppressed in the short-term but significant in the long-term; (3) witnessing violence without a weapon was salient for alcohol and marijuana use at all time points; and (4) witnessing violence with a weapon impacted illicit drug use in the long-term. The results suggest that addressing the consequences of secondary exposure to violence requires prolonged intervention efforts and that the study of secondary exposure to violence requires a more nuanced approach that accounts for situational aspects of the violent event.

  18. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  19. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found

  20. Parent Prevention Communication Profiles and Adolescent Substance Use: A Latent Profile Analysis and Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Krieger, Janice L.; Lee, JeongKyu; Graham, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This current study identifies distinct parent prevention communication profiles and examines whether youth with different parental communication profiles have varying substance use trajectories over time. Eleven schools in two rural school districts in the Midwestern United States were selected, and 784 students were surveyed at three time points from the beginning of 7th grade to the end of 8th grade. A series of latent profile analyses were performed to identify discrete profiles/subgroups of substance-specific prevention communication (SSPC). The results revealed a 4-profile model of SSPC: Active-Open, Passive-Open, Active-Silent, and Passive-Silent. A growth curve model revealed different rates of lifetime substance use depending on the youth’s SSPC profile. These findings have implications for parenting interventions and tailoring messages for parents to fit specific SSPC profiles. PMID:29056872

  1. Risky substance exposure during pregnancy: a pilot study from Lebanese mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al-Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Zein, Salam; Saleh, Nadine; Salameh, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Samar Rachidi,1 Sanaa Awada,1 Amal Al-Hajje,1 Wafaa Bawab,1 Salam Zein,1 Nadine Saleh,1,2 Pascale Salameh1,21Laboratory of Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Public Health Labanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: The harmful effects of medication and licit substance use during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern. Our study aims to assess risky exposure of Lebanese pregnant women to drugs, tobacco, caff...

  2. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, William; Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them...

  4. Increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita T M

    2003-07-01

    Theoretically, cue exposure treatment should be able to prevent relapse by extinguishing conditioned drug responding (e.g. cue-elicited craving). According to contemporary learning theory, though, extinction does not eliminate conditioned responding. Analogous cue exposure with response prevention (CERP) as a treatment of addictive behavior might not eliminate the learned relation between drug-related cues and drug use. This does not necessarily mean that cue exposure cannot successfully prevent relapse. Various suggestions for increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment are being discussed from a contemporary learning theory perspective. It is suggested that cue exposure treatment incorporating retrieval cues can be a beneficial treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

  5. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Adiposity in Early and Mid-Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Ana María; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined whether prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is associated with childhood adiposity. Objective: We examined associations of prenatal exposure to PFASs with adiposity in early and mid-childhood. Methods: We measured plasma PFAS concentrations in 1,645 pregnant women (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts (USA), between 1999 and 2002. We assessed overall and central adiposity in 1,006 children in early childhood (median, 3.2 years) and 876 in mid-childhood (median, 7.7 years) using anthropometric and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. We fitted multivariable linear regression models to estimate exposure-outcome associations and evaluated effect modification by child sex. Results: Median (25–75th percentiles) prenatal plasma perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations in children assessed in early childhood were 5.6 (4.1–7.7), 24.8 (18.4–33.9), 2.4 (1.6–3.8), and 0.6 (0.5–0.9) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, each interquartile range increment of prenatal PFOA concentrations was associated with 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.05, 0.48) higher body mass index, 0.76 mm (95% CI: –0.17, 1.70) higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, and 0.17 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.02, 0.36) higher DXA total fat mass index in mid-childhood. Similar associations were observed for PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA. We observed null associations for boys and early-childhood adiposity measures. Conclusions: In this cohort, prenatal exposure to PFASs was associated with small increases in adiposity measurements in mid-childhood, but only among girls. Citation: Mora AM, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Webster TF, Gillman MW, Calafat AM, Ye X, Sagiv SK. 2017. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and adiposity in early and mid-childhood. Environ Health

  7. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management on Relapse Prevention in Substance Dependent Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Karimian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management on relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent. Method: In a experimental study, 30 individuals who settled in Esfahan therapeutic community center were accidently divided in to an experimental (15 subjects and a control (15 subjects group. The experimental group underwent ten 90 minutes sessions of cognitive-behavioral stress management and the control group didn't receive any particular treatment. All participants underwent urine tests at the beginning of the study, completion of treatment and three months following the completion of treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and X2 test. Findings: results showed significant difference in relapse rates of two groups in the following stage. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral stress management is effective in relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent.

  8. Televised obesity-prevention advertising across US media markets: exposure and content, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M; Emery, Sherry L

    2015-04-01

    To examine levels of exposure and content characteristics for recent televised obesity-prevention campaigns sponsored by state and community health departments, federal agencies, non-profit organizations and television stations in the USA. Nielsen television ratings for obesity-prevention advertising were collected for the top seventy-five US media markets and were used to calculate household exposure levels for 2010 and 2011. Governmental advertisements were coded for content. United States. Average household exposure to obesity-prevention campaigns was 2·6 advertisements per month. Exposure increased by 31 % between 2010 and 2011, largely driven by increases in federal advertisements. In 2011, the federal government accounted for 62 % of obesity-prevention exposure, non-profit organizations for 9 %, community departments for 8 %, state departments for 3 %, and television station-sponsored public-service announcements for 17 %. The greatest percentage increase between 2010 and 2011 was in community advertising, reflecting efforts funded by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) programme. Among thirty-four state and community campaigns, the majority advocated both healthy eating and physical activity (53 %). Campaigns typically had positive or neutral emotional valence (94 %). Obesity or overweight was mentioned in 47 % of campaigns, but only 9 % specifically advocated weight loss. Exposure to televised obesity-prevention advertising increased from 2010 to 2011 and was higher than previously found in 1999-2003, apart from in 2003 during the federal VERB campaign. Nevertheless, exposure remains low relative to advertising for unhealthy foods. New federal campaigns have increased exposure to obesity-prevention advertising nationally, while CPPW grants have increased exposure for targeted areas.

  9. The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2013-11-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths' subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents' exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents' frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer "safe havens" they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing victimization and its negative consequences. Copyright

  10. Scientific Opinion on outline proposals for assessment of exposure of organisms to substances in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    2010-01-01

    appropriate for both conventional and reduced tillage in multi-year exposure calculations. The Panel proposes a tiered exposure assessment approach with four tiers. Tier 1 consists of a simple analytical model. Tier 2 consists of three scenarios (one for each of the three regulatory zones) that can be used...... for any annual crop in a zone. In Tiers 3 and 4, the exposure assessment can be refined considering the specific crops and/or substances with specific properties. The Panel proposes to develop guidance for estimating the degradation rate within the soil matrix from field persistence studies...

  11. The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on Adolescent Substance Use and Violence Following Exposure to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to violence can result in many negative consequences for youth, but the degree to which neighborhood conditions may foster resiliency among victims is not well understood. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood collective efficacy attenuates the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence, substance use, and violence. Data were collected from 1,661–1,718 adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), who were diverse in terms of sex (51% male, 49% female), race/ethnicity (48% Hispanic, 34% African American, 14% Caucasian, and 4% other race/ethnicity), and age (mean age 12 years; range: 8–16). Information on neighborhood collective efficacy was obtained from adult residents, and data from the 1990 U.S. Census were used to control for neighborhood disadvantage. Based on hierarchical modeling techniques to adjust for the clustered data, Bernoulli models indicated that more exposure to violence was associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and perpetration of violence. Poisson models suggested that victimization was also related to a greater variety of substance use and violent behaviors. A moderating effect of collective efficacy was found in models assessing the variety of substance use; the relationship between victimization and substance use was weaker for youth in neighborhoods with higher versus lower levels of collective efficacy. These findings are consistent with literature indicating that social support can ameliorate the negative impact of victimization. This investigation extends this research to show that neighborhood social support can also help to promote resiliency among adolescents. PMID:24170438

  12. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  13. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.

  14. Working rules for medical application of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.

    1982-01-01

    After incorporation of radioactive substances radiation exposure is detectable only in case of iodine 125 and iodine 131. Organizational measures should improve the protection of personnel. According to the experience gained decontamination successes are possible between 1 and 99%, however they evade forecasting. With iodine 131 it is necessary to make for accelerated discharge resp. prevent further penetration from the extrathydroidal space into the thyroid gland. (DG) [de

  15. Assessment of the potential human health risks from exposure to complex substances in accordance with REACH requirements. "White spirit" as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Tibaldi, Rosalie; Adenuga, Moyinoluwa D; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos; Margary, Alison

    2018-02-01

    The European chemical control regulation (REACH) requires that data on physical/chemical, toxicological and environmental hazards be compiled. Additionally, REACH requires formal assessments to ensure that substances can be safely used for their intended purposes. For health hazard assessments, reference values (Derived No Effect levels, DNELs) are calculated from toxicology data and compared to estimated exposure levels. If the ratio of the predicted exposure level to the DNEL, i.e. the Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR), is less than 1, the risk is considered controlled; otherwise, additional Risk Management Measures (RMM) must be applied. These requirements pose particular challenges for complex substances. Herein, "white spirit", a complex hydrocarbon solvent, is used as an example to illustrate how these procedures were applied. Hydrocarbon solvents were divided into categories of similar substances. Representative substances were identified for DNEL determinations. Adjustment factors were applied to the no effect levels to calculate the DNELs. Exposure assessments utilized a standardized set of generic exposure scenarios (GES) which incorporated exposure predictions for solvent handling activities. Computer-based tools were developed to automate RCR calculations and identify appropriate RMMs, allowing consistent communications to users via safety data sheets. Copyright © 2017 ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: Reasons to worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Værøy Henning

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (κ = 0.57. The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (κ = 0.61. Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.

  17. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  18. Substance Use and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention: A Novel Model for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. Olson-Madden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and substance use disorders (SUDs frequently co-occur. Individuals with histories of alcohol or other drug use are at greater risk for sustaining TBI, and individuals with TBI frequently misuse substances before and after injury. Further, a growing body of literature supports the relationship between comorbid histories of mild TBI (mTBI and SUDs and negative outcomes. Alcohol and other drug use are strongly associated with risk taking. Disinhibition, impaired executive function, and/or impulsivity as a result of mTBI also contribute to an individual’s proclivity towards risk-taking. Risk-taking behavior may therefore, be a direct result of SUD and/or history of mTBI, and risky behaviors may predispose individuals for subsequent injury or continued use of substances. Based on these findings, evaluation of risk-taking behavior associated with the co-occurrence of SUD and mTBI should be a standard clinical practice. Interventions aimed at reducing risky behavior among members of this population may assist in decreasing negative outcomes. A novel intervention (Substance Use and Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention (STRRP for reducing and preventing risky behaviors among individuals with co-occurring mTBI and SUD is presented. Areas for further research are discussed.

  19. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  20. The role of life skills promotion in substance abuse prevention: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Anneke; Schröder, Elke; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2008-08-01

    Research has shown that life skills programs are the most effective single activity in school-based substance abuse prevention. However, little is known about the processes through which they are effective. This study examines whether an evidence-based prevention program targeting general competence is effective through the promotion of knowledge about life skills and enhanced related behaviors. Based on a sample of 442 fifth graders participating in a quasi-experimental prevention study, as expected, mediation analyses revealed that increased knowledge about life skills paralleled an increase in students' distant attitudes toward alcohol and nicotine use. Unexpectedly, behaviors manifesting enhanced life skills were found not only among program participants who remained experimental/non-smokers or stopped smoking but also among smokers. In general, findings suggest that favorable prevention outcomes may be influenced through building knowledge about general life skills. The notion of uniform mechanisms of effectiveness in prevention programs is discussed.

  1. Inconsistency... or why differentiate, where prevention is concerned, between radioactive substances and carcinogenic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquet, R.; Vinit, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracers, low-activity unsealed radioactive sources, and certain chemical products belong to the list of substances and agents known to promote cancers in humans. The dangers of radiotracers and carcinogenic chemicals being very similar, or even identical, it is inadmissible that preventive measures have not been equally developed and are not viewed in the same way in our country. It should be noted that the International Labour Bureau has long since included radioactive products in the list of carcinogenic substances and agents and treated preventive measures as a whole by proceeding in this way it would be easier to account for the possible combined effects of ionising radiations and chemical molecules. After a review of some facts about cancer the present situation is examined with regard to statutory measures applied on the one hand to radioelements and on the other to chemicals recognised as carcinogenic by international organisations. Proposals are made to remedy this illogical situation [fr

  2. Substance Use: Determinants and Opportunities for Prevention in the Family and School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, teenagers try a range of risk behaviors including smoking, drinking, and the use of soft drugs. Because substance use contributes to an unhealthy lifestyle of teenagers on the short term and can lead to serious health problems on the longer term, prevention in this target group is important. This chapter provides an overview of…

  3. Mental health promotion and socio-economic disadvantage: lessons from substance abuse, violence and crime prevention and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumbourou, J W; Hemphill, S A; Tresidder, J; Humphreys, C; Edwards, J; Murray, D

    2007-12-01

    Mental health promotion aimed at populations with low socio-economic status (SES) may benefit by investigating prevention strategies that effectively address related child and adolescent problems. Evidence from a number of literature reviews and program evaluations was synthesised. First, the impact of SES on development from childhood to adulthood is considered in light of research on substance abuse, violence, crime, and child development problems. Second, evaluations of interventions are reviewed to identify those that have shown outcomes in research studies (efficacy) or in real-world settings (effectiveness) in reducing developmental problems associated with low SES. Low SES is measured in different ways including low levels of education and/or income or definitions that combine several variables into a new indicator of low SES. Factors associated with low SES are also associated to varying extent with the development of violence and crime, substance abuse and child health problems. Interventions that address underlying determinants of low SES show strong efficacy in decreasing adolescent crime and violence and effectiveness in improving child health outcomes. Although there is limited efficacy evidence that substance abuse prevention can be effectively addressed by targeting low SES, programs designed to improve educational pathways show some efficacy in reducing aspects of adolescent substance use. Mental health promotion strategies can draw on the approaches outlined here that are associated with the prevention of child and adolescent problems within low SES communities. Alternatively, such interventions could be supported in mental health promotion policy as they may assist in preventing related problems that undermine mental health.

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Quaak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs. Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5. The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure

  5. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of

  6. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  7. The moderating effects of peer substance use on the family structure-adolescent substance use association: quantity versus quality of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David

    2005-06-01

    This study examines the association between family structure and adolescent substance use, specifically focusing on the potential conditioning effects of the level of exposure to substance-using peers. Using data from a statewide study of Florida students, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use was regressed on measures of family structure, exposure to deviant peers, family process variables (including supervision, attachment, and discipline), and an array of salient predictors of adolescent substance use. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the level of exposure to substance-using peers moderates the relationship between family structure and substance use for three of the four dependent variables. The core finding is that living with two natural parents serves as a protective factor against using tobacco, alcohol, or other illicit drugs, but only under conditions when exposure to deviant peers is lowest. Under conditions when exposure to deviant peers is highest, teens residing in a traditional two-parent family are most likely to report substance use. However, some evidence suggests that this latter finding may be due to differences in the duration of exposure to deviant peers. These findings reinforce the need to continue to explore how the quantity of parenting may provide additional protection against adolescent substance use beyond quality of parenting factors.

  8. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the worst-case scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead exposures in U.S. Children, 2008: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ronnie; Brown, Mary Jean; Kashtock, Michael E; Jacobs, David E; Whelan, Elizabeth A; Rodman, Joanne; Schock, Michael R; Padilla, Alma; Sinks, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children's blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010. National, state, and local exposure assessments over the past half century have identified risk factors for EBLs among U.S. children, including age, race, income, age and location of housing, parental occupation, and season. Recent national policies have greatly reduced lead exposure among U.S. children, but even very low exposure levels compromise children's later intellectual development and lifetime achievement. No threshold for these effects has been demonstrated. Although lead paint and dust may still account for up to 70% of EBLs in U.S. children, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that >or=30% of current EBLs do not have an immediate lead paint source, and numerous studies indicate that lead exposures result from multiple sources. EBLs and even deaths have been associated with inadequately controlled sources including ethnic remedies and goods, consumer products, and food-related items such as ceramics. Lead in public drinking water and in older urban centers remain exposure sources in many areas. Achieving the 2010 goal requires maintaining current efforts, especially programs addressing lead paint, while developing interventions that prevent exposure before children are poisoned. It also requires active collaboration across all levels of government to identify and control all potential sources of lead exposure, as well as primary prevention.

  10. Impact of substance use on the onset and course of early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoux, Hélène; Tournier, Marie; Cougnard, Audrey

    2005-11-01

    The strong comorbidity between psychosis and substance use is already identifiable in early psychosis, raising the question of the direction of the association between substance use and psychosis onset. It has long been considered that this association was explained by the self-medication hypothesis. This hypothesis has been recently challenged by several prospective studies carried out in population-based samples, showing a dose-response relationship between cannabis exposure and risk of psychosis. This association was independent from potential confounding factors such as exposure to other drugs and pre-existence of psychotic symptoms. As a large percentage of subjects from the general population is now exposed to this drug, even a small increase in the risk of adverse effects may have significant deleterious consequences for the health of the population. Hence, reducing exposure to cannabis may contribute to prevention of some incident cases of psychosis. Regarding prognosis, persistent substance misuse after the onset of psychosis has a deleterious impact on clinical outcome. Therapeutic programs for subjects with dual diagnosis should be implemented early in the course of psychosis to maximise their impact on the course of illness.

  11. Depression, Craving and Substance Use Following a Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objective A strong relation between negative affect and craving has been demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies, with depressive symptomatology showing particularly strong links to craving and substance abuse relapse. Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), shown to be efficacious for reduction of substance use, uses mindfulness-based practices to teach alternative responses to emotional discomfort and lessen the conditioned response of craving in the presence of depressive symptoms. The goal of the current study was to examine the relation between measures of depressive symptoms, craving, and substance use following MBRP. Methods Individuals with substance use disorders (N=168; age 40.45, (SD=10.28); 36.3% female; 46.4% nonwhite) were recruited after intensive stabilization, then randomly assigned to either eight weekly sessions of MBRP or a treatment-as-usual control group. Approximately 73% of the sample was retained at the final four-month follow-up assessment. Results Results confirmed a moderated-mediation effect, whereby craving mediated the relation between depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and substance use (Time Line Follow Back) among the treatment-as-usual group, but not among MBRP participants. Specifically, MBRP attenuated the relation between postintervention depressive symptoms and craving (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) two months following the intervention (f2=.21). This moderation effect predicted substance use four-months following the intervention (f2=.18). Conclusion MBRP appears to influence cognitive and behavioral responses to depressive symptoms, partially explaining reductions in postintervention substance use among the MBRP group. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of incorporating mindfulness practice into substance abuse treatment and identifies one potential mechanism of change following MBRP. PMID:20515211

  12. Theoretical Implications of Gender, Power, and Sexual Scripts for HIV Prevention Programs Aimed at Young, Substance-Using African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mandy; Granado, Misha; Stotts, Angela

    2017-12-01

    HIV continues to be a major public health problem for African-American (AA) women, and the burden of new cases to our society is significant because each case is at risk of infecting others. Substance use worsens the risk of HIV transmission to AA women. We provide specific recommendations to move the concept of tailoring HIV prevention interventions for substance users forward by focusing on young, sexually active, substance-using AA women and applying a culturally relevant revision to existing theoretical frameworks to include the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Gender and Power. We encourage use of these theories to guide adaptation of interventions to demonstrate efficacy within this hard-to-reach population. Consistent use of theories designed to exploit powerlessness and sexual scripts as barriers to adoption of protective sexual behaviors has potential to permeate sexual and substance use networks among African-Americans. This recommendation is being made because this theoretical framework has not been used in HIV prevention interventions targeting young, sexually active, substance-using AA women.

  13. Opportunities for AIDS prevention in a rural state in criminal justice and drug treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, D; Leukefeld, C G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the likelihood that drug users would receive HIV/ AIDS prevention information and supplies (e.g., condoms and bleach) in the rural state of Kentucky. Despite evidence of high HIV risk among criminal justice and substance-using populations, incarceration and substance-user treatment were only minimally associated with prior HIV prevention exposure or HIV testing. These data strongly support the use of criminal justice and treatment settings to provide AIDS prevention interventions for the high-risk drug-using populations they serve, and to target HIV prevention services in rural as well as urban areas.

  14. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology. [de

  15. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during spills and/or maintenance tasks and by-product chemicals were not included. Supplementary studies might be required.

  16. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  17. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  18. Defining success with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: A prevention-effective adherence paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Curran, Kathryn; Koechlin, Florence; Amico, K. Rivet; Anderson, Peter; Mugo, Nelly; Venter, Francois; Goicochea, Pedro; Caceres, Carlos; O’Reilly, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trial data have shown that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious when taken as prescribed; however, PrEP adherence is complex and must be understood within the context of variable risk for HIV infection and use of other HIV prevention methods. Different levels of adherence may be needed in different populations to achieve HIV prevention, and the optimal methods for achieving the necessary adherence for both individual and public health benefits are unknown. Guidance for PrEP use must consider these questions to determine the success of PrEP-based HIV prevention programs. In this article, we propose a new paradigm for understanding and measuring PrEP adherence, termed prevention-effective adherence, which incorporates dynamic HIV acquisition risk behaviors and the use of HIV alternative prevention strategies. We discuss the need for daily PrEP use only during periods of risk for HIV exposure, describe key issues for measuring and understanding relevant behaviors, review lessons from another health prevention field (i.e., family planning), and provide guidance for prevention-effective PrEP use. Moreover, we challenge emerging calls for sustained, near perfect PrEP adherence regardless of risk exposure and offer a more practical and public health-focused vision for this prevention intervention. PMID:26103095

  19. Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2014-04-01

    This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First tier modeling of consumer dermal exposure to substances in consumer articles under REACH: a quantitative evaluation of the ECETOC TRA for consumers tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmaar, J E; Bokkers, B G H; ter Burg, W; van Engelen, J G M

    2013-02-01

    The demonstration of safe use of chemicals in consumer products, as required under REACH, is proposed to follow a tiered process. In the first tier, simple conservative methods and assumptions should be made to quickly verify whether risks for a particular use are expected. The ECETOC TRA Consumer Exposure Tool was developed to assist in first tier risk assessments for substances in consumer products. The ECETOC TRA is not a prioritization tool, but is meant as a first screening. Therefore, the exposure assessment needs to cover all products/articles in a specific category. For the assessment of the dermal exposure for substances in articles, ECETOC TRA uses the concept of a 'contact layer', a hypothetical layer that limits the exposure to a substance contained in the product. For each product/article category, ECETOC TRA proposes default values for the thickness of this contact layer. As relevant experimental exposure data is currently lacking, default values are based on expert judgment alone. In this paper it is verified whether this concept meets the requirement of being a conservative exposure evaluation method. This is done by confronting the ECETOC TRA expert judgment based predictions with a mechanistic emission model, based on the well established theory of diffusion of substances in materials. Diffusion models have been applied and tested in many applications of emission modeling. Experimentally determined input data for a number of material and substance combinations are available. The estimated emissions provide information on the range of emissions that could occur in reality. First tier tools such as ECETOC TRA tool are required to cover all products/articles in a category and to provide estimates that are at least as high as is expected on the basis of current scientific knowledge. Since this was not the case, it is concluded that the ECETOC TRA does not provide a proper conservative estimation method for the dermal exposure to articles. An

  1. Evaluation of a Family-based Substance Abuse Prevention Program Targeted for the Middle School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Pilgrim, Colleen; Hendrickson, Peggy; Buresl, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates family-based substance abuse prevention program implemented in a rural community for families with middle school students. In comparison with nonparticipants, students had higher family cohesion, less family fighting, greater school attachment, higher self-esteem, and believed alcohol should be consumed at an older age, at one-year…

  2. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances.

  3. Dog and Cat Exposures to Hazardous Substances Reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009–2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Ora...

  4. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention : Safety Concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Raymond A; Yankey, Barbara A; Nartey, Edmund T; Lartey, Margaret; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Dodoo, Alexander N O

    Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present

  5. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matilla-Santander, N. (Nuria); D. Valvi (Damaskini); M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); Manzano-Salgado, C.B. (Cyntia B.); F. Ballester (Ferran); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto); T. Schettgen (Thomas); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); J. Sunyer (Jordi); M. Vrijheid (Martine)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS

  7. Effects of Youth´s Exposure to Community Violence: The MORE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cooley-Strickland

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on chronic community violence exposure focuses on ethnic minority, impoverished, and crime-ridden communities while treatment and prevention focuses on the perpetrators of the violence, not on the youth who are its direct or indirect victims. School-based treatment and preventive interventions are needed for children at elevated risk for exposure to community violence. This paper describes The Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence (MORE Project, a longitudinal, community epidemiological study currently being fielded to better understand the impact of children´s chronic exposure to community violence on their emotional, behavioral, substance use, and academic functioning with an overarching goal to identify malleable risk and protective factors which can be targeted in preventive and intervention programs.

  8. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  9. Feasibility of a skills-based substance abuse prevention program following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vungkhanching, Martha; Heinemann, Allen W; Langley, Mervin J; Ridgely, Mary; Kramer, Karen M

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a skills-based substance abuse prevention counseling program in a community setting for adults who sustained traumatic brain injury. Convenience sample of 117 participants (mean age=35 years) with preinjury history of alcohol or other drug use. Intervention group participants (n=36) from 3 vocational rehabilitation programs; a no-intervention comparison group (n=81) from an outpatient rehabilitation service. 12 individual counseling sessions featuring skills-based intervention. Changes in self-reported alcohol and other drug use, coping skillfulness, affect, and employment status from baseline to 9 months postintervention. Significant differences were noted at baseline for the intervention and comparison groups on ethnicity, time postinjury, marital status, and employment (Pcoping skillfulness (Pskills-based intervention provides a promising approach to promoting abstinence from all substances and increasing readiness for employment for adults with traumatic brain injuries in outpatient settings.

  10. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  11. HIV Prevention After Discontinuing Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: Conclusions From a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai J. Jonas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine (FTC is a highly effective form of HIV prevention. Endeavors of health-care providers and activists in many countries over the world are directed at making access to PrEP possible, or increasing PrEP use among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM. We argue while this effort is necessary, we also need to consider modes of HIV prevention after a period of PrEP use. PrEP uptake is not a one-way street, meaning that individuals may discontinue PrEP use, either voluntarily and involuntarily. Voluntary discontinued PrEP use in conjunction with decreased or no HIV risk exposure is unproblematic, but involuntary discontinuations with continuous high level of HIV risk exposure calls for tailored post-PrEP use HIV prevention. We present a case study of an MSM individual who discontinued PrEP for medical reasons (renal function and seroconverted soon afterward, to illustrate the need for tailored HIV prevention post-PrEP. Furthermore, we provide additional contexts of PrEP discontinuation leading to populations that are in need for post-PrEP types of HIV prevention. Subsequently, we present suggestions for modes of post-PrEP HIV prevention based on knowledge–communication–choice model. Community organization and health-care providers should consider and prepare their HIV prevention consulting protocols for such types of clients and add post-PrEP HIV prevention measures to their consulting offer.

  12. Adolescent context of exposure to prescription opioids and substance use disorder symptoms at age 35: A national longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Philip; Schulenberg, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of context of prescription opioid exposure (i.e., medical and/or nonmedical) in adolescence with the subsequent risk of nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms at age 35. Multiple cohorts of nationally representative probability samples of U.S. high school seniors (n = 4072) were surveyed via self-administered questionnaires and followed longitudinally from adolescence (modal age 18, graduating classes 1976–1996) to age 35 (1993–2013). Main outcome measures were past-year NMUPO and SUD symptoms. The medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids during adolescence was significantly associated with NMUPO at age 35. Relative to no prescription opioid exposure, medical use of prescription opioids without any history of NMUPO during adolescence was not associated with SUD symptoms at age 35. In contrast, compared with no prescription opioid exposure during adolescence, the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) associated with SUD symptoms at age 35 were greater among those with a history of both medical use of prescription opioids and NMUPO during adolescence, AOR = 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.97); and among those who reported NMUPO only, AOR = 2.61 (95% CI, 1.88–3.61). The findings indicate medical use of prescription opioids without any history of NMUPO in adolescence is not associated with SUD symptoms at age 35 while any NMUPO in adolescence predicts SUD symptoms at age 35. Screening instruments and preventative intervention programs to reduce NMUPO and SUDs must account for the context associated with prescription opioid exposure during adolescence. PMID:27227693

  13. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: Safety Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Raymond A; Yankey, Barbara A; Nartey, Edmund T; Lartey, Margaret; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Dodoo, Alexander N O

    2017-04-01

    Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present challenges in the implementation and use of PrEP. The aim of this review is to discuss safety concerns observed in completed clinical trials on the use of PrEP. We performed a literature search on PrEP in PubMed, global advocacy for HIV prevention (Aids Vaccine Advocacy Coalition) database, clinical trials registry " http://www.clinicaltrials.gov " and scholar.google, using combination search terms 'pre-exposure prophylaxis', 'safety concerns in the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis', 'truvada use as PrEP', 'guidelines for PrEP use', 'HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis' and 'tenofovir' to identify clinical trials and literature on PrEP. We present findings associated with safety issues on the use of PrEP based on a review of 11 clinical trials on PrEP with results on safety and efficacy as at April 2016. We also reviewed findings from routine real-life practice reports. The pharmacological intervention for PrEP was tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in a combined form as Truvada ® or tenofovir as a single entity. Both products are efficacious for PrEP and seem to have a good safety profile. Regular monitoring is recommended to prevent long-term toxic effects. The main adverse effects observed with PrEP are gastrointestinal related; basically mild to moderate nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Other adverse drug effects worth monitoring are liver enzymes, renal function and bone mineral density. PrEP as an intervention to reduce HIV transmission appears to have a safe benefit-risk profile in clinical trials. It is recommended for widespread use but adherence monitoring and real-world safety surveillance are critical in the post-marketing phase to ensure that the benefits

  14. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed...... in several databases and conference proceedings for 2002 – 2014. Definitions of HBM and biomarkers, HBM techniques and requirements, and the possible application to the different steps of risk assessment were described. The usefulness of HBM for exposure assessment of chemical substances from food source...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  15. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  16. [From Evidence to Health Policy Making: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in combination with traditional prevention strategies (such as condom use, voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections), has been shown to effectively prevent HIV infection. As of September 2015, the World Health Organization recommends that people at substantial risk of HIV infection should be offered PrEP as an additional prevention choice, as part of comprehensive prevention. This article introduces how to apply a systematic review using the methodology of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to write clinical guidelines. With support from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, the Taiwan AIDS Society published clinical guidelines for oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in Taiwan. Nurses are responsible to apply evidence-based knowledge and to use their professional influence to shape health policies related to HIV prevention.

  17. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effectiveness of Interventions based on Positive Psychotherapy on Improving Coping Styles, Relapse Prevention in Individuals with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam kadivar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based on positive psychotherapy on improving coping styles, relapse prevention in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder. The research design was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest, a month Follow-up and control group. Thirty-one individuals with substance use disorder, who were admitted to addiction treatment centers in Zahedan city, were selected through purposeful sampling method and were randomly assigned to an experimental (14 persons and control (17 persons groups. Both groups were asked to respond to Coping Styles Questionnaire by Billings and Mouse, at the pretest stage. In later stages of research, the experimental group received an intervention based on positive psychotherapy for ten sessions each session60 minutes. Data was analyzed using covariance and chi-square test. The results showed that intervention based on positive psychotherapy improved the coping styles and relapse prevention in the experimental group and the effect of the intervention was significant in post-test and follow-up stages. The result also showed that interventions based on positive psychotherapy could be used as an efficient technique to improve coping skills and relapse prevention in patients with substance use disorder.

  19. Preventing excessive radon exposure in U.K. housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Green, B.M.R.; Dixon, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK) it has been recognized for some years that some members of the population received excessive radiation exposure in their homes from radon and its decay products. To prevent such exposures, an Action Level of 400 Bq m -3 was adopted in 1987. In January, 1990, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) advised that the Action Level should be reduced to 200 Bq m -3 , and this advice was accepted by the Government. It is estimated that exposures in up to 100,000 UK homes exceed this Action Level; this amounts to about 0.5% of the available housing. The UK authorities have developed a strategy for preventing such exposures: (1) Areas in which it is estimated that >1% of homes exceed the Action Level for radon are being designated as Affected Areas, and a program to map such areas is under way. Households in these areas are advised to have radon measurements made by NRPB under a open-quotes freeclose quotes (Government-funded) scheme. (2) Householders found to have whole-house, whole-year average radon concentrations >200 Bq m -3 are advised to take remedial action and are provided with information on how this can be done. Partial grants toward remedial work are available in cases of financial need. So far, around 3000 such households have been identified. (3) Within Affected Areas, localities are being defined where new homes must incorporate precautions against radon exposure. In addition to this strategy, a joint case-control study of the risks of radon in homes is being undertaken by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund and NRPB, supported by the UK Government and the Commission of the European Communities

  20. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents' Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Erika; Fiellin, Lynn E; Fakhouri, Tamer; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2015-10-28

    Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg).

  1. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors...

  2. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Can Skin Exposure to Sunlight Prevent Liver Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Gorman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR, the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation.

  4. An overview of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children based on three illustrated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state. In contrast, neonates with ethanol intoxication may present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptomatology. Urgent exclusion of sepsis, electrolyte imbalance, drug intoxication, and surgical abdominal condition is critical. Using these illustrated cases, we performed a narrative literature review on issues of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children. In conclusion, a high level of suspicion and interrogation on ethanol or substance use are essential particularly in the lactating mother for an accurate and timely diagnosis of ethanol intoxication to be made.

  5. Prevention of risks in relation with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    After remind the base notions in the field of ionizing radiation, this file evaluates the situation on the natural and occupational exposures: modes, sources, and exposure level, risk for health. It presents the principles of prevention allowing in a professional area (out of nuclear industry) to reduce and control these exposures. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. references are given: regulatory benchmarks, useful links, books to consult. (N.C.)

  6. Substance Use by Persons with Recent Spinal Cord Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    Substance use histories were obtained from 103 persons (16 to 63 years of age) with recent spinal cord injuries (SCI). Lifetime exposure to and current use of substances with abuse potential were substantially greater in this sample compared to a like-age national sample. Exposure to and recent use of substances with abuse potential was…

  7. Estimation of human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. State of the art of the research projects of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.; Janssen, M.P.M.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the Sector Substances and Risks of RIVM decided to strengthen strategically its research into risk assessment methodology. In this report the research area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM is outlined. A representative selection of human exposure assessment models for both chemical substances and radiation is analysed with regard to aim, principle, degree of model analyses and values of default parameter. For comparison, a model to assess human exposure to micro-organisms is included as well. All models are operational or nearly so in the production of risk assessments in the Sector Substances and Risks and also in the Sectors Public Health Research and Environmental Research. The models discussed all have a defined area of application and support risk management. The research areas of exposure assessment for substances and radiation are compared and many methodological analogies are apparent. However, at the level of models and parameters an in-depth analysis of analogies and explained or unexplained differences is lacking. A detailed examination of organisation aspects and RIVM-models for human exposure assessment learns that all relevant areas of interest are covered. For all routes of exposure the reach of the actual risk and exposure assessment methodology is large. A more uniform coverage is attained for radiation than for chemical substances. For both areas the estimation and registration of emissions can be improved. The development of risk assessment systems and related harmonisation proJects have already attention for many years (e.g. CSOIL, USES, RIBRON). It is concluded that the RIVM requires a broad, up-to-date range of instruments for exposure assessment and active involvement in all kinds of national and international relevant networks. The RIVM should also remain involved in the development and evaluation of methodology and in projects aiming at harmonisation. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 64 refs

  8. General Strain Theory and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected.

  9. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  10. The Meta Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Prevention Programs of Students’ Attitude Change toward Substance Abuse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Mehri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of current study was the study of the effectiveness of prevention programs of students’ attitude change toward substance abuse and its effective factors. Method: for this purpose, the studies which related to evaluation of prevention program were gathered. For gathering of these researches related keywords were used and search was done in sites and universities dissertations. Finally, the researches which were conformed to the entrance criterions, were selected and considered information for testing of hypothesizes was extracted by reverse questionnaire which provided by authors. Of 20 selected studies proper statistics for calculation of effect size and other required information were recorded and analyzed by CMA2. Results: the findings showed that altogether, prevention programs of substance abuse were successful on students’ attitude change. The pooled effect size was significant. Because of the amount of pooled effect size was placed in range of 0.6-0.7, and then according to Cohen’s opinion is classified as moderate effect size. The results also, showed the variables as having of theoretical base, transactional approach in program presentation, the severity of program, the using of diversity educational strategies in presentation, the using of peer instructors were affected significantly on the effectiveness of programs. Conclusion: For attaining of more effective programs on students’ attitude change toward substance abuse these results should be considered.

  11. Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors. Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized. A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes. Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face

  12. Radiation exposure of the population by residual substances from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution gives a survey of common practice in the Federal Republic of Germany with model studies carried out so far to derive limit values. In this context, the SSK recommendations for 'Possibilities and Limits of Collective Doses' is applied to this specific problem and compared with the ideas of the ICRP. Questions on the 'cut-off dose' and on the 'de minimis' concept are discussed. Finally, a suggestion is developed and substantiated for the uniform determination of limit values for non-harmful utilization of low-level radioactive residual substances. The radiation exposure taken as 'de minimis' for individual persons out of a general public is taken as a basic. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Shifting Global Exposures to Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) Evident in Longitudinal Birth Cohorts from a Seafood-Consuming Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dassuncao, Clifton; Hu, Xindi C; Nielsen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    Rapid declines in legacy poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported in human populations globally following changes in production since 2000. However, changes in exposure sources are not well understood. Here, we report serum concentrations of 19 PFASs (∑19PFAS) measured in ch...

  14. Effects of Cognitive Distortions on the Link Between Dating Violence Exposure and Substance Problems in Clinically Hospitalized Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Williams, Caitlin; Day, Catherine; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether cognitive distortions (e.g., cognitive errors; negative views of self, world, and future) influence the association between dating violence and problematic substance use behaviors in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants included 155 adolescents, aged 13-17 years, who had initiated dating. Adolescents completed measures of dating violence, substance-related problems (alcohol and marijuana), and cognitive distortions. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the direct and interactive effects of dating violence exposure and cognitive distortions on likelihood of recent problematic substance use. Results suggested a main effect of dating violence on problematic alcohol and other drug use as well as an interactive effect of dating violence and cognitive distortions. Specifically, the relationship between dating violence and odds of substance-related problems was higher among those with greater (vs. fewer) cognitive distortions. Study results suggest the need for careful screening of cognitive distortions among adolescent dating violence victims, particularly those in mental health treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Attention problems in childhood and adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, Cédric; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Fombonne, Eric; Michel, Grégory; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Melchior, Maria

    2013-12-01

    To assess the link between childhood attention problems (AP) and substance use 18 years later. This cohort study was conducted in a community sample of 1103 French youths followed from 1991 to 2009. Exposures and covariates were childhood behavioral problems (based on parental report at baseline), early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity. Outcome measures were regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use (based on youth reports at follow-up). Individuals with high levels of childhood AP had higher rates of substance use (regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use). However, when taking into account other childhood behavioral problems, early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity, childhood AP were related only to regular tobacco smoking and lifetime cocaine use. Early cannabis exposure was the strongest risk factor for all substance use problems. This longitudinal community-based study shows that, except for tobacco and cocaine, the association between childhood AP and substance use is confounded by a range of early risk factors. Early cannabis exposure plays a central role in later substance use. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolderink, M; Smit, H.F.E.; Zanden, R.; Beecham, J; Knapp, M.; Paulus, A; Evers, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and the Risk of Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants and endocrine disruptors that may affect fetal brain development. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs increases the risk of congenital cerebral palsy (CP). The source population for this study includes 83,389 liveborn...... singletons and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. We identified 156 CP cases by linking the cohort to the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register, and we randomly selected 550 controls using a case-cohort design. We measured 16 PFASs in maternal plasma collected in early...

  18. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents’ Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. Methods We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Results Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Conclusions Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg) PMID:26510775

  19. 77 FR 48858 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... adverse chronic effects from the presumed degradation product of this PMN substance on humans and wildlife...) human exposure to the substance and its potential degradation products. To protect against these risks... may be significant (or substantial) human exposure to the substances and their potential degradation...

  20. Offering pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention to pregnant and postpartum women: a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika L; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah

    2017-03-08

    HIV prevention during pregnancy and lactation is critical for both maternal and child health. Pregnancy provides a critical opportunity for clinicians to elicit women's vulnerabilities to HIV and offer HIV testing, treatment and referral and/or comprehensive HIV prevention options for the current pregnancy, the postpartum period and safer conception options for future pregnancies. In this commentary, we review the safety of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine in pregnant and lactating women and suggest opportunities to identify pregnant and postpartum women at substantial risk of HIV. We then describe a clinical approach to caring for women who both choose and decline pre-exposure prophylaxis during pregnancy and postpartum, highlighting areas for future research. Evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine is safe in pregnancy and lactation. Identifying women vulnerable to HIV and eligible for pre-exposure prophylaxis is challenging in light of the myriad of individual, community, and structural forces impacting HIV acquisition. Validated risk calculators exist for specific populations but have not been used to screen and offer HIV prevention methods. Partner testing and engagement of men living with HIV are additional means of reaching at-risk women. However, women's vulnerabilities to HIV change over time. Combining screening for HIV vulnerability with HIV and/or STI testing at standard intervals during pregnancy is a practical way to prompt providers to incorporate HIV screening and prevention counselling. We suggest using shared decision-making to offer women pre-exposure prophylaxis as one of multiple HIV prevention strategies during pregnancy and postpartum, facilitating open conversations about HIV vulnerabilities, preferences about HIV prevention strategies, and choosing a method that best meets the needs of each woman. Growing evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir

  1. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  2. Impulsive lifestyle counseling to prevent dropout from treatment for substance use disorders in people with antisocial personality disorder: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of treatment dropout was reduced among patients randomized to the experimental program (hazard ratio=0.63, p=.031), after controlling for age, gender, and substitution treatment status. The study supported the efficacy of the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program as a method for preventing treatment dropout for patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment. Trial registration #ISRCTN67266318. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Representation of the disease, motivation sphere and medical communication as a target for prevention and treatment of HIV infection in substance users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzina T.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The psychological aspect of treating HIV-infected substance users entails changing their behaviour, as their behaviour is what leads to the risk of them transmitting and spreading HIV. Psychological treatment must facilitate their adaptation so that they may be otherwise treated for substance abuse and HIV. We propose establishing the psychological objective of helping patients overcome substance addiction by addressing their internal representation of the disease (IRD, value-sense and motivational sphere, as well as their relationships with their physician, as this is the main person who interacts with the patient in the clinic. An IRD study of patients with an opioid dependency, complicated with infectious diseases, showed that the IPD emotional level of opioid patients, as interconditional for other levels, can be an indicator of the status and impact of the main objective. A comparative study of substance users who received psychotherapy with those not receiving psychotherapy showed that the value-sense and motivational sphere is also an important target for preventive action. A study of the physician’s image of drug treatment clinics’ patients revealed that increases in the communicative competence of drug treatment facilities’ personnel represents a third course of preventing the transmission of HIV among substance dependent patients.

  4. Changing Latino Adolescents' Substance Use Norms and Behaviors: the Effects of Synchronized Youth and Parent Drug Use Prevention Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baldwin-White, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted US born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin'it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N = 267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning at 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared with youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use.

  5. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  6. Breathing rates and daily activities: parameters of exposure to inhaled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.; Malarbet, J.L.; Courtay, C.

    1993-01-01

    The intake of inhaled toxic substances is based upon the air volumes breathed every day by people under exposure to gases and aerosols. On the occasion of the revision of the respiratory tract model by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), modern standards have been assessed for average inspired air volumes according to age and sex. Recent data of breathing rates as a function of physical activity have been recorded, and economical surveys recently published by the National Institute of Statistics and Economical studies (INSEE) provided time budgets and activities of specific categories of the population. The results were calculated for adults and children, 3 months, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years old. These values are slightly different from those formerly published by ICRP and the United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR). (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Comparing Efficacy of Four Preventive Methods on Attitude of Drug Substance Abuse and Self–Esteem in Students Supported by Emdad Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz allah agha babaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of four drug substance abuse preventive methods: cognitive–behavioral social traioning, life skills training, poster presentation and short message system on attitude change and enhancement self-esteem in students supported by Emdad Committee. Method:This was a quasi experimental study. 150 students were selected and randomly assigned to the four experimental and control groups. The groups were completed attitude of drug substance abuse and self-esteem inventories. Experimental groups received: group 1 received 10 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral social training 120 minutes each, group 2, 10 sessions of life skills training, 120 minutes each, group 3 for 10 weeks into presented of 40 posters and group 4 short message service for 10 weeks. Findings: The results revealed that preventive techniques were effected on attitude and self–esteem. Also results of post-hoc (LSD test revealed that preventive techniques with difference effectiveness were effected on change attitude of substance abuse. Also cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training techniques were effected on self esteem. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that all the four techniques were effective in the generation negative attitude into drug abuse, otherwise only cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training enhancement on self esteem.

  8. Age-Specific Associations Between Violence Exposure and Past 30-Day Marijuana and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason E; Heinze, Justin E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-04-23

    Using data from a cohort study of students at risk for high school dropout, we examined associations between violence exposure and past 30-day alcohol and marijuana use. We used varying-coefficient regression with person-level fixed effects to estimate how those associations changed within-person across ages approximately 14-23. Generally, violence perpetration was most strongly associated with substance use, within-person. Substance use became increasingly associated with both observed violence and violence perpetration during early/middle adolescence; this increase continued longer into development (age 18+) for alcohol use. Across most of the age range studied here, violence victimization was minimally associated with within-person changes in substance use. Results indicate age-specific associations between violence exposure and alcohol and other drug use, which may be useful for informing prevention strategies. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  9. The Effectiveness of Matrix Model in Relapse Prevention and Coping Skills Enhancement in Participants with Substance Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Matrix model in relapse prevention and enhancement of coping skills in participants with opiate substance dependency. Method: In a semi-experimental study, 23 participants with diagnosis of opiate dependency who successfully detoxified, selected by cluster random sampling and they were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 32 sessions of Matrix model training and the control group did not receive any treatment. All subjects were assessed by alcohol abuse coping response inventory (AACRI and Morphine test before treatment, randomly during treatment, after treatment, and after 3-months follow up stage. Results: The results showed that experimental and control groups had a significant differed in relapse rates. In addition, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA showed a significant difference between two groups in coping skills enhancement at periods of post test and follow up. Conclusion: With consideration of the results of the present study indicated that matrix model is effective in relapse prevention and coping skills enhancement in people with opiate substance dependency.

  10. The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Mewton, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Birrell, Louise; Brownhill, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-02-05

    Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention, a universal approach to preventing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents. Participants will consist of approximately 8400 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 84 secondary schools in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland, Australia. The schools will be cluster randomised to one of four groups; (i) CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention; (ii) CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use; (iii) CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health, or (iv) Control (Health and Physical Education as usual). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health symptomatology and anxiety, depression and substance use knowledge. Secondary outcomes include substance use related harms, self-efficacy to resist peer pressure, general disability, and truancy. The link between personality and substance use will also be examined. Compared to students who receive the universal CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use, or CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health or the Control condition (who received usual Health and Physical Education), we expect students who receive the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention to show greater delays to the initiation of substance use, reductions in substance use and mental health symptoms, and increased substance use and mental health knowledge. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000723785.

  11. The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention, a universal approach to preventing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents. Methods/design Participants will consist of approximately 8400 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 84 secondary schools in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland, Australia. The schools will be cluster randomised to one of four groups; (i) CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention; (ii) CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use; (iii) CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health, or (iv) Control (Health and Physical Education as usual). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health symptomatology and anxiety, depression and substance use knowledge. Secondary outcomes include substance use related harms, self-efficacy to resist peer pressure, general disability, and truancy. The link between personality and substance use will also be examined. Discussion Compared to students who receive the universal CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use, or CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health or the Control condition (who received usual Health and Physical Education), we expect students who receive the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention to show greater delays to the initiation of substance use, reductions in substance use and mental health symptoms, and increased substance use and mental health knowledge. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000723785

  12. The Feasibility and Acceptability of "Arise": An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rebecca Polley; Bartel, Chelsea M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, "Arise" (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas.

  13. Substance Use Prevention in a Youth Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-09

    modified from the Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale ( Rosenberg , 1965). The items included statements such as, “I have a positive attitude toward myself...among participants. The study also showed a short-term increase in self - esteem among new enrollees, no changes in substance use, and an unexpected...psychosocial factors related to substance use, such as self -efficacy and self - esteem , no effects were found for these factors (LoSciuto et al., 1997; Perry

  14. [Behavioral-cognitive disorders due to chronic exposure to industrial and environmental toxic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Carlos A; Genovese, Osvaldo; Abel, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A review of neurotoxics is made, given the low tendency to investigate for chronic exposure to environmental and industrial potential central nervous system toxic substances (heavy metals, insecticides, organic solvents and carbon monoxide) in the history of a patient consulting for behavioral - cognitive complains, and considering the potential overturn of the disease if a correct diagnosis and early treatment is made. to determine the onset of the cognitive - behavioral features, presentation pattern, diagnosis and treatment of such neurotoxics (NT). systematized search in Cochrane and Medline reviews, Embase and Lilacs. chronic exposure to neurotoxics can produce personality changes (sleeping problems, excitation, depression, delusions and hallucinations) as well as cognitive problems (memory, learning, language and cognitive reaction problems). NT may cause changes in the neuron morphology and its sub cellular structures, affecting its normal biochemistry and physiology (proteins and neurotransmitters synthesis). The clinical history, diagnosis and treatment of each neurotoxic are discussed. The NT must be taken in consideration among the possible different etiologies when a patient with a bizarre behavioral cognitive syndrome is examined.

  15. Addressing Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Evaluation of Washington's Prevention and Intervention Services Program. 2001-03 Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Dennis D.

    2004-01-01

    To directly address the state of Washington's concerns regarding student alcohol and other drug use, in 1989 the state Legislature passed the Omnibus Alcohol and Controlled Substances Act (ESSHB 1793). One part of this act called for the creation of a school-based alcohol and other dug abuse prevention and early intervention program. The Office of…

  16. The Use of Virtual Reality in Craving Assessment and Cue-Exposure Therapy in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  17. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHone-Blanchet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist, however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse.Current behavioural therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioural training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer-pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practice new skills in treatment. Virtual reality enhances ecological validity of traditional craving induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from 1 studies using virtual reality and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and 2 studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual reality in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug seeking behaviours and peer pressure.Findings indicate that virtual reality can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue exposure-therapy with virtual environment however reported mitigated success so far.

  18. Craving and substance use among patients with alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or heroin addiction: a comparison of substance- and person-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Serre, Fuschia; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Debrabant, Romain; Auriacombe, Marc; Swendsen, Joel

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that craving increases following exposure to substance-related 'cues', but the role of life-styles or substance use habits that are unique to each person remains poorly understood. This study examines the association of substance-specific and personal cues with craving and substance use in daily life. Ecological momentary assessment was used during a 2-week period. Data were collected in a French out-patient addiction treatment centre. A total of 132 out-patients beginning treatment for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or opiate addiction were included. Using mobile technologies, participants were questioned four times per day relative to craving, substance use and exposure to either substance-specific cues (e.g. seeing a syringe) or personal cues unique to that individual (e.g. seeing the specific person with whom the substance is used). Craving intensity was associated with the number of concurrently assessed substance-specific cues (t = 4.418, P addictive substances, and the duration of this association may persist longer than for more general substance-specific cues. Mobile technologies provide new opportunities for understanding these person-specific risk factors and for providing individually tailored interventions. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. A Study on Substance Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçim, Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine options to increase the supportive power of parents, teachers, school administrators, and counselors who directly interact with children and adolescents and have a fundamental responsibility to protect them from the risks of substance abuse and evaluate the effectiveness of associated training programs. The study design…

  20. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  1. My Family-Study, Early-Onset Substance use Prevention Program: An Application of Intervention Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Based on different studies, substance use is one of the health problems in the Iranian society. The prevalence of substance use is on a growing trend; moreover, the age of the onset of substance use has declined to early adolescence and even lower. Regarding this, the present study aimed to develop a family-based early-onset substance use prevention program in children (My Family-Study by using intervention mapping approach. Materials and Methods: This study descirbes the research protocol during which the intervention mapping approach was used as a framework to develop My Family-Study. In this study, six steps of intervention mapping were completed. Interviews with experts and literature review fulfilled the need assessment. In the second step, the change objectivs were rewritten based on the intersection of the performance objectives and the determinants associated in the matrices. After designing the program and planning the implementation of the intervention, the evaluation plan of the program was accomplished. Results: The use of intervention mapping approach facilitated the develop-pment of a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based program. Moreover, this approach was helful in the determination of outcomes, performance and change objectives, determinants, theoretical methods, practical application, intervention, dissemination, and evaluation program. Conclusions: The intervention mapping provided a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based approach to develop a quality continuing health promotion program.

  2. Relationship of trauma exposure and substance abuse to self-reported violence among men and women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Brendan; Reiland, Sarah; Thorne, Chris; Cropsey, Karen L

    2014-05-01

    Past research showed a relationship between substance abuse and aggression and past trauma and aggression. The nature of the relationships between substance use, trauma, and aggression is inconclusive. The current research hypothesized greater aggression among those with a history of substance abuse and trauma compared with those without such a history and an additive relationship between substance abuse and trauma on aggression. Participants were 615 individuals in a substance abuse treatment program for individuals under criminal justice supervision. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and self-report measures. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the relationships among substance use, trauma, and aggression. Participants with a history of trauma and regular substance use reported the highest rates of homicidal ideation, problem behaviors, and person offenses. Participants in this group also reported greater desire for help managing their stress and tension, dealing with problems in their intimate relationships, developing healthier relationships in general, and learning prosocial approaches to express their feelings. Substance abusing participants who experienced trauma reported more externalizing behaviors and a greater desire for coping- and social-skills training than participants who abused substances but did not report a history of trauma. This suggests that participants in substance abuse treatment programs may have improved outcomes with the addition of components to address these issues.

  3. Basic principles for the development of a concept for environmental exposure assessments of single substances released from multiple uses under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The ECHA Guidance Documents R.12 to R.18 include detailed provisions on how to conduct an exposure assessment as part of the Chemical Safety Report. The guidance documents, however, only restrictedly address the consideration of a substance's emissions into the environment, if the local releases from various uses of the same substance result in a cumulative exposure. In a situation where a chemical has a number of applications in one site, it may however occur that the emissions of several uses which only have a low risk if considered separately will sum up and cause an unacceptable risk to the environment. Against this background, the objective of the present study is a further specification of the guidelines on cumulative risk assessment according to the REACH Regulation. Besides the definition of the key terminology, guidelines on cumulative exposure assessment already laid down in other legal regulations have been evaluated and their transferability to the environmental exposure assessment according to REACH has been investigated. Moreover, the fields of application for which a cumulative exposure assessment might be relevant have been worked out. A distinction was made between cases where the responsibility for cumulative exposure assessment falls into the hands of the registrant as part of the Chemical Safety Report and other cases, where the responsibility lies with the downstream users (DU) or the Member State Competent Authorities (MS-CA). Initial proposals have been elaborated for a technical implementation of the cumulative exposure assessment of chemicals as part of the preparation and evaluation of chemical dossiers by the registrant and the MS-CA, respectively, and as part of the responsibility of the DU. (orig.)

  4. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    track changes in potential population exposures to environmental carcinogens over time, as well as to compare between different substances and exposure pathways, is necessary to support comprehensive, evidence-based prevention policy. We used estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk as indicators that, although based on a number of simplifying assumptions, help to identify important data gaps and prioritize more detailed data collection and exposure assessment needs.

  5. [Poisonings due to Substance Abuse Reported to the Poisons Information Centre Erfurt from 2002 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, G; Prasa, D; Hentschel, H; Deters, M

    2014-10-01

    Because of their importance for clinical toxicology, developments of sub-stance abuse reported to the Poisons Information Centre (PIC) Erfurt were investigated and compared to other reasons of human exposures. A retrospective analysis of all human exposures (exposures of humans to substances in abuse, accidental and unknown circumstances, and suicide attempts) (n=125,130) from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2011 was undertaken according to substance classes, reasons of exposures, symptom severity, age groups, and gender. Cases of substance abuse (3,760, 3.0% of all exposures) continuously increased from 252 (92 with one and 160 with multiple substances) in 2002 to 507 in 2011 (239 with one and 268 with multiple substances). In relation to all exposures, only the abuse of multiple substances rose significantly (pabuse significantly (pabuse significantly (pabuse significantly (psuicide attempts (9.6%; 4.4%). First legal highs exposures were registered in 2010 and led significantly (pabuse is shown by the fact that it resulted more often in moderate and severe symptoms than suicide attempts. Data on substance abuse from PICs could supplement official annual drug reports in aspects of clinical toxicology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Polarised press reporting about HIV prevention: Social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  7. Association Between Gambling and Exposure to Guns Among Cocaine-Using Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddiparti, Krishna; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the association between gambling severity and exposure to guns among substance-using women recruited in the community. Data for these analyses come from the baseline phase of two community-based HIV prevention interventions conducted among alcohol and drug-using women in St. Louis, MO. Gun exposure was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), and DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule; The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-IV substance dependence, including cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence. Women in the study were predominantly African American (80%), mean age was 35.70 years ±8.8. Women exposed to guns were significantly more likely than women not exposed to guns to have gambled with all consequences: without meeting PG criteria (21% vs. 15%); to meet 1 to 4 PG criteria (22% vs. 12%), and to report 5 or more PG criteria (10% vs. 5%). These differences were significant at p  gambled without PG symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.10-2.85) were nearly twice more likely to have exposure to guns than women who did not gamble. The risk for gun exposure increased with severity of gambling. Women who gambled and reported one to four PG criteria were twice as likely to have had an exposure to guns (OR 2.04; 95% CI = 1.45-3.06) and this risk increased to nearly threefold among women who met five or more criteria of PG (OR 2.65; 95% CI = 1.32-5.32). In addition, endorsing five or more criteria for major depressive disorder (OR 1.44; 95% CI = 1.00-2.06) and three or more criteria for antisocial personality adult criteria (OR 3.78; 95% CI = 2.03-7.02) were strong predictors for gun exposure among these women. The findings indicate that substance-using women with gambling behavior are at an enhanced risk to have exposure to guns.

  8. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  9. Polyfluoroalkyl substance exposure in the Mid-Ohio River Valley, 1991-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert L; Buckholz, Jeanette; Biro, Frank M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Xie, Changchun; Pinney, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Industrial discharges of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Ohio River, contaminating water systems near Parkersburg, WV, were previously associated with nearby residents' serum PFOA concentrations above US general population medians. Ohio River PFOA concentrations downstream are elevated, suggesting Mid-Ohio River Valley residents are exposed through drinking water. Quantify PFOA and 10 other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Mid-Ohio River Valley resident sera collected between 1991 and 2013 and determine whether the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer are exposure sources. We measured eleven PFAS in 1608 sera from 931 participants. Serum PFOA concentration and water source associations were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. We estimated between-sample serum PFOA using one-compartment pharmacokinetics for participants with multiple samples. In serum samples collected as early as 1991, PFOA (median = 7.6 ng/mL) was detected in 99.9% of sera; 47% had concentrations greater than US population 95th percentiles. Five other PFAS were detected in greater than 82% of samples; median other PFAS concentrations were similar to the US general population. Serum PFOA was significantly associated with water source, sampling year, age at sampling, tap water consumption, pregnancy, gravidity and breastfeeding. Serum PFOA was 40-60% lower with granular activated carbon (GAC) use. Repeated measurements and pharmacokinetics suggest serum PFOA peaked 2000-2006 for participants using water without GAC treatment; where GAC was used, serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 1991 to 2012. Mid-Ohio River Valley residents appear to have PFOA, but not other PFAS, serum concentrations above US population levels. Drinking water from the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer, primarily contaminated by industrial discharges 209-666 km upstream, is likely the primary exposure source. GAC treatment of drinking water mitigates, but does not eliminate, PFOA exposure. Copyright

  10. Does exposure to parental substance use disorders increase offspring risk for a substance use disorder? A longitudinal follow-up study into young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Amy M; Wilens, Timothy E; Martelon, MaryKate; Rosenthal, Lindsay; Biederman, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the risk of exposure to parental substance use disorders (SUD; alcohol or drug abuse or dependence) on the risk for SUD in offspring with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed into young adult years. Subjects were derived from two longitudinal case-control studies of probands of both sexes, 6-17 years, with and without DSM-III-R ADHD and their parents. Probands were followed for ten years into young adulthood. Probands with a parental history of non-nicotine SUD were included in this analysis. Exposure to SUD was determined by active non-nicotine parental SUD while the parent was living with their child after birth. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the risk of non-nicotine SUD in offspring. 171 of the 404 probands reassessed at ten-year follow up had a family history of parental SUD. 102 probands were exposed to active parental SUD. The average age of our sample was 22.2 ± 3.5 years old. Exposure to maternal but not paternal SUD increased offspring risk for an alcohol use disorder in young adulthood independently of ADHD status (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.9; p = 0.04). Exposure to maternal SUD increases the risk for an alcohol use disorder in offspring ten years later in young adult years irrespective of ADHD status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dow's chemical exposure index guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.T.; Mundt, A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of events in the 1970's and 1980's impacted the course of process safety. Incidents such as Flixborough, Seveso, Three-Mile Island, and Bhopal are well known throughout industry and are recognized as examples of major disasters. Even though events leading up to these disasters were completely different they had one common element between them: a substance was released from a manufacturing unit, became airborne and presented a hazard of such magnitude as to place the safety of both employees and the surrounding public in jeopardy. As a result, industry became increasingly concerned regarding potential loss, in human and economic terms, as plants and equipment grew in size. The Flixborough incident raised the level of concern for process safety, particularly in terms of the hazards presented by fire and explosion. Seveso and Three-Mile Island emphasized the need to consider far-field exposure. The Bhopal incident created an urgent need to recognize and understand the expected downwind impact of potential releases of acutely toxic substances to the air. In order to meet this need, the Dow Chemical Company, a recognized leader in the area of safety and loss prevention, presented a Chemical Exposure Index in 1986. AIChE has recently published an updated version entitled Dow's Chemical Exposure Index Guide. 7 refs., 5 figs

  12. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  13. Possibilities for the prevention of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Two types of evidence suggest that the prevention of cancer is a practical possibility: first, our increasing knowledge of the causes of cancer, many of which can be avoided without difficulty, and second, evidence that all common cancers whose causes are still unknown vary in incidence with place, time or social group. Many known causes still exist, however, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of cases annually throughout the world. Practical possibilities for prevention now and in the near future include changes in personal habits (tobacco, alcohol, diet), control of exposure to known cancer-producing substances (carcinogens) in both industry and the general environment, and immunization against viruses causing cancer. (author)

  14. Occupational exposure and effects on the male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kaltenecker Retto de Queiroz

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the incidence of male infertility has been described in the international literature, raising questions about its causes. Part of this effect may result from synthetic toxic substances acting on the endocrine system (endocrine disruptors, many of which are routinely used in work processes. We provide a critical review of the specialized literature on work-related chemical substances capable of causing male infertility. Pesticides such as DDT, linuron, and others, heavy metals like mercury, lead, cadmium, and copper, and substances from various industrial uses and residues such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ethylene dibromide (EDB, phthalates, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and ethanol are among the main endocrine disruptors that can cause male infertility. Based on the literature, gonadal dysfunction and congenital malformation are the main alterations caused by these substances in the male reproductive system. We conclude that despite the relative lack of studies on this issue, the relevance of such risk calls for further studies as well as measures to prevent workers' exposure to the various substances.

  15. Adolescents' media-related cognitions and substance use in the context of parental and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Parker, Alison E; Elmore, Kristen C; Benson, Jessica W

    2010-09-01

    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence.

  16. Longitudinal Associations of Exposure to Perfluoroalkylated Substances in Childhood and Adolescence and Indicators of Adiposity and Glucose Metabolism 6 and 12 Years Later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Grøntved, Anders; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term association of exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), during childhood (9 years) and adolescence (15 years) on indicators of adiposity and glucose metabolism in adolescence...

  17. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Combining biomedical preventions for HIV: Vaccines with pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides or other HIV preventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Janet M

    2016-12-01

    Biomedical preventions for HIV, such as vaccines, microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs, can each only partially prevent HIV-1 infection in most human trials. Oral PrEP is now FDA approved for HIV-prevention in high risk groups, but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP) an HIV vaccine could provide protection when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. Other types of PrEP or microbicides may also be partially protective. When licensed, first generation HIV vaccines are likely to be partially effective. Individuals at risk for HIV may receive an HIV vaccine combined with other biomedical preventions, in series or in parallel, in clinical trials or as part of standard of care, with the goal of maximally increasing HIV prevention. In human studies, it is challenging to determine which preventions are best combined, how they interact and how effective they are. Animal models can determine CBP efficacy, whether additive or synergistic, the efficacy of different products and combinations, dose, timing and mechanisms. CBP studies in macaques have shown that partially or minimally effective candidate HIV vaccines combined with partially effective oral PrEP, vaginal PrEP or microbicide generally provided greater protection than either prevention alone against SIV or SHIV challenges. Since human CBP trials will be complex, animal models can guide their design, sample size, endpoints, correlates and surrogates of protection. This review focuses on animal studies and human models of CBP and discusses implications for HIV prevention.

  19. Methods for evaluating a mature substance abuse prevention/early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.

  20. PETRORISK: a risk assessment framework for petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Comber, Mike H I; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Eadsforth, Charles V; Dmytrasz, Bhodan; King, Duncan; Warren, Christopher S; den Haan, Klaas; Djemel, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    PETRORISK is a modeling framework used to evaluate environmental risk of petroleum substances and human exposure through these routes due to emissions under typical use conditions as required by the European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Petroleum substances are often complex substances comprised of hundreds to thousands of individual hydrocarbons. The physicochemical, fate, and effects properties of the individual constituents within a petroleum substance can vary over several orders of magnitude, complicating risk assessment. PETRORISK combines the risk assessment strategies used on single chemicals with the hydrocarbon block approach to model complex substances. Blocks are usually defined by available analytical characterization data on substances that are expressed in terms of mass fractions for different structural chemical classes that are specified as a function of C number or boiling point range. The physicochemical and degradation properties of the blocks are determined by the properties of representative constituents in that block. Emissions and predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) are then modeled using mass-weighted individual representative constituents. Overall risk for various environmental compartments at the regional and local level is evaluated by comparing the PECs for individual representative constituents to corresponding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) derived using the Target Lipid Model. Risks to human health are evaluated using the overall predicted human dose resulting from multimedia environmental exposure to a substance-specific derived no-effect level (DNEL). A case study is provided to illustrate how this modeling approach has been applied to assess the risks of kerosene manufacture and use as a fuel. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW.

  2. Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and relationship to substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2010-09-01

    Although categorized as an impulse control disorder, kleptomania has many features in common with substance use disorders. This paper sought to examine the mounting evidence supporting the phenomenological, clinical, epidemiological, and biological links between kleptomania and substance addictions. A review of the literature examining family history, genetics, comorbid psychiatric conditions, neuroimaging, and phenomenology was utilized to examine the relationship of kleptomania to substance addiction. Kleptomania and substance addiction share common core qualities, including similar treatment successes, as well as etiologic and phenomenological similarities. Future research investigating the relationship between kleptomania and substance use disorders holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general. Research investigating kleptomania (and other behavioral addictions) and its relationship to substance addiction holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general.

  3. Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xindi C; Dassuncao, Clifton; Zhang, Xianming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS......) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects. METHODS: We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands...... sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese...

  4. Priority Setting for Occupational Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting priority occupational carcinogens is important for cancer prevention efforts; however, standardized selection methods are not available. The objective of this paper was to describe the methods used by CAREX Canada in 2015 to establish priorities for preventing occupational cancer, with a focus on exposure estimation and descriptive profiles. Methods: Four criteria were used in an expert assessment process to guide carcinogen prioritization: (1 the likelihood of presence and/or use in Canadian workplaces; (2 toxicity of the substance (strength of evidence for carcinogenicity and other health effects; (3 feasibility of producing a carcinogen profile and/or an occupational estimate; and (4 special interest from the public/scientific community. Carcinogens were ranked as high, medium or low priority based on specific conditions regarding these criteria, and stakeholder input was incorporated. Priorities were set separately for the creation of new carcinogen profiles and for new occupational exposure estimates. Results: Overall, 246 agents were reviewed for inclusion in the occupational priorities list. For carcinogen profile generation, 103 were prioritized (11 high, 33 medium, and 59 low priority, and 36 carcinogens were deemed priorities for occupational exposure estimation (13 high, 17 medium, and 6 low priority. Conclusion: Prioritizing and ranking occupational carcinogens is required for a variety of purposes, including research, resource allocation at different jurisdictional levels, calculations of occupational cancer burden, and planning of CAREX-type projects in different countries. This paper outlines how this process was achieved in Canada; this may provide a model for other countries and jurisdictions as a part of occupational cancer prevention efforts. Keywords: cancer prevention, carcinogen exposure, occupational health

  5. From betrayal to the bottle: investigating possible pathways from trauma to problematic substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Brianna C; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2014-10-01

    Research in both community and clinical settings has found that exposure to cumulative interpersonal trauma predicts substance use problems. Less is known about betrayal as a dimension of trauma exposure that predicts substance use, and about the behavioral and psychological pathways that explain the relation between trauma and substance use. In a sample of 362 young adults, this study evaluated three intervening pathways between betrayal trauma exposure prior to age 18 years and problematic substance use: (a) substance use to cope with negative affect, (b) difficulty discerning and/or heeding risk, and (c) self-destructiveness. In addition, exposure to trauma low in betrayal (e.g., earthquake) was included in the model. Bootstrap tests of indirect effects revealed that betrayal trauma prior to age 18 years was associated with problematic substance use via posttraumatic stress and two intervening pathways: difficulty discerning/heeding risk (β = .07, p trauma was not associated with posttraumatic stress or problematic substance use. Results contribute to a trauma-informed understanding of substance use that persists despite potentially harmful consequences. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES An epidemiological perspective of substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-09-06

    Sep 6, 2002 ... advertising linking alcohol with the glamour of sport. This inculcates values that ... of substance use is a useful preventive strategy, hence the importance of ... substance use and associated factors (including age, gender,.

  7. Preventable hospitalizations among adult Medicaid beneficiaries with concurrent substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Sang Leung

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Substance use disorder is statistically associated with hospitalizations for most Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions but not with length of hospital stay for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, after adjusting for covariates. The significant associations between substance use disorder and Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition admissions suggest unmet primary health care needs for substance use disorder beneficiaries and a need for integrated primary/behavioral healthcare.

  8. Supervisor tolerance-responsiveness to substance abuse and workplace prevention training: use of a cognitive mapping tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joel B; Lehman, Wayne E K

    2002-02-01

    Supervisor tolerance-responsiveness, referring to the attitudes and behaviors associated with either ignoring or taking proactive steps with troubled employees, was investigated in two studies. The studies were conducted to help examine, understand and improve supervisor responsiveness to employee substance abuse. Study 1 examined supervisor response to and tolerance of coworker substance use and ways of interfacing with the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) in two workplaces (n = 244 and 107). These surveys suggested that engaging supervisors in a dialogue about tolerance might improve their willingness to use the EAP. Study 2 was a randomized control field experiment that assessed a team-oriented training. This training adopted a cognitive mapping technique to help improve supervisor responsiveness. Supervisors receiving this training (n = 29) were more likely to improve on several dimensions of responsiveness (e.g. likely to contact the EAP) than were supervisors who received a more didactic, informational training (n = 23) or a no-training control group (n = 17). Trained supervisors also showed increases in their own help-seeking behavior. Procedures and maps from the mapping activity (two-stage conversational mapping) are described. Overall, results indicate that while supervisor tolerance of coworker substance use inhibits EAP utilization, it may be possible to address this tolerance using team-oriented prevention training in the work-site.

  9. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances; Analyse des modalites de fixation des valeurs limites d'exposition et d'emission pour les substances chimiques et radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  10. PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR PREVENTION OF HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Diniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review existing data on Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP for prevention of HIV infection, including the role of medical male circumcision, oral administration of antiretroviral drugs and topical microbicides. Data Sources: PubMed and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Review Methods: Comprehensive review. Results: Medical male circumcision has been shown to prevent 48-60% of new HIV-1 infections. The efficacy rate of antiretroviral drugs given per os to prevent HIV infection varies in direct association with the adherence rate (62.2% in TDF2 study with 84% adherence; 44% in iPrEx study with <50% adherence; 48% in Bangkok study with 67% adherence; 67-75% in Partners PrEP study with 82% adherence; and 6% in FEM-PrEP study with 40% adherence. As for the use of topic microbicides, the CAPRISA 004 study showed 39% reduction in HIV infection using a 1% tenofovir gel. On the other hand, PRO2000 gel showed a modest reduction of 30% which was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The studies suggest that medical male circumcision is highly cost-effective at preventing HIV infection but requires careful communication strategies to be successful. PrEP using antiretroviral drugs is also very effective but it is highly dependent on the adherence rate. As for topical microbicides, 1% tenofovir gel is currently the only promising option.

  11. Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health, the Importance of Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured Abstract Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Due to the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review, we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. PMID:27513554

  12. Behavioural treatment of tics: Habit reversal and exposure with response prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griendt, J.M.T.M. van de; Verdellen, C.W.J.; Dijk, M.K. van; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER.

  13. Getting boozy in books: substance use in adolescent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Phillips, James C

    2011-09-01

    Media effects research provides evidence for a link between adolescent exposure to media portrayals of substance use and usage. Exposure to media content that glamorizes and normalizes substance use carries potential public health risks. Though substance use has been examined in other media, such as film, television, and magazines, no research to date examines usage portrayals in adolescent novels. Given that adolescents do read, and given the potential impact of content on adolescent attitudes and behavior, this study provides a detailed analysis of the frequency and nature of substance use in the understudied area of novels. Substance use was examined in 40 best-selling adolescent novels on the New York Times Best Sellers list (time span June-July 2008). Substance use varied widely. Of the various types of substances, alcohol portrayals were most common. Almost all substance use was portrayed as having no consequences. Alcohol use was portrayed in similar frequencies in books aimed at younger, middle, and older adolescents, though illegal drug use was more likely to be found in books aimed at older ages. Our results suggest that the manner in which substance use is generally portrayed may encourage use among adolescents. Researchers, parents, and adolescents are encouraged to examine books as one potentially overlooked area of influence.

  14. Cooking fish is not effective in reducing exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Zhang, Xianming; Guo, Rui; Braekevelt, Eric; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Reiner, Eric J; Lee, Holly; Bronson, Roni; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of fish is considered a part of a healthy diet; however, health risks from fish consumption exist due to potential exposure to various contaminants accumulated in fish. Cooking fish can reduce exposure to many organic chemicals in fish. Similar results have been presented for low levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of contaminants of emerging concern, in grocery store fish. We examined the effectiveness of three cooking methods (i.e., baking, broiling, and frying) on reducing PFAS levels in four sport fish species. Samples of Chinook salmon, common carp, lake trout and walleye were collected from four rivers in Ontario, Canada and skin-off fillets were analyzed for regular groups of PFASs such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), which are PFASs of emerging concern. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS detected and the concentrations were more than an order of magnitude higher than those reported for fish from grocery stores in Canada, Spain, and China. Although concentrations of PFOS in fish fillets generally increase after cooking, amounts of PFOS largely remain unchanged. Relatively minor differences in changes in the fish PFAS amounts after cooking depended on fish species and cooking method used. We conclude that cooking sport fish is generally not an effective approach to reduce dietary exposure to PFASs, especially PFOS. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing Exposure and Response Prevention for OCD: A Couple-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Boeding, Sara; Fabricant, Laura E.; Paprocki, Christine; Fischer, Melanie S.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of individual therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is well established, yet not all patients respond well, and some show relapse on discontinuation. This article begins by providing an overview of the personal and interpersonal experiences of OCD, focusing on interpersonal…

  16. Social Activity, School-Related Activity, and Anti-Substance Use Media Messages on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.

  17. Development of Radioactive Substance Contamination Diffusion Preventive Equipment for a Hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Do Sik; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Kim, Ki Ha; Lee, Eun Pyo; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2009-01-01

    The hot cell of irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF), which has been operating since 1996, is generally contaminated by the radioactive nuclides of irradiated nuclear fuels and structural steels like Cs-137, Co-60, Co-134 and Ru-106. Especially Cs-137 is a main contaminated radioactive isotope which is easily moved here and there due to air flow in the hot cell, water-soluble, extremely toxic, and has a half-life of 30.23 years. To repair or fix the abnormal function of test apparatus installed in the hot cell, the maintenance door, so called a rear door and located at an intervention area, is opened to enter the hot cell inside. In a moment of opening the maintenance door, dirty air diffusion from the hot cell to an intervention area could be occurred in spite of increasing the rpm of exhaust fan to maintain much low under pressure, but an adjacent area to a maintenance door, i.e. intervention area, is very severely contaminated due to the unpredictable air flow. In this paper, the development of the radioactive substance contamination diffusion preventive equipment for a hot cell is studied to prevent dirty and toxic gaseous radioactive nuclides diffusion from a hot cell and installed at an intervention area of IMEF

  18. Music as a mediator between ethnicity and substance use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chrysalis L; DeKemper, Deedra

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between substance use references contained in music lyrics and videos and the attitudes and behaviors regarding substance use of White non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic emerging adults from a cultivation and social norms framework by assessing 425 male and female college students. It was hypothesized that there would be ethnic variations in perceived harm from substance use and reported recent substance use and that exposure to substance use references contained in music could mediate this relationship. Results confirmed ethnic differences in perceived risk associated with substance use as well as reported substance use with White non-Hispanic college students reporting the least perceived risk and the most substance use. African American college students reported the most perceived risk associated with substance use and the least amount of reported substance use. Results of the Test of Joint Significance confirmed the mediational model in that participant ethnicity was associated with exposure to substance use references in music lyrics and music videos. Substance use references in music lyrics, then, was able to predict actual reported substance use of participants but not perceived risk associated with substance use.

  19. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  20. "Unplugged," a European School-Based Program for Substance Use Prevention among Adolescents: Overview of Results from the EU-Dap Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D.; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Burkhart, Gregor; Caria, Maria Paola; Vadrucci, Serena; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by…

  1. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances exposure and thyroid hormones in humans: epidemiological observations and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in normal neurodevelopment of fetus and child. Many chemicals can affect control and homeostasis of thyroid hormones, and eventually lead to various adverse health effects including neurodevelopmental disorders. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs are among the thyroid disrupting chemicals that can be encountered among general human population. Due to their unique physicochemical characteristics, PFASs have been used as surfactants and surface coating materials in many applications. Therefore, PFASs have been frequently detected in humans and environment worldwide. In cross-sectional studies using nationally representative general human populations of United States, several PFASs have shown significant associations with thyroid hormones. Moreover, among pregnant women and their infants, not only major PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid, but also those with shorter or longer carbon chains showed significant associations with thyroid hormones. Often demographic characteristics such as sex, age, and disease status appear to influence the associations between PFASs exposure and thyroid hormones. In general, major PFASs showed hypothyroidism effects among pregnant women and infants. As 8 carbon based PFASs have been phased out, those with shorter or longer carbon chains have been used in growing amount as replacement. However, only limited information is available for their occurrences and toxicity among humans. Further investigations on these substituting PFASs are required. In addition, efforts are warranted to identify sources of and mitigate exposure to these thyroid disrupting chemicals especially during pregnancy and early stages of life.

  3. Prevention of risks in relation with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation; Prevention des risques lies a l'exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    After remind the base notions in the field of ionizing radiation, this file evaluates the situation on the natural and occupational exposures: modes, sources, and exposure level, risk for health. It presents the principles of prevention allowing in a professional area (out of nuclear industry) to reduce and control these exposures. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. references are given: regulatory benchmarks, useful links, books to consult. (N.C.)

  4. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Fei Sun

    Full Text Available High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g. was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  5. Individual Differences in Preventive Jealousy Determine Men's Jealousy after Subliminal Exposure to Rivals Wearing High- or Low-Status Clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massar, Karlijn; Buunk, Abraham Bram P

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated sex differences in jealousy after subliminal exposure to rivals wearing high-status or low-status clothes. It was expected that individual differences in preventive jealousy would moderate the relationship between a rival's characteristics and jealousy. Participants (Men: n = 54, M age = 21.6 yr., SD = 3.5; women: n = 71, M age = 20.7 yr., SD = 1.9) completed a parafoveal subliminal priming paradigm as well as questionnaires about jealousy and preventive jealousy. As predicted, women were not affected by their rival's status, but women high in preventive jealousy reported more jealousy than women low in preventive jealousy. However, whereas men low in preventive jealousy reported equal amounts of jealousy after exposure to a high-status and a low-status rival, surprisingly, and contrary to the expectations, men high in preventive jealousy reported most jealousy after exposure to a low-status rival. To explain these unexpected results, threats to self-esteem were discussed.

  6. Employing continuous quality improvement in community-based substance abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Hunter, Sarah B; Ebener, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe continuous quality improvement (CQI) for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community-based organization setting. CQI (e.g., plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA)) applied in healthcare and industry was adapted for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community setting. The authors assessed the resources needed, acceptability and CQI feasibility for ten programs by evaluating CQI training workshops with program staff and a series of three qualitative interviews over a nine-month implementation period with program participants. The CQI activities, PDSA cycle progress, effort, enthusiasm, benefits and challenges were examined. Results indicated that CQI was feasible and acceptable for community-based substance abuse prevention and treatment programs; however, some notable resource challenges remain. Future studies should examine CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. The study was conducted on a small number of programs. It did not assess CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. Practical implications- This project shows that it is feasible to adapt CQI techniques and processes for community-based programs substance abuse prevention and treatment programs. These techniques may help community-based program managers to improve service quality and achieve program outcomes. This is one of the first studies to adapt traditional CQI techniques for community-based settings delivering substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  7. Culturally Specific Youth Substance Abuse Resistance Skills: Applicability across the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Kulis, Stephen; Rodriguez, Gregorio Martinez; Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason

    2009-03-01

    This study tests the applicability among adolescents in Mexico of the keepin' it REAL (refuse, explain, avoid, and leave) strategies that are common and effective ways that U.S. youth resist substance use. Following a social learning, communication competence and ecological theory integrated approach, the study draws on self-reported questionnaire data from a non-probability sample of 327 adolescents attending two public high schools in Monterrey, Nuevo León. Multivariate regressions were used to test whether the respondents' use of the REAL strategies by the participants could be predicted by key demographic variables. Separate models were estimated for the frequency of use of each strategy and for different substances. Findings indicate that most adolescents in this sample utilized each of the REAL strategies as well as other strategies to respond to offers of alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana. Mexican and U.S. youth residing close to the US border appear to use similar drug resistance strategies. Use of the strategies varied considerably by the level of exposure to offers, but only minimally by gender and age. There were no notable differences by socioeconomic status or academic performance. Implications for prevention science, social work practice and social work research are discussed in the context of the bi-national border region and the applicability and prospect for dissemination of U.S. evidence based youth substance use prevention interventions.

  8. Preadolescent sensation seeking and early adolescent stress relate to at-risk adolescents' substance use by age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2017-06-01

    Substance use during adolescence can lead to the development of substance use disorders and other psychosocial problems. These negative outcomes are especially likely for individuals who use substances at earlier ages and those who engage in heavier use during adolescence, behaviors which are both more common among youth at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder, such as those with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+). Factors such as increased sensation seeking and greater exposure to stressors among FH+ youth may influence these associations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relative and unique contributions of sensation seeking during preadolescence and exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence to cumulative substance use by mid-adolescence among FH+ youth. A total of 167 mostly Hispanic FH+ youth (ages 12-15) who were participating in an ongoing longitudinal study were included in these analyses. Participants' data from biennial waves covering approximately 2.5years were used. Self-reported sensation seeking, exposure to stressors, and substance use were compared. Higher sensation seeking during preadolescence and greater exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence were both associated with substance use by age 15. These factors differentiated Substance Users from Non-Users, and also related to level of substance use. Elevated sensation seeking and exposure to stressors are both associated with substance use by age 15 among high-risk youth. Additionally, these factors can distinguish youth who develop heavier substance use during this important developmental period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. High-throughput dietary exposure predictions for chemical migrants from food contact substances for use in chemical prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryol, Derya; Nicolas, Chantel I; Wambaugh, John; Phillips, Katherine; Isaacs, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Under the ExpoCast program, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) researchers have developed a high-throughput (HT) framework for estimating aggregate exposures to chemicals from multiple pathways to support rapid prioritization of chemicals. Here, we present methods to estimate HT exposures to chemicals migrating into food from food contact substances (FCS). These methods consisted of combining an empirical model of chemical migration with estimates of daily population food intakes derived from food diaries from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A linear regression model for migration at equilibrium was developed by fitting available migration measurements as a function of temperature, food type (i.e., fatty, aqueous, acidic, alcoholic), initial chemical concentration in the FCS (C 0 ) and chemical properties. The most predictive variables in the resulting model were C 0 , molecular weight, log K ow , and food type (R 2 =0.71, pchemicals identified via publicly-available data sources as being present in polymer FCSs were predicted for 12 food groups (combinations of 3 storage temperatures and food type). The model was parameterized with screening-level estimates of C 0 based on the functional role of chemicals in FCS. By combining these concentrations with daily intakes for food groups derived from NHANES, population ingestion exposures of chemical in mg/kg-bodyweight/day (mg/kg-BW/day) were estimated. Calibrated aggregate exposures were estimated for 1931 chemicals by fitting HT FCS and consumer product exposures to exposures inferred from NHANES biomonitoring (R 2 =0.61, pchemicals), they can provide critical refinement to aggregate exposure predictions used in risk-based chemical priority-setting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Estimates of per capita exposure to substances migrating from canned foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, G; Oldring, P K T

    2002-09-01

    A study was undertaken by European industry to estimate the consumption of canned beverages and foodstuffs. European can production data were used with adjustments for imports into and out of the EU. It was further assumed that can production, with adjustments, equalled consumption. Owing to the lack of actual consumption country-by-country or household-by-household data throughout Europe, only per capita estimates of consumption were possible. Data were compiled country-by-country for seven major can-producing EU Member States and for eight different types of canned food and two types of canned beverage (beer and soft drinks). The per capita consumption of canned foods was 1.1 cans/person/week, and consumption of canned fish was estimated as 2.2 kg/person/year. The estimate of per capita consumption of canned food was 62 g/person/day or 22.6 kg/person/year. Canned beverages account for about 60% of the consumption of canned foodstuffs. The usefulness of per capita consumption of beverages is questionable because consumption habits may vary more widely than those for canned foods. However, as the migration into beverages is insignificant, these data were added for completeness. Per capita consumption of canned beverages is 67 cans/person/year or 61 g/person/day. From the average can sizes, the surface area of the cans consumed was estimated. The per capita surface area exposure was 0.55 dm(2)/person/day for canned foods and 0.55 dm(2)/person/day for canned beverages, giving 1.1 dm(2)/person/day. Migration of a substance at 0.02 mg dm(2) gives an exposure of 0.01 mg/person/day assuming a per capita consumption, using a surface area model. Migration at 0.12 mg kg(-1) in food gives an exposure of 0.007 mg/person/day using a weight model. Both models assumed migration into all food types at the same level, which is highly unrealistic. Exposure to BADGE from canned foods has been used as a case study. The best estimate for a worst case per capita exposure to BADGE and

  11. Pathways from childhood maltreatment to emerging adulthood: investigating trauma-mediated substance use and dating violence outcomes among child protective services-involved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Breanne; Goldstein, Abby L; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal survey data were used to examine the relationship between two types of childhood maltreatment, abuse/neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and two outcomes, substance use and dating violence, within the past year. Participants were youth (N = 158, aged 16-19 at Time 3) involved with child protective services (CPS). A parallel multiple mediator model was used to test the hypothesis that trauma symptoms would mediate the relationship between both types of maltreatment and dating violence, marijuana, and alcohol use outcomes. Although both types of maltreatment were not directly associated with dating violence and substance use outcomes, the indirect effects of anxiety, anger, and dissociation on the relationship between maltreatment and substance use/dating violence were significant. Direct effects of both types of maltreatment on past year use of dating violence + alcohol use and dating violence + marijuana use were not significant, but results demonstrated a significant indirect effect for anger on the relationship between exposure to IPV and past year dating violence + marijuana use. No other indirect effects were significant. Findings highlight the negative effects of exposure to IPV and have implications for the development of prevention programming for youth transitioning out of CPS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. 48 CFR 245.7310-5 - Controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs) to buy controlled substances as a medical practitioner, dealer... hallucinogenic drugs, shall be subject to the following special conditions: (a) Controlled Substances. Bids will... represents and warrants that it is registered under The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act...

  13. Piracetam prevents memory deficit induced by postnatal propofol exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Li, Feng; Chen, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Postnatal propofol exposure impairs hippocampal synaptic development and memory. However, the effective agent to alleviate the impairments was not verified. In this study, piracetam, a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor was administered following a seven-day propofol regime. Two months after propofol administration, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory decreased, while intraperitoneal injection of piracetam at doses of 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg following last propofol exposure reversed the impairments of memory and LTP. Mechanically, piracetam reversed propofol exposure-induced decrease of BDNF and phosphorylation of mTor. Similar as piracetam, BDNF supplementary also ameliorated propofol-induced abnormalities of synaptic plasticity-related protein expressions, hippocampal LTP and long-term memory. These results suggest that piracetam prevents detrimental effects of propofol, likely via activating BDNF synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Population-Based Assessment of Exposure to Risk Behaviors in Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Beach, Michael; Gerrard, Meg; Heatherton, Todd F

    2008-01-01

    The aim of most population-based studies of media is to relate a specific exposure to an outcome of interest. A research program has been developed that evaluates exposure to different components of movies in an attempt of assess the association of such exposure with the adoption of substance use during adolescence. To assess exposure to movie substance use, one must measure both viewing time and content. In developing the exposure measure, the study team was interested in circumventing a common problem in exposure measurement, where measures often conflate exposure to media with attention to media. Our aim in this paper is to present a validated measure of exposure to entertainment media, the Beach method, which combines recognition of a movie title with content analysis of the movie for substance use, to generate population based measures of exposure to substance use in this form of entertainment.

  15. Pre-treatment Predictors of Dropout from Prolonged Exposure Therapy in Patients with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleau, Emily L.; Chin, Eu Gene; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are commonly co-occurring disorders associated with more adverse consequences than PTSD alone. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is one of the most efficacious treatments for PTSD. However, among individuals with PTSD-SUD, 35–62% of individuals drop out of trauma-focused exposure treatments. Thus, it is important to identify predictors of PTSD treatment dropout among substance abusers with PTSD in order to gain information about adapting treatment strategies to enhance retention and outcomes. The current study explored pre-treatment predictors of early termination from PE treatment in a sample of 85 individuals receiving concurrent treatment for PTSD and a SUD in a residential treatment facility as part of a randomized controlled trial. The results indicated that less education and more anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicted PE treatment dropout. Demographic variables, PTSD severity, SUD severity, mental health comorbidities, and emotion regulation difficulties did not predict treatment dropout. These results suggest that adding pre-treatment interventions that address anxiety sensitivity, and promote social adjustment and cognitive flexibility, could possibly improve PE retention rates in clients with high anxiety or low education. PMID:28147254

  16. Determination of the potential radiation exposure of the population close to the Asse II mine caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation using the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, D.; Wittwer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1978 125.787 packages filled with low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste were emplaced in the mining plant Asse II. Volatile radioactive substances like H-3, C-14 and Rn-222 are released from the emplaced waste. These substances reach the ventilated parts of the mine and are released with the discharge air. The potential radiation exposure of the population caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation is determined by the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM). As result the maximal deductions of volatile radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation of the Asse II mine lead to radiation exposure of the population, which is considerably lower than the permissible values of application rate.

  17. Using hair, nail and urine samples for human exposure assessment of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Zhou, Zhen; Liang, Yong; Cai, Yaqi

    2018-09-15

    Non-invasive samples present ethical and practical benefits for investigating human exposure to hazardous contaminants, but analytical challenges and difficulties to interpret the results limit their application in biomonitoring. Here we investigated the potential for using hair, nail and urine samples as a measure of internal exposure to an array of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in two populations with different exposure conditions. Paired urine-serum measurements of PFASs from a group of highly exposed fishery employees displayed strong correlations for PFASs with three to eight perfluorinated carbons (ρ > 0.653; p < 0.01). Consistent statistical correlations and transfer ratios in nails and hair from both populations demonstrated that these non-invasive samples can be used as a measure of internal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and C8 chlorinated polyfluoralkyl ether sulfonic acid (C8 Cl-PFESA). Contrastingly, the infrequent detections and/or lack of consistent transfer ratios for perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and short-chain PFASs in hair and nail samples indicate passive uptake from the external environment rather than uptake and internal distribution. Collectively, the study supports the use of urine samples as a valid measure of internal exposure for a range of short- and medium-chain PFASs, while the validity of nail and hair samples as a measure of internal exposure may vary for different PFASs and populations. The ubiquitous detection of C8 Cl-PFESA in all sample matrices from both populations indicates widespread exposure to this contaminant of emerging concern in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kershaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI, we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107 = 0.3, P = 0.735. However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522 = 6.0, P <0.001 in host tracts, while the indicator for “racialized” communities (“visible minority” was 16.1% greater (t(521 = 7.2, P <0.001 within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352 = 3.5, P = 0.001 than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  19. Effects of Violence Prevention Behavior on Exposure to Workplace Violence and Threats: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann; Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie

    2018-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the relationship between prevention behaviors, that is, enacted violence prevention policies, and exposure to workplace violence and threats across four different high risk work sectors: psychiatry, special schools, eldercare, and the prison and probation services. Logistic regression analysis of a 1-year follow-up sample of 3.016 employees from these four sectors shows that prevention behaviors are significantly and negatively associated with self-reported exposure to workplace violence and threats-in the prison and probation services, eldercare, and in psychiatry, while no significant associations are found for special schools. The results therefore show clear sector differences with regard to the preventive effect of violence prevention behaviors. Furthermore, this multisector comparison suggests that prevention behaviors are more effective in relation to a moderate frequency of violence and threats, and that only top management prevention behavior can prevent very frequent incidents (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.58). This study contributes to the literature by use of a longitudinal design and acceptable response rates, while also simultaneously investigating several high risk sectors. The results imply that when managing workplace violence in high risk areas of human service work, there should be emphasis on the use of violence prevention behaviors from top management, supervisor, and among coworkers. However, type of sector and the frequency of workplace violence should be analyzed to evaluate the potential impact of prevention behaviors.

  20. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis prevents vaginal transmission of HIV-1 in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Denton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, vaginal transmission now accounts for more than half of newly acquired HIV-1 infections. Despite the urgency to develop and implement novel approaches capable of preventing HIV transmission, this process has been hindered by the lack of adequate small animal models for preclinical efficacy and safety testing. Given the importance of this route of transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of humanized mice to intravaginal HIV-1 infection.We show that the female reproductive tract of humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ T and other relevant human cells, rendering these humanized mice susceptible to intravaginal infection by HIV-1. Effects of HIV-1 infection include CD4+ T cell depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT that closely mimics what is observed in HIV-1-infected humans. We also show that pre-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs is a highly effective method for preventing vaginal HIV-1 transmission. Whereas 88% (7/8 of BLT mice inoculated vaginally with HIV-1 became infected, none of the animals (0/5 given pre-exposure prophylaxis of emtricitabine (FTC/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF showed evidence of infection (Chi square = 7.5, df = 1, p = 0.006.The fact that humanized BLT mice are susceptible to intravaginal infection makes this system an excellent candidate for preclinical evaluation of both microbicides and pre-exposure prophylactic regimens. The utility of humanized mice to study intravaginal HIV-1 transmission is particularly highlighted by the demonstration that pre-exposure prophylaxis can prevent intravaginal HIV-1 transmission in the BLT mouse model.

  1. What characterizes substance abusers who commit suicide attempts? Factors related to Axis I disorders and patterns of substance use disorders. A study of treatment-seeking substance abusers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landheim, A S; Bakken, K; Vaglum, P

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics of attempters among poly-substance abusers and alcoholics were examined. A consecutive sample (n = 260) of in- and outpatients from two Norwegian counties were assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Axis I disorders), Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Axis II disorders) and the Norwegian National Client Assessment Form. When analysing the association between suicide attempters and the range of predictor variables, logistic regression analysis was conducted. Almost half (47%) of the sample reported lifetime suicide attempts; significantly more frequently in poly-substance abusers (58%) than alcoholics (38%). A substance use disorder with duration of >or=15 years and an early onset (suicide attempter after controlling for Axis I disorders. In addition, eating disorders, agoraphobia and major depression were strongly and independently associated with being a suicide attempter. Attempts at preventing suicidal behaviour should not ignore the suicide risk among poly-substance abusers. In addition, prevention of suicidal behaviour demands a treatment programme focusing concomitantly on both addictive behaviour and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Application of radioactive substances in research in nuclear medicine: current trends and radiation exposure to the study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkov, V.; Schwarz, E.R.; Bauer, B.; Nosske, D.; Erzberger, A.; Brix, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Analysis of the application of radioactive substances in research in the field of nuclear medicine in human beings and of the resulting radiation exposure to study subjects. Methods: Assessment of applications for approval submitted in accordance with Paragraph 41 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, evaluated by the Federal office for Radiation Protection together with the Federal Institute for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Products, within the period from 1997 to 1999. Results: The focus of the studies on the diagnostic application of radioactive substances in medicine evaluated has, since 1998, shifted from oncological to neurological and psychological aspects, while, at the same time, the number of PET studies increased constantly The proportion of healthy study subjects included in the diagnostic studies increased from 7 to 22%. The number of therapeutic applications of radioactive substances has, since 1997, undergone a three-fold increase, and in the process of this, the focus of attention lay within the area of radioimmuno-therapy and endovascular brachytherapy. The effective dose was, among up to 49% of the investigated healthy study subjects higher than 5 mSv, and among up to 6% of these subjects was at levels of over 20 mSv. Up to 22% of the patients received, within the scope of diagnostic studies, an effective dose of between 20 and 50 mSv. An exceeding of the 50 mSv limit occurred among up to 3% of the patients. Conclusions: In spite of the increasing numbers of PET applications, conventional nuclear medicine has maintained its importance in the field of medical research. Further developments in the areas of radiochemistry and molecular biology led to an increase in the importance of radio-immuno therapy. The evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals and the extension of basic biomedical research, resulted in an increase in the proportion of healthy study subjects included in the studies. The radiation exposure among subjects resulting directly from

  3. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unrestrained exposure to street life often makes the street child vulnerable to psychoactive substances. In other settings, the social relationships of the substance user with those around him or her and family norms of parenting have been docu-mented to modulate use. However, there is a dearth of literature on ...

  4. Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M

    2013-12-01

    Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk

  5. Component analysis of a school-based substance use prevention program in Spain: contributions of problem solving and social skills training content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Pereira, Juan R; Orgilés, Mireia; García-Fernández, José M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to examine the contribution of two intervention components, social skills training and problem solving training, to alcohol- and drug-related outcomes in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 341 Spanish students from age 12 to 15 who received the prevention program Saluda in one of four experimental conditions: full program, social skills condition, problem solving condition, and a wait-list control group. Students completed self-report surveys at the pretest, posttest and 12-month follow-up assessments. Compared to the wait-list control group, the three intervention conditions produced reductions in alcohol use and intentions to use other substances. The intervention effect size for alcohol use was greatest in magnitude for the full program with all components. Problem-solving skills measured at the follow-up were strongest in the condition that received the full program with all components. We discuss the implications of these findings, including the advantages and disadvantages of implementing tailored interventions to students by selecting intervention components after a skills-based needs assessment.

  6. Climate change and occupational allergies: an overview on biological pollution, exposure and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, air pollution, temperature increase and other environmental variables are modifying air quality, contributing to the increase of prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergies are complex diseases characterized by multilevel interactions between individual susceptibility, response to immune modulation and environmental exposures to physical, chemical and biological agents. Occupational allergies introduce a further complexity to these relationships by adding occupational exposure to both the indoor and outdoor ones in the living environment. The aim of this paper is to overview climate-related allergy affecting environmental and occupational health, as literature data are scanty in this regard, and to suggest a management model of this risk based on a multidisciplinary approach, taking the case of biological pollution, with details on exposure and prevention. The management of climate-related occupational allergy should take into account preventive health strategies, environmental, public and occupational interventions, as well as to develop, implement, evaluate, and improve guidelines and standards protecting workers health under changing climatic conditions; new tools and strategies based on local conditions will have to be developed. Experimental studies and acquisition of environmental and personal data have to be matched to derive useful information for the scope of occupational health and safety.

  7. Safety of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-01-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel HIV prevention strategy for individuals at increased sexual risk for HIV infection. For any biomedical prevention intervention, the bar for tolerating adverse effects in healthy persons is high compared to therapeutic interventions. We provide a concise summary of the clinical safety of TDF-based pre-exposure prophylaxis with focus on TDF-related effects on tolerability, kidney function, bone density, HIV resistance, sexual and reproductive health. The evidence base for this review is derived from a literature search of both randomized and observational studies evaluating efficacy and safety of TDF-based PrEP, TDF alone or in combination with emtricitabine, identified from PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases, clinicaltrials.gov and major HIV conferences. TDF-based pre-exposure prophylaxis is a potent intervention against HIV acquisition when taken which is generally safe and well tolerated. The risk of the small, non-progressive, and reversible decline in glomerular filtration rate and bone mineral density as well as the potential selection for drug resistance associated with PrEP are outweighed, at the population level and broadly for individuals, by PrEP's substantial reduction in the risk of HIV infection.

  8. Integrating Antiretroviral Strategies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention: Post- and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Early Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robert M; Smith, Dawn K

    2015-12-01

    Best practices for integrating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and antiretroviral interventions for prevention and treatment are suggested based on research evidence and existing normative guidance. The goal is to provide high-impact prevention services during periods of substantial risk. Antiretroviral medications are recommended for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV infection. We reviewed research evidence and current normative guidelines to identify best practices for integrating these high-impact prevention strategies. More sensitive HIV tests used for screening enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection, more appropriate counseling, and help limit drug resistance. A fully suppressive PEP regimen should be initiated based on exposure history or physical findings when sensitive diagnostic testing is delayed or not available and antibody tests are negative. Transitions from PEP to PrEP are often warranted because HIV exposure events may continue to occur. This algorithmic approach to integrating PEP, PrEP, and early treatment decisions may increase the uptake of these interventions by a greater number and diversity of knowledgeable healthcare providers.

  9. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention combined with virtual reality cue exposure for methamphetamine addiction: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, XiJing; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Lidan; Winkler, Markus; Pauli, Paul; Sui, Nan; Li, Yonghui

    2018-04-18

    Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE, in comparison to MBRP alone or treatment as usual, on craving and emotional responses in people with methamphetamine use disorders. The study is a parallel randomized controlled study including 180 participants with methamphetamine use disorders. Three parallel groups will receive 8 weeks of MBRP combined with VRCE, MBRP alone, or treatment as usual, respectively. Craving, virtual cue reactivity, anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, mindfulness and drug-related attention bias will be assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months of follow-up. This innovative study aims at investigating the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE in people with SUDs. The combined intervention may have important clinical implications for relapse prevention due to its ease of application and high cost-effectiveness. This study may also stimulate research on the neuronal and psychological mechanisms of MBRP in drug addiction. ChiCTR-INR-17013041. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from plutonium inhalation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.A.; Low, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    Siting criteria are established by regulatory authorities to evaluate potential accident scenarios associated with proposed nuclear facilities. The 0.25 Sv (25 rem) siting criteria adopted in the United States has been historically based on the prevention of deterministic effects from acute, whole-body exposures. The Department of Energy has extended the applicability of this criterion to radionuclides that deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation through the specification of a 0.25 Sv (25 rem) committed effective dose equivalent siting criterion. A methodology is developed to determine siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from inhalation intakes of radionuclides which deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation. Revised siting criteria, expressed in terms of committed effective dose equivalent, are proposed for nuclear facilities that handle primarily plutonium compounds. The analysis determined that a siting criterion of 1.2 Sv (120 rem) committed effective dose equivalent for inhalation exposures to weapons-grade plutonium meets the historical goal of preventing deterministic effects during a facility accident scenario. The criterion also meets the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy Nuclear Safety Goals provided that the frequency of the accident is sufficiently low

  11. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, marketing, and substance use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Mayo, Ashley; Ganz, Ollie; Perreras, Lexie; D'Silva, Joanne; Cohn, Amy

    2018-02-09

    Perceived experiences of discrimination have been linked to negative health behaviors including tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use across various racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco and alcohol marketing exposure have also been linked with substance use. This study examined the independent and interacting effects of perceived experiences of discrimination and exposure to alcohol and tobacco marketing, and receptivity to marijuana marketing on substance use in an online survey of a multiethnic sample of young adults in 6 metropolitan areas (n = 505). African Americans (mean (M) = 1.96, 9% 5CI [1.84, 2.09]) and Hispanics (M = 1.98, 95% CI [1.87, 2.09]) reported higher levels of perceived discrimination than Whites (M = 1.52, 95% CI [1.40, 1.64]), p marketing; Hispanics reported higher levels of exposure to alcohol marketing and receptivity to marijuana promotion. Discrimination and marketing exposure were independently associated with higher odds of all 3 outcomes, controlling for covariates (AOR from 2.1 to 3.4 for discrimination; AOR from 1.4 to 13.8 for marketing). Models showed a significant interaction of discrimination and tobacco marketing on past 30-day cigarette use (F = 5.5; p = .02). Individuals with high levels of tobacco marketing exposure were likely to report high past 30-day cigarette use regardless of level of discrimination, while those with low exposure were only at increased risk of reporting cigarette use at higher levels of discrimination. Both perceived discrimination and marketing exposure play a role in substance use. Interventions should consider discrimination as a significant risk factor underlying vulnerability to substance use among young adults.

  12. Abuse, misuse, and suicidal substance use by children on school property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkalanka, J Priyanka; King, Joshua D; Holstege, Christopher P

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiological trends associated with substances used in intentional exposures among children while on school property reported to the U.S. National Poison Data System (NPDS). NPDS was queried for intentional (abuse, misuse, suspected suicide, and unknown intentional) exposures reported to occur on school property between calendar years 2004 and 2013. Records were restricted to children 6-18 years of age. Demographic, exposure, and clinical characteristics were assessed. A total of 56,882 substances were intentionally used on school property by 50,379 children, of which 39.8% were females (n = 20,070), 57.7% were males (n = 29,084), and 2.4% were unknown gender (n = 1,225). The most frequent pharmaceutical exposures reported included sedatives (n = 4,096; 8.1%), analgesics (n = 4,022; 8.0%), and cough and cold preparations (n = 3,529; 7.0%). The majority of exposures were managed on site (n = 21,464; 42.6%), followed by care at a healthcare facility (n = 20,048; 39.7%). Serious outcomes (moderate or major effects and death) accounted for nine percent of all reported exposures. Compared to reference groups, female gender, teenagers 17-18 years, and pharmaceutical substances (Prevalence Ratios = 4.6, 9.4, and 9.9, respectively) were associated with suspected suicides when compared with other intentional exposures. Along with other national data about behaviors in the adolescent and teenage population, additional trends in risky behavior may be gleaned by surveillance through poison centers. With over 5,000 annual reports to the poison centers about intentional exposures on school property, school personnel and parents/guardians must be vigilant about the range of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical substances that are used for abuse, misuse, or suicide.

  13. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  14. Neurobehavioral effects during experimental exposure to 1-octanol and isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thriel, Christoph; Kiesswetter, Erns; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Seeber, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    The study examined acute neurobehavioral effects provoked by controlled exposure to 1-octanol and isopropanol among male volunteers. In a 29-m3 exposure laboratory, 24 male students (mean age 25.8 years) were exposed to 1-octanol and isopropanol. Each substance was used in two concentrations (0.1 and 6.4 ppm for 1-octanol; 34.9 and 189.9 ppm for isopropanol:). In a crossover design, each subject was exposed for 4 hours to the conditions. Twelve subjects reported enhanced chemical sensitivity; the other 12 were age-matched controls. At the onset and end of the exposures neurobehavioral tests were administered and symptoms were rated. At the end of the high and low isopropanol exposures the tiredness ratings were elevated, but no dose-dependence could be confirmed. For both substances and concentrations, the annoyance ratings increased during the exposure, but only for isopropanol did the increase show a dose-response relation. The subjects reported olfactory symptoms during the exposure to the high isopropanol and both 1-octanol concentrations. Isopropanol provoked no sensory irritation, whereas high 1-octanol exposure slightly enhanced it. Only among the subjects with enhanced chemical sensitivity were both 1-octanol concentrations associated with a stronger increase in annoyance, and lower detection rates were observed in a divided attention task. Previous studies reporting no neurobehavioral effects for isopropanol (up to 400 ppm) were confirmed. The results obtained for 1-octanol lacked dose-dependency, and their evaluation, is difficult. The annoying odor of 1-octanol may mask sensory irritation and prevent subjects with enhanced chemical sensitivity from concentrating on performance in a demanding task.

  15. Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L.; Bostwick, Wendy B.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 (Wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% Native American or other racial/ethnic categories. Findings Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one lifetime same-sex sexual partner, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts that more effectively target subgroups at greatest

  16. Sexual partnerships and considerations for HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis utilization among high-risk substance using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Kothary, Vishesh; Mitty, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk of HIV in the United States, representing 65 % of incident HIV infections. One factor contributing to the high rate of HIV infection among MSM is use of "recreational" drugs that are highly associated with unprotected anal sex. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel biomedical HIV prevention strategy that has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in MSM. Main and casual sex partners play a role in HIV prevention efforts for MSM. The study aimed to qualitatively explore the perceived influences of sexual relationships on promoting and inhibiting PrEP use among high-risk MSM who report regular drug use. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 participants recruited in Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative analysis. Casual partners presented a distinct set of concerns from primary partnerships. MSM generally viewed main partners as a potential source of support for taking PrEP. Given their informal and often temporary nature, PrEP disclosure to casual partners was considered unnecessary. HIV-related stigma and substance use were also perceived as barriers to discussing PrEP use with casual partners. MSM articulated a high degree of personal agency regarding their ability to take PrEP. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions to improve PrEP utilization and adherence for high-risk MSM should be tailored to sex partner type and the parameters established between sex partners. Approaches to PrEP disclosure and partner engagement should be informed by the relative benefits and limitations characterized by these different types of relationships.

  17. Personal Care Products Are Only One of Many Exposure Routes of Natural Toxic Substances to Humans and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Bucheli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products” is dedicated to addressing the multidisciplinary special challenges of natural ingredients in personal care products (PCP and addresses also environmental exposure. In this perspective article, we argue that environmental exposure is probably not so much dominated by PCP use, but in many cases by direct emission from natural or anthropogenically managed vegetation, including agriculture. In support of this hypothesis, we provide examples of environmental fate and behaviour studies for compound classes that are either listed in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI or have been discussed in a wider context of PCP applications and have been classified as potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Specifically, these include estrogenic isoflavones, the carcinogenic ptaquiloside and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, terpenes and terpenoids, such as artemisinin, and mycotoxins. Research gaps and challenges in the domains of human and environmental exposure assessment of natural products common to our currently rather separated research communities are highlighted.

  18. Management of Substance Use Disorder in Military Services: A Comprehensive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Heydari, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Historically, substance misuse has been a serious problem faced by worldwide military personnel. Some research showed that military personnel have higher rates of unhealthy substance use than their age peers in the general population. These problems have serious consequences and may lead to significant military difficulties in the field of readiness, discipline, and mental or physical health. In this review, we gathered various methods for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of substance use disorders and suggested a comprehensive plan for Iran Armed Forces to improve existing services. This article is a narrative review study, which was carried out on 2016. A careful literature review was performed between January 1970 and April 2016 on several national and international databases. Articles were screened according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) review articles about prevention and treatment protocols, (2) executive guidance, (3) cohort articles about risk factors of addiction, and (4) randomized controlled trials about prevention or treatment of substance use disorders in army service members. After screening by title and abstract, 130 articles selected of 832 founded articles, and after quality assessment, finally, 63 articles included in the review. There is a necessity to manage substance use disorder through prevention, screening, and then referral to proper services for diagnosis and treatment. Urinalysis programs for screening are cost-effective and should be considered as a main method. Effective treatment includes both behavioral and pharmacological methods. The ideal prevention program will include multiple and mutually reinforcing evidence-based universal, selective, and indicated attempts at both the individual and environmental levels. The implementation of screening and treatment strategies needs strict rules and national guideline for the comprehensive management of substance use disorders in army.

  19. Acculturation factors and substance use among Asian American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Goebert, Deborah; Wallen, Judy

    2009-07-01

    In this study of 329 Cambodian, Chinese, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youth in Oakland, California, acculturation factors of individualism-collectivism and acculturative dissonance were examined as risk and protective factors for substance use. Results of structural equation modeling and bootstrapping revealed that peer substance use was a robust mediator between individualism and youth's self-reported substance use, particularly among Vietnamese and males. Peer substance use also significantly mediated the relation between collectivism and substance use for females. As such, there appears to be ethnic and gender group variations in the saliency of cultural/acculturation factors with respect to substance use. Implications for substance use prevention programs for ethnic and immigrant youth are discussed.

  20. From hazard identification to weighing the benefits and drawbacks of prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainio, Harri; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2005-01-01

    In this commentary, we briefly summarize and give examples of evaluations done by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, WHO (IARC-WHO, Lyon, France) about the identification of carcinogenic substances or agents and the evaluation of the efficacy and effectiveness of cancer preventive substances, agents or strategies. In the 1970's the IARC initiated a series of Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans for the purposes of primary prevention. During the last 35 years of the IARC Monographs, many agents that are important to the public health perspective have been evaluated. The agent or exposure is described and classified according to the wording of one of the following groups: group 1, carcinogenic to humans; group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans; group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans; group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans; group 4, probably not carcinogenic to humans. In 1997, the IARC started a new series of handbooks, the IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, which aimed for the evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of cancer preventive agents and strategies. The process of evaluation is quite similar to the IARC Monographs. In total, 10 Handbooks were published in topics such as mammography screening, cervical cancer screening, consumption of fruits and vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and weight control and physical activity. We discuss in general terms ways of preventing cancer and of evaluating preventive strategies, giving as example mammography screening

  1. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. METHODS: Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among...... with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost.......58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million...

  2. Girls Just Want to Know Where to Have Fun: Preventing Substance Use Initiation in an Under-Resourced Community in South Africa Through HealthWise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda; Wegner, Lisa; Smith, Edward; Jones, Damon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the perception of the availability of leisure opportunities may prevent substance use initiation through HealthWise, a school-based program focused on reducing risky behavior. In this study, we specifically focused on whether HealthWise increased student perceptions of leisure opportunities between 8th grade and 10th grade (N = 5610) in an under-resourced community in South Africa. Path analyses were used to test hypotheses. Given gender differences in substance use patterns, societal norms, and leisure opportunities in under-resourced communities, such as the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, it was especially important to examine associations within each gender. Results suggested that HealthWise directly reduced the likelihood of initiating alcohol and cigarette use and increased the amount of perceived leisure opportunities among girls but not boys. Perceived leisure opportunities mediated the effect of HealthWise on reducing the initiation of alcohol and cigarette use directly, and marijuana use indirectly, among girls but not boys. This is the first study to demonstrate how experimentally targeting leisure through an intervention can increase perceived leisure opportunities and thereby prevent early substance use initiation for a specific population. The importance of considering the context of gender, age, and location is discussed. PMID:27129478

  3. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, N; Dey, M; Eich-Höchli, D; Foster, S; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2016-06-01

    suggest that adult ADHD is significantly associated with a propensity to experiment with licit and illicit substances, especially at earlier ages, to exhibit risky substance use patterns, and to subsequently develop SUDs. Preventive strategies that include early intervention and addressing co-morbidity with ASPD may be crucial to reducing substance use and the development of pathological substance use patterns in young men affected by ADHD and, thus, helping to prevent further illness burden later in life.

  4. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  5. Integrating Mental Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention on College Campuses. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…

  6. Familial, Social, and Individual Factors Contributing to Risk for Adolescent Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Whitesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reveal high numbers of adolescent substance use in the United States. Substance use among adolescents can lead to increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, vehicular fatalities, juvenile delinquency, and other problems associated with physical and mental health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to involvement in substance use due to the underdeveloped state of the adolescent brain, which can lead to reduced decision-making ability and increased long-term effects of drugs and alcohol. Understanding the causes of adolescent substance use is vital for successful prevention and intervention programs.

  7. Aggregating human exposure to chemicals: An overview of tools and methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delmaar JE; Engelen JGM van; AFSSET; SIR

    2007-01-01

    Available computer models for estimating the exposure to substances from multiple consumer products are not suited for this task. Consumers are daily exposed to chemical substances from consumer products. The level of this exposure has to be assessed to evaluate the consequences of exposure to a

  8. Cross-lagged associations between substance use-related media exposure and alcohol use during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (Internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p = .02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p = .07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents' exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre-exposure prophylaxis and antiretroviral resistance: HIV prevention at a cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Christopher B; Eron, Joseph J; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-12-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected individuals to prevent acquisition of the virus during high-risk sexual encounters, enjoyed its first 2 major successes with the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 and the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx). These successes were buoyed by additional positive results from the TDF2 and Partners PrEP trials. Although no seroconverters in either arm of CAPRISA developed resistance to tenofovir, 2 participants in iPrEx with undetected, seronegative acute HIV infection were randomized to receive daily oral tenofovir-emtricitabine and resistance to emtricitabine was later discovered in both men. A similar case in the TDF2 study resulted in resistance to both ARVs. These cases prompted us to examine existing literature on the nature of resistance mutations elicited by ARVs used for PrEP. Here, we discuss the impact of signature mutations selected by PrEP, how rapidly these emerge with daily ARV exposure, and the individual-level and public health consequences of ARV resistance.

  10. Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemasa Torii

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360–400 nm wavelength suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions. Next, we conducted clinical research retrospectively to compare the AL elongation among myopic children who wore eyeglasses (VL blocked and two types of contact lenses (partially VL blocked and VL transmitting. The data showed the VL transmitting contact lenses suppressed myopia progression most. These results suggest that VL is one of the important outdoor environmental factors for myopia control. Since VL is apt to be excluded from our modern society due to the excessive UV protection, VL exposure can be a preventive strategy against myopia progression.

  11. Taking Multiple Exposure Into Account Can Improve Assessment of Chemical Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas Jean Hyacinthe; La Rocca, Bénédicte

    2017-12-15

    During work, operators may be exposed to several chemicals simultaneously. Most exposure assessment approaches only determine exposure levels for each substance individually. However, such individual-substance approaches may not correctly estimate the toxicity of 'cocktails' of chemicals, as the toxicity of a cocktail may differ from the toxicity of substances on their own. This study presents an approach that can better take into account multiple exposure when assessing chemical risks. Almost 30000 work situations, monitored between 2005 and 2014 and recorded in two French databases, were analysed using MiXie software. The algorithms employed in MiXie can identify toxicological classes associated with several substances, based on the additivity of the selected effects of each substance. The results of our retrospective analysis show that MiXie was able to identify almost 20% more potentially hazardous situations than identified using a single-substance approach. It therefore appears essential to review the ways in which multiple exposure is taken into account during risk assessment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended.

  13. Substance use and misuse in burn patients: Testing the classical hypotheses of the interaction between post-traumatic symptomatology and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Giannoni-Pastor, Anna; Fidel-Kinori, Sara Guila; Argüello, José María

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to test whether the three classical hypotheses of the interaction between post-traumatic symptomatology and substance use (high risk of trauma exposure, susceptibility for post-traumatic symptomatology, and self-medication of symptoms), may be useful in the understanding of substance use among burn patients. Substance use data (nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and tranquilizers) and psychopathology measures among burn patients admitted to a burn unit and enrolled in a longitudinal observational study were analyzed. Lifetime substance use information (n = 246) was incorporated to analyses aiming to test the high risk hypothesis. Only patients assessed for psychopathology in a 6-month follow-up (n = 183) were included in prospective analyses testing the susceptibility and self-medication hypotheses. Regarding the high risk hypothesis, results show a higher proportion of heroin and tranquilizer users compared to the general population. Furthermore, in line with the susceptibility hypothesis, higher levels of symptomatology were found in lifetime alcohol, tobacco, and drug users during recovery. The self-medication hypothesis could be tested partially due to the hospital stay "cleaning" effect, but severity of symptoms was linked to the amount of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use after discharge. It was found that the 3 classical hypotheses could be used to understand the link between traumatic experiences and substance use explaining different patterns of burn patient's risk for trauma exposure and emergence of symptomatology.

  14. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  15. Polyfluoroalkyl substance exposure in the Mid-Ohio River Valley, 1991–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, Robert L.; Buckholz, Jeanette; Biro, Frank M.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Xie, Changchun; Pinney, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Industrial discharges of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Ohio River, contaminating water systems near Parkersburg, WV, were previously associated with nearby residents' serum PFOA concentrations above US general population medians. Ohio River PFOA concentrations downstream are elevated, suggesting Mid-Ohio River Valley residents are exposed through drinking water. Objectives: Quantify PFOA and 10 other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Mid-Ohio River Valley resident sera collected between 1991 and 2013 and determine whether the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer are exposure sources. Methods: We measured eleven PFAS in 1608 sera from 931 participants. Serum PFOA concentration and water source associations were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. We estimated between-sample serum PFOA using one-compartment pharmacokinetics for participants with multiple samples. Results: In serum samples collected as early as 1991, PFOA (median = 7.6 ng/mL) was detected in 99.9% of sera; 47% had concentrations greater than US population 95th percentiles. Five other PFAS were detected in greater than 82% of samples; median other PFAS concentrations were similar to the US general population. Serum PFOA was significantly associated with water source, sampling year, age at sampling, tap water consumption, pregnancy, gravidity and breastfeeding. Serum PFOA was 40–60% lower with granular activated carbon (GAC) use. Repeated measurements and pharmacokinetics suggest serum PFOA peaked 2000–2006 for participants using water without GAC treatment; where GAC was used, serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 1991 to 2012. Conclusions: Mid-Ohio River Valley residents appear to have PFOA, but not other PFAS, serum concentrations above US population levels. Drinking water from the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer, primarily contaminated by industrial discharges 209–666 km upstream, is likely the primary exposure source. GAC treatment of drinking

  16. Blood Group Substances as Potential Therapeutic Agents for the Prevention and Treatment of Infection with Noroviruses Proving Novel Binding Patterns in Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Shin; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ueta, Gen; Ide, Munenori; Altan, Bolag; Thongprachum, Aksara; Nishimura, Toyo; Nakajima, Tamiko; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Asao, Takayuki; Saniabadi, Abby R.; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Le Pendu, Jacques; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Blood group-related glycans determining ABO and Lewis blood groups are known to function as attachment factors for most of the norovirus (NoV) strains. To identify binding specificity of each NoV, recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLPs) and human saliva samples with different ABO, Lewis phenotypes and secretor status have been commonly applied. When binding specificities of VLPs prepared from 16 different genotypes of NoVs in GI and GII genogroups were characterized in samples of human gastric mucosa compared to human saliva based on blood group phenotypes, considerable differences were observed for several strains. Novel binding specificities determined by an ELISA using preparations from human gastric mucosa were also ascertained by immunohistochemical analyses using human jejunal mucosa, widely believed to be susceptible to NoV infection. Further, A, B and O(H) blood group substances prepared from porcine and squid tissues were found to be effective for preventing ABO blood group-specific binding of VLPs to both saliva and mucosa samples. Therefore, these blood group substances might have potential for the prevention and treatment of NoV infection. PMID:24558470

  17. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... and mental health benefits for more than 60 million Americans. And beginning this month, those who... people, families, and neighborhoods free from drug and alcohol abuse. I encourage parents, schools... Proclamation Today, too many Americans face futures limited by substance use, which threatens health, safety...

  18. Intrauterine exposure to tobacco and executive functioning in high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Richardson, Mark A; Buchanan-Howland, Kathryn; Chen, Clara A; Cabral, Howard; Heeren, Timothy C; Liebschutz, Jane; Forman, Leah; Frank, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures. A prospective low-income birth cohort (51% male; 89% African American/Caribbean) was followed through late adolescence (16-18 years old). At birth, intrauterine exposures to cocaine and other substances (52% cocaine, 52% tobacco, 26% marijuana, 26% alcohol) were identified by meconium and/or urine assays, and/or maternal self-report. High school teachers knowledgeable about the student and unaware of study aims were asked to complete the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Teacher Form (BRIEF-TF) annually. Teachers completed at least one BRIEF-TF for 131 adolescents. Multivariable analyses included controls for: demographics; intrauterine cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol exposures; early childhood exposures to lead; and violence exposure from school-age to adolescence. IUTE was associated with less optimal BRIEF-TF Behavioral Regulation scores (p <0.05). Other intrauterine substance exposures did not predict less optimal BRIEF-TF scores, nor did exposures to violence, lead, nor adolescents' own substance use. IUTE is associated with offspring's less optimal EF. Prenatal counseling should emphasize abstinence from tobacco, as well as alcohol and illegal substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental Influence on Substance Use in Adolescent Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent's peers' parents and an adolescent's substance use. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home. Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Main Exposure Authoritative vs neglectful parenting style of adolescent's parents and adolescent's friends' parents and adolescent substance use. ...

  20. Correlates of psychoactive substance use among Nigerian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyemi O Akanni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The abuse of psychoactive substances which is one of the most important global public health problems begins in adolescence. Adolescents usually start by abusing the gateway substances. They suffer social, economic, physical, and legal consequences on account of use of substances, and this is very worrisome because of the increasing prevalence of use. Aims: The aim was to identify the characteristics of adolescents that use gateway substances. This knowledge shall be utilized in preventive programs. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study with secondary school adolescents as participants. Subjects and Methods: Multistage sampling technique was used to select 492 respondents and the questionnaire consisted of characteristics of the adolescents, their families and schools and the alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and stimulant use sections of the World Health Organisation questionnaire for student drug use surveys. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, and Chi-square statistics was used. Results: Having a friend who uses substance was significantly associated with tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine use while being a male, having a family member that uses substance were significantly associated with tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use. Older age, lack of satisfaction with the relationship with the teacher and polygamous family background were significantly associated with tobacco use. And finally, lack of satisfaction with the relationship with parents/guardians and having parents or guardians who are not religious were significantly associated with alcohol use. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent the use of substances; this should target individuals, schools, families, and religious institutions.

  1. A method for embedding granulated or spent ion-exchanging organic substances in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Jejes, P.

    1976-01-01

    A method of embedding in concrete a spent ion-exchanging organic substance originating from a scrubbing-circuit of a nuclear reactor Prior to solidification of the mixture, a substance is incorporated therewith said substance being capable of preventing water in the grains of the ion-exchanging substance from penetrating into the solidified product

  2. Preventing cancer: a community-based program for youths in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Wulach, Laura; Yang, Grace J; Evans, Tegan C; Hamdan, Sami U; Davis, Gregory L; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of a program that mentors boys aged 14-18 living in inner city public housing, engages them in a basketball league, and provides educational sessions on life skills and ways to resolve conflicts without violence. Such programs have the potential to engage adolescent males living in public housing in activities that reduce cancer-related behaviors and increase protective behaviors. We conducted a feasibility evaluation of the program, which included a survey of participants, interviews with coaches, and observations of games and practices. Lifetime and previous-30-day substance use was common among participants, and many were exposed to and had experienced various forms of violence. Keeping youths active helps prevent their joining gangs and using drugs. Youths from disadvantaged backgrounds are at a high risk for cancer because they are at greater risk for obesity and other adverse health-related conditions than are more affluent youths. Implementing and sustaining community programs for youths in public housing can reduce the effects of exposure to factors that put them at risk for cancer during adulthood: chronic poverty, lack of safe areas for recreation, easy access to alcohol and drugs, and exposure to violence. In addition, workshops to prevent substance use and violence and to teach leadership, sportsmanship, conflict resolution, and healthy youth development are needed for youths, coaches, and parents or guardians. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in current and future HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David N; Grossman, Cynthia; Turpin, Jim; Elharrar, Vanessa; Veronese, Fulvia

    2014-12-01

    Treatment as prevention is expected to have a major role in reducing HIV incidence, but other prevention interventions will also be required to bring the epidemic under control, particularly among key populations. One or more forms of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will likely play a critical role. Oral PrEP with emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada®) is currently available in the US and some other countries, but uptake has been slow. We review the concerns that have contributed to this slow uptake and discuss current and future research in this critical area of HIV prevention research.

  4. Effects of the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentives Grant (SPF SIG) on state prevention infrastructure in 26 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwin, Robert G; Stein-Seroussi, Alan; Edwards, Jessica M; Landy, Ann L; Flewelling, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG) program is a national public health initiative sponsored by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention to prevent substance abuse and its consequences. State grantees used a data-driven planning model to allocate resources to 450 communities, which in turn launched over 2,200 intervention strategies to target prevention priorities in their respective populations. An additional goal was to build prevention capacity and infrastructure at the state and community levels. This paper addresses whether the state infrastructure goal was achieved, and what contextual and implementation factors were associated with success. The findings are consistent with claims that, overall, the SPF SIG program met its goal of increasing prevention capacity and infrastructure across multiple infrastructure domains, though the mediating effects of implementation were evident only in the evaluation/monitoring domain. The results also show that an initiative like the SPF SIG, which could easily have been compartmentalized within the states, has the potential to permeate more broadly throughout state prevention systems.

  5. Substance use during pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Tine, Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    mothers continued to use substances throughout their pregnancies were born at a lower gestational age (Chi-Square = 15.1(2), P alcohol and those with no substance exposure. The same children were more...... pregnancy, as well as their background, and to examine the effect substance use has on gestational age, birth weight, and the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth. A sample of 161 pregnant women and their 163 newborn children were included. The results indicate that the children whose...... vulnerable to the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth (Chi-Square = 51.7(2), P alcohol in utero were at a significant risk of being born with low birth weight (Chi-Square = 8.8(2), P

  6. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  7. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  8. Updates on adolescent dating and sexual violence prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Jones, Kelley A; McCauley, Heather L

    2018-05-09

    Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents. Studies have found sex category differences, with adolescent girls reporting more victimization than boys, particularly sexual violence. Sexual and gender minority youth also experience a higher prevalence of violence victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. Studies on risk factors include examinations of childhood adversities, exposure to sexually explicit material and substance use as well as the role of gender inequitable attitudes on violence perpetration. Recent prevention research includes examining the impact of bystander interventions and transforming gender norms. Recent ADV/ sexual violence research highlights both prevalence and modifiable risk and protective factors that may help reduce such violence. Practitioners caring for youth should consider ADV/ sexual violence when seeing patients (including those struggling with substance use and other behaviours that contribute to poor health) and not simply rely on screening tools to identify those suffering from ADV/ sexual violence.

  9. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  10. Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jensen, Tina Kold; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Nielsen, Flemming; Poulsen, Lars K; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined. A total of 559 children were included in the analyses. Interactions with MMR vaccination were evaluated. Among 22 MMR-unvaccinated children, higher levels of the five PFASs at age 5 years were associated with increased odds of asthma at ages 5 and 13. The associations were reversed among MMR-vaccinated children. Prenatal PFAS exposure was not associated with childhood asthma or allergic diseases regardless of MMR vaccination status. In conclusion, PFAS exposure at age 5 was associated with increased risk of asthma among a small subgroup of MMR-unvaccinated children but not among MMR-vaccinated children. While PFAS exposure may impact immune system functions, this study suggests that MMR vaccination might be a potential effect-modifier.

  11. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  12. Effectiveness of protocols for preventing occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Hendrix, M.G.R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Schellens, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Compliance of different healthcare workers (HCWs) (nurses, physicians, laboratory technicians and cleaners) with protocols to prevent exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) was studied. Questionnaires were used to assess perception of risks, familiarity with protocols, motivation and actual

  13. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yamaguchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h, hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days, there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin®, a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss.

  14. Interventions for Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Arshad, Ahmed; Finkelstein, Yaron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-10-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse. Our overview findings suggest that among smoking/tobacco interventions, school-based prevention programs and family-based intensive interventions typically addressing family functioning are effective in reducing smoking. Mass media campaigns are also effective given that these were of reasonable intensity over extensive periods of time. Among interventions for alcohol use, school-based alcohol prevention interventions have been associated with reduced frequency of drinking, while family-based interventions have a small but persistent effect on alcohol misuse among adolescents. For drug abuse, school-based interventions based on a combination of social competence and social influence approaches have shown protective effects against drugs and cannabis use. Among the interventions targeting combined substance abuse, school-based primary prevention programs are effective. Evidence from Internet-based interventions, policy initiatives, and incentives appears to be mixed and needs further research. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific interventions components with standardized intervention and outcome measures. Various delivery platforms, including digital platforms and policy initiative, have the potential to improve substance abuse outcomes among adolescents; however, these require further research. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  15. Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xindi C; Dassuncao, Clifton; Zhang, Xianming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Webster, Glenys M; Nielsen, Flemming; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2018-02-01

    Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination. Common PFASs, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects. We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic and physiological characteristics and samples from the same years to reduce confounding by toxicokinetic differences and changing environmental releases. Using principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed by hierarchical clustering, we assess variability in serum PFAS concentrations across three Faroese groups. The first principal component (PC)/cluster consists of C9-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and is consistent with measured PFAS profiles in consumed seafood. The second PC/cluster includes perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and the PFOS precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same

  16. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. Methods Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among women of reproductive age were obtained from the DEMOCOPHES project (1,875 subjects in 17 countries) and literature data (6,820 subjects from 8 countries). The exposures were assumed to comply with log-normal distributions. Neurotoxicity effects were estimated from a linear dose-response function with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. Results The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0.58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against neurotoxicity or any other adverse effects. Conclusions These estimates document that efforts to combat mercury pollution and to reduce MeHg exposures will have very substantial

  18. Substance use and abuse among patients with comorbid dysthymia and substance disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, S L; Westermeyer, J; Crosby, R D

    1998-11-01

    This study determines the substance use and abuse patterns among patients with comorbid substance-related disorder (SRD) and dysthymia in SRD-dysthymia as compared with patients with SRD only. Differences in use and abuse patterns could be useful for (a) understanding motivations for use, such as self-treatment, and (b) assisting clinicians to identify cases of dysthymia among SRD patients. Retrospective and current data were obtained regarding history of substance use and current SRD diagnoses. Two university medical centers with alcohol-drug programs located within departments of psychiatry were the settings. A total of 642 patients was assessed. of whom 39 had SRD-dysthymia and 308 had SRD only. Data on past usc were collected by a research associate using a questionnaire. Current SRD and dysthymia diagnoses were made by psychiatrists specializing in addiction. The patients with SRD-dysthymia and SRD only did not differ with regard to use of alcohol, tobacco, and benzodiazepines. The patients with SRD-dysthymia started caffeine use at an earlier age, had shorter "use careers" of cocaine, amphetamines, and opiates, and had fewer days of cocaine and cannabis use in the last year. They also had a lower rate of cannabis abuse/dependence. This study indicated that patients with dysthymia and SRD have exposure to most substances of abuse that is comparable to patients with SRD only. However, they selectively use certain substances less often than patients with SRD only. Early use of caffeine may reflect self-treatment for depressive symptoms among patients with SRD-dysthymia.

  19. Assessment of people exposure to contamination with radioactive substances removed to the atmosphere from nuclear objects of Swierk Centre, Poland, in the period of 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipiak, B.; Nowicki, K.

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of particular persons, living in the near surroundings of Nuclear Centre - Swierk near Warsaw, Poland, to radioactive substances removed to the atmosphere during the period 1987-1992 has been assessed. The effective dose equivalent for statistically critical groups of persons has been estimated. The results have been compared with maximum permitted dose limits. 17 refs, 12 tabs

  20. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  1. Adolescent pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado DM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daisy Maria Machado,1 Alexandre Machado de Sant’Anna Carvalho,2 Rachel Riera3 1Disciplina de Infectologia Pediátrica, Departamento de Pediatria, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a new intervention for people at high risk for acquiring HIV, with an estimated HIV incidence of >3%. Recent data from trials show evidence of the efficacy of PrEP as a powerful HIV prevention tool in high-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, and IV drug users. The reported efficacy in those trials of the daily use of oral tenofovir, alone or in combination with emtricitabine, to prevent HIV infection ranged from 44% to 75% and was heavily dependent on adherence. Despite the proven efficacy of PrEP in adult trials, concerns remain about its feasibility in real-life scenarios due to stigma, cost, and limited clinician experience with PrEP delivery. Recent studies are attempting to expand the inquiry into the efficacy of such HIV prophylaxis approaches in adolescent populations, but there are still many gaps in knowledge, and no

  2. 78 FR 48051 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Manufacturers or processors of one or more subject chemical... chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type or form of exposure of human beings or the... the regulatory text section of this rule. This rule includes PMN substances, P-09-198 and P-09-199...

  3. Association between bullying victimization and substance use among college students in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca Sánchez, Francisco; Navarro Zaragoza, Javier; Luna Ruiz-Cabello, Aurelio; Falcón Romero, María; Luna Maldonado, Aurelio

    2016-06-14

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the prevalence and association between victimization and substance use among the university population in the southeast of Spain in a sample of 543 randomly selected college students (405 females and 138 males with an average age of 22.6 years). As a cross-sectional study, data was collected through an anonymous survey to assess victimization and drug use over the last 12 months. Results indicated that 62.2% of college students reported bullying victimization and 82.9% consumed some type of psychoactive substance, and found a statistically significant association between both variables measured. Additionally, logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between psychoactive substance use and different types of victimization. Our findings confirm the need for prevention to prevent this relation between victimization and substance use.

  4. Prenatal and childhood exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and child cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Bellinger, David C; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2018-06-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but epidemiological evidence on neurodevelopmental effects of PFAS exposure is inconsistent. We examined associations of prenatal and childhood PFAS exposure with performance on assessments of cognition in children. We included mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a longitudinal Boston-area birth cohort enrolled during 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of eight PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), in plasma collected from women during pregnancy (median 9.7 weeks gestation) and from children at a visit in mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). In early childhood (median age 3.2 years) we administered standardized assessments of visual motor skills and vocabulary comprehension, and in mid-childhood we assessed visual motor skills, visual memory, and verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Using multivariable regression, we estimated associations of prenatal and childhood PFAS plasma concentrations with children's cognitive assessment scores, adjusted for relevant covariates including breastfeeding, maternal intelligence, parental education, and household income. Samples sizes ranged from 631 to 971, depending on analysis. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were associated with both better and worse cognitive performance; children with top quartile prenatal concentrations of some PFASs had better visual motor abilities in early childhood and non-verbal IQ and visual memory in mid-childhood, while children with upper quartile prenatal PFOA and PFOS had lower mid-childhood visual-motor scores. In cross-sectional analyses of mid-childhood PFAS concentrations and cognitive assessments, visual-motor scores on the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) (standardized mean = 100, standard deviation = 15) were lower among children with higher PFHxS (fourth quartile (Q4) vs. Q1: -5.0, 95

  5. Cognitive and Social Development In Preschool Children Born To Women Using Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May

    2012-01-01

    influence childhood development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure. This study explores the long-term developmental consequences in children from birth to age 7 born to women using substances and are in treatment. A series of t tests were performed to explore group...

  6. National substance use patterns on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Wen Meng

    Full Text Available We examined openly shared substance-related tweets to estimate prevalent sentiment around substance use and identify popular substance use activities. Additionally, we investigated associations between substance-related tweets and business characteristics and demographics at the zip code level.A total of 79,848,992 tweets were collected from 48 states in the continental United States from April 2015-March 2016 through the Twitter API, of which 688,757 were identified as being related to substance use. We implemented a machine learning algorithm (maximum entropy text classifier to estimate sentiment score for each tweet. Zip code level summaries of substance use tweets were created and merged with the 2013 Zip Code Business Patterns and 2010 US Census Data.Quality control analyses with a random subset of tweets yielded excellent agreement rates between computer generated and manually generated labels: 97%, 88%, 86%, 75% for underage engagement in substance use, alcohol, drug, and smoking tweets, respectively. Overall, 34.1% of all substance-related tweets were classified as happy. Alcohol was the most frequently tweeted substance, followed by marijuana. Regression results suggested more convenience stores in a zip code were associated with higher percentages of tweets about alcohol. Larger zip code population size and higher percentages of African Americans and Hispanics were associated with fewer tweets about substance use and underage engagement. Zip code economic disadvantage was associated with fewer alcohol tweets but more drug tweets.The patterns in substance use mentions on Twitter differ by zip code economic and demographic characteristics. Online discussions have great potential to glorify and normalize risky behaviors. Health promotion and underage substance prevention efforts may include interactive social media campaigns to counter the social modeling of risky behaviors.

  7. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diffusion of Intervention Effects: The Impact of a Family-based Substance Use Prevention Program on Friends of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Feinberg, Mark; Gest, Scott D.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We tested whether effects of the Strengthening Families Program for Youth 10–14 (SFP10–14) diffused from intervention participants to their friends. We also tested which program effects on participants accounted for diffusion. Methods Data are from 5,449 students (51% female; mean initial age=12.3 years) in the PROSPER community intervention trial (2001–2006) who did not participate in SFP10–14 (i.e., non-participants). At each of 5 waves, students identified up to 7 friends and self-reported past month drunkenness and cigarette use, substance use attitudes, parenting practices, and unsupervised time spent with friends. We computed two measures of indirect exposure to SFP10–14: total number of SFP-attending friends at each wave and cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends averaged across the current and all previous post-intervention waves. Results Three years post-intervention, the odds of getting drunk (OR=1.4) and using cigarettes (OR=2.7) were higher among non-participants with 0 SFP-attending friends compared to non-participants with 3 or more SFP-attending friends. Multilevel analyses also provided evidence of diffusion: non-participants with a higher cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends at a given wave were less likely than their peers to use drugs at that wave. Effects from SFP10–14 primarily diffused through friendship networks by reducing the amount of unstructured socializing (unsupervised time that non-participants spent with friends), changing friends’ substance use attitudes, and then changing non-participants’ own substance use attitudes. Conclusions Program developers should consider and test how interventions may facilitate diffusion to extend program reach and promote program sustainability. PMID:26210856

  9. Transitioning to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) from Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (nPEP) in a Comprehensive HIV Prevention Clinic: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Sivachandran, Nirojini; Murphy, Pauline; Sharp, Andrea; Walach, Christine; Placido, Tania; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2015-08-01

    The uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention remains low. We hypothesized that a high proportion of patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) would be candidates for PrEP based on current CDC guidelines. Outcomes from a comprehensive HIV Prevention Clinic are described. We evaluated all patients who attended the HIV Prevention Clinic for nPEP between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Each patient was evaluated for PrEP candidacy based on current CDC-guidelines and subjectively based on physician opinion. Patients were then evaluated for initiation of PrEP if they met guideline suggestions. Demographic, social, and behavioral factors were then analyzed with logistic regression for associations with PrEP candidacy and initiation. 99 individuals who attended the nPEP clinic were evaluated for PrEP. The average age was 32 years (range, 18-62), 83 (84%) were male, of whom 46 (55%) men who had have sex with men (MSM). 31 (31%) met CDC guidelines for PrEP initiation, which had very good agreement with physician recommendation (kappa=0.88, 0.78-0.98). Factors associated with PrEP candidacy included sexual exposure to HIV, prior nPEP use, and lack of drug insurance (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Combining nPEP and PrEP services in a dedicated clinic can lead to identification of PrEP candidates and may facilitate PrEP uptake. Strategies to ensure equitable access of PrEP should be explored such that those without drug coverage may also benefit from this effective HIV prevention modality.

  10. Epidemiology of Substance Use among Forced Migrants: A Global Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Horyniak

    Full Text Available Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research.Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs, asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees. A descriptive synthesis of evidence from quantitative studies was conducted, focusing primarily on studies which used validated measures of substance use. Synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies focused on identifying prominent themes relating to the contexts and consequences of substance use. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP checklists were used to assess methodological quality of included studies.Forty-four quantitative (82% cross-sectional, 16 qualitative and three mixed-methods studies were included. Ten studies were rated as high methodological quality (16%, 39 as moderate quality (62% and 14 as low quality (22%. The majority of research was conducted among refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers (n = 55, 87%, predominantly in high-income settings. The highest-quality prevalence estimates of hazardous/harmful alcohol use ranged from 17%-36% in camp settings and 4%-7% in community settings. Few studies collected validated measures of illicit drug use. Seven studies compared substance use among forced migrants to other migrant or native-born samples. Among eight studies which conducted multivariable analysis, male sex, trauma exposure and symptoms of

  11. High school students' posttraumatic symptoms, substance abuse and involvement in violence in the aftermath of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami; Brom, Danny; Baum, Naomi; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-10-01

    This study examined one-year after effects of exposure to war events on adolescents' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTS) and risk behaviors (substance use and involvement in school violence). In addition, it addressed two potential vulnerability factors: at the micro level, it examined whether childhood trauma raised the vulnerability of Israeli adolescents to PTS and risk behaviors when exposed to war events. At the macro level, we explored whether ethnicity, i.e., being an Israeli Arab, is a vulnerability factor to PTS and risk behaviors. We used a representative sample of 7th to 11th grade students from the north of Israel that included 4151 students: 1800 Jewish (54.4% boys) and 2351 Arab (41.5% boys). We assessed exposure to war events and childhood traumatic events, PTS and PTSD, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, Ecstasy) and involvement in school violence. The findings revealed extensive exposure to war events among both Jewish and Arab students. A year after the war, its effects on adolescents were still manifested in PTS, and involvement in school violence and substance use. Exposure to child physical abuse was associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms, substance use and involvement in violence. Exposure to other traumatic events was also associated with greater PTS symptoms and involvement in violence but not with greater substance use. Arab students were a more vulnerable population. They reported higher PTS symptoms, more cannabis use and greater involvement in school violence than Jewish students. However, exposure to war events had similar effects on both Arab and Jewish students. We conclude that war effects include a broad range of psychological distress and risk behaviors that last long after the war ends, especially among youth who have experienced childhood trauma and high exposure to war-related stressors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunotoxicity in green mussels under perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure: Reversible response and response model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhui; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2018-04-01

    The immunotoxicity of 4 commonly detected perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was investigated by measuring biomarkers of the immune profile of green mussels, Perna viridis. The biomarkers included neutral red retention, phagocytosis, and spontaneous cytotoxicity, all of which were tested on mussel hemocytes. Hemocytes are an important component of the invertebrate immune system. We found that exposure to PFASs could lead to reduced hemocyte cell viability and suppress immune function by up to 50% of normal performance within the experimental exposure range. The results indicate that PFASs have an immunotoxic potential and thus could pose severe health risks to aquatic organisms. The reported immunotoxicity is likely to result from the compounds' direct and indirect interactions with the hemocyte membrane, and therefore likely to affect the functionality of these cells. The immunotoxic response was found to be related to the organism's burden of PFASs, and was reversible when the compounds were removed from the test organisms. Based on this relationship, models using an organism's PFAS concentration and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) as the independent variables were established to quantify PFAS-induced immunotoxicity. The models help us to gain a better understanding of the toxic mechanism of PFASs, and provide a tool to evaluate adverse effects for the whole group of compounds with one mathematical equation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1138-1145. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  13. Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter A; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani; Smith, S Jay; Tannor, Bernice; Hutchinson, Angela B; Wilson, Katherine M; Gandhi, Nisha; Lee, Nancy C; Rimer, Barbara; Coates, Ralph C; Kerner, Jon F; Hiatt, Robert A; Buffler, Patricia; Rochester, Phyllis

    2004-12-01

    The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation is well established. Behaviors such as seeking shade, avoiding sun exposure during peak hours of radiation, wearing protective clothing, or some combination of these behaviors can provide protection. Sunscreen use alone is not considered an adequate protection against ultraviolet radiation. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, other harms or benefits, economic evaluations, and barriers to use of selected interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services found that education and policy approaches to increasing sun-protective behaviors were effective when implemented in primary schools and in recreational or tourism settings, but found insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness when implemented in other settings, such as child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, and occupational settings. They also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of interventions oriented to healthcare settings and providers, media campaigns alone, interventions oriented to parents or caregivers of children, and community-wide multicomponent interventions. The report also provides suggestions for areas for future research.

  14. Supporting the need for an integrated system of care for youth with co-occurring traumatic stress and substance abuse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Liza M; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Briggs, Ernestine C; Titus, Janet C

    2012-06-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for violence exposure and initiation of drug use. Co-occurring substance use and trauma exposure are associated with increased risk of mental health disorders, school underachievement, and involvement with multiple systems of care. Coordination and integration of systems of care are of utmost importance for these vulnerable youth. This study delineates the negative sequelae and increased service utilization patterns of adolescents with a history of trauma, substance abuse, and co-occurring trauma and substance abuse to support the need for integrated mental health and substance abuse services for youth. Data from two national sources, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment demonstrate the increased clinical severity (measured by reports of emotional and behavioral problems), dysfunction, and service utilization patterns for youth with co-occurring trauma exposure and substance abuse. We conclude with recommendations for an integrated system of care that includes trauma-informed mental health treatment and substance abuse services aimed at reducing the morbidity and relapse probability of this high-risk group.

  15. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Pamela M; Heffron, Renee; Ronald, Allan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Donnell, Deborah; Mugo, Nelly R; Were, Edwin; Mujugira, Andrew; Kiarie, James; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2014-07-31

    For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities. In a clinical trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we estimated the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (oral contraceptive pills, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and hormonal implants) for pregnancy prevention relative to no contraception among 1785 HIV-1-uninfected women followed up to 36 months. We compared the effectiveness of each method among women assigned PrEP versus placebo. Contraception was not required for participation, but was offered on-site and was recorded monthly; incident pregnancy was determined by monthly urine testing. For women using no contraception, overall pregnancy incidence was 15.4% per year. Women reporting oral contraceptive use had comparable pregnancy incidence to women using no contraception, and this lack of contraceptive effectiveness was similar for those assigned PrEP and placebo (17.7 and 10.0% incidence per year, respectively; P-value for difference in effect by PrEP use = 0.24). Women reporting injectable contraception had reduced pregnancy incidence compared to those reporting no contraception, which did not differ by arm (PrEP 5.1%, placebo 5.3% per year; P-value for difference = 0.47). Contraceptive effectiveness was highest among women using implants (pregnancy incidence <1% per year in both arms). PrEP had no adverse impact on hormonal contraceptive effectiveness for pregnancy prevention. As seen previously in similar populations, women reporting contraceptive pill use had little protection from pregnancy, possibly due to poor adherence. Injectable or implantable hormonal contraception and PrEP provide effective prevention for pregnancy and HIV-1.

  16. N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance-P receptor antagonist attenuates aluminum-induced spatial memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joylee; Mudgal, Jayesh; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Arora, Devinder; Basu Mallik, Sanchari; Pai, K S R; Nampoothiri, Madhavan

    2018-06-01

    Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Neurokinin substance P is a key mediator which modulates neuroinflammation through neurokinin receptor. Involvement of substance P in Alzheimer's disease is still plausible and various controversies exist in this hypothesis. Preventing the deleterious effects of substance P using N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, a substance P antagonist could be a promising therapeutic strategy. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan on aluminum induced spatial memory alterations in rats. Memory impairment was induced using aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 42 d. After induction of dementia, rats were exposed to 30 and 50 mg/kg of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan for 28 d. Spatial memory alterations were measured using Morris water maze. Acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant enzyme glutathione level were assessed in hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum. The higher dose of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (50 mg/kg) significantly improved the aluminum induced memory alterations. N-acetyl-L-tryptophan exposure resulted in significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and glutathione level in hippocampus. The neuroprotective effect of N-acetyl-L-tryptophan could be due to its ability to block substance P mediated neuroinflammation, reduction in oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic properties. To conclude, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan may be considered as a novel neuroprotective therapy in Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Efficacy of long scleral tunnel technique in preventing Ahmed glaucoma valve tube exposure through conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugu, Suleyman; Erdogan, Gurkan; Sevim, M Sahin; Ozerturk, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of long scleral tunnel technique used in Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in preventing tube exposure through conjunctiva. Patients of adult age, who were unresponsive to maximum medical treatment and underwent AGV implantation, were divided into two groups and investigated retrospectively. Group 1 consisted of 40 eyes of 38 patients that underwent surgery by long scleral tunnel technique and Group 2 consisted of 38 eyes of 35 patients that underwent implantation by processed pericardium patch graft method. The mean age was 54.8 ± 14.6 years (range 26-68 years) and the mean follow-up duration was 46.7 ± 19.4 months (range 18-76 months) for the patients in Group 1, whereas the mean age was 58.6 ± 16.7 years (range 32-74 years) and mean follow-up period was 43.6 ± 15.7 months (range 20-72 months) for the patients in Group 2 (p > 0.05). In the course of follow-up, tube exposure was detected in one (2.5%) eye in Group 1 and in three (7.9%) eyes in Group 2 (p = 0.042). Long scleral tunnel technique is beneficial in preventing conjunctival tube exposure in AGV implantation surgery.

  18. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  19. Culture of Prevention of Consumption of Psychoactive Substances (pas in the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Agudelo Bedoya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the findings of a study on “Family Typology and Dynamics and their relation to the consumption of Psychoactive Substances in Children and Adolescents of the Private Schools in Medellín”. Likewise, it reviews the research carried out in Colombia and abroad on the relations among a family environment characterized by difficulties and gaps in communication, family cohesion, the exercise of authority, and the consumption of illegal psychoactive substances in children and adolescents.

  20. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

  1. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  2. A review of implicit and explicit substance self-concept as a predictor of alcohol and tobacco use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Gasser, Melissa L; Ramirez, Jason J; Cvencek, Dario

    2017-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept. Next, we summarize key findings related to substance use in the extant literature, focusing on alcohol and tobacco (smoking). Across both substances, there is converging evidence that substance self-concept is associated with substance use outcomes, including quantity and frequency of use and problems associated with use, and that change in substance self-concept is associated with recovery from substance misuse. Recommendations for the substance self-concept research agenda include routine assessment of substance self-concept, expanded use of implicit measures, investigation of moderators of substance self-concept, and targeting substance self-concept directly in prevention and intervention efforts. Ultimately, we suggest that substance self-concept is a promising, but understudied, construct. Greater research attention to substance self-concept could clarify its potential as an important risk factor for hazardous use and addiction as well as its utility as a prevention and treatment target.

  3. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsnack SC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention

  4. [Application of predictive model to estimate concentrations of chemical substances in the work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Czerczak, Sławomir; Jakubowski, Marek; Maciaszek, Piotr; Janasik, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) predictive model implemented into the European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES 2.1.), the exposure to three chosen organic solvents: toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone was estimated and compared with the results of measurements in workplaces. Prior to validation, the EASE model was pretested using three exposure scenarios. The scenarios differed in the decision tree of pattern of use. Five substances were chosen for the test: 1,4-dioxane tert-methyl-butyl ether, diethylamine, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and bisphenol A. After testing the EASE model, the next step was the validation by estimating the exposure level and comparing it with the results of measurements in the workplace. We used the results of measurements of toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone concentrations in the work environment of a paint and lacquer factory, a shoe factory and a refinery. Three types of exposure scenarios, adaptable to the description of working conditions were chosen to estimate inhalation exposure. Comparison of calculated exposure to toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone with measurements in workplaces showed that model predictions are comparable with the measurement results. Only for low concentration ranges, the measured concentrations were higher than those predicted. EASE is a clear, consistent system, which can be successfully used as an additional component of inhalation exposure estimation. If the measurement data are available, they should be preferred to values estimated from models. In addition to inhalation exposure estimation, the EASE model makes it possible not only to assess exposure-related risk but also to predict workers' dermal exposure.

  5. Substance Use among Muslim Students in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Mariana Harahap

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illicit substance use is a serious social problem faced by adolescents worldwide, including adolescents in Aceh and has many negative consequences. In addition, illicit substance use does not fit with the values of Islamic teaching, and is strictly prohibited in Islam. Purpose: The aims of this paper are to determine the prevalence of illicit substance use, the stages of substance use, and types of substance used among Muslim students in senior high schools in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: Four hundred and twenty six students who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from four senior high schools in Banda Aceh by using simple random sampling, and of these, 290 returned a completed questionnaire. A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Result: The mean age of the subjects was 15.9 years old and the majority of them were female (68.6%. The study found that the prevalence of substance use was 2.4%with a higher number of females than males who had used illicit substances. The common substances that were used by the students were marijuana and dextromethorphon, as well as intentionally inhaled substances. Lastly, out of the students who had used illegal substances the majority was in the regular use stage (1.4%. Conclusion: This study found that substance use among Muslim students in Aceh exists, although prevalence was low. Thus, several preventive programs may be needed in Aceh not only for Muslims students who have used substances but also for students who have not use illegal substances. Keywords: Adolescents, Substance use, Muslim students, Indonesia.

  6. Climate schools plus: An online, combined student and parent, universal drug prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K. Thornton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early initiation of substance use significantly increases one's risk of developing substance use dependence and mental disorders later in life. To interrupt this trajectory, effective prevention during the adolescent period is critical. Parents play a key role in preventing substance use and related harms among adolescents and parenting interventions have been identified as critical components of effective prevention programs. Despite this, there is currently no substance use prevention program targeting both students and parents that adopts online delivery to overcome barriers to implementation and sustainability. The Climate Schools Plus (CSP program was developed to meet this need. CSP is an online substance use prevention program for students and parents, based on the effective Climate Schools prevention program for students. This paper describes the development of the parent component of CSP including a literature review and results of a large scoping survey of parents of Australian high school students (n = 242. This paper also includes results of beta-testing of the developed program with relevant experts (n = 10, and parents of Australian high school students (n = 15. The CSP parent component consists of 1 a webinar which introduces shared rule ranking, 2 online modules and 3 summaries of student lessons. The parent program targets evidence-based modifiable factors associated with a delay in the onset of adolescent substance use and/or lower levels of adolescent substance use in the future; namely, rule-setting, monitoring, and modelling. To date, this is the first combined parent-student substance use prevention program to adopt an online delivery method. Keywords: Development, Prevention, Adolescent, Alcohol, Parent

  7. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bröning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated program for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. Methods: A new group intervention for children from substance-affected families was developed and is currently being evaluated in a randomized-controlled multicenter study funded by the German Ministry of Health. The development process was simultaneously guided by theory, existing research knowledge and expert opinion. Promoting resilience in children affected by parental substance abuse is a key goal of the program. Results: The TRAMPOLINE manual describes a 9-session addiction-focused, modular group program for children aged 8 to 12 years with at least one substance-using parent. Weekly sessions last for 90 minutes and combine psychoeducational elements with exercises and role play. A two-session parent intervention component is also integrated in the program. Content, structure and theoretical background of the intervention are described. Discussion: TRAMPOLINE is a new interventive effort targeting children from substance-affected families. It is grounded in theory and practice. The results of the research in progress will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of a structured group prevention program for German children from substance-abusing families. Thus, the study will contribute to creating a broader and more effective system of preventive help for this high-risk target group.

  8. Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lianne Lian; Sparenborg, Steven; Tai, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Lianne Lian Hu1, Steven Sparenborg2, Betty Tai21Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MDAbstract: Many Americans with substance use problems will have opportunities to receive coordinated health care through the integration of primary care and specialty care for substance use disorders under the Patient Protection...

  9. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Locators Find treatment facilities and programs in the United States or U.S. Territories for mental and substance use ... Health Information Technology HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis Homelessness and ... and Local Government Partnerships Suicide Prevention Trauma and ...

  10. Phototoxicity Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Substances with a Reactive Oxygen Species Assay Using Ultraviolet A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Lim, Hye Rim; Kim, Tae Sung; Ahn, Il Young; Ko, Kyungyuk; Kim, JooHwan; Park, Hye-Kyung; Sohn, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Kwon

    2017-01-01

    With ultraviolet and visible light exposure, some pharmaceutical substances applied systemically or topically may cause phototoxic skin irritation. The major factor in phototoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen and superoxide anion that cause oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins. Thus, measuring the generation of ROS can predict the phototoxic potential of a given substance indirectly. For this reason, a standard ROS assay (ROS assay) was developed and validated and provides an alternative method for phototoxicity evaluation. However, negative substances are over-predicted by the assay. Except for ultraviolet A (UVA), other UV ranges are not a major factor in causing phototoxicity and may lead to incorrect labeling of some non-phototoxic substances as being phototoxic in the ROS assay when using a solar simulator. A UVA stimulator is also widely used to evaluate phototoxicity in various test substances. Consequently, we identified the applicability of a UVA simulator to the ROS assay for photoreactivity. In this study, we tested 60 pharmaceutical substances including 50 phototoxins and 10 non-phototoxins to predict their phototoxic potential via the ROS assay with a UVA simulator. Following the ROS protocol, all test substances were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide or sodium phosphate buffer. The final concentration of the test solutions in the reaction mixture was 20 to 200 μM. The exposure was with 2.0~2.2 mW/cm2 irradiance and optimization for a relevant dose of UVA was performed. The generation of ROS was compared before and after UVA exposure and was measured by a microplate spectrophotometer. Sensitivity and specificity values were 85.7% and 100.0% respectively, and the accuracy was 88.1%. From this analysis, the ROS assay with a UVA simulator is suitable for testing the photoreactivity and estimating the phototoxic potential of various test pharmaceutical substances. PMID:28133512

  11. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  12. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Serum of Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Nielsen, Flemming; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analysed in serum samples of pregnant women from Denmark to provide information about their exposure and to study indications of common exposure pathways. The main BDE congener was the ...... of exposure and/or pharmacokinetic and metabolisation processes. PBDE and PFAS concentrations were in the range associated with adverse effects in some epidemiological studies....

  13. Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Randomized Prevention Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    program, for example, are twofold: to reduce crime itself, and to reduce the fear of crime and the avoidance behaviors (e.g., staying indoors at night... marijuana ); those who did use such substances tended to do so less often (Spoth, Redmond, & Shin, 2001). RESOURCES REQUIRED VCR, overhead

  14. Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2017-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps......, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs...... with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined. A total of 559 children were included in the analyses. Interactions with MMR vaccination were evaluated. Among 22 MMR...

  15. Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment: DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Adam, Balazs; Albin, Maria; Banelli, Barbara; Baur, Xaver; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Bolognesi, Claudia; Broberg, Karin; Gustavsson, Per; Göen, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Jarosinska, Dorota; Manservisi, Fabiana; O'Kennedy, Richard; Øvrevik, Johan; Paunovic, Elizabet; Ritz, Beate; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Schwarze, Per E; Sheils, Orla; Sigsgaard, Torben; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2018-01-01

    The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and

  16. Changes in cue reactivity and attentional bias following experimental cue exposure and response prevention: a laboratory study of the effects of D-cycloserine in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Massey-Chase, Rachel; Rodney, Lydia; Das, Ravi; Almahdi, Basil; Curran, H Valerie; Morgan, Celia J A

    2011-09-01

    The effects of D-cycloserine (DCS) in animal models of anxiety disorders and addiction indicate a role for N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in extinction learning. Exposure/response prevention treatments for anxiety disorders in humans are enhanced by DCS, suggesting a promising co-therapy regime, mediated by NMDA receptors. Exposure/response prevention may also be effective in problematic drinkers, and DCS might enhance habituation to cues in these individuals. Since heavy drinkers show ostensible conditioned responses to alcohol cues, habituation following exposure/response prevention should be evident in these drinkers, with DCS enhancing this effect. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of DCS on exposure/response prevention in heavy drinkers. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, heavy social drinkers recruited from the community received either DCS (125 mg; n = 19) or placebo (n = 17) 1 h prior to each of two sessions of exposure/response prevention. Cue reactivity and attentional bias were assessed during these two sessions and at a third follow-up session. Between-session drinking behaviour was recorded. Robust cue reactivity and attentional bias to alcohol cues was evident, as expected of heavy drinkers. Within- and between-session habituation of cue reactivity, as well as a reduction in attentional bias to alcohol cues over time was found. However, there was no evidence of greater habituation in the DCS group. Subtle stimulant effects (increased subjective contentedness and euphoria) which were unrelated to exposure/response prevention were found following DCS. DCS does not appear to enhance habituation of alcohol cue reactivity in heavy non-dependent drinkers. Its utility in enhancing treatments based on exposure/response prevention in dependent drinkers or drug users remains open.

  17. Diffusion of Intervention Effects: The Impact of a Family-Based Substance Use Prevention Program on Friends of Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L; Feinberg, Mark; Gest, Scott D; Osgood, D Wayne

    2015-10-01

    We tested whether effects of the Strengthening Families Program for Youth 10-14 (SFP10-14) diffused from intervention participants to their friends. We also tested which program effects on participants accounted for diffusion. Data are from 5,449 students (51% female; mean initial age = 12.3 years) in the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience community intervention trial (2001-2006) who did not participate in SFP10-14 (i.e., nonparticipants). At each of five waves, students identified up to seven friends and self-reported past month drunkenness and cigarette use, substance use attitudes, parenting practices, and unsupervised time spent with friends. We computed two measures of indirect exposure to SFP10-14: total number of SFP-attending friends at each wave and cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends averaged across the current and all previous post-intervention waves. Three years post-intervention, the odds of getting drunk (odds ratio = 1.4) and using cigarettes (odds ratio = 2.7) were higher among nonparticipants with zero SFP-attending friends compared with nonparticipants with three or more SFP-attending friends. Multilevel analyses also provided evidence of diffusion: nonparticipants with a higher cumulative proportion of SFP-attending friends at a given wave were less likely than their peers to use drugs at that wave. Effects from SFP10-14 primarily diffused through friendship networks by reducing the amount of unstructured socializing (unsupervised time that nonparticipants spent with friends), changing friends' substance use attitudes, and then changing nonparticipants' own substance use attitudes. Program developers should consider and test how interventions may facilitate diffusion to extend program reach and promote program sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within the...

  19. Sports celebrities and public health: Diego Maradona's influence on drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J; de Matviuk, Marcela Alejandra Chavan

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to a sports celebrity through media and sporting events can have important influences on a public health issue associated with that celebrity. The battle against drug use by Argentinean soccer icon Diego Maradona has provoked concerns about drug abuse and prevention in Argentina, particularly among young people. The present study analyzes how two forms of involvement with Maradona affected the public's concern and perceptions of drug use after Maradona's drug-related health crisis in 2004. Results indicate that those who had a greater degree of parasocial interaction with Maradona were more likely to have an increased awareness of drug abuse, a greater personal concern about drug abuse, abstained from drug use, and more strongly support drug abuse prevention programs. In contrast, identification with Maradona had a mitigating effect on drug use prevention. Implications of these findings regarding the influence of sports celebrities on substance abuse are discussed.

  20. Childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use in National Guard and reserve soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Bonnie M; Hoopsick, Rachel A; Homish, D Lynn; Daws, Rachel C; Homish, Gregory G

    2018-02-27

    The goal of this work was to examine associations among childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use (alcohol problems, frequent heavy drinking [FHD], current cigarette smoking, and current/lifetime drug use) and the interaction effects of childhood trauma and combat exposure on those associations among National Guard/reserve soldiers. Participants (N = 248) completed an electronic survey asking questions about their military experiences, physical and mental health, and substance use. Childhood trauma and combat exposure were examined jointly in regression models, controlling for age, marital satisfaction, and number of deployments. Childhood trauma was associated with current drug use (trend level, odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 2.14; P = .072) in the main effect model; however, there was not a significant interaction with combat. Combat exposure had a significant interaction with childhood trauma on alcohol problems (b = -0.56, 95% CI: -1.12, -0.01; P = .048), FHD (b = -0.27, 95% CI: -0.47, -0.08; P = .007), and lifetime drug use (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.04; P = .035). There were no associations with either of the trauma measures and current cigarette smoking. These results demonstrate that childhood and combat trauma have differential effects on alcohol use, such that combat trauma may not add to the effect on alcohol use in those with greater child maltreatment but may contribute to greater alcohol use among those with low child maltreatment. As expected, childhood and combat trauma had synergistic effects on lifetime drug use. Screening for multiple types of trauma prior to enlistment and/or deployment may help to identify at-risk individuals and allow time for early intervention to prevent future adverse outcomes.

  1. Consumer exposure to biocides - identification of relevant sources and evaluation of possible health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heger Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Products containing biocides are used for a variety of purposes in the home environment. To assess potential health risks, data on products containing biocides were gathered by means of a market survey, exposures were estimated using a worst case scenario approach (screening, the hazard of the active components were evaluated, and a preliminary risk assessment was conducted. Methods Information on biocide-containing products was collected by on-site research, by an internet inquiry as well as research into databases and lists of active substances. Twenty active substances were selected for detailed investigation. The products containing these substances were subsequently classified by range of application; typical concentrations were derived. Potential exposures were then estimated using a worst case scenario approach according to the European Commission's Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment. Relevant combinations of scenarios and active substances were identified. The toxicological data for these substances were compiled in substance dossiers. For estimating risks, the margins of exposure (MOEs were determined. Results Numerous consumer products were found to contain biocides. However, it appeared that only a limited number of biocidal active substances or groups of biocidal active substances were being used. The lowest MOEs for dermal exposure or exposure by inhalation were obtained for the following scenarios and biocides: indoor pest control using sprays, stickers or evaporators (chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos and spraying of disinfectants as well as cleaning of surfaces with concentrates (hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, glutardialdehyde. The risk from aggregate exposure to individual biocides via different exposure scenarios was higher than the highest single exposure on average by a factor of three. From the 20 biocides assessed 10 had skin-sensitizing properties. The biocides isothiazolinone (mixture of 5-chloro

  2. Quantification of allyl hexanoate in pineapple beverages and yogurts as a case study to characterise a source of uncertainty in dietary exposure assessment to flavouring substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, A; D'Aloise, A; Magrì, A D; Leclercq, C

    2012-01-01

    One source of uncertainty in the estimation of dietary exposure to flavouring substances is the uncertainty in the occurrence and concentration levels of these substances naturally present or added to foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to assess the variability of concentration levels of allyl hexanoate, considered as a case study, in two main food categories to which it is often added: pineapple juice-based beverages and yogurts containing pineapple. Thirty-four beverages and 29 yogurts, with pineapple fruit or juice and added flavourings declared as ingredients on the package, were purchased from the local market (in Rome) and analysed. Analytical methods based on the stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique for the isolation of the target analyte, and on GC-MS analysis for final determination, were developed for the two food categories. In beverages, allyl hexanoate concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 16.71 mg l(-1), whereas in yogurts they ranged from 0.02 to 89.41 mg kg(-1). Average concentrations in beverages and yogurts with pineapple as the main fruit ingredient (1.91 mg l(-1) for beverages, 9.61 mg kg(-1) for yogurts) were in fair agreement with average use level data reported from industry surveys for the relevant food categories (4.5 and 6.0 mg kg(-1), respectively). Within the group of yogurts a single product was found to contain a level of allyl hexanoate more than 10-fold higher than the average reported use level. The screening techniques developed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) using use level data provided by industry gave estimates of exposure that were of the same order of magnitude as the estimates obtained for regular consumers who would be loyal to the pineapple yogurt and beverage products containing the highest observed concentration of the substance of interest. In this specific case the uncertainty in the results obtained with the use of standard screening techniques for exposure assessment based on industry

  3. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-11-03

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  4. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  5. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infection prevention following occupational exposure among staff at a regional referral hospital in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kabai Burmen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP with antiretroviral therapy (ART and vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV aides in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and HBV, respectively, from accidental or occupational exposure. We assessed compliance to guidelines for HIV and HBV prevention after occupational exposure among hospital staff at a referral Kenyan hospital. Methods: We reviewed PEP registers for hospital staff reporting an occupational injury at a referral hospital in Western Kenya between January 2011 and December 2012. Proportions were used to summarize number of participants receiving the recommended services, Kaplan–Meier curves were used to describe time to ART initiation, and Chi-square statistics was used to describe the association between participant characteristics and PEP completion rates. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of documented hospital staff (n = 52 were health workers (63% and students (27% and had high HIV risk exposures (97%. All had timely PEP initiation with 50% completing PEP. Completion rates did not vary by gender (P = 0.78, exposure type (P = 1.0, or department of exposure (P = 0.75. Retesting for HIV and negativity rates at months 1.5, 3, and 6 were 96%, 25%, and 17% and 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. At the time of exposure, 17% (9 of staff were HBV vaccinated and HBV status of sources was unknown; no intervention was provided for HBV prevention. Conclusions: Low rates of completion and follow-up negate intended benefits of PEP. Efforts should be directed to enforce universal precaution practices and completion of PEP. Low rates of HBV testing and vaccination illustrate the need for support for the implementation of HBV prevention guidelines.

  7. Systemic administration of antiretrovirals prior to exposure prevents rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Denton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for mucosal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission could reduce new infections among targeted high-risk populations including discordant couples, injection drug users, high-risk women and men who have sex with men. Targeted antiretroviral PrEP could be particularly effective at slowing the spread of HIV-1 if a single antiretroviral combination were found to be broadly protective across multiple routes of transmission. Therefore, we designed our in vivo preclinical study to systematically investigate whether rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission can be blocked by antiretrovirals administered systemically prior to HIV-1 exposure. We performed these studies using a highly relevant in vivo model of mucosal HIV-1 transmission, humanized Bone marrow/Liver/Thymus mice (BLT. BLT mice are susceptible to HIV-1 infection via three major physiological routes of viral transmission: vaginal, rectal and intravenous. Our results show that BLT mice given systemic antiretroviral PrEP are efficiently protected from HIV-1 infection regardless of the route of exposure. Specifically, systemic antiretroviral PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prevented both rectal (Chi square = 8.6, df = 1, p = 0.003 and intravenous (Chi square = 13, df = 1, p = 0.0003 HIV-1 transmission. Our results indicate that antiretroviral PrEP has the potential to be broadly effective at preventing new rectal or intravenous HIV transmissions in targeted high risk individuals. These in vivo preclinical findings provide strong experimental evidence supporting the potential clinical implementation of antiretroviral based pre-exposure prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  8. Hierarchy of controls applied to dangerous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Too often, measures to control workers’ exposure to dangerous substances are taken on an ‘ad-hoc’ basis. Existing processes, procedures and routines are taken for granted, and ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions are installed. In many cases, one relies on the use of personal protective equipment. This may lead

  9. Cannabinoids prevent the differential long-term effects of exposure to severe stress on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Noa; Segev, Amir; Abush, Hila; Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Tomer; Akirav, Irit

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to excessive or uncontrolled stress is a major factor associated with various diseases including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The consequences of exposure to trauma are affected not only by aspects of the event itself, but also by the frequency and severity of trauma reminders. It was suggested that in PTSD, hippocampal-dependent memory is compromised while amygdala-dependent memory is strengthened. Several lines of evidence support the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a modulator of the stress response. In this study we aimed to examine cannabinoids modulation of the long-term effects (i.e., 1 month) of exposure to a traumatic event on memory and plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following exposure to the shock and reminders model of PTSD in an inhibitory avoidance light-dark apparatus rats demonstrated: (i) enhanced fear retrieval and impaired inhibitory extinction (Ext), (ii) no long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1, (iii) impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory in the object location task, (iv) enhanced LTP in the amygdala, and (v) enhanced amygdala-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory. The cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55-212,2 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), administered 2 hr after shock exposure prevented these opposing effects on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent processes. Moreover, the effects of WIN55-212,2 and URB597 on Ext and acoustic startle were prevented by co-administration of a low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting that the preventing effects of both drugs are mediated by CB1 receptors. Exposure to shock and reminders increased CB1 receptor levels in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala 1 month after shock exposure and this increase was also prevented by administering WIN55-212,2 or URB597. Taken together, these findings suggest the involvement of the eCB system, and specifically CB1

  10. Lost opportunities in HIV prevention: programmes miss places where exposures are highest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild F; Siziya, Seter; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77%) but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women). Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority. PMID:18218124

  11. Substance Use to Cope with Stigma in Healthcare Among U.S. Female-to-Male Trans Masculine Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Pardo, Seth T; Gamarel, Kristi E; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana J; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2015-12-01

    Enacted and anticipated stigma exist within healthcare settings for transgender people, but research has yet to examine the effects of these forms of stigma on the substance use behaviors of female-to-male (FTM) trans masculine people. Data were analyzed from the cross-sectional U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey, a convenience sample of transgender adults purposively sampled in 2008. Trans masculine respondents (n=2,578) were identified using a two-step method: Step 1, Assigned birth sex; Step 2, Current gender identity. A gender minority stress model of substance use was tested to examine the relation of enacted and anticipated stigma with substance use to cope with mistreatment. Overall, 14.1% of the sample reported having been refused care by a provider (enacted stigma), 32.8% reported delaying needed medical care when sick/injured, and 39.1% delayed routine preventive care (anticipated stigma). Having been refused care was significantly associated with avoidance of healthcare, including delaying needed medical care when sick/injured and delaying routine preventive medical care. Substance use to cope with mistreatment was self-reported by 27.6% of the sample. Enacted stigma by providers was associated with self-reported substance use to cope. Delays in both needed and preventive care (anticipated stigma) were highly associated with substance use, and attenuated the effect of enacted stigma. Gender minority-related stressors, particularly enacted and anticipated stigma in healthcare, should be integrated into substance use and abuse prevention and intervention efforts with this underserved population.

  12. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  13. Gang membership and substance use: guilt as a gendered causal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Donna L; Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether anticipated guilt for substance use is a gendered mechanism underlying the noted enhancement effect of gang membership on illegal drug use. We also demonstrate a method for making stronger causal inferences when assessing mediation in the presence of moderation and time-varying confounding. We estimate a series of inverse propensity weighted models to obtain unbiased estimates of mediation in the presence of confounding of the exposure (i.e., gang membership) and mediator (i.e., anticipated guilt) using three waves of data from a multi-site panel study of a law-related education program for youth ( N =1,113). The onset of gang membership significantly decreased anticipated substance use guilt among both male and female respondents. This reduction was significantly associated with increased frequency of substance use only for female respondents, however, suggesting that gender moderates the mechanism through which gang membership influences substance use. Criminologists are often concerned with identifying causal pathways for antisocial and/or delinquent behavior, but confounders of the exposure, mediator, and outcome often interfere with efforts to assess mediation. Many new approaches have been proposed for strengthening causal inference for mediation effects. After controlling for confounding using inverse propensity weighting, our results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing substance use by current and former female gang members should focus on the normative aspects of these behaviors.

  14. The impact of media-related cognitions on children's substance use outcomes in the context of parental and peer substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller

    2014-05-01

    Media-related cognitions are a unique influence on adolescents' substance use outcomes even after accounting for the powerful influence of parent and peers. This cross-sectional study expands upon prior research by investigating the impact of media-related cognitions on children's alcohol and tobacco outcomes in the context of parental and peer substance use. Six hundred forty-nine elementary school children (M = 9.4 years of age, SD = 1.1 years; 51 % female) completed self-report questionnaires. After accounting for peer and parental substance use, children's media-related cognitions were independently associated with three outcomes: preferences for alcohol-branded merchandise, moral beliefs about underage alcohol and tobacco use, and intentions to use alcohol and tobacco. Children's perceptions of the desirability and realism of alcohol and tobacco ads--and their similarity to and identification with these ads--predicted greater intentions to use. Desirability and identification with alcohol and tobacco ads were associated with stronger preferences for alcohol-branded merchandise, and understanding advertising's persuasive intent predicted weaker preferences. Media deconstruction skills predicted stronger beliefs that underage alcohol and tobacco use is wrong. Peer and parental substance use were associated with stronger substance-use intentions among children and weaker feelings that substance use is wrong. The findings highlight the role of media influence in contributing to youth substance use and the potential role of media literacy education in the early prevention of substance use.

  15. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  16. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  17. Non-daily pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter L.; García-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss non-daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) modalities that may provide advantages compared with daily PrEP in cost and cumulative toxicity, but may have lower adherence forgiveness. Recent Findings Animal models have informed our understanding of early viral transmission events, which help guide event-driven PrEP dosing strategies. These models indicate early establishment of viral replication in rectal or cervicovaginal tissues, so event-driven PrEP should rapidly deliver high mucosal drug concentrations within hours of the potential exposure event. Macaque models have demonstrated the high biological efficacy for event-driven dosing of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) against both vaginal and rectal virus transmission. In humans, the IPERGAY study demonstrated 86% efficacy for event-driven oral TDF/FTC dosing among men who have sex with men (MSM), while no similar efficacy data are available on women or heterosexual men. The HPTN 067 study showed that certain MSM populations adhere well to non-daily PrEP while other populations of women adhere more poorly to non-daily versus daily regimens. Pharmacokinetic studies following oral TDF/FTC dosing in humans, indicate that TFV-diphosphate (the active form of TFV) accumulates to higher concentrations in rectal versus cervicovaginal tissue but non-adherence in trials complicates the interpretation of differential mucosal drug concentrations. Summary Event-driven dosing for TFV-based PrEP has promise for HIV prevention in MSM. Future research of event-driven PrEP in women and heterosexual men should be guided by a better understanding of the importance of mucosal drug concentrations for PrEP efficacy and its sensitivity to adherence. PMID:26633641

  18. Substance Use Patterns Among Adolescents in Europe: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Kristin; Scheithauer, Herbert; Bräker, Astrid-Britta; Jonkman, Harrie; Soellner, Renate

    2016-07-28

    Several researchers have investigated substance use patterns using a latent class analysis; however, hardly no studies exist on substance use patterns across countries. Adolescent substance use patterns, demographic factors, and international differences in the prevalence of substance use patterns were explored. Data from 25 European countries were used to identify patterns of adolescent (12-16 years, 50.6% female) substance use (N = 33,566). Latent class analysis revealed four substance use classes: nonusers (68%), low-alcohol users (recent use of beer, wine, and alcopops; 16.1%), alcohol users (recent use of alcohol and lifetime use of marijuana; 11.2%), and polysubstance users (recent use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs; 4.7%). Results support a general pattern of adolescent substance use across all countries; however, the prevalence rates of use patterns vary for each country. The present research provides insight into substance use patterns across Europe by using a large international adolescent sample, multidimensional indicators and a variety of substances. Substance use patterns are helpful when targeting policy and prevention strategies.

  19. Use of illicit substances among schoolchildren in colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Ratnayake, Himali Erandathie; Palmer, Paula; Matthews, David R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as illicit drugs were used as psychoactive substances. Ingredients of some of these compounds are not fully understood or regulated. Prevalence of cannabis use was 3.85% in males and 0.24% in females. Studying nonscience subjects for Advanced Level, doing sports, low academic performance, and peer smoking significantly increased the odds of using one or more substances (P substances were used by schoolchildren. More strategies to prevent further aggravation of these behaviors are needed. Constituents of some compounds are not understood and need further evaluation. Recognized high-risk groups can be targets for preventive and cessation programs.

  20. Effectiveness of skill-based substance abuse intervention among male adolescents in an Islamic country: case of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Bazargan, Mohsen; Farhadinasab, Abdollah; Hidarnia, Alireza; Bashirian, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents from low- and middle-income countries is increasing drastically and requires immediate intervention. The objective of this longitudinal quasi-experimental panel study was to design and implement a skill-based intervention to prevent and reduce substance use among urban adolescents who attended 2 randomly selected high-schools in Tehran, Iran. One-year post intervention data show that substance abuse, knowledge, attitudes, peer resistance skills, level of self-control, self-efficacy, and perceived susceptibility among intervention group were significantly improved, whereas level of self control and attitudes against substance abuse among the control group deteriorated. To efficiently prevent substance abuse among youth primary preventive interventions should be implemented before onset of substance abuse to improve resistance skills and provide adolescents with information and skills needed to develop anti-drug norms.

  1. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-11-13

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003-2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log 10 -transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log 10 -unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-5.86% (95% CI: -9.91%, -1.63%) and percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-4.75% (95% CI: -8.16%, -0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data ( n =640). Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this study suggest that PFAS exposures during pregnancy may

  2. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  3. Interactions between disordered sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrey, Ryan; Babson, Kimberly A; Herrmann, Evan S; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-04-01

    Disordered sleep is associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is an integral component of many psychiatric disorders. Rates of substance use disorders (SUDs) are markedly higher among individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and this relationship may be partly mediated by disturbed sleep. Sleep disturbances (e.g. insomnia, daytime sleepiness, vivid nightmares) are hallmark features of PTSD and there is evidence that individuals with PTSD engage in substance use as a means of coping with these symptoms. However, prolonged substance use can lead to more severe sleep disturbances due to the development of tolerance and withdrawal. Behavioural or pharmacological treatment of disordered sleep is associated with improved daytime symptoms and psychosocial functioning among individuals who have developed PTSD. Initial research also suggests that improving sleep could be similarly beneficial in reducing coping oriented substance use and preventing relapse among those seeking treatment for SUDs. Together, these findings suggest that ameliorating sleep disturbance among at-risk individuals would be a viable target for the prevention and treatment of PTSD and associated SUDs, but prospective research is needed to examine this hypothesis. Enhanced understanding of the interrelation between sleep, PTSD, and SUDs may yield novel prevention and intervention approaches for these costly, prevalent and frequently co-occurring disorders.

  4. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  5. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  6. Latent growth trajectories of substance use among pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Gwendolyn V; Stein, Judith A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    We examine changes among adolescent girls in substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Three separate latent growth curve analyses assessed the impact of psychosocial, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors on resumption of or change in use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. The Vulnerable Populations Model for Research and Clinical Practice (Flaskerud & Winslow, 1998) provided the theoretical foundation for this study. This is a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 305 ethnic minority females (245 Latina, 60 African American), aged 13-18 years, who were pregnant at baseline and were participating in an HIV prevention study conducted in inner-city alternative schools in Los Angeles County. Data collected at 4 time points captured changes in substance use from pregnancy through the postpartum period. Baseline predictors included ethnicity/race, partner substance use, childhood abuse history, religiosity, acculturation, depressive symptoms, length of gestation at baseline, and previous substance use. Common predictors of greater resumption and/or greater level of use included greater history of use before pregnancy, partner substance use, childhood abuse, and a longer time since childbirth. African Americans were more likely to be smoking at baseline when they were still pregnant and to use marijuana postpartum; Latinas were more likely to use alcohol over the course of pregnancy and postpartum. Other variables exerted an influence on specific substances. For instance, religiosity impacted cigarette and alcohol use. Findings may assist prenatal care providers to identify and counsel pregnant adolescents at risk for perinatal substance use and to prevent resumption or initiation of substance use after childbirth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Critical Dose of Internal Organs Internal Exposure - 13471

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre (Armenia); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan State Medical University 4Tigran Mets,375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2013-07-01

    The health threat posed by radionuclides has stimulated increased efforts to developed characterization on the biological behavior of radionuclides in humans in all ages. In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age specific biokinetic models for environmentally important radioelements. Radioactive substances in the air, mainly through the respiratory system and digestive tract, is inside the body. Radioactive substances are unevenly distributed in various organs and tissues. Therefore, the degree of damage will depend not only on the dose of radiation have but also on the critical organ, which is the most accumulation of radioactive substances, which leads to the defeat of the entire human body. The main objective of radiation protection, to avoid exceeding the maximum permissible doses of external and internal exposure of a person to prevent the physical and genetic damage people. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation is called a dose of radiation a person in uniform getting her for 50 years does not cause changes in the health of the exposed individual and his progeny. The following classification of critical organs, depending on the category of exposure on their degree of sensitivity to radiation: First group: the whole body, gonads and red bone marrow; Second group: muscle, fat, liver, kidney, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and lens of the eye; The third group: bone, thyroid and skin; Fourth group: the hands, forearms, feet. MTD exposure whole body, gonads and bone marrow represent the maximum exposures (5 rem per year) experienced by people in their normal activities. The purpose of this article is intended dose received from various internal organs of the radionuclides that may enter the body by inhalation, and gastrointestinal tract. The biokinetic model describes the time dependent distribution and excretion of different

  8. Prevention of and response to inadvertent exposure of embryo/fetus to ionizing radiation, due to medical exposure of the mother. The Greek regulatory authority initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economides, Sotirios; Boziari, Argiro; Vogiatzi, Stavroula; Hourdakis, Konstantinos J; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Embryo/fetus (E/F) irradiation as a result of medical exposure of the mother should be avoided, unless there are strong clinical indications. Medical practitioners are assigned the primary task and obligation of ensuring overall patient protection and safety in the prescription of and during the delivery of medical exposure. In cases of unintended exposure of embryo/fetus (E/F), the risk analysis and communication is conducted by or under the supervision of medical physicists at local level. National competent authorities can contribute to the prevention, risk analysis and communication of inadvertent E/F exposure to ionizing radiation by recording, analyzing and disseminating the relevant information. Since 2001, Greek Atomic Energy Commission has established a committee with the mandate to provide advice, to keep records, to analyze and disseminate the experience gained in cases of unintended E/F exposure. During the period 2001-2011, the committee was consulted by 269 pregnant women undergone medical exposures. The conclusions from the relevant data analysis, as well as the experience gained are herein presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial results, it is important that issues related to delivery, implementation and further research are also discussed. As a part of the ongoing discussion, in June 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored a Planning for PrEP conference with stakeholders to review expected trial results, outline responsible educational approaches, and develop potential delivery and implementation strategies. The conference reinforced the need for continued and sustained dialogue to identify where PrEP implementation may fit best within an integrated HIV prevention package. This paper identifies the key action points that emerged from the Planning for PrEP meeting. PMID:20624303

  10. The ICRP 86: prevention of accidental exposure among patients receiving a radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The international commission radiological protection (ICRP) has been created in 1928 at the demand of radiologist physicians. It publishes the recommendations concerning the whole of situations at which man confronts when he is submitted to ionizing radiations from natural or artificial origin. this publication is devoted to give a guidance contribution in the prevention of accidental exposures implying patients suffering a treatment by external radiotherapy or by brachytherapy. It does not treat directly the therapies using unsealed sources. It speaks to professional readership implied in radiotherapy procedures, to hospital managers, public Health Authorities and regulation organisms. The chosen approach is the description of exemplary severe accidents, the examination of causes of these events and contributory factors, the summary of their disastrous consequences and the proposition of recommendations for their prevention. The measures proposed include institutional dispositions, personnel training, quality assurance programmes, follow up adequacy, clear definition of liability and celerity of events report. (N.C.)

  11. The Rocky Road to Change: Implications for Substance Abuse Programs on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Cynthia G.; Ambroson, DeAnn L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines college substance abuse prevention and intervention programs in the framework of the elaboration likelihood model. Discusses the role of persuasion and recommends careful analysis of the relevance, construction, and delivery of messages about substance use and subsequent program evaluation. Recommendations for increasing program…

  12. Cross-boundary substance uses among Hong Kong Chinese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T; Lau, Mason

    2007-09-01

    The study documents the characteristics of Hong Kong residents who used substances in mainland China. Characteristics of such users were compared with those using substances elsewhere. A cross-sectional survey was used. Data analyses were stratified by gender, and multivariate analyses were performed. Respondents, Hong Kong adults aged 18-30 (n = 6,528), were interviewed using a mixed interviewer and computerized mobile phone method, at the Hong Kong-mainland China boundary. Cross-border substance users and other types of substance users had characteristics that were quite different (e.g., education level, perceived harmfulness of substance use in general, having friends who frequently used substances in mainland China). Cross-boundary substance users also found it easier to obtain substances in mainland China than in Hong Kong (males: 60.5%, females: 39.6%) and perceived no chance of being arrested in mainland China because of substance use (men: 28.8%, women: 24.5%). They tended to use substances in discos/rave parties together with friends (men: 77%, women: 81%), and substances were often obtained for free (men: 63.2%, women: 78%). Ecstasy and ketamine were often used (men: 86.5% & 79.4%, women: 81% & 70.2%), and multiple uses of different substances were common (men: 81.3%, women: 68.6%). Lower price, peer influence, and better availability were reasons behind cross-boundary substance use behaviors. Cross-boundary substance users have specific characteristics. Prevention policies should take these characteristics into account. Regional collaborations are highly warranted.

  13. The role of the EAP in the identification and treatment of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R M

    1998-12-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) are cost-effective strategies for employers to contain the substantial direct and indirect costs of substance abuse in the workplace. EAPs offer prevention, early detection, assessment of referral, and after-care programs to help stem the enormous costs of substance abuse in the workplace. Most effective employer substance abuse programs integrate drug-testing and EAP services to ensure a well coordinated, cost-effective program.

  14. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidants as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Strategy for Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Borowska, Sylwia; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (Cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. Thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. Because numerous effects to Cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prevent or reduce this metal-induced oxidative stress and its consequences in tissues, organs and systems at risk of toxicity, including liver, kidneys, testes, ears, eyes, cardiovascular system and nervous system as well as bone tissue. This review discusses a wide range of natural (plant and animal origin) and synthetic antioxidants together with many plant extracts (e.g. black and green tea, Aronia melanocarpa, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum sanctum, Phoenix dactylifera, Physalis peruviana, Zingiber officinale) that have been shown to prevent from Cd toxicity. Moreover, some attention has been focused on the fact that substances not possessing antioxidative potential may also prevent Cd-induced oxidative stress and its consequences. So far, most of the data on the protective effects of the natural and synthetic antioxidants and plant extracts come from studies in animals' models; however, numerous of them seem to be promising preventive/therapeutic strategies for Cd toxicity in humans. Further investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic use of antioxidants in populations exposed to Cd environmentally and occupationally is warranted, given that therapeutically effective chelation therapy for this toxic metal is currently lacking.

  16. The toxic exposure of flamingos to per- and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from firefighting foam applications in Bonaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Pepijn; Slijkerman, Diana M E; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Posthuma, Leo; de Zwart, Dick; Murk, Albertinka J; Foekema, Edwin M

    2017-11-15

    In 2010 an oil terminal next to nature reservation Saliña Goto (Bonaire) caught fire. Firefighting resulted in elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) concentrations in the salt lake. Within months flamingo abundance in Goto dropped to near complete absence. After statistical analysis, rainfall was deemed an unlikely cause for this decline. Toxicological effects on abundance of prey are likely the main cause for the flamingo absence. This reduced PFAS exposure via food and thus risk towards flamingos during the first years after the fires. Although the sediment is still polluted with persistent PFAS, flamingos returned, and started to feed on organisms with PFAS levels that exceed safety thresholds, placing the birds and other wildlife at risk. Monitoring bird populations is advised to assess potential toxic effects on birds and their offspring. This case suggests that applying persistent chemicals to reduce incident impacts may be more harmful than the incident itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Predictors of within-Session Adherence to Exposure and Response Prevention in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Caporino, Nicole E.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Truax, Tatyana; Lewin, Adam B.; Jung, Leah; Park, Jennifer M.; Khan, Yasmeen Ali; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for pediatric OCD; however, up to 30 % of children are treatment non-responders and as many as 40% are partial responders. Although poor treatment adherence has been linked to attenuated response in adults with OCD, little research has…

  18. Illicit substance use among university students from seven European countries: a comparison of personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards illicit substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, S M; Mikolajczyk, R T; McAlaney, J; Vriesacker, B; Van Hal, G; Akvardar, Y; Guillen-Grima, F; Salonna, F; Stock, C; Dempsey, R C; Bewick, B M; Zeeb, H

    2014-10-01

    To compare European students' personal use and approval of illicit substance use with their perceptions of peer behaviours and attitudes, and investigate whether perceptions of peer norms are associated with personal use of illicit substances and attitudes. This study used baseline data from the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE (SNIPE) project involving 4482 students from seven European countries in 2012. Students completed an online survey which included questions on personal and perceived peer illicit substance use and personal and perceived peer attitude towards illicit substances. 8.3% of students reported having used illicit substances at least once in their life. 49.7% of students perceived that the majority of their peers have used illicit substances more frequently than themselves. The perception was significantly associated with higher odds for personal illicit substance use (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.53-2.54). The perception that the majority of peers approve illicit substance use was significantly associated with higher odds for personal approval of illicit substance use (OR: 3.47, 95% CI: 2.73-4.41). Students commonly perceived that their peers used illicit subtances more often than themselves. We found an association between the perceived peer norms/attitudes and reported individual behaviour/attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioural treatment of tics: habit reversal and exposure with response prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Griendt, J M T M; Verdellen, C W J; van Dijk, M K; Verbraak, M J P M

    2013-07-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER. In addition, treatment manuals for HR and ER are described. Despite the evidence and availability of treatment manuals, many patients do not receive a first-line psychological intervention for tics. Barriers to the acceptance and dissemination of behaviour therapy are discussed as are ways to overcome these barriers, such as the use of E-health and E-learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 61566 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... and (P-09-147) Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium.... Also, based on test data on analogous acrylates, EPA believes exposure to the PMN substance may cause...

  1. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  2. Trends in substance use admissions among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Cook, Ratna; Mallik, Eshita; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2017-08-22

    Substance abuse is a growing, but mostly silent, epidemic among older adults. We sought to analyze the trends in admissions for substance abuse treatment among older adults (aged 55 and older). Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) for period between 2000 and 2012 was used. The trends in admission for primary substances, demographic attributes, characteristics of substance abused and type of admission were analyzed. While total number of substance abuse treatment admissions between 2000 and 2012 changed slightly, proportion attributable to older adults increased from 3.4% to 7.0%. Substantial changes in the demographic, substance use pattern, and treatment characteristics for the older adult admissions were noted. Majority of the admissions were for alcohol as the primary substance. However there was a decreasing trend in this proportion (77% to 64%). The proportion of admissions for following primary substances showed increase: cocaine/crack, marijuana/hashish, heroin, non-prescription methadone, and other opiates and synthetics. Also, admissions for older adults increased between 2000 and 2012 for African Americans (21% to 28%), females (20% to 24%), high school graduates (63% to 75%), homeless (15% to 19%), unemployed (77% to 84%), and those with psychiatric problems (17% to 32%).The proportion of admissions with prior history of substance abuse treatment increased from 39% to 46% and there was an increase in the admissions where more than one problem substance was reported. Ambulatory setting continued to be the most frequent treatment setting, and individual (including self-referral) was the most common referral source. The use of medication assisted therapy remained low over the years (7% - 9%). The changing demographic and substance use pattern of older adults implies that a wide array of psychological, social, and physiological needs will arise. Integrated, multidisciplinary and tailored policies for prevention and treatment are necessary to

  3. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    Chemicals are an essential part of our daily lives. They are used to produce consumer goods, to protect or restore our health and to boost food production, to name but a few examples — and they are also involved in a growing range of environmental technologies. Europe's chemical and associated...... on their pattern of use and the potential for exposure. Certain types of naturally occurring chemicals, such as metals, can also be hazardous. Emissions of hazardous substances to the environment can occur at every stage of their life cycle, from production, processing, manufacturing and use in downstream...... regarding chemical contamination arising from the exploitation of shale gas has grown recently. Hazardous substances in water affect aquatic life… Hazardous substances are emitted to water bodies both directly and indirectly through a range of diffuse and point source pathways. The presence of hazardous...

  4. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  5. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure assessment in a community exposed to contaminated drinking water, New Hampshire, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Elizabeth R; Chan, Benjamin P; Talbot, Elizabeth A; Nassif, Julianne; Bean, Christine; Cavallo, Steffany J; Metcalf, Erin; Simone, Karen; Woolf, Alan D

    2018-04-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic chemicals used in manufacturing that resist environmental degradation, can leach into drinking water, and bioaccumulate in tissues. Some studies have shown associations with negative health outcomes. In May 2014, a New Hampshire public drinking water supply was found to be contaminated with PFAS from a former U.S. Air Force base. We established a serum testing program to assess PFAS exposure in the affected community. Serum samples and demographic and exposure information were collected from consenting eligible participants. Samples were tested for PFAS at three analytical laboratories. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and analyzed by age and exposure variables. A total of 1578 individuals provided samples for PFAS testing; >94% were found to have perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) detectable in serum. Geometric mean serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were 8.6 μg/L (95% CI:8.3-8.9), 3.1 μg/L (95% CI: 3.0-3.2), and 4.1 μg/L (95% CI: 3.9-4.3), respectively, which were statistically higher than the general U.S. Significant associations were observed between PFAS serum concentrations and age, time spent in the affected community, childcare attendance, and water consumption. PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were found in significantly higher levels in the affected population, consistent with PFAS drinking water contamination. Given increased recognition of PFAS contamination in the U.S, a coordinated national response is needed to improve access to biomonitoring and understand health impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure of Norwegian toddlers to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): The association with breastfeeding and maternal PFAS concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Namork, Ellen; Nygaard, Unni C; Granum, Berit; Haug, Line S

    2016-09-01

    High exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in children. PFASs exposure pathways of toddlers might differ from those of infants and adults, and the investigations on determinants of PFASs exposure in early childhood are scarce. Our aims were to examine the PFAS blood concentrations in Norwegian toddlers and to assess their relationship with maternal PFAS concentrations in pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. We determined PFAS concentrations in 112 plasma samples of 3-year-old children collected at 2010-2011 and 99 maternal serum samples collected around delivery at 2007-2008. PFAS concentrations in children were regressed on duration of breastfeeding, and the effect modification by maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations was examined in 55 mother-child pairs. Six PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of both maternal and children samples. Positive and significant correlations ranging between 0.50 and 0.66 were found between maternal and child concentrations of the same PFAS congeners. Nevertheless, toddlers had higher total PFAS blood concentrations than their mothers, due to higher concentrations of PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS. Every month of breastfeeding was associated with an increase of 3.3% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.8-5.8) for PFOS, 4.7% (95%CI: 2.8-6.6) for PFOA and 6.1% (95% CI: 2.6-9.7) for PFHpS in toddlers' plasma and a dose-response association was found, after adjustment for confounders. However, PFNA and PFUnDA concentrations in children were not associated with either maternal concentrations or breastfeeding duration. Our findings suggest that transplacental transfer, prenatally, and breastfeeding, postanatally, are among the main determinants of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHpS concentrations in toddlers, while that was not the case for PFNA and PFUnDA. Nevertheless, due to the small number of mother child-pairs in our study, our results should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  8. Association Between Substance Use and Gun-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-01-01

    Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37 degree C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of [ 3 H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to ∼20% of control values, IP 3 formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to ∼5% of control values, and both IP 3 formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of [ 3 H]IP 3 and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, [D-Pro 2 , D-Try 7,9 ]-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP 3 formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP 3 formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization

  10. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings...

  11. Social Justice and HIV Vaccine Research in the Age of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Treatment as Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Theodore C.; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials. PMID:24033297

  12. [Exposure to hazardous chemical substances in furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pośniak, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Joanna; Makhniashvili, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to organic solvents in plants of the furniture industry. Studies were conducted in five furniture plants. Hazardous chemicals present in the air at workposts were determined by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The analysis of air samples collected at the workposts allowed to identify the following chemicals occurring during varnishing and cleaning of furniture surface elements: acetone, butan-2-one, ethyl, isobutyl and methoxypropyl acetate, 4-methylpentan-2-on, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Indices characteristic of combined exposure ranged from 0.13 to 1.67 and exceeded the limit value at 21% of workposts. The results of the study indicate that chemicals present at representative workposts during the furniture production are harmful to health of workers, especially those involved in varnishing and cleaning of furniture elements.

  13. APROBA-Plus: A probabilistic tool to evaluate and express uncertainty in hazard characterization and exposure assessment of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, Bas G H; Mengelers, Marcel J; Bakker, Martine I; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate the application of probabilistic risk assessment, the WHO released the APROBA tool. This tool applies lognormal uncertainty distributions to the different aspects of the hazard characterization, resulting in a probabilistic health-based guidance value. The current paper describes an extension, APROBA-Plus, which combines the output from the probabilistic hazard characterization with the probabilistic exposure to rapidly characterize risk and its uncertainty. The uncertainty in exposure is graphically compared with the uncertainty in the target human dose, i.e. the dose that complies with the specified protection goals. APROBA-Plus is applied to several case studies, resulting in distinct outcomes and illustrating that APROBA-Plus could serve as a standard extension of routine risk assessments. By visualizing the uncertainties, APROBA-Plus provides a more transparent and informative outcome than the more usual deterministic approaches, so that risk managers can make better informed decisions. For example, APROBA-Plus can help in deciding whether risk-reducing measures are warranted or that a refined risk assessment would first be needed. If the latter, the tool can be used to prioritize possible refinements. APROBA-Plus may also be used to rank substances into different risk categories, based on potential health risks without being compromised by different levels of conservatism that may be associated with point estimates of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring risk behaviour in adolescent pupils regarding consumption of psychoactive substances

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora; Aneta Klimberg; Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak; Jarosław Diatczyk; Monika Urbaniak; Ewa Ulatowska-Szostak; Tomasz Bołdowski; Andrzej Wojtyła; Jerzy T Marcinkowski

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Taking psychoactive substances constitutes a significant problem for Public Health, particularly in preventing drug abuse and addiction. Objectives To estimate the amount and incidence of drug consumption in middle and high school pupils, including the circumstances in which drug taking first started, and to determine pupils’ knowledge about the consequences of taking psychoactive substances and designer drugs (DDs). Material and Methods A randomised study was co...

  15. The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB): background, recent enhancements and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, George Charles; Hakkinen, Pertti; Jordan, Shannon; Publicker, Stephanie

    2014-11-05

    The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Division of Specialized Information Services (SIS) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program is responsible for the management of the online Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). HSDB, a part of NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET(®)), is a file of chemical/substance information with one record for each specific chemical or substance, or for a category of chemicals or substances. Like the rest of TOXNET's databases and other resources, HSDB is available online at no cost to global users. HSDB has approximately 5600 chemicals and substances, with a focus on toxicology information and also on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, and related areas of likely interest to HSDB users. All data are from a core set of books, government documents, technical reports, selected primary journal literature, and other online sources of information, with a goal of linking the HSDB content to as much publicly available information as possible. HSDB's content is peer-reviewed by the Scientific Review Panel, a group of experts in the areas covering the scope of HSDB content. Recent enhancements include the addition of chemical structures to HSDB records, the addition of new subfields such as age groups for human data, more occupational exposure standards, and the addition of information on numerous nanomaterials. Examples of future plans include providing more exposure-related information, e.g., uses of a chemical or substance in consumer products; the addition of information summaries aimed towards consumers and other members of the public wanting to learn about a chemical or substance; more visual content such as diagrams (images) of the pathways of metabolism of a substance; and enhanced search features and navigation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents cumulative damage from repeated exposure to sub-erythemal solar ultraviolet radiation representative of temperate latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Christiaens, F; Bredoux, C; Compan, D; Zucchi, H; Lombard, D; Fourtanier, A; Young, A R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown the detrimental effects of 19 sub-erythemal exposures to daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR, which mimics non-extreme exposure conditions), delivered over 4 weeks to volunteers. This source had UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (290-320 nm) irradiance ratio of 25, instead of that close to 10 that is typically the case with solar-simulated radiation (SSR) that represents summer global sunlight with a clear sky and quasi-zenith solar irradiance. Here, we report on an extension of this previous study, in which we evaluated the photoprotection afforded by a broad-spectrum daily-care product with a low-sun protection factor (SPF 8, UVA-PF 7 and 3* rated UVA protection). We assessed cellular and molecular markers of photodamage that are relevant to skin cancer and photoageing. This study shows that biological effects of repeated exposure to DUVR can be prevented by a broad-spectrum daily-care product and that the level of protection afforded varies with the studied endpoint. Efficient daily UVR protection, as provided by a broad-spectrum daily-care product, is necessary to prevent the 'silent' sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  17. Cultural values associated with substance use among Hispanic adolescents in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Claradina; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W; Black, David Scott; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Cultural values can shape people's attitudes toward substance use and influence their risk of experimentation with drugs. This article examines the relationships between cultural values (familism, respeto, and machismo), fatalism (a culturally encouraged personality disposition), and substance use among Hispanic adolescents. In 2005, cross-sectional data were collected from 1,616 Hispanic ninth grade students in Los Angeles. Each cultural value was associated with lifetime substance use; however, these relationships depended on the type of substance and gender. Our findings suggest that it might be useful to incorporate the cultural values and address the personality trait of fatalism in prevention programs for Hispanic adolescents. The study's limitations are noted.

  18. Stigma, treatment beliefs, and substance abuse treatment use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with individuals who need help tending to deny or hide their condition for fear ..... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, U. S. A,. 2004. 19. Strauss ... Community based organizations for substance users in Cape Town,.

  19. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  20. U.S. Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Possible Linkages with Housing, Obesity and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely i...

  1. A randomized controlled Alzheimer's disease prevention trial's evolution into an exposure trial: the PREADViSE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, R J; Abner, E L; Schmitt, F A; Goodman, P J; Mendiondo, M; Caban-Holt, A; Dennis, B C; Mathews, M; Klein, E A; Crowley, J J

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the ongoing prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by vitamin E and selenium (PREADViSE) trial as an ancillary study to SELECT (a large prostate cancer prevention trial) and to present the blinded results of the first year as an exposure study. PREADViSE was designed as a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). SELECT terminated after median of 5.5 years of exposure to supplements due to a futility analysis. Both trials then converted into an exposure study. In the randomized component PREADViSE enrolled 7,547 men age 62 or older (60 if African American). Once the trial terminated 4,246 of these men volunteered for the exposure study. Demographics were similar for both groups with exposure volunteers having baseline mean age 67.3 ± 5.2 years, 15.3 ± 2.4 years of education, 9.8% African Americans, and 22.0% reporting a family history of dementia. In the RCT men were randomly assigned to either daily doses of 400 IU of vitamin E or placebo and 200 µg of selenium or placebo using a 2x2 factorial structure. In the RCT, participants completed the memory impairment screen (MIS), and if they failed, underwent a longer screening (based on an expanded Consortium to Establish a Registry in AD [CERAD] battery). CERAD failure resulted in visits to their clinician for medical examination with records of these examinations forwarded to the PREADViSE center for further review. In the exposure study, men are contacted by telephone and complete the telephone version of the memory impairment screen (MIS-T) screen. If they fail the MIS-T, a modified telephone interview of cognitive status (TICS-M) exam is given. A failed TICS-M exam also leads to a visit to their clinician for an in-depth examination and forwarding of records for a centralized consensus diagnosis by expert clinicians. A subgroup of the men who pass the MIS-T also take the TICS-M exam for validation purposes. While this ancillary trial was open to all 427 SELECT clinical sites, only 130 (30

  2. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B.; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. Objective: We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. Methods: We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003–2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log10-transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log10-unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log10-unit increase=−5.86% (95% CI: −9.91%, −1.63%) and percent median change per log10-unit increase=−4.75% (95% CI: −8.16%, −0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log10-unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data (n=640). Conclusions: Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this

  3. Substance Use and Physical Dating Violence: The Role of Contextual Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Tharp, Andra T; Ennett, Susan T; Bauer, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy alcohol use, marijuana, and hard drug use) and adolescent physical dating violence perpetration. Adolescents in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades completed questionnaires in 2004 and again four more times until 2007 when they were in the tenth, 11th, and 12th grades. Multilevel analysis was used to examine interactions between each substance and measures of neighborhood, peer, and family social control and violence as within-person (time-varying) predictors of physical dating violence perpetration across eighth through 12th grade (N=2,455). Analyses were conducted in 2014. Physical dating violence perpetration increased at time points when heavy alcohol and hard drug use were elevated; these associations were weaker when neighborhood social control was higher and stronger when family violence was higher. Also, the association between heavy alcohol use and physical dating violence perpetration was weaker when teens had more-prosocial peer networks and stronger when teens' peers reported more physical dating violence. Linkages between substance use and physical dating violence perpetration depend on substance use type and levels of contextual violence and social control. Prevention programs that address substance use-related dating violence should consider the role of social contextual variables that may condition risk by influencing adolescents' aggression propensity. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Sibling cigarette smoking and peer network influences on substance use potential among adolescent: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Samira; Salimi, Yahya; Jorjoran Shushtari, Zahra; Rafiey, Hasan; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2017-12-15

    Background Peer and parental substance use are established predictors for substance use among adolescent, little is known about influence of sibling cigarette smoking and its interaction with peer network on substance use potential that can introduce an important way for substance use prevention programs. Objective The aim of present study was to explore the association of sibling cigarette smoking and peer network with substance use potential among high school students in Tehran. Subjects Data were drawn from the population-based cross-sectional study of among 650 high schools students. Methods Multiple linear regression was used in order to determine the adjusted association between cigarette smoking among family members, peer network, their interaction and substance use potential. Result Having a sister who smokes (B = 3.19; p peer network quality were associated with substance use potential (B = -0.1; p peer network quality score is much more than in who have a sister with a cigarette smoking habit. Conclusion Having a sister who smokes interacts with peer network quality; appears to be one of the important mechanisms for adolescents' tendency to substance use. These findings can help in a better understanding of substance use potential mechanisms, screening efforts and the formulation of prevention programs.

  5. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.]) adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohinc, T.; Trdan, S.

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand) and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.]) adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C) and two different relative humidity (RH) levels (55% and 75%). The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w%) of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  6. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C and two different relative humidity (RH levels (55% and 75%. The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w% of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  7. Paparan zat besi pada ekspresi protein spesifik extracellular polymeric substance biofilm Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchella Hendrayanti W

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of biofilms bacteria could be an alternative of preventive treatment in reducing prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in the community, because biofilm protects the bacteria from environmental conditions, including the attack of immune system and antimicrobial. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a major cause of bacterial aggressive periodontitis. Purpose: This study aims to examine the iron exposure to specific protein expression of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilm. Methods: Protein containing EPS biofilm was isolated from cultures of A.actinomycetemcomitans. The protein was processed through several procedures: electrophoresis , electroelution , immunization of rabbits , serum isolation , and purification of antibodies. After the Western blotting procedure the antibody was used. Protein containing EPS biofilms exposed to iron, then once again isolated from cultures of A. actinomycetemcomitans. The electrophoresis and Western blotting were done on the isolated protein. Results: The result showed that the the expression of specific proteins in EPS biofilm decreased in response to iron exposure. Conclusions: Iron exposure could influenced the specific protein expression in EPS biofilm of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.Latar belakang: Penelitian terhadap bakteri biofilm dapat menjadi alternatif perawatan preventif dalam menurunkan prevalensi periodontitis agresif di masyarakat, karena biofilm melindungi bakteri terhadap kondisi lingkungan, termasuk serangan sistem imun dan antimikroba. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans merupakan bakteri penyebab utama periodontitis agresif. Tujuan: Studi ini bertujuan meneliti paparan zat besi terhadap ekspresi protein spesifik extracellular polymeric substance (EPS Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Metode: Protein yang mengandung EPS biofilm diisolasi dari kultur A. actinomycetemcomitans. Protein yang diisolasi

  8. Cultural values associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-02-01

    Hispanic emerging adults are a priority population for substance use prevention, yet few studies have examined whether traditional Hispanic cultural values serve as risk or protective factors for substance use among emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between familism, respeto, fatalism, and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants (ages 18 to 25) completed surveys indicating identification with familism, respeto, and fatalism, past month use of tobacco, marijuana, hard drugs and binge drinking. Separate logistic regression models examined the association between cultural values and each substance use outcome, controlling for acculturation, age and gender. Among participants (n=1445, mean age=23, 60% female), 21% reported past month cigarette use, 18% reported past month alternative tobacco product (ATP) use, 25% reported past month marijuana use, 44% reported past month binge drinking, and 7% reported past month hard drug use. Higher fatalism scores were associated with increased ATP use. Higher familism scores were associated with binge drinking, while higher respeto scores were associated with decreased binge drinking, marijuana, and hard drug use. These findings suggest that substance use prevention and intervention programs should emphasize how substance use interferes with caring and honoring parents (respeto) and family cohesion and functioning (familism). Programs that highlight these cultural values and beliefs may be beneficial for Hispanic emerging adults and members of other collectivistic cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; Smit, Filip; van der Zanden, Rianne; Beecham, Jennifer; Knapp, Martin; Paulus, Aggie; Evers, Silvia

    2010-08-10

    Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost-) effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost-) effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost-) effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list) care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended measure for the intervention group will be provided at

  10. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolderink Marla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI, because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost- effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost- effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost- effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended

  11. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  12. Effect of Skin Protection and Skin Irritation on the Internal Exposure to Carbon Disulfide in Employees of the Viscose Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilo, Sonja; Zonnur, Nina; Uter, Wolfgang; Göen, Thomas; Drexler, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) leads to inhalative and dermal uptake and thereby to internal exposure. In order to prevent occupational contact dermatitis, gloves and skin protection creams are used at the workplace. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the influence of personal skin protection and irritation on the internal exposure to CS2 of employees in the viscose industry. One hundred and eighty-two male CS2-exposed employees were included in the study and were examined regarding working conditions, use of personal protective measures und skin status. Personal air monitoring and biological monitoring was performed and the 'relative internal exposure' (RIE, internal exposure in relation to external exposure) calculated. A multiple regression analysis calculated the influence of skin protection and irritation on CS2 uptake. Usage of skin protection creams and gloves (and both in combination) while working was associated with a significantly higher RIE indicating a higher dermal penetration of CS2. Equally, irritated skin and younger age was associated with a higher internal burden. Gloves and skin protection creams are useful for preventing occupational skin diseases. However, when handling skin-resorptive substances like CS2, they can increase internal exposure or skin irritation. Therefore, we recommend the careful consideration of benefits and risks of protective creams and gloves at the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN POTTERY AND CERAMIC WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    BASARAN, Nursen; ANLAR, Hatice Gul; BACANLI, Merve; SHUBAIR, Mohammed; BAL, Ceylan; TUTKUN, Engin; YILMAZ, Hinc

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, the production and hence, the amount andthe types of exposure of hazardous chemicals have been increased in theoccupationally exposed workers. Most of these chemicals have deterious effectsin the living systems. The level of chemical exposure in the occupationalsettings and the biomonitoring of workers and also establishing the regulatoryendpoints are very important. The exposures of chemicals in the workplaces havebeen associated with the increase in allergy, organ an...

  14. Do family dinners reduce the risk for early adolescent substance use? A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P; Warnick, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The risks of early adolescent substance use on health and well-being are well documented. In recent years, several experts have claimed that a simple preventive measure for these behaviors is for families to share evening meals. In this study, we use data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (n = 5,419) to estimate propensity score models designed to match on a set of covariates and predict early adolescent substance use frequency and initiation. The results indicate that family dinners are not generally associated with alcohol or cigarette use or with drug use initiation. However, a continuous measure of family dinners is modestly associated with marijuana frequency, thus suggesting a potential causal impact. These results show that family dinners may help prevent one form of substance use in the short term but do not generally affect substance use initiation or alcohol and cigarette use.

  15. Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2012-05-01

    The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Growing Problem of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madras, Bertha K

    The term "new psychoactive substances" (NPS) can be defined as individual drugs in pure form or in complex preparations that are not scheduled under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) or the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971). NPS may be categorized by chemical structure, by psychoactive properties, by biological targets, or by source (plant, synthetic, or combined). The emergence of hundreds of NPS in the past decade is challenging for public health and drug policies globally. The novelty of NPS, their ambiguous legal status, ability to evade toxicological tests, swift adaptation to legal restrictions, global Internet marketing, and scant public knowledge of their adverse effects are among the key drivers of this twenty-first century phenomenon. Multi-disciplinary research in areas of biology, epidemiology, prevention, and web analytics are needed to develop effective responses in a domain capable of overwhelming current international conventions and national drug control policies. Ultimately, research-guided prevention education will fortify societies against this tidal wave.

  17. Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-addiction Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muntasir Maruf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. We sought to assess the pattern of substance use and related factors among hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a descriptive study that included 105 patients. All patients who were admitted to a private drug de-addiction clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 1 July and 31 December 2013 and diagnosed with substance use disorder were enrolled in the study. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Results: Almost all (90.5% respondents were male and were poly-substance users (91.4%. The mean age of respondents was 28.8±8.0 years. Most (27.6% respondents used three types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5% respondents. More than three-fourths (81.0% of respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, the majority (79.0% used opioids, followed by cannabinoids (55.2%, and alcohol (41.0%. Curiosity, peer pressure, and for fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found in the study population. Our findings could help in the management and development of prevention strategies for substance use in Bangladesh.

  18. [The use of saliva for exposure assessments on designer drugs among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Tezyk, Artur; Piznal, Małgorzata; Bogusiewicz, Joanna; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Drug use is one of the fundamental problems of the contemporary world. Due to the debilitating effects on physical and mental health and the possibility of impaired social functions, it is extremely important to assess exposure to psychoactive substances among high-risk groups. Taking into account characteristics of adolescence, one of them includes young people. To assess the exposure of young people to drugs, survey research is the most commonly use. To establish reliability of the information indicated by the students, toxicological studies could be a good manner. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is currently one of the most common techniques use for the detection and determination of psychoactive substances in biological material. In practice, an important issue in toxicological studies is the selection of a suitable biological material. Taking into account economic considerations and the method of sampling, the saliva is an increasingly used alternative material. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of junior high school students on psychoactive substances--designer drugs, through the analysis of surveys and qualitative analysis of saliva taken from teenagers. It has been shown that surveys are a relatively quick and easy form of assessing the exposure of young people to psychoactive substances, but require verification through toxicological analysis of biological material for the presence of psychoactive substances for their reliability. Poznan secondary school students experimented with designer drugs at a similar level as respondents of nationwide survey from 2013.

  19. United to prevent emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the national plan of contingencies, as tool of coordination inter-institutional that has allowed strengthening the actions of prevention and attention of spills of hydrocarbons and chemical substances in Colombia

  20. Prevalence of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse: questionnaire versus biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiandetti, Antonella; Hernandez, Gimena; Mercadal-Hally, María; Alvarez, Airam; Andreu-Fernandez, Vicente; Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in young adults, including women of childbearing age, has experienced significant increase over the past two decades. The use of questionnaires as the only measure to investigate prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse exposure underestimates the real prevalence of exposure and could mislead to wrong conclusions. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compare reported rates of prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption with biomarkers of exposure by ...

  1. Adolescents' Media-Related Cognitions and Substance Use in the Context of Parental and Peer Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample…

  2. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the

  3. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Substance use behavior among early-adolescent Asian American girls: the impact of psychological and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD=0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD=6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls' substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls.

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Martinez, David; Romaguera, Dora; Fernández-Barrés, Silvia; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Basterretxea, Mikel; Schettgen, Thomas; Valvi, Damaskini; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect body mass index (BMI) and other components of cardiometabolic (CM) risk during childhood, but evidence is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes relevant to cardiometabolic risk, including a composite CM-risk score. Methods: We measured perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in maternal plasma (first trimester). We assessed weight gain from birth until 6 mo. At 4 and 7 y, we calculated the age- and sex-specific z-scores for BMI, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) (n≈1,000). At age 4, we calculated the age-, sex-, and region-specific z-scores for cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), high-density (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (n=627). At age 4, we calculated a CM-risk score (n=386) as the sum of the individual age-, sex-, and region-specific z-scores for WC, BP, HDL-C, and TGs. We used the average between the negative of HDL-C z-score and TGs z-score to give similar weight to lipids and the other components in the score. A higher score indicates a higher cardiometabolic risk at age 4. Results: PFOS and PFOA were the most abundant PFAS (geometric mean: 5.80 and 2.32 ng/mL, respectively). In general, prenatal PFAS concentrations were not associated with individual outcomes or the combined CM-risk score. Exceptions were positive associations between prenatal PFHxS and TGs z-score [for a doubling of exposure, β=0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.21], and between PFNA and the CM-risk score (β=0.60; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.16). There was not clear or consistent evidence of modification by sex. Conclusions: We observed little or no evidence of associations between low prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes related to cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Spanish children followed from birth until 7 y. https

  6. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally.......Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally....

  7. Does substance use moderate the association of neighborhood disadvantage with perceived stress and safety in the activity spaces of urban youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Way, Thomas; Zahakaris, Nikola; Flay, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the association of activity space-based exposure to neighborhood disadvantage with momentary perceived stress and safety, and the moderation of substance use on those associations, among a sample of 139 urban, primarily African American, adolescents. Geospatial technologies are integrated with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to capture exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and perceived stress and safety in the activity space. A relative neighborhood disadvantage measure for each subject is calculated by conditioning the neighborhood disadvantage observed at the EMA location on that of the home neighborhood. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are used to model the effect of relative neighborhood disadvantage on momentary perceived stress and safety, and the extent to which substance use moderates those associations. Relative neighborhood disadvantage is significantly associated with higher perceived stress, lower perceived safety, and greater substance use involvement. The association of relative neighborhood disadvantage with stress is significantly stronger among those with greater substance use involvement. This research highlights the value of integrating geospatial technologies with EMA and developing personalized measures of environmental exposure for investigating neighborhood effects on substance use, and suggests substance use intervention strategies aimed at neighborhood conditions. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal pathways of influence and selection that relate neighborhood environment, stress, and substance use, while also accounting for the role of gender and family and peer social contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu LL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lianne Lian Hu1, Steven Sparenborg2, Betty Tai21Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MDAbstract: Many Americans with substance use problems will have opportunities to receive coordinated health care through the integration of primary care and specialty care for substance use disorders under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Sharing of patient health records among care providers is essential to realize the benefits of electronic health records. Health information exchange through meaningful use of electronic health records can improve health care safety, quality, and efficiency. Implementation of electronic health records and health information exchange presents great opportunities for health care integration, but also makes patient privacy potentially vulnerable. Privacy issues are paramount for patients with substance use problems. This paper discusses major differences between two federal privacy laws associated with health care for substance use disorders, identifies health care problems created by privacy policies, and describes potential solutions to these problems through technology innovation and policy improvement.Keywords: substance abuse, patient privacy, electronic health records, health information exchange

  9. Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernoff Miriam

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374. Results Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Conclusion Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment

  10. The Comparison of Identity Formation Styles in Teenagers with/without Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frarid Ahmadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making questionnaire administered in two samples. Results: The results showed that substance abusers were scored higher on normative and confused/avoidant identity formation also the non substance abusers were scored higher on information identity formation style. Conclusion: With different kind of intervention-training trials the parents and people who are effective on children’s identity formation can be mobilized, in order to prevention of identity formation styles which can planning teenagers’ substance abusing.

  11. Interpersonal conflict tactics and substance use among high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Dent, Clyde W

    2003-07-01

    Adolescents who use aggressive tactics to handle interpersonal conflicts may be at high risk for substance use, while adolescents who possess coping strategies to avoid or manage interpersonal conflict may be at lower risk for substance use. This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict tactics and substance use among 631 continuation high school students. Items from a modified Conflict Tactics Scale formed three factors: Physical Aggression, Nonphysical Aggression, and Nonaggression. Logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents' ways of responding to interpersonal conflicts were associated with their substance use. Use of physical aggression was associated with a higher risk of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use. Use of nonphysical aggression was associated with a higher risk of cigarette and alcohol use. Use of nonaggressive conflict tactics was associated with a lower risk of cigarette use. Adolescents who respond to interpersonal conflicts in an aggressive manner, whether physical or verbal/psychological, may be at increased risk for substance use, while nonaggressive conflict management skills may be protective. Possibly, teaching adolescents nonaggressive techniques for handling interpersonal conflict may be a useful strategy for preventing both interpersonal violence and substance use.

  12. Treated delinquent boys' substance use: onset, pattern, relationship to conduct and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S E; Mikulich, S K; Goodwin, M B; Hardy, J; Martin, C L; Zoccolillo, M S; Crowley, T J

    1995-02-01

    We describe relationships between substance use, conduct disorder (CD), depression, and history of self-injury or suicide attempts, in referred, delinquent, substance involved, adolescent males. Sixty youths (mean age 16.3 years) completed standardized assessments for substance use and other psychiatric disorders, aggressiveness, and social class. All boys met modified criteria for CD. Most had high aggression ratings. Twenty percent had depressive diagnoses. By age 13, 78% had begun regular substance use. Marijuana was the first substance for 42%. The boys had substance dependence on a mean of 3.2 different drugs (usually including alcohol and marijuana), with abuse of an average of one additional drug. CD symptoms began 3.6 years (mean) before regular use. CD symptom count correlated with number of dependence diagnoses, and both of those (but not depression) related significantly to suicide attempt and self-injury histories. Improved understanding of substance involvement in youths with CD may generate more rational prevention and treatment.

  13. 76 FR 64813 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ..., including security, and must address ``processing integrity'' as set forth in our regulations. Likewise... within DEA that implements and enforces Titles II and III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and... substances and listed chemicals for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial purposes. \\1...

  14. Patterns of substance use, delinquency, and risk factors among adolescent inhalant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawaki, Brandon; Crano, William

    2015-01-01

    Despite insidious effects, use of inhalant substances by adolescents remains an understudied phenomenon. This research was designed to identify patterns of past year substance use and delinquency among adolescent inhalant users. The study used a sample of adolescent inhalant users (ages ranged from 12-17 years, n = 7,476) taken from a pooled sample of the 2002 through 2012 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Three-step latent class analyses were conducted with past year substance use and delinquency behaviors as class indicators. Demographic and social covariates were included in the analyses. Analyses yielded a six-class solution comprised of classes of users characterized by low substance use/low delinquency, high substance use/low delinquency, low substance use/fighting, cigarettes/alcohol/marijuana, high substance use/high delinquency, and cigarettes/alcohol/ marijuana/opioids/moderate delinquency. Findings provide insight into the taxonomy of adolescent inhalant user heterogeneity, and may inform future efforts at detection and prevention of inhalant use by suggesting warning signs of co-occurring externalizing behaviors and possible indications of underlying internalized issues.

  15. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  16. A comparative study of self-regulation in substance dependent and non-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Hosseinbor, Mohsen

    2013-08-05

    Several factors influence the beginning and maintenance of substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine as well as to compare 'self-regulation' in both substance dependent and non-substance dependent individuals. In a cross-sectional study 228 (118 substance dependent and 110 with no history of using substance) participants aged 16-55 were recruited. All of the participants were asked to complete the Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI-25) and a demographic characteristics data checklist. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and the t-test. The results showed significant differences between substance dependent and non- substance dependent groups in all the scales of the self-regulation inventory including positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking (p<0.01). Self-regulation and self-control skills in drug dependent individuals are lower than those without substance dependence individuals. It is concluded that substance use may related to a deficiency in self-control and regulation of feelings. Therefore, for prevention and treatment of substance dependence disorder, it is necessary to work out and exploit strategies that include the improvement of self-regulation.

  17. Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home residents by weekly half-body UVB exposure after showering: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chel, V.G.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Pavel, S.; de Gruijl, F.; Brand, A.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: in older people, induction of cutaneous vitamin D production by ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure may be preferable to oral supplementation: it cannot cause toxic levels, it helps to prevent polypharmacy and, moreover, there are indications that UVB exposure has beneficial effects on health

  18. Sleep and Substance Use among US Adolescents, 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Maslowsky, Julie; O'Malley, Patrick M; Schulenberg, John E; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2016-01-01

    To examine associations between sleep and alcohol, amphetamine, cigarette, marijuana, and non-heroin narcotic use among US middle and high school students, trends in associations over time, and the comparative impact of select covariates on association strength. Data from the 1991-2014 nationally representative Monitoring the Future study of 8(th)-, 10(th)-, and 12(th)-grade US students were used to estimate standardized correlations between the frequency of getting at least 7 hours of sleep (7+ sleep) and substance use frequency while simultaneously regressing both outcomes on key covariate domains. As 7+ sleep frequency increased, substance use frequency significantly decreased and vice versa. Overall, association strength was inversely associated with grade. Associations were generally modest, varied across substances, and weakened over the historical period examined for 8(th)- and 10(th)- graders. Associations showed little variance by sex and racial/ethnic subgroups. Controlling for deviance, psychosocial and general health covariates significantly attenuated association strength. Among US secondary students, 7+ sleep/substance use associations were largely explained by individual deviance, psychosocial, and general health characteristics. Awareness and exploitation of these shared associations may be useful in improving substance use prevention and/or treatment efforts.

  19. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.) [de

  20. Dealing with Drug Problems: Preventing and Treating Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pittsburgh is looking at whether teaching healthy caregiving strategies to parents can help promote self-regulation skills in children and prevent substance abuse later on. Starting when children are two years old, Shaw’s study enrolls families at risk of substance use problems ...

  1. Behavioral difficulties in 7-year old children in relation to developmental exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are suspected endocrine disruptors that are highly persistent and neurotoxic in animals. Human epidemiological studies of exposure-related deviations of children's behaviors are sparse. We assessed the associations between prenatal, 5- and 7-year PFAS exposures and behavioral problem scores in 7-year Faroese children. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were measured in maternal serum and in serum from children at ages 5 and 7years (n=539, 508, and 491, respectively). We used multivariable regressions and structural equations models to estimate the covariate-adjusted associations between serum-PFAS concentrations and behavioral difficulties, as assessed by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) at age 7. Serum-PFOS and PFHxS concentrations declined over time, whereas PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA tended to increase. No associations were observed between prenatal PFAS concentrations and SDQ scores. However, a two-fold increase in 5-year serum-PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA concentrations was associated with increases in total SDQ scores by 1.03 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.95), 0.72 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.38) and 0.78 points (95% CI: 0.01, 1.55), respectively. For SDQ subscales, significant associations were found in regard to hyperactivity, peer relationship, and conduct problems, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems and autism screening composite scores. Cross-sectional analyses at age 7years showed possible sex-dimorphic associations between PFAS concentrations and SDQ scores, where girls had consistently positive associations with SDQ scores whereas boys exhibited a pattern of negative or null associations. Higher serum PFAS concentrations at ages 5- and 7-years, but not prenatally, were associated with parent-reported behavioral problems at age 7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway.

  3. The role of endotoxin in grain dust exposure and airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S

    1997-05-01

    Grain dust exposure is a common cause of respiratory symptoms in grain workers, feed mill employees, and farmers. Many of these workers develop wheezing and acute and chronic bronchitis symptoms, which can be associated with obstructive changes on pulmonary function testing. It has recently been demonstrated that grain dust exposure causes neutrophilic airways inflammation and systemic symptoms related to release of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and other mediators of inflammation. Although grain dust is a heterogenous substance, endotoxin has received the greatest amount of attention as a possible cause of the airway inflammation that occurs after grain dust exposure. Although endotoxin undoubtedly causes a portion of the changes seen after grain dust exposure, it is becoming clear that other substances play a role as well.

  4. 16 CFR 1700.14 - Substances requiring special packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... substance subject to control under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C...-containing drugs. With the exception of: (i) Animal feeds used as vehicles for the administration of drugs, and (ii) those preparations in which iron is present solely as a colorant, noninjectable animal and...

  5. Surveillance of Washington OSHA exposure data to identify uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Chemical substance exposure data from the Washington State Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program were reviewed to determine if inspections conducted as a result of a report of a hazard from a complainant or referent may alert the agency to uncharacterized or emerging health hazards. Exposure and other electronically stored data from 6890 health inspection reports conducted between April 2003 and August 2008 were extracted from agency records. A total of 515 (7%) inspections with one or more personal airborne chemical substance samples were identified for further study. Inspections by report of a hazard and by targeting were compared for the following: number of inspections, number and percentage of inspections with workers exposed to substances above an agency's permissible exposure limit, types of industries inspected, and number and type of chemical substances assessed. Report of a hazard inspections documented work sites with worker overexposure at the same rate as agency targeted inspections (approximately 35% of the time), suggesting that complainants and referents are a credible pool of observers capable of directing the agency to airborne chemical substance hazards. Report of a hazard inspections were associated with significantly broader distribution of industries as well as a greater variety of chemical substance exposures than were targeted inspections. Narrative text that described business type and processes inspected was more useful than NAICS codes alone and critical in identifying processes and industries that may be associated with new hazards. Finally, previously identified emerging hazards were found among the report of a hazard data. These findings indicate that surveillance of OSHA inspection data can be a valid tool to identify uncharacterized and emerging health hazards. Additional research is needed to develop criteria for objective review and prioritization of the data for intervention. Federal OSHA and other state

  6. Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: New approaches and update on research findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable

  7. Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: new approaches and update on research findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable

  8. International comparison of regulations on abortion after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1977-12-01

    Possible factors to consider when assessing the necessity of an abortion are: 1) Exposure in the highly sensitive phase (e.g. organogenesis); 2) after intake of radioactive substances, accumulation of this radioactive substance in critical organs; 3) doses higher than the dose limit of 1 rem; 4) the wish of the pregnant woman to have an abortion. (orig.) [de

  9. Consumer exposure. Basic considerations for regulatory exposure estimations; Exposition des Verbrauchers. Grundlegende Ueberlegungen fuer die Expositionsabschaetzung im regulatorischen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, G. [Bundesinstitut fuer Risikobewertung, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The assessment of consumer exposure covers all sources and pathways that lead to contact with chemical substances by persons in their private residential environments. Consumers are not only those using consumer products themselves, but also all persons having secondary contact with substances (secondary exposure), e.g., family members. Consumer exposure can be measured or modeled, both approaches having advantages and disadvantages. Measuring exposure refers predominantly to an individual exposure scenario and cannot be extrapolated to general conditions in any case. Modeling exposure describes more general conditions and may be used to describe scenarios which characterize the exposure of populations. Measurements of exposure may be performed for quantification of sources that lead to undesirable exposures. Modeling may be used for systematic assessments of risks. For exposure assessment, three parts should be differentiated. First of all, the source and use of, e.g., a household chemical, including a description of the modalities of its use such as frequency and duration, must be characterized. An important task of this part is to characterize the amount of the substance. Secondly, the time-related course of the substance in the contact media, particularly in air and on skin, as well as in materials that can lead to oral uptake should be described. Thirdly, exposure is limited by the behavior of people. This part of the evaluation covers the description of contact times, but also of specific behavior, e.g., related to certain populations. For example, in children it is assumed that mouthing behavior may play a significant role leading to an increased oral uptake of substances that contaminate the hands while crawling on the floor or playing with pets that were treated against pests. Risk characterization follows the principle of comparing concentration levels or doses of exposure with those characterizing hazards, e.g., NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level

  10. Occupational Health Update: Focus on Preventing the Acquisition of Infections with Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2016-09-01

    Health care personnel are commonly exposed to infectious agents via sharp injuries (eg, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus), direct patient care (eg, pertussis and meningococcus), and the contaminated environment (eg, Clostridium difficile). An effective occupational program is a key aspect of preventing acquisition of an infection by offering the following: (1) education of health care personnel regarding proper handling of sharps, early identification and isolation of potentially infectious patients, and hand hygiene; (2) assuring immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases; and, (3) immediate availability of a medical evaluation after a nonprotected exposure to an infectious disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV-1 infections in rural Zambia: a modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, B.E.; Boucher, C.A.B.; van Dijk, J.H.; Thuma, P.E.; Nouwen, J.L.; Baltussen, R.; van de Wijgert, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.; van de Vijver, D.A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine effectively prevents new HIV infections. The optimal scenario for implementing PrEP where most infections are averted at the lowest cost is unknown. We determined the impact of different PrEP strategies on averting new

  12. Addressing Viral Hepatitis in People with Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs) are developed by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), part of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Each TIP involves the development of topic-specific best-practice guidelines for the prevention and…

  13. Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile Gas Exposure from A Novelty Personal-Protection Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile (CS tear-gas exposure from the unwitting discharge of a personal-protection handgun loaded with CS gas. The gun was in a bag of toys purchased from a local thrift store and was discharged by a child. The responding paramedic presumptively identified the substance as CS based solely on personal experience. This recognition led to suboptimal field management of the incident with the paramedic failing to follow the standard operating procedures for an unknown chemical exposure. As this was a benign agent, there were no serious consequences. This case highlights the pre-hospital and emergency department challenges associated with the management of an unknown chemical exposure and the potential consequences if the chemical is a toxic substance. A methodical approach following established protocols can reduce the potential for negative outcomes. Review of the literature found no other report of CS gas exposure from such a personal-protection weapon.

  14. Doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.

  15. An intervention program for ADHD in patients with substance use disorders: preliminary results of a field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossensen, M. Anne; van de Glind, Geurt; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Wijsen, Riek M. A.; van Duin, Daniëlle; Kooij, J. J. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently not well recognized in substance abuse treatment institutions in The Netherlands. As a consequence, patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and ADHD often receive suboptimal treatment. To prevent every treatment

  16. Adolescent pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daisy Maria; de Sant’Anna Carvalho, Alexandre Machado; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV) drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a new intervention for people at high risk for acquiring HIV, with an estimated HIV incidence of >3%. Recent data from trials show evidence of the efficacy of PrEP as a powerful HIV prevention tool in high-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, and IV drug users. The reported efficacy in those trials of the daily use of oral tenofovir, alone or in combination with emtricitabine, to prevent HIV infection ranged from 44% to 75% and was heavily dependent on adherence. Despite the proven efficacy of PrEP in adult trials, concerns remain about its feasibility in real-life scenarios due to stigma, cost, and limited clinician experience with PrEP delivery. Recent studies are attempting to expand the inquiry into the efficacy of such HIV prophylaxis approaches in adolescent populations, but there are still many gaps in knowledge, and no country has yet approved it for use with adolescents. The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from studies on PrEP for adolescents. We have compiled and reviewed published studies focusing on safety, feasibility, adherence to therapeutics, self-perception, and legal issues related to PrEP in people aged between 10 and 24 years. PMID:29238237

  17. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  18. Gene-environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-02-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.

  19. Overview of Substance Use and Mental Health Among the "Baby Boomers" Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Sayers, Jan; Bramble, Marguerite; Jackson, Debra; Lopez, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    As the population ages, risk factors commonly shared by chronic degenerative disease can be exacerbated by behaviours and lifestyle choices. There is increasing evidence that those affected by chronic disease (and associated symptoms such as pain), depression and adverse behavioural and lifestyle patterns are at risk of substance misuse. This paper overviews substance use in Baby Boomers, which are defined as people aged between 52-70 years old, and the implications this may have on their mental health and well-being. We provide an overview of the characteristics of the Baby Boomer generation, their health status and what is currently known about their substance use and misuse. A strengthening of older adult mental health outpatient services is recommended to prevent and address substance use among older adults. Further research examining factors that influence substance use among this group could better inform health promotion programs targeting Baby Boomers.

  20. Investigation of the possible use of Arglabin, new antitumor medicine to prevent oncological diseases after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikenov, T.; Karabalin, B.; Rakhimov, K.; Adekenov, S.

    1996-01-01

    Background: One of the heaviest effects of radiation exposure and its pollutants to the environment is a growth of oncologic diseases as a sequence of breakage of genetic body substance and transmission of Genetic load to the next generation. People of Kazakstan are anxious of the present situation with harmful effect of remaining radiation doses.Purpose of research: the examination of molecular mechanisms of action for a new drug 'Arglabin' was done with the purpose of preventing the malignant tumor occurrence for those people living on the territory of higher risk (in high radiation locations). Research work of the mechanisms of action for 'Arglabin' drug: - examination of the drug effectiveness to enzymes of prenylated proteins; - examination of the drug effectiveness on functioning the oncogene products; - examination of drug metabolism. Research work of the possibility for using 'Arglabin' to prevent oncology diseases includes: - establishment of experimental model of increased risk of oncologic disease on different groups of laboratory animals using the low-dosage radiation sphere; - examination of the drug effectiveness in oncology diseases prevention; - determination of mechanisms and the prevention's results on cancer

  1. 77 FR 58665 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Guideline 415); a reproduction and fertility effects test (OECD Test Guideline 416); a reproduction... potentially exposed employees wear specified respirators unless actual measurements of the workplace air show that air-borne concentrations of the PMN substance are below a New Chemical Exposure Limit (NCEL) that...

  2. Acculturation, Social Self-Control, and Substance Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765

  3. Implementation vigenere algorithm using microcontroller for sending SMS in monitoring radioactive substances transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi Abimanyu; Nurhidayat; Jumari

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of safety and security of radioactive substances from the sender to the receiver is to be secured for not to harm humans. In general, monitoring the transport of radioactive materials is done by communication with a telephone conversation to determine the location and rate of exposure radioactive substances. From the aspect of safety, communication through telephone conversations easily interpreted by others, in addition the possibility of human-error is quite high. SMS service is known for its ease in terms of use so that SMS can be used as a substitute for communication through telephone conversations to monitor the rate of radiation exposure and the position of radioactive substances in the transport of radioactive substances. The system monitors the transport of radioactive materials developed by implement vigenere algorithms using a microcontroller for sending SMS (Short Message Service) to communicate. Tests was conducted to testing encryption and description and computation time required. From the test results obtained they have been successfully implemented vigenere algorithm to encrypt and decrypt the messages on the transport of radioactive monitoring system and the computational time required to encrypt and decrypt the data is 13.05 ms for 36 characters and 13.61 for 37 characters. So for every single character require computing time 0.56 ms. (author)

  4. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  5. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Transmission of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics Just ... to HIV frequently. Another HIV prevention method, called pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP, is when people at high risk ...

  6. DNA repair: As influenced by age, nutrition, and exposure to toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.; Chou, Ming; Feuers, R.; Leakey, J.; Duffy, P.; Lyn-Cook, B.; Lipman, J.; Makamura, Kenji; Turturro, A.; Allaben, W.

    1992-01-01

    In evaluating the risk associated with low levels of exposure to toxicants, it is clear that DNA repair, one of the main defenses against agent damage, is not a constant. It can be modified by age, time of day, and physiological state. Nutrition, especially caloric restriction (CR), can modify almost every step in the process of protecting genomic integrity. And history of exposure can modify DNA repair. Thus, the conditions of exposure are almost as important to toxicity as the exposure itself, even at the level of DNA repair. Extrapolation from high to low dose, to be consistent with what is known, should be less a mathematical exercise than an exercise in toxicological judgement, which puts the exposure in proper perspective. This appears to be true at almost every level in the process including a response with a toxic stimulus, even those thought to be very basic, such as DNA repair

  7. Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-12-04

    An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks.

  8. Radioactive Substances and Irradiating Apparatus Regulations 1962-1979 (South Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These regulations are a consolidation of regulations made under the Health Act 1935-1978, which cover such topics as licensing, registration and record-keeping procedures, prevention of injury by radiation and methods of storage, labelling, transport and packaging of radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  9. Influence of Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptomatology on Adolescent Substance Use: Developmentally Proximal versus Distal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…

  10. PrEP Whores and HIV Prevention: The Queer Communication of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieldenner, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been introduced as another biomedical tool in HIV prevention. Whereas other such tools-including post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and interruption of perinatal transmission-have been embraced by those impacted by HIV, PrEP has been met with more conflict, especially within the gay community and HIV organizations. The "PrEP whore" has come to designate the social value and personal practices of those taking PrEP. This study examines the "PrEP whore" discourse by using queer theory and quare theory. Within these theoretical vantage points, the study explicates four discursive areas: slut shaming, dirty/clean binaries, mourning the loss of condoms, and reclaiming the inner whore. The study illuminates possible discursive strategies that lie outside of the domains of public health and within the individual and community.

  11. Substance use and mental illness among nurses: workplace warning signs and barriers to seeking assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cares, Alexa; Pace, Elizabeth; Denious, Jean; Crane, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have examined the prevalence of substance use among nurses, few have assessed substance use in the workplace or early cues for identifying these health conditions. Primary data collected as part of a larger program evaluation were examined with the purpose of better understanding (a) the context and perceived consequences of substance use and mental illness among nurses and (b) barriers and opportunities for earlier identification and treatment of these issues among nurses, their colleagues, and employers. Anonymous surveys were mailed to 441 active and recent participants of a peer health assistance program in the summer of 2010. The survey examined drug-related behaviors in the workplace; behavioral cues that may permit earlier identification of substance use and mental illness; perceptions of barriers to seeking assistance; and strategies for preventing problems and overcoming barriers to seeking assistance. Responses were received from 302 nurses (69%). Nearly half (48%) reported drug or alcohol use at work, and two fifths (40%) felt that their competency level was affected by their use. More than two thirds of respondents thought their problem could have been recognized earlier. The most highly rated barriers to seeking assistance for substance use and mental illness included fear and embarrassment and concerns about losing one's nursing license. Respondents recommended greater attention be paid to early identification of risk factors during nurses' professional training as a prevention strategy. Findings from this study provide preliminary data that can be used by schools of nursing and health care employers to improve early identification of nurses' substance use and mental illness treatment needs. These data also suggest a need for more research to explore the prevention and early identification of co-occurring disorders in health care settings where nurses practice.

  12. Social networks, substance use, and mental health in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J; Zaharakis, Nikola; Benotsch, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between social network risk (alcohol-using close friends), perceived peer closeness, substance use, and psychiatric symptoms was examined to identify risk and protective features of college students' social context. Six hundred and seventy undergraduate students enrolled in a large southeastern university. An online survey was administered to consenting students. Students with risky networks were at a 10-fold increase of hazardous drinking, 6-fold increase for weekly marijuana use, and 3-fold increase for weekly tobacco use. College students' who feel very close to their peers were protected against psychiatric symptoms yet were at increased risk for marijuana use. Perceived closeness of peers was highly protective against psychiatric symptoms, adding a natural preventive effect for a population at great risk for mental illness. RESULTS support targeting college students through network-oriented preventive interventions to address substance use as well as mental health.

  13. Frequent electronic media communication with friends is associated with higher adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Finne, Emily; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the unique associations between electronic media communication (EMC) with friends and adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis), over and beyond the associations of face-to-face (FTF) interactions with friends and the average level of classroom substance use. Drawn from the cross-national 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in The Netherlands, 5,642 Dutch adolescents (Mage = 14.29) reported on their substance use, EMC, and FTF interactions. Two-level multilevel analyses (participants nested within classrooms) were run. Electronic media communication was positively associated with adolescent substance use, though significantly more strongly with alcohol (β = 0.15, SEβ = 0.02) than with tobacco (β = 0.05, SEβ = 0.02, t (5,180) = 3.33, p Electronic media communication was uniquely associated with substance use, predominantly with alcohol use. Thus, adolescents' EMC and other online behaviors should not be left unnoticed in substance use research and prevention programs.

  14. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational