WorldWideScience

Sample records for subsistence farming system

  1. An analysis of goat production within subsistence farming systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal Sciences

    Abstract. The aims of this research were to study goat production in the rural areas of South Africa and to explore the impact of intervention objectives, namely an increase in kidding percentage and a decrease in kid losses (mortalities, theft and predation) on goat production in subsistence farming systems. A personal.

  2. Semi-subsistence farms in Portugal: key concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria José Palma Lampreia dos

    2014-01-01

    Drawing principally on the literature and in primary data we analyze the farm structure in Portugal and explain the duality agrarian system between Southern and Northern of the country, introduce a new concept semi-subsistence farms in Portugal. After we analyze the main reasons for agricultural households in Portugal which possess a large subsistence and semi-subsistence farming sector. The study indicates that the contribution of subsistence farming to household incomes, social and rural de...

  3. Challenges Inhibiting the Transformation of Subsistence Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges Inhibiting the Transformation of Subsistence Farming into Thriving Agri-business in Rural Uganda. ... Ghana Journal of Development Studies ... The aim of the study was to find out why there is a difficult transition from subsistence farming to a properly functioning agri-business in rural communities even when ...

  4. Subsistence Farming in Latin America: Media Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Tom L.

    1978-01-01

    Identifies and discusses potential instructional tools related to subsistence farming in Latin America. Instructional aids discussed include games, films, annotated bibliographies of audiovisual instructional aids, and an innovative program developed by Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation which allows teachers to construct their own…

  5. Occurrence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. associated with groundnut production in subsistence farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Author: Ncube, E. Flett, B.C. Waalwijk, C. Viljoen, A. Vol 27 Issue 2 Publication: 2010 Page: 195-198 : Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. in groundnut kernels. Forty-six groundnut samples were collected from subsistence farmers in three provinces of South

  6. INTEGRATION OF SEMI-SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Georgeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agriculture, industrial type, contributed to environmental degradation and pollution. Thus, on the one hand, makes intensive use of chemicals has led to neglect of duty to maintain the natural fertility of the soil organic matter through proper fattening. On the other hand, organizing specialized industrial environments, high animal breeders, considered the only marketable livestock production, neglecting the production of manure, thus representing a break with the brutal nature of biological circuits Following the experience accumulated over two centuries, mankind has drawn valuable education obligation to safeguard the habitat of nature as a collaborator. In this respect, the main task of our times is to develop appropriate technologies humanist ideal, so that man can become a being as fully integrated into the social and cosmic environment. In the present period as a peasant household current form, is typical of developing countries. It is generated by the result of families who received income from farming and increase farm animalelor.Gospodaria organizational structure is the basic economic and agricultural economy. On the basis of the idea that organic production is the main cause of degradation of the biological quality of products is inadequate human intervention at various structural levels of the biosphere, and the most severe effects on humans resulting from the cumulation of errors relating to soil, plants and animals. Organic farming places emphasis on quality natural products, the quantity and productivity issues as a peripheral level. A balanced rural development policy for the future is not an option but a necessity, especially considering the fact that the issue of agriculture and rural development has important national connotations and is a very complex and timely in Romania Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, encouraging private sector investment, helping

  7. Bean cultivation in a subsistence farming system in the northeast of São Paulo state - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Wladecir Salles de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of the State of São Paulo, Brazil of the northeastern region, is related to historical movements, such as "tropeirismo" (séc. XVIII and XIX and Italian immigration (séc. XIX. The agriculture presently practices used by farmers descendent of immigrants does not differ from the techniques used at the beginning of the century. In the Cunha region of the Atlantic Rain Forest ecosystem poor bean yield associated with low fertilizer input, plant disease and soil erosion led to slash-and-burn farming. This work is an attempt at identifying sustainable farming practices that would minimize bean disease and maximize nitrogen assimilation. For that purpose soil fertility and plant cultivar were studied under standard agronomic practices to determine their effect on seed yield, total nitrogen of grain and number of root nodules. Fertilization, liming and molybdenum from 16 sites increased yield by 342% and 369% for the landrace `Serro Azul' and commercial variety `Carioca 80 SH', respectively. In addition, plants grown with fertilizer presented more nodules and more nitrogen in grain per hectare. The increase of crop yield per hectare might increment the family income and reduce deforestation of the Atlantic forest.

  8. Resilience of Athabascan subsistence systems to interior Alaska's changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary P. Kofinas; F. Stuart Chapin; Shauna BurnSilver; Jennifer I. Schmidt; Nancy L. Fresco; Knut Kielland; Stephanie Martin; Anna Springsteen; T. Scott Rupp

    2010-01-01

    Subsistence harvesting and wild food production by Athabascan peoples is part of an integrated social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We describe effects of recent trends and future climate change projections on the boreal ecosystem of interior Alaska and relate changes in ecosystem services to Athabascan subsistence. We focus primarily on moose, a keystone...

  9. Transitions of social-ecological subsistence systems in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitions of social-ecological systems (SES expose governance systems to new challenges. This is particularly so in the Arctic where resource systems are increasingly subjected to global warming, industrial development and globalization which subsequently alter the local SES dynamics. Based on common-pool resource theory, we developed a dynamic conceptual model explaining how exogenous drivers might alter a traditional subsistence system from a provisioning to an appropriation actions situation. In a provisioning action situation the resource users do not control the resource level but adapt to the fluctuating availability of resources, and the collective challenge revolve around securing the subsistence in the community. An increased harvest pressure enabled by exogenous drivers could transform the SES to an appropriation action situation where the collective challenge has changed to avoid overuse of a common-pool resource. The model was used as a focal lens to investigate the premises for broad-scale transitions of subsistence-oriented SESs in Arctic Alaska, Canada and Greenland. We synthesized data from documents, official statistics and grey and scientific literature to explore the different components of our model. Our synthesis suggests that the traditional Arctic subsistence SESs mostly comply with a provisioning action situation. Despite population growth and available technology; urbanization, increased wage labor and importation of food have reduced the resource demand, and we find no evidence for a broad-scale transition to an appropriation action situation throughout the Western Arctic. However, appropriation ­challenges have emerged in some cases either as a consequence of commercialization of the resource or by severely reduced resource stocks due to various exogenous drivers. Future transitions of SESs could be triggered by the emergence of commercial local food markets and Arctic warming. In particular, Arctic warming is an

  10. The Economics of Food Aid under Subsistence Farming with an Application to Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how food-aid affects price and production of staple food, with a partial equilibrium model with non-separable production and consumption. The model captures the key characteristics of sub-Saharan Africa subsistence economies. Simulations generate negative but also positive food-aid

  11. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly......In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...

  12. Rainfed farming systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tow, P. G

    2011-01-01

    "While agriculturists need a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture, it is essential that they also understand the functioning of farming systems as a whole and how they can be best managed...

  13. On-Farm Crop Species Richness Is Associated with Household Diet Diversity and Quality in Subsistence- and Market-Oriented Farming Households in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    On-farm crop species richness (CSR) may be important for maintaining the diversity and quality of diets of smallholder farming households. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the association of CSR with the diversity and quality of household diets in Malawi and 2) assess hypothesized mechanisms for this association via both subsistence- and market-oriented pathways. Longitudinal data were assessed from nationally representative household surveys in Malawi between 2010 and 2013 (n = 3000 households). A household diet diversity score (DDS) and daily intake per adult equivalent of energy, protein, iron, vitamin A, and zinc were calculated from 7-d household consumption data. CSR was calculated from plot-level data on all crops cultivated during the 2009-2010 and 2012-2013 agricultural seasons in Malawi. Adjusted generalized estimating equations were used to assess the longitudinal relation of CSR with household diet quality and diversity. CSR was positively associated with DDS (β: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; P CSR and household diet diversity or quality (P ≥ 0.05). Households with greater CSR were more commercially oriented (least-squares mean proportion of harvest sold ± SE, highest tertile of CSR: 17.1 ± 0.52; lowest tertile of CSR: 8.92 ± 1.09) (P CSR may be a beneficial strategy for simultaneously supporting enhanced diet quality and diversity while also creating opportunities for smallholder farmers to engage with markets in subsistence agricultural contexts. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prändl-Zika, Veronika

    2008-04-01

    The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future.

  15. Wild edible plant species utilized by a subsistence farming community in Obalanga sub-county, Amuria district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojelel, Samuel; Kakudidi, Esezah K

    2015-02-10

    Farming communities have continuous interactions with their environment. Subsistence farmers are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of weather. These are pre-requisites for increased wild edible plant consumption. This study mainly focused on indigenous knowledge regarding identity and use of wild edible plant species by the subsistence farmers of Obalanga. A multistage sampling technique was used to identify Agonga parish. Systematic random sampling was used to locate 64 respondents stratified among children, adult females and males. After obtaining informed consent and assent, data was collected through semi-structured interviews using a checklist of open ended questions, focus group discussions and guided field visits. The free listing technique was employed to obtain data on plant identity and usage. Fifty one (51) species in forty three (43) genera spread in thirty two (32) families were identified. Age and gender had significant effects on respondents' wild edible plant species knowledge. The majority of edible wild plant species were herbs (47.1%) while grasses (3.9%) were the least. Fruits (51.0%) were the major parts consumed while tubers and roots constituted only 2.0% each. Eating uncooked as snacks (43.1%) was the favoured mode of consumption compared to roasting (2.0%). Preservation was mainly by solar drying. Wild edible plants traded within and without Obalanga community constituted only 15.7%. Almost all the edible plant species (94.1%) do not have any specific bye-laws for their conservation. Only Mangifera indica, Tamarindus indica and Vittaleria paradoxa representing 5.9% of the species are protected by bye-laws. Disproportionate distribution of edible wild plant indigenous knowledge was noted in Obalanga with the lowest among the children. The marketed plant species in Obalanga can offer an opportunity for household livelihood diversification through value addition and trade under the umbrella of organic products. This will increase

  16. Long-Term Resilience of Late Holocene Coastal Subsistence System in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonese, André Carlo; Collins, Matthew; Lucquin, Alexandre; Eustace, Michael; Hancock, Y.; de Almeida Rocha Ponzoni, Raquel; Mora, Alice; Smith, Colin; DeBlasis, Paulo; Figuti, Levy; Wesolowski, Veronica; Plens, Claudia Regina; Eggers, Sabine; de Farias, Deisi Scunderlick Eloy; Gledhill, Andy; Craig, Oliver Edward

    2014-01-01

    Isotopic and molecular analysis on human, fauna and pottery remains can provide valuable new insights into the diets and subsistence practices of prehistoric populations. These are crucial to elucidate the resilience of social-ecological systems to cultural and environmental change. Bulk collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of 82 human individuals from mid to late Holocene Brazilian archaeological sites (∼6,700 to ∼1,000 cal BP) reveal an adequate protein incorporation and, on the coast, the continuation in subsistence strategies based on the exploitation of aquatic resources despite the introduction of pottery and domesticated plant foods. These results are supported by carbon isotope analysis of single amino acid extracted from bone collagen. Chemical and isotopic analysis also shows that pottery technology was used to process marine foods and therefore assimilated into the existing subsistence strategy. Our multidisciplinary results demonstrate the resilient character of the coastal economy to cultural change during the late Holocene in southern Brazil. PMID:24718458

  17. The process of developing a management system for subsistence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Needs of fishers and problems identified during the process provided the basis for recommendations in the following areas: definitions, assessment and categorization of resources, management systems, communication mechanisms, application and allocation procedures, capacity building, compliance, research and ...

  18. Long-term resilience of late holocene coastal subsistence system in Southeastern South america.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlo Colonese

    Full Text Available Isotopic and molecular analysis on human, fauna and pottery remains can provide valuable new insights into the diets and subsistence practices of prehistoric populations. These are crucial to elucidate the resilience of social-ecological systems to cultural and environmental change. Bulk collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of 82 human individuals from mid to late Holocene Brazilian archaeological sites (∼6,700 to ∼1,000 cal BP reveal an adequate protein incorporation and, on the coast, the continuation in subsistence strategies based on the exploitation of aquatic resources despite the introduction of pottery and domesticated plant foods. These results are supported by carbon isotope analysis of single amino acid extracted from bone collagen. Chemical and isotopic analysis also shows that pottery technology was used to process marine foods and therefore assimilated into the existing subsistence strategy. Our multidisciplinary results demonstrate the resilient character of the coastal economy to cultural change during the late Holocene in southern Brazil.

  19. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    NN Hidayat

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  20. Production function analysis for smallholder semi-subsistence and semi-commercial poultry production systems in three agro-ecological regions in Northern provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tung, Dinh Xuan; Rasmussen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    . The general assumption is that the poultry production output at the farm level depends on the number of birds, feed amount, labor amount, garden size, income level and veterinary costs. In this study statistical tests were conducted to analyze the differences between regions and production systems......A formal cross section survey of 360 smallholder poultry keeping farms located in three agro-ecological regions in Vietnam was conducted. Cobb-Douglas production functions were applied to analyse and compare semi-subsistence and semi-commercial smallholder poultry systems in three regions....... The results from the analysis of production functions shows that the coefficients of flock size, feed amount per bird, labour amount per bird, household income level, and veterinary costs were highly significant in different models. Garden size has a significant influence only among the poultry farmers...

  1. Push-pull farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Drivers of Forest Cover Dynamics in Smallholder Farming Systems: The Case of Northwestern Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaline Jadin; Veerle Vanacker; Huong Thi Thu Hoang

    2013-01-01

    .... Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best...

  3. Wind farm electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  4. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  5. Rural food security, subsistence agriculture, and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibhatu, Kibrom T; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world's food-insecure and undernourished people are smallholder farmers in developing countries. This is especially true in Africa. There is an urgent need to make smallholder agriculture and food systems more nutrition-sensitive. African farm households are known to consume a sizeable part of what they produce at home. Less is known about how much subsistence agriculture actually contributes to household diets, and how this contribution changes seasonally. We use representative data from rural Ethiopia covering every month of one full year to address this knowledge gap. On average, subsistence production accounts for 58% of rural households' calorie consumption, that is, 42% of the calories consumed are from purchased foods. Some seasonal variation occurs. During the lean season, purchased foods account for more than half of all calories consumed. But even during the main harvest and post-harvest season, purchased foods contribute more than one-third to total calorie consumption. Markets are even more important for dietary quality. During all seasons, purchased foods play a much larger role for dietary diversity than subsistence production. These findings suggest that strengthening rural markets needs to be a key element in strategies to improve food security and dietary quality in the African small-farm sector.

  6. Rural food security, subsistence agriculture, and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibhatu, Kibrom T.

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s food-insecure and undernourished people are smallholder farmers in developing countries. This is especially true in Africa. There is an urgent need to make smallholder agriculture and food systems more nutrition-sensitive. African farm households are known to consume a sizeable part of what they produce at home. Less is known about how much subsistence agriculture actually contributes to household diets, and how this contribution changes seasonally. We use representative data from rural Ethiopia covering every month of one full year to address this knowledge gap. On average, subsistence production accounts for 58% of rural households’ calorie consumption, that is, 42% of the calories consumed are from purchased foods. Some seasonal variation occurs. During the lean season, purchased foods account for more than half of all calories consumed. But even during the main harvest and post-harvest season, purchased foods contribute more than one-third to total calorie consumption. Markets are even more important for dietary quality. During all seasons, purchased foods play a much larger role for dietary diversity than subsistence production. These findings suggest that strengthening rural markets needs to be a key element in strategies to improve food security and dietary quality in the African small-farm sector. PMID:29049329

  7. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  8. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  9. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  10. The Pig Farm Manager for modelling pig production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zonderland, J.J.; Enting, I.

    2003-01-01

    Before setting up or changing a pig farm operation, the consequences of the farm set up must be explored and changes planned. To calculate technical and economic consequences a farm manager model for pig production systems, the Pig Farm Manager, has been developed. The Pig Farm Manager estimates the effects of various farm designs as well as farm management on production, environmental and economical parameters. The Pig Farm Manager includes simulations for sow farms and finisher pig farms. I...

  11. Linking subsistence activities to global marketing systems: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to improve the understanding of how micro-level subsistence activities might be related to higher-level phenomena to increase the well-being of individuals and communities in contexts characterized by institutional gaps. Using coffee as illustrative case, it explores the link

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL SUBSISTENCE SMALL HOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF NWFP, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Khan and R. H. Usmani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the rural mountainous areas of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to characterize small holder’s subsistence livestock production system. Livestock farmers (n=82 were interviewed in 16 villages of Batagram and Mansehra districts. The farmers were keeping on an average 4 buffalos, 1 cattle, 12 sheep or 13 goats per household. More than 94% farmers were keeping 4 buffaloes per household as compared to only 40% keeping 1 or 2 cattle. Buffaloes were main dairy animals producing 7.9 liters of milk/day or 2370 liters per lactation of 300 days. Local non-descript cows were producing only 2.5 liters of milk per day. Animals of all species were found to be underfed, as they depended mostly on self growing local grasses for grazing. Only milking animals were offered some concentrates in the form of cottonseed cake and wheat bran. Milk was mostly consumed at the household level or converted into butter oil. Age at first calving and calving interval of buffaloes were longer than those of cows. Incidence of livestock diseases was high in the area. Major diseases in cattle and buffaloes were haemorrhagic septicaemia and internal parasites. Pleuropneumonia and parasitism were major disease problems in small ruminants. It was estimated that gross profit averaged Rs. 32475 per buffalo, Rs. 3320 per sheep and Rs. 5314 per goat per year. Gross margin for cattle was negative and the farmers were sustaining a loss of Rs. 1960 per cow per year. Keeping in view the poor production environments, the overall performance of animals was encouraging and offered considerable scope for improvement.

  13. Knowledge Systems, Agricultural Practices/ Farming Systems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /traditional, on the one hand, and the scientific/modern, on the other) affect the ways in which farming systems (classified correspondingly in a binary fashion into traditional and modern) adapt to or cope with climate change. The reflections in ...

  14. Agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia

    2017-01-01

    Potato has multiple benefits and thus can play a vital role in ensuring food security in Ethiopia. However, for diverse reasons, its productivity is low. The farming systems in Ethiopia in which potato is grown, are predominantly mixed farming systems. Most of the research in Ethiopia is focused on

  15. Assessment of sweetpotato farming systems, production constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweetpotato is an important food security crop in Tanzania. The crop is grown under diverse farming systems with very low yields. The objective of this study was to assess the present sweetpotato farming systems, farmers' preferences, production constraints and breeding priorities in eastern Tanzania. Participatory rural ...

  16. Exploiting indigenous knowledge of subsistence farmers' for the management and conservation of Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) (musaceae family) diversity on-farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemataw, Zerihun; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Zeberga, Awole; Blomme, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) belongs to the order sctaminae, the family musaceae. The Musaceae family is subdivided into the genera Musa and Ensete. Enset is an important staple crop for about 20 million people in the country. Recent publications on enset ethnobotany are insignificant when compared to the diverse ethnolingustic communities in the country. Hence, this paper try to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge associated with the distribution, diversity, and management of enset in the country. The study was conducted in eight ethnic groups in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State. In order to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge, the data was collected mainly through individual interviews and direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 320 farm households, key informant interviews. Relevant secondary data, literature and inter-personal data were collected from unpublished progress report from National Enset Research Project, elderly people and senior experts. Enset-based farming system is one of a major agricultural system in Ethiopia that serves as a backbone for at least ¼ of country's population. Farmers used three morphological characters, two growth attributes, disease resistance and five use values traits in folk classification and characterization of enset. A total of 312 folk landraces have been identified. The number of landraces cultivated on individual farms ranged from one to twenty eight (mean of 8.08 ± 0.93). All ethnic groups in the study area use five use categories in order of importance: kocho yield and quality, bulla quality, amicho use, fiber quality and medicinal/ritual value. Of the 312 landraces 245 landraces having more than two use types. Management and maintenance of on-farm enset diversity is influenced by systematic propagation of the landraces, exchange of planting material and selective pressure. It can be concluded that the existing

  17. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  18. Small-scale Subsistence Farming, Food Security, Climate Change and Adaptation in South Africa: Male-Female Headed Households and Urban-Rural Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Byela Tibesigwa and Martine Visser

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of gender of the head of household on the food security of small-scale subsistence farmers in urban and rural areas of South Africa, using the exogenous switching treatment-effects regression framework. Our results show that agriculture contributes to food security of female-headed more than male-headed households, especially in rural areas. We also observe that male-headed households are more food secure compared to female-headed households, and this is mainly dr...

  19. Farm management systems and the Future Internet era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaloxylos, A.; Eigenmann, R.; Teye, F.; Wolfert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management

  20. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  1. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all...... sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...... model searching for an optimal match between farm attributes and spatial characteristics subject to consistency constraints. The objective functions are derived from a Bayesian highest posterior density framework. The allocation procedure recovers the spatial farm type distributions satisfactorilly...

  2. A New Farming Systems Development Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    2010-01-10

    Hendry County Sustainable Bio-Fuels Center (HCSBC) is introduced and its main components are explained. These primarily include (1) farming systems, (2) sustainability analysis, (3) economic analysis and (4) educational components. Each of these components is discussed in further details, main researchers and their responsibility areas and introduced. The main focus of this presentation is a new farming concept. The proposed new farming concept is an alternative to the current "two sides of the ditch" model, in which on one side are yield-maximizing, input-intensive, commodity price-dependent farms, while on the other side are publicly-financed, nutrient-removing treatment areas and water reservoirs trying to mitigate the externalized costs of food production systems and other human-induced problems. The proposed approach is rental of the land back to agriculture corporations during the restoration transition period in order to increase water storage (allowing for greater water flow-through and/or water storage on farms), preventing issues such as nutrients removal, using flood-tolerant crops and reducing soil subsidence. Various pros and cons of the proposed agricultural eco-services are discussed - the advantages include flexibility for participating farmers to achieve environmental outcomes with reduced costs and using innovative incentives; the minuses include the fact that the potential markets are not developed yet or that existing regulations may prevent agricultural producers from selling their services.

  3. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  4. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Staritsky, I.G.; Andersen, E.; Heckelei, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all

  5. WEED INFESTATION IN DIFFERENT FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of ecological and conventional farming systems on weed seedbank and actual weed infestation of winter wheat at agricultural farms Sebechleby, Plavé Vozokany and Dačov Lom. Significant differences between systems were determined only at the co-operative Sebechleby where the higher weed seedbank was in ecological system. Higher number of determined weed species in weed seedstock was in ecological system at Plavé Vozokany and Sebechleby. Dominant weed species in both systems were Chenopodium album L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Higher degree of actual weed infestation was determined in ecological system. Characteristics of systems was the occurrence of perennial species Cirsium arvense and non detection of Amaranthus retroflexus L., weed that had very high weed seedbank in soil.

  6. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO FARM MECHANIZATION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, June 1975. Anazodo. 7 ... conservation works, water conservation farming, or land drainage ... food products. h) To improve water supplies and water control systems. i) To reclaim land abandoned because of primitive operations or inadequate power j) To develop new land for ...

  7. The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John F

    2007-12-11

    Some of the most important impacts of global climate change will be felt among the populations, predominantly in developing countries, referred to as "subsistence" or "smallholder" farmers. Their vulnerability to climate change comes both from being predominantly located in the tropics, and from various socioeconomic, demographic, and policy trends limiting their capacity to adapt to change. However, these impacts will be difficult to model or predict because of (i) the lack of standardised definitions of these sorts of farming system, and therefore of standard data above the national level, (ii) intrinsic characteristics of these systems, particularly their complexity, their location-specificity, and their integration of agricultural and nonagricultural livelihood strategies, and (iii) their vulnerability to a range of climate-related and other stressors. Some recent work relevant to these farming systems is reviewed, a conceptual framework for understanding the diverse forms of impacts in an integrated manner is proposed, and future research needs are identified.

  8. Farm management information systems: A case study on a German multifunctional farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husemann Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and easy to use Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS are of fundamental importance for a successful operational farm management. However, still today many farmers do not use FMISs for various reasons, like lack of knowledge and the complexity of many available FMISs. In particular for small to medium-sized farms and for multifunctional farms appropriate FMISs hardly exist. This paper aims on the deduction of a concrete FMIS from a general FMIS. The concrete FMIS has to focus on the needs of medium-sized and multifunctional farms. This means that the farmer has to be empowered to allocate the scarce resources of the farm. Therefore, we picked a German farm from the state North Rhine Westphalia as a case-study to apply a system analysis. The case study farm helps to identify and to analyze relevant material and information flows, production processes, and their interconnections and synergies.

  9. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  10. Men's status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: Effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher R; Jaeggi, Adrian V

    2016-09-27

    Social status motivates much of human behavior. However, status may have been a relatively weak target of selection for much of human evolution if ancestral foragers tended to be more egalitarian. We test the "egalitarianism hypothesis" that status has a significantly smaller effect on reproductive success (RS) in foragers compared with nonforagers. We also test between alternative male reproductive strategies, in particular whether reproductive benefits of status are due to lower offspring mortality (parental investment) or increased fertility (mating effort). We performed a phylogenetic multilevel metaanalysis of 288 statistical associations between measures of male status (physical formidability, hunting ability, material wealth, political influence) and RS (mating success, wife quality, fertility, offspring mortality, and number of surviving offspring) from 46 studies in 33 nonindustrial societies. We found a significant overall effect of status on RS (r = 0.19), though this effect was significantly lower than for nonhuman primates (r = 0.80). There was substantial variation due to marriage system and measure of RS, in particular status associated with offspring mortality only in polygynous societies (r = -0.08), and with wife quality only in monogamous societies (r = 0.15). However, the effects of status on RS did not differ significantly by status measure or subsistence type: foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, and agriculture. These results suggest that traits that facilitate status acquisition were not subject to substantially greater selection with domestication of plants and animals, and are part of reproductive strategies that enhance fertility more than offspring well-being.

  11. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, JL; Stringer, LC; Challinor, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1) similar trends in farming system evolution have had diff...

  12. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  13. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power...

  14. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be based...

  15. Genetic improvement of livestock for organic farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelling, D.; Groen, A.F.; Soerensen, P.; Madsen, P.; Jensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Organic farming which experienced a constant rise over the last two decades is a system based on sustainability and on a concept tending towards functional integrity. Legislation as well as the wish to produce separately from conventional farming raise the question whether organic farming should be

  16. CleverFarm - A SuperSCADA system for wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G. (ed.); Juhl, A.; Gram Hansen, K.; Biebhardt, J. (and others)

    2004-08-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farm operators to prioritise their efforts, since they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime of components, especially in the nacelle. During the 3,5 years of the project, software and hardware was developed and installed in two wind farms in Denmark and Germany. The connected hardware included two different condition monitoring systems based on vibration sensors from Gram&Juhl and ISET, plus a camera system developed by Overspeed. Additionally, short-term predictions of the wind farm output were delivered by DMI and Risoes Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverse information sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open-sourced. The report contains the experiences and results of a one-year experimental period. This report is a slightly edited version of the final publishable report to the EU Commission as part of the requirements of the CleverFarm project.

  17. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sejabaledi A. Rankoana

    2017-01-01

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and...

  18. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jami L Dixon; Lindsay C Stringer; Andrew J Challinor

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations...

  19. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural......Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...

  20. 454-Pyrosequencing reveals variable fungal diversity across farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ahmed Kazerooni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a semi-oasis farming system (SOF which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF. In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop.

  1. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Ramanzin; Luca M. Battaglini; Luciano Morbidini; Mariano Pauselli; Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-01-01

    In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting...

  2. Evaluation of new farming technologies in Ethiopia using the Integrated Decision Support System (IDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neville; Bizimana, Jean-Claude; Dile, Yihun; Worqlul, Abeyou; Osorio, Javier; Herbst, Brian; Richardson, James W; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Gerik, Thomas J; Williams, Jimmy; Jones, Charles A; Jeong, Jaehak

    2017-01-31

    This study investigates multi-dimensional impacts of adopting new technology in agriculture at the farm/village and watershed scale in sub-Saharan Africa using the Integrated Decision Support System (IDSS). Application of IDSS as an integrated modeling tool helps solve complex issues in agricultural systems by simultaneously assessing production, environmental, economic, and nutritional consequences of adopting agricultural technologies for sustainable increases in food production and use of scarce natural resources. The IDSS approach was applied to the Amhara region of Ethiopia, where the scarcity of resources and agro-environmental consequences are critical to agricultural productivity of small farm, to analyze the impacts of alternative agricultural technology interventions. Results show significant improvements in family income and nutrition, achieved through the adoption of irrigation technologies, proper use of fertilizer, and improved seed varieties while preserving environmental indicators in terms of soil erosion and sediment loadings. These pilot studies demonstrate the usefulness of the IDSS approach as a tool that can be used to predict and evaluate the economic and environmental consequences of adopting new agricultural technologies that aim to improve the livelihoods of subsistence farmers.

  3. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  4. Plant disease management in organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Ariena H C; Gamliel, Abraham; Finckh, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming (OF) has significantly increased in importance in recent decades. Disease management in OF is largely based on the maintenance of biological diversity and soil health by balanced crop rotations, including nitrogen-fixing and cover crops, intercrops, additions of manure and compost and reductions in soil tillage. Most soil-borne diseases are naturally suppressed, while foliar diseases can sometimes be problematic. Only when a severe disease outbreak is expected are pesticides used that are approved for OF. A detailed overview is given of cultural and biological control measures. Attention is also given to regulated pesticides. We conclude that a systems approach to disease management is required, and that interdisciplinary research is needed to solve lingering disease problems, especially for OF in the tropics. Some of the organic regulations are in need of revision in close collaboration with various stakeholders. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  6. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  7. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.

    2004-01-01

    they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime ofcomponents, especially in the nacelle. During the 3½ years of the project, software and hardware......The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since...... delivered by DMI and Risø’s Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverseinformation sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open...

  8. RESEARCH OF SYSTEMS FOR WATER OXYGEN ENRICHMENT ON FISH FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Jažić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of systems for oxygen enrichment of the water on the fish farms was carried out at the salmon farm, providing information on the practical application of the devices for oxygen enrichment of the water (sprinkler given the fact the salmon farm in question constantly faces the problem of reduced water inflow and consequent reduced concentration of oxygen (O2 in water. The aforementioned could result in lowered economic profitability of the production as well as serious health problems of fish on the farms. The role of the devices for efficient oxygen enrichment of water within the systems for intensive fish farming is to control and maintain optimal concentration of oxygen as a precondition for quality production, improvement of health and quality of fish, and to allow fish breeding in the fish farms during the drought season, lowered water levels in waterbeds and reduced inflow. Key words : Rainbow trout, oxygen, water sprinkler

  9. Lowland farming system inefficiency in Benin (West Africa):

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a directional distance function and a single truncated bootstrap approach to investigate inefficiency of lowland farming systems in the Benin Republic. First, we employed a dual approach to estimate and decompose short-run profit inefficiency of each farming system into pure

  10. Maintaining ecological soil functions - techniques in organic farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beste, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The ecological soil functions (e.g. habitat and living space, production and utilization, ecological regulation) have to be taken into account and maintained by farming systems. Organic farming systems can provide for this by using suitable crop rotations, manure management methods and tillage techniques.

  11. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the...

  12. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  13. Potato farming becomes healthier in Ecuador | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... Without losing its important place in the life of Andean villages, potato growing is changing in Ecuador. Agricultural modernization has altered small-scale, traditional, subsistence farming systems. Many farmers combine traditional practices with machinery and agro-chemicals. They also may rely on highly ...

  14. Challenges Inhibiting the Transformation of Subsistence Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Challenges Inhibiting the Transformation of Subsistence Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-02

    Oct 2, 2014 ... rural agricultural activities into sustainable agri-businesses. The research focuses on the. Rural Financial ... of doing this effectively is to aid sustainability of rural businesses. The state, through the. Ministry of Finance ..... products; retail shop and restaurant businesses. This was reported by both male and.

  16. 38 CFR 21.5822 - Subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... and Subsistence Allowance § 21.5822 Subsistence allowance. (a) Subsistence allowance. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, VA will pay subsistence allowance to a veteran, spouse...

  17. Wildfires as dominant force driving farming systems in the forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildfires have become very influential in the ecology and socio-economic aspects of the rural landscape in the transition zone of Ghana. Eight farming communities around four forest reserves with short fire-return intervals were studied to determine major changes in farming systems that can be attributed to wildfires.

  18. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  19. Benchmarking the environmental performance of dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Milk production has a major impact on the environment and competes increasingly for scarce resources. As the demand for milk is expected to increase, these issues are likely to worsen. Benchmarking the environmental performance of dairy farming systems offers the opportunity to identify best farm

  20. Integration of Rural Aquaculture into Small Scale Farming Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviewed the necessity and the importance of integration of aquaculture into small hold farming systems, based on seasonality, availability of labour and inputs. As fish production in small holdings is generally limited by the quantity and quality of inputs to the pond. The timing of labour availability and other farm ...

  1. Economic value of management information systems in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on developing and testing methods to determine the profitability of management information systems (MIS) in livestock farming Methods were first applied to evaluating MIS in pig farming. Economic value of MIS arises from the fact that farmers

  2. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical...... system is optimized in accordance with initial investment by considering three aspects: the number and siting of offshore substations (OS), the cable connection layout of both collection system (CS) and transmission system (TS) as well as the selection of electrical components in terms of voltage level...

  3. Manual for prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.

    1999-01-01

    A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in

  4. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshetko, James Michael

    Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goals...... and local economic objectives. The thesis supports the hypothesis by reviewing global and Asian trends of deforestation, human population growth, and demand for forest and tree products. The potential of smallholders’ treebased systems to expand regional forest resources, produce forest products...

  5. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (conventional small ones. However, these lower outputs were compensated by the major market value obtained from the organic products. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides reached about 60% of the total energy inputs in conventional farming; in the organic farms, however, this ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in

  6. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    At its meeting on 9 December 1998, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 1999, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4113. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2000, on the basis of the United Nations 1999 rates, as shown for typical destinations in the table contained in this document. Although a precise estimate of the cost effect for duty travel is difficult to achieve due to currency exchange values, it is probable that this will remain unchanged if calculated in Swiss francs. The Management also proposes to formalise the practice of paying a lower subsistence indemnity than the approved basic amount, wherever feasible for events such as group duty travel to conferences or similar events, as discussed at the Finance Committee in December 1998. An amendm...

  7. Effects of switching between production systems in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing intensification of dairy farming in Europe has sparked an interest in studying the economic consequences of this process. However, empirically classifying farms as extensive or intensive is not a straightforward task. In recent papers, Latent Class Models (LCM have been used to avoid an ad-hoc split of the sample into intensive and extensive dairy farms. A limitation of current specifications of LCM is that they do not allow farms to switch between different productive systems over time. This feature of the model is at odds with the process of intensification of the European dairy industry in recent decades. We allow for changes of production system over time by estimating a single LCM model but splitting the original panel into two periods, and find that the probability of using the intensive technology increases over time. Our estimation proposal opens up the possibility of studying the effects of intensification not only across farms but also over time.

  8. Farm typology in the Berambadi watershed (India) : farming systems are determined by farm size and access to groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, M.; Thomas, A.; Sekhar, M.; Badiger, S.; Ruiz, Laurent; Willaume, M.; Leenhardt, D.; Bergez, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economi...

  9. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  10. Effect of farming system changes on life cycle assessment indicators for dairy farms in the Italian Alps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penati, C.; Sandrucci, A.; Tamburini, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In some Alpine areas dairy farming is going through a process of intensification with significant changes in farming systems. The aim of this study was to investigate environmental performance of a sample of 31 dairy farms in an Alpine area of Lombardy with different levels of intensification. A

  11. A methodical way of prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    A methodical way of prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming

  12. Assessment of Farming Systems for Sustainability of Farming Activities in the Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moumenihelali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the fundamental issues in the agricultural sector in Iran is the absence of optimal water and soil resources utilization and lack of new agricultural science and technology adoption through major prevailing transformations in agricultural land exploitation system. The studies conducted in the history of agricultural development in Iran cast light on the fact that the farming system’s role in the agricultural development in Iran is of great importance. And water and soil resources utilization has been one of the fundamental issues of agriculture which has enjoyed major consideration after the implementation of land restructuring. The agriculture farming systems are referred to as the focus of all activities related to sustainable agricultural development in Iran and it is believed that the shift and transition from traditional agriculture to modern and profitable agriculture through appropriate, improved and newly developed agricultural establishments are the major activities which can increase productivity and improve the overall performance of the agricultural sector and thus contribute to sustainable development more than any other factor. Hence, such significance will be more evident when the small and scattered farmlands in many cases have imposed some limitations in the application of agricultural techniques and machinery, equipping and developing the infrastructure and efficient use of resources with appropriate performance forcing agricultural policymakersto be always looking for ways to deal with it. Therefore, identifying the relative advantage of any farming system specified for each area and region in the country seems important. Accordingly, the Mazandaran province is regarded as one of the production hubs in producing crops such as rice, wheat and canola in the country playing a major role in supplying food. With a detailed analysis of research literature, the economic, ecological, social, technical and policy

  13. Evaluation of Crop-Livestock Integration Systems among Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ... of crops and livestock. Keywords: Crop-livestock integration systems, adopted village, farm family. .... crop is planted at about the time when the first crop is being harvested. Crop residues ..... Agronomy Monograph, 54. Madison, WI.

  14. Modelling shifts between mono- and multifunctional farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashof-Bokdam, Carla J.; Cormont, Anouk; Polman, Nico B.P.; Westerhof, Eugène J.G.M.; Franke, Jappe G.J.; Opdam, Paul F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Context: In Europe, policy measures are starting to emerge that promote multifunctional farming systems and delivery of ecosystem services besides food production. Effectiveness of these policy instruments have to deal with ecological, economic and social complexities and with complexities in

  15. Application of sustainable systems of milk production on small farms

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milan P.; Sretenović Ljiljana; Aleksić S.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Žujović M.; Maksimović N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper current situation is analyzed and sustainable systems introduced in production of milk on small farms. Old production systems used on farms were the reason why milk production wasn't profitable activity and therefore livestock production in mountainous regions had complete collapse and pastures remained almost entirely deserted. In population of Pirot Pramenka sheep and local Simmental population of cattle, our analysis of breed productivity shows that effects in mi...

  16. Farming Systems of the African Savanna

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alternatively, if the cultivator cannot find more fertile land, the farming practices may be intensified by increasing the use of manures and fertilizers, by growing additional crops on the same land, and practicing simple soil conservation and other techniques that conserve and build up soil fertility. At present, the main ...

  17. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.; Darnhofer, I.; Gibbon, D.; Dedieu, B.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will address the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run and focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and supported, taking into account renewal intitiatives at the farm level, organised projects, heterogeneous actors and differing interests. Sustainable

  18. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  20. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  1. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; He, Keyang; Huan, Xiujia

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1) the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2) the domestication rate of cereals, and (3) the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia.

  2. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Wang

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1 the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2 the domestication rate of cereals, and (3 the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia.

  3. 12 CFR 615.5175 - Investments in Farm Credit System institution preferred stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Capital, and Other Investments § 615.5175 Investments in Farm Credit System institution preferred stock... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investments in Farm Credit System institution preferred stock. 615.5175 Section 615.5175 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...

  4. An overview of farming system typology methodologies and its use in the study of pasture-based farming system: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mądry, W.; Mena Guerrero, Yolanda; Roszkowska-Madra, B.; Gozdowski, R.; Hryniewski, R.; Castel Genís, José María

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to do a critic study of the use of typology methodologies within pasture-based farming systems (PBFS), especially those situated in less favoured areas, showing in each case the more relevant variables or indicators determining the farming system classification. Another objective is to do an overview of the most used farming system typology methodologies in general. First some considerations about the concept of farming system and approaches to its study hav...

  5. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double...... fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  6. IPS – An Information Production System for Precision Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the process of base fertilisation in the context of Precision Farming, IT support for the corresponding service processes was developed as part of a research project. Applying the methods of service engineering, a software system that supports an efficient and transparent service provision was developed in the IPS project (Information Production System for Precision Farming. The paper shows the methodological approach of the project, the potential for innovation of the developed software system and discusses the results. Thereby, the findings presented in this paper can be regarded as an exemplary application of service engineering which may also be advantageous for similar service-orientated agricultural sectors.

  7. A methodic way to more sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    A methodic pathway is suggested for the definition, elaboration, evaluation and introduction of farming systems based on an "integrated' or an "ecosystem-oriented' vision, both considered more sustainable than a "world-market-oriented' vision. The objectives of these three basic types of systems are

  8. Trees in the traditional farming systems in Southeastern Nigeria. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of traditional farming systems in Southeastern Nigeria with specific reference to Imo State was undertaken so as to determine the place and role of trees/shrubs in such systems with a view to building upon this traditional knowledge of tree growing when initiating a new agroforestry strategys for the area. Data were ...

  9. Dairy farm wastewater treatment by an advanced pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P S; Davies-Colley, R J

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) have been used for the treatment of dairy farm wastewater in New Zealand since the 1970s. The conventional two pond WSP systems provide efficient removal of wastewater BOD5 and total suspended solids, but effluent concentrations of other pollutants including nutrients and faecal bacteria are now considered unsuitable for discharge to waterways. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) provide a potential solution. A pilot dairy farm APS consisting of an Anaerobic pond (the first pond of the conventional WSP system) followed by three ponds: a High Rate Pond (HRP), an Algae Settling Pond (ASP) and a Maturation Pond (which all replace the conventional WSP system facultative pond) was evaluated over a two year period. Performance was compared to that of the existing conventional dairy farm WSP system. APS system effluent quality was considerably higher than that of the conventional WSP system with respective median effluent concentrations of BOD5: 34 and 108 g m(-3), TSS: 64 and 220 g m(-3), NH4-N: 8 and 29 g m(-3), DRP: 13 and 17 g m(-3), and E. coli: 146 and 16195 MPN/100 ml. APS systems show great promise for upgrading conventional dairy farm WSPs in New Zealand.

  10. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  11. Tree species diversity under pastoral and farming systems in Kilosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household survey solicited information on perceptions of local communities on drivers that influenced tree stocking and diversity of their forests. A forest inventory was ... Average stocking for the forest under pastoral system was 235 stem ha-1, whereas that of farming system was 209 stem ha-1. Basal areas of 13m2ha-1 ...

  12. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...... systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...

  13. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  14. Immunoprophylaxis in intensive farming systems: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Massimo; Zanotti, Cinzia

    2016-11-15

    High levels of production in intensive farming systems are associated with increased replacement rates as a result of multifactorial diseases. The so-called "production diseases" may include low-grade infection reducing profitability without increased morbidity. Such infections are sustained by low pathogenic viral and bacterial agents which give rise to full-blown disease in association with poor environmental conditions. In these farms, the results of vaccination may be disappointing. Therefore, fundamental issues should be dealt with toward successful immunoprophylaxis. High lean meat and milk production are associated with chronic inflammation and activation of the innate immune system vis-à-vis cellular stress. This may negatively affect adaptive immune responses. A negative modulation of the host microbiome by farm management practices and drug treatments is a further risk factor. The immune response to stressed cells questions the usual correlates of protection investigated after vaccination. In particular, there is evidence that specific and non-specific immune responses may overlap in vitro as a result of a high level of innate immune responses to Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPS) and stress antigens. A vigorous adaptive immune response to microbial agents may be sometimes counterproductive, as suggested in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Alternative outcomes should be sometimes pursued: a better homeostatic control of the inflammatory response, effective and self-limiting innate immune responses, and even tolerance induction. On the whole, successful immunoprophylaxis in intensive farming systems demands co-ordinated and multi-disciplinary efforts in terms of animal breeding, farm management and hygiene, correct choice and harmonization of the prophylactic tools (vaccines, immunomodulators, pre- and probiotics). Finally, there is evidence that disease-predicting parameters of the innate immune response

  15. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals...... of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher windspeeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation...

  16. Wind Farm Protection Systems: State of the Art and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kawady, Tamer A.; Mansour, Naema M.; Taalab, Abdel-Maksoud I.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter emphasized the basic outline of the common configuration of protective relays that are usually utilized with modern wind energy conversion systems. Electrical faults occurring into the different zones of wind farms were described. Accordingly, different problems arise with the simple and non-integrated protection schemes that are usually

  17. Economic Potential of Taungya Farming System in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the economic potential of taungya system in Edo state, using of data obtained from both primary and secondary sources with the aid of well structured questionnaires administered to 230 respondents in eight the Local Government Areas practicing taungya farming in government reserved forests.

  18. BREAD TEXTURE ANALYSIS IN ECOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate texture of winter wheat bread. Winter wheat was cultivated in ecological (ES and integrated (IS farming system with two levels of fertilizing. Farming systems were established at research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia on a Haplic Luvisol. The experimental field altitude is 178 m, average annual precipitations 586 mm, average year temperature 10.4 °C. Subplots were fertilized (F and unfertilized (N variants. The F variant in ES was based on 40 t of manure, the IS also recieved 40 t of manure plus synthetic fertilizers. The effect of farming systems and two levels of fertilization on qualitative parameters of winter wheat was observed in the year 2009 and 2010. Farming system had no statistically significant effect on the bread crumb texture. Weather conditions, forecrop and fertilizing had significant influence on bread crumb texture. Year had the significant effect on every texture parameter, better values was reached in 2010. Forecrop had significant effect on crumb firmness and stiffness. After alfalfa as forecrop was found the best bread texture, the worst after forecrop pea. Fertilizing positively affected all texture parameters of bread.

  19. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the ... ceremonies (35%) and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for .... These figures contrast with the general perception that the majority of rural farmers are women. .... Consumer preferences for goat meat and mutton have been shown to be ...

  20. Insect abundance in cow dung pats of different farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, F.; Lubbe, van der S.C.T.M.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Cow dung pats in pastures provide suitable (micro) habitats for invertebrates to reproduce and to feed. Therefore, their availability is important for invertebrate diversity in farmland landscapes. We investigated the differences in insect abundance in cowpats between three different farming systems

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  2. Initiative for Future Agricultural Food Systems (IFAFS) From Farm to School: Improving Small Farm Viability and School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Improving the nutritional value of school meals is a growing priority among school systems across the United States. To assist in this effort, the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) funded a coalition, which developed a new program called "From Farm to School: Improving Small Farm Viability and School…

  3. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  4. Milk production systems in Central Uganda: a farm economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Garcia, Otto; Balikowa, David; Kiconco, Doris; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    The Ugandan dairy sector is developing rapidly over recent years and is dominated by small-scale farmers owning more than 90 percent of the national cattle population. Due to market forces and higher competition for production factors, milk production systems are intensifying, necessitating proper understanding of the new production tendencies. Three intensive and four extensive production systems were identified and analysed, using TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations model). The results show that the production systems are very different in many respects but share similar development trends. Whereas intensive systems use graded animals and invest heavily into feeding, buildings and machinery, extensive systems use local breeds and invest minimally. Total cost of milk production falls with increasing herd size, while dairy returns vary among farms from 18 to 35 USD/100 Kg of milk. All systems make an economic profit, except the intensive one-cow farm, which heavily employs family resources in dairying. Due to better management of resources and access to inputs and markets, dairy farming closer to urban areas and using improved breeds is highly profitable, especially with larger herd sizes. Stakeholders should favour such practices as well as others which can improve productivity, especially in African countries where traditional systems dominate dairying.

  5. Evaluation of Crop-Livestock Integration Systems among Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    livestock production. The major cropping system among rural farm families in the study area is mixed cropping (70%). However, many farmers (72.5%) in .... Vegetables. 12.5. 10.0. 7.5. 10.0. Forage and pastures. 2.5. 0.0. 5.0. 2.5. Livestock production system. Extensive. 40.0. 50.0. 32.5. 40.8. Semi intensive. 57.5. 50.0. 55.0.

  6. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence allowance. 21... Monetary Assistance Services § 21.260 Subsistence allowance. (a) General. A veteran participating in a rehabilitation program under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 will receive a monthly subsistence allowance at the rates in...

  7. SUSTAINABLE H/C SYSTEMS FOR CHICKEN FARMS IN SYRIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad Kharseh; Bo Nordell [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea (Sweden)

    2008-09-30

    Space heating/cooling systems account for approximately 30% of the global energy consumption. Such systems contribute to global warming by emitting 0.39.1011 MWh of heat and 2.9.1010 tons of CO{sub 2}. There is a general understanding that the way to reduce global warming is a more efficient use of energy and increased use of renewable energy in all fields of the society. The poultry industry in the Mid East is an important business. There are e.g. 13000 chicken farms in Syria producing 172,000 ton of meat. This industry employs directly almost 150,000 people. The total investment in chicken farming is 130 BSP. Even though, the annual mean temperature in Syria is {approx}15-18 C the winter temperatures are close to freezing for two months. Since the chickens need a temperature of 21-35 C, depending on age, approximately 168.103 tons of coal (1170 GWh) is consumed for heating these plants. The chicken farms have no cooling systems since conventional cooling is too expensive. In the summer time, the ambient air temperature in Syria could reach above 45 C. The elevated temperature inside the farms reduces the chicken growth and lots of chicken die of over heating. Using the ground as a heat source means a sustainable and less expensive heating of the chicken farms. During the summer the resulting colder ground can be used as a source for free cooling, i.e. it can be used directly for cooling of the plants without any cooling machines. This study shows the design and simulated operation of a ground coupled heating/cooling system for a typical chicken farm in Syria. Based on this study the national potential of using such systems was estimated. It shows that the implementation of such ground coupled heating and cooling systems in the Syrian poultry sector would mean increased poultry production and considerable savings in money, energy, and the environment.

  8. Farm enterprises as self-organizing systems: A new framework for studying farm enterprises?

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2002-01-01

    The growing attention to sustainable food production and multifunctional agriculture calls for a general perspective of farming that is able to grasp the social, technical, and economical aspects of a farm and the dynamic relationship between the farm enterprises and the surrounding world. The dominating theories within rural sociology reveal their shortcomings when they are applied to grasp the dynamic entity of a farm enterprise and its co-evolution with the structural surroundings, market,...

  9. Characterization of the spatial distribution of farming systems in the Kenyan Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, J.A.; Verburg, P.H.; Baltenweck, I.; Staal, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change maps are not sufficient to identify subtle changes in land use and farming systems. This paper describes a method that is developed to identify the spatial distribution of farming system types without the need to extensively map all farming systems across a large region. Moreover,

  10. Mixing specialised farming systems in Flevoland (The Netherlands) : agronomic, environmental and socio-economic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Ven, van de G.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed farming systems have potential agronomic, environmental and socio-economic advantages over specialized farming systems. This paper attempts to quantify these advantages for the Dutch province Flevoland. A mixed farming system at regional level is characterized by intensive cooperation between

  11. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  12. Transgenes sustain epigeal insect biodiversity in diversified vegetable farm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Hoheisel, G A; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Fleischer, S J

    2007-02-01

    Many ecological studies have focused on the effects of transgenes in field crops, but few have considered multiple transgenes in diversified vegetable systems. We compared the epigeal, or soil surface-dwelling, communities of Coleoptera and Formicidae between transgenic and isoline vegetable systems consisting of sweet corn, potato, and acorn squash, with transgenic cultivars expressing Cry1(A)b, Cry3, or viral coat proteins. Vegetables were grown in replicated split plots over 2 yr with integrated pest management (IPM) standards defining insecticide use patterns. More than 77.6% of 11,925 insects from 1,512 pitfall traps were identified to species, and activity density was used to compare dominance distribution, species richness, and community composition. Measures of epigeal biodiversity were always equal in transgenic vegetables, which required fewer insecticide applications than their near isolines. There were no differences in species richness between transgenic and isoline treatments at the farm system and individual crop level. Dominance distributions were also similar between transgenic and isoline farming systems. Crop type, and not genotype, had a significant influence on Carabidae and Staphylinidae community composition in the first year, but there were no treatment effects in the second year, possibly because of homogenizing effects of crop rotations. Communities were more influenced by crop type, and possibly crop rotation, than by genotype. The heterogeneity of crops and rotations in diversified vegetable farms seems to aid in preserving epigeal biodiversity, which may be supplemented by reductions in insecticide use associated with transgenic cultivars.

  13. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Joannon, A; Gibon, A

    2012-10-01

    Intensification and specialisation of agriculture in developed countries enabled productivity to be improved but had detrimental impacts on the environment and threatened the economic viability of a huge number of farms. The combination of livestock and crops, which was very common in the past, is assumed to be a viable alternative to specialised livestock or cropping systems. Mixed crop-livestock systems can improve nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs and generate economies of scope at farm level. Most assumptions underlying these views are based on theoretical and experimental evidence. Very few assessments of their environmental and economic advantages have nevertheless been undertaken in real-world farming conditions. In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of the environmental and economic performances of mixed crop-livestock farms v. specialised farms among the farm population of the French 'Coteaux de Gascogne'. In this hilly region, half of the farms currently use a mixed crop-livestock system including beef cattle and cash crops, the remaining farms being specialised in either crops or cattle. Data were collected through an exhaustive survey of farms located in our study area. The economic performances of farming systems were assessed on 48 farms on the basis of (i) overall gross margin, (ii) production costs and (iii) analysis of the sensitivity of gross margins to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs. The environmental dimension was analysed through (i) characterisation of farmers' crop management practices, (ii) analysis of farm land use diversity and (iii) nitrogen farm-gate balance. Local mixed crop-livestock farms did not have significantly higher overall gross margins than specialised farms but were less sensitive than dairy and crop farms to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs considered. Mixed crop-livestock farms had lower costs than crop farms, while beef farms had the lowest costs as they are grass

  14. An overview of farming system typology methodologies and its use in the study of pasture-based farming system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mądry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to do a critic study of the use of typology methodologies within pasture-based farming systems (PBFS, especially those situated in less favoured areas, showing in each case the more relevant variables or indicators determining the farming system classification. Another objective is to do an overview of the most used farming system typology methodologies in general. First some considerations about the concept of farming system and approaches to its study have been done. Next, the farming system typology methodologies have been showed in general to different farming systems, but addressed preferably to PBFS. The different tools integrated in these methodologies have been considered: sampling methods, sources of data, variables or indicators obtained from available data and techniques of analysis (statistical or not. Methods for farming system classification have been presented (expert methods, analytical methods or a combination of both types. Among the statistical methods, the multivariate analysis has been overall treated, including the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis. Finally, the use of farming system typology methodologies on different pasture-based farming systems has been presented. The most important aspects considered are following: the main objective of the typology, the main animal species, the employed methods of classification and the main variables involved in this classification.

  15. An overview of farming system typology methodologies and its use in the study of pasture-based farming system: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madry, W.; Mena, Y.; Roszkowska, B.; Gozdowski, D.; Hryniewski, R.; Castel, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of the paper is to do a critic study of the use of typology methodologies within pasture-based farming systems (PBFS), especially those situated in less favoured areas, showing in each case the more relevant variables or indicators determining the farming system classification. Another objective is to do an overview of the most used farming system typology methodologies in general. First some considerations about the concept of farming system and approaches to its study have been done. Next, the farming system typology methodologies have been showed in general to different farming systems, but addressed preferably to PBFS. The different tools integrated in these methodologies have been considered: sampling methods, sources of data, variables or indicators obtained from available data and techniques of analysis (statistical or not). Methods for farming system classification have been presented (expert methods, analytical methods or a combination of both types). Among the statistical methods, the multivariate analysis has been overall treated, including the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis. Finally, the use of farming system typology methodologies on different pasture-based farming systems has been presented. The most important aspects considered are following: the main objective of the typology, the main animal species, the employed methods of classification and the main variables involved in this classification. (Author) 56 refs.

  16. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Hötzel, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”. Little is known about the knowledge and attitudes of Brazilian citizens regarding food animal production systems. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production systems. Overall, our participants expressed a preference for free-range, cage-free, and more “natural” production systems. They also expressed concerns with livestock production systems that limited the movement or expression of natural behaviours, particularly those that they associated with animal suffering or distress. They recognized farm animals as deserving respect and dignity beyond the provision of basic needs. Our findings indicate that Brazil’s current farm animal housing practices that are associated with restriction of movement may not align with societal expectations. Abstract The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that

  17. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  18. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejabaledi A. Rankoana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  19. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder

  20. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  1. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  2. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    , and social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability of AMS use on organic dairy farms in Denmark, by comparing results of a set of sustainability indicators for nine farms using AMS with nine farms using...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... this quantification of selected sustainability indicators it can be concluded that organic dairy farms using AMS, in spite of the substantial decrease in grazing time, show the potential of economic and environmental sustainable development within the range of herd sizes investigated (65–157 cows per farm). Even...

  3. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in pigs from different farming systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, S A; Bouwknegt, M; van der Giessen, J W; de Roda Husman, A M; Reusken, C B E M

    2014-04-01

    Sporadic nontravel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in industrialized countries. These infections are caused by zoonotic HEV genotypes 3 and 4 that circulate in swine, wild boar, and deer. In The Netherlands, HEV RNA has been detected in >50% of the pig farms, and HEV-specific antibodies were detected in ∼70% of the slaughter pigs. In the current study, HEV seroprevalences were investigated in pigs raised on conventional, free-range, and organic farms in The Netherlands. Differences in seroprevalence may indicate different exposure routes or transmission dynamics within pig herds for HEV. In 2004, serum samples of 846 fattening pigs were obtained from farms that applied conventional (265 pigs at 24 farms), organic (417 pigs at 42 farms), and free-range (164 pigs at 12 farms) farming. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in samples from all conventional and free-range pig farms and in 41 of 42 organic pig farms, indicating that the probability of introducing HEV on a farm appeared to be equal for the different farming types. The estimated average within-herd seroprevalence was significantly higher for pigs raised on organic farms (89%) than for pigs raised on conventional farms (72%, P = 0.04) and nearly significant for pigs raised on free-range farms (76%, P = 0.06). Six of ten organic farms were estimated to have a withinherd seroprevalence of >95%, compared with 1 of 10 and 4 of 10 of the free-range and conventional pig farms, respectively. This suggests a higher force of infection with HEV for pigs reared on organic farms compared with pigs reared on conventional or free-range farms. This may be due to repetitive exposure to HEV caused by farming system-specific housing conditions, such as a greater contact frequency between pigs and more exposure to pig manure, increasing the transmission rate.

  4. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  5. Stress among Farm Women: Work and Family as Interacting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Alan D.; Perkins, H. Wesley

    1984-01-01

    Examined a sample of dairy farm wives (N=126) regarding stress symptoms, husband support, farm and home task loads, and perceived role conflict between farm and home responsibilities. Results indicated that the content of home and work roles may not be as important as interpersonal dynamics in rural farm families. (LLL)

  6. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  7. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  8. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have......-stall turbine oscillating power injection can only be realised by controlling the pitch angle. Hence the power system stabiliser of an active-stall turbine is a pitch angle controller. Two different approaches are chosen for designing such a power system stabiliser: a conventional PID controller, and a fuzzy...... to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered...

  9. Characterising the diversity of smallholder farming systems and their constraints and opportunities for innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivanen, K.S.; Alvarez, S.; Michalscheck, M.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Descheemaeker, K.; Mellon-Bedi, S.; Groot, J.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Typologies may be used as tools for dealing with farming system heterogeneity. This is achieved by classifying farms into groups that have common characteristics, i.e. farm types, which can support the implementation of a more tailored approach to agricultural development. This article explored

  10. Comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of a model study comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. Calculations have been performed for model farms, designed on the basis of current organic and conventional farming practices. Energy use and

  11. 77 FR 15026 - Privacy Act of 1974; Farm Records File (Automated) System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... enhance the marketing of agricultural products. The system of records covers information regarding farm... entity data; Combined producer data; production and marketing data; Lease and transfer of allotments and... location identifier for reporting acreage. Digital renditions of farm record boundaries include farm, tract...

  12. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have...... to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered...... that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development...

  13. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  14. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  15. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose...... to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is sustained, and normal grid operation can resume, after the fault is cleared. Transient faults in the transmission system often cause power......The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have...

  16. The distribution systems for organic farming produce in Poland and Spain – similarities and differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kacprzak, Ewa; Maćkiewicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    At the turn of the 21st century, European countries experienced a dynamic growth of interest in organic farming and the development of distribution systems for organic farming produce. This article is an attempt to assess the development of the distribution systems for organic farming produce in Spain and Poland and to identify the key drivers determining the systems. A hypothesis has been adopted that, despite different conditions, the systems operate in a similar way in both countries (thou...

  17. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sorensen, Paul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela

    2005-01-01

    are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection......Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...

  18. Reliability assessment of bulk electric systems containing large wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangdee, Wijarn [Regional System Planning, British Columbia Transmission Corporation, Vancouver (Canada); Billinton, Roy [Power System Research Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    Wind power is an intermittent energy source that behaves quite differently than conventional energy sources. Bulk electric system reliability analysis associated with wind energy conversion systems (WECS) provides an opportunity to investigate the reliability benefits when large-scale wind power is injected at specified locations in a bulk electric system. Connecting the WECS to different locations in a bulk system can have different impacts on the overall system reliability depending on the system topology and conditions. Connecting a large-scale WECS to an area which has weak transmission could create system operating constraints and provide less system benefit than connecting it to an area with stronger transmission. This paper investigates bulk electric system transmission constraints associated with large-scale wind farms. The analyses presented in this paper can be used to determine the maximum WECS installed capacity that can be injected at specified locations in a bulk electric system, and assist system planners to create potential transmission reinforcement schemes to facilitate large-scale WECS additions to the bulk system. A sequential Monte Carlo simulation approach is used as this methodology can facilitate a time series modeling of wind speeds, and also provides accurate frequency and duration assessments. An auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) time series model is used to simulate hourly wind speeds. (author)

  19. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    So far, all existing offshore wind farms have an ac collection system, and the collected power in the offshore wind farm is sent to an onshore ac grid through high-voltage ac (HVAC) or DC (HVDC) transmission lines. However, future of fshore wind farms may use dc also for power collection. Consequ......So far, all existing offshore wind farms have an ac collection system, and the collected power in the offshore wind farm is sent to an onshore ac grid through high-voltage ac (HVAC) or DC (HVDC) transmission lines. However, future of fshore wind farms may use dc also for power collection....... Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD...

  20. Drivers of forest cover dynamics in smallholder farming systems: the case of northwestern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, Isaline; Vanacker, Veerle; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu

    2013-04-01

    The national-scale forest recovery of Vietnam started in the early 1990s and is associated with a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Large disparities in forest cover dynamics are, however, observed at the local scale. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms driving forest cover change for a mountainous region located in northwest Vietnam. Statistical analyses were used to explore the association between forest cover change and household characteristics. In Sa Pa district, deforestation rates are decreasing, but forest degradation continues at similar rates. Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best socio-economic conditions. Our empirical study does not provide strong evidence of a dominant role of agriculture in forest cover dynamics. It shows that empirical studies on local-scale forest dynamics remain important to unravel the complexity of human-environment interactions.

  1. Comparison of the Farming System and Carbon Sequestration between Conventional and Organic Rice Production in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faiz Syuaib

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from soil analysis indicate that organic farming leads to soil with significantly higher soil carbon storage capacity than conventional farming. Organic farming can also cut some farming costs, but it requires about twice as much labor. The sharecropping system of rice farming in Indonesia is highly exploitative of workers; therefore, research should be conducted to develop a fairer organic farming system that can enhance both local and global sustainability.

  2. 76 FR 7758 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-Subpart B, Federal Subsistence Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... National Forest System lands, contact Steve Kessler, Regional Subsistence Program Leader, USDA, Forest... economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the... Wildlife Service; and Steve Kessler, Alaska Regional Office, U.S. Forest Service. List of Subjects 36 CFR...

  3. 76 FR 6730 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2012-13 and 2013-14 Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... National Forest System lands, contact Steve Kessler, Regional Subsistence Program Leader, USDA, Forest... effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs... Indian Affairs; Jerry Berg, Alaska Regional Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; and Steve Kessler...

  4. 78 FR 2350 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2014-15 and 2015-16 Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... to National Forest System lands, contact Steve Kessler, Regional Subsistence Program Leader, USDA... or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment...; Jerry Berg and Jack Lorrigan, Alaska Regional Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; and Steve Kessler...

  5. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...... parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is to be optimized regarding both the production cost and the system reliability....

  6. Typologies of dairy farms with automatic milking system in northwest Spain and farmers’ satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the dairy farms that installed an automatic milking system (AMS. A survey of 38 dairy farms with AMS, in Galicia (Spain, collected information on quantitative and qualitative variables. Following elimination of redundant variables, categorical principal component analysis identified 4 factors accounting for 43.7% of the total variance. Using these factors, the farms studied were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis which differentiated 4 types of farms: (A farms with more leisure and quality of life where the AMS covered the expectations of farmers (29%; (B farms that removed cows more often due to AMS and farmers with more stress (34%; (C farms with little leisure and farmers with no successor (21%; (D large farms with many fulltime employees (FTE where the AMS had covered farmer’s expectations the least (11%. Generally the farms were based on a family structure with a high percentage of FTE. With the adoption of AMS these farms sought to increase milk production, save labour and have more flexibility. With 87% of farms with free cow traffic the activity that took the most of the farmer’s time was fetching cows for milking (1 h/day. Nearly 58% of farmers were completely satisfied with their AMS, although this value reached 91% in farms with herd sizes below the average which were better adapted to the use of one AMS.

  7. 77 FR 24709 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board; Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Consideration of Allocated Insurance Reserves Accounts Presentation of 2011 Audit Results by External Auditor... External Auditor Dated: April 19, 2012. Dale L. Aultman, Secretary, Farm Credit System Insurance...

  8. 77 FR 59050 - Disclosure to Investors in System-Wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Obligations of the Farm Credit System; System Audit Committee AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA, us, we, or our) amends our regulations related...

  9. An integrated, semi-automated approach to thermochemical conversion research for sustainable farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated, semi-automated system is presented for the rapid and efficient testing and production of research-scale quantities of biochar. This biochar, produced from agricultural waste materials, can easily be incorporated in future sustainable livestock farming systems. These farming systems wi...

  10. Importance of farming system concept in development of less favoured areas

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Roszkowska-Mądra

    2009-01-01

    In the paper a concept of farming system in the term of agricultural economics is presented and its usefulness to adopting the new model of rural development on less favoured areas (LFAs) is discussed. Farming system is defined as a holistic description of a farm (or a rural area unit) with respect to agricultural land use (crop and animal production), non-agricultural activities and all determinants of the diverse activities including natural conditions, socio-economic environment, infrastru...

  11. Economic and Environmental Potentials of Conservation Agriculture in the Traditional Maize Farming Systems of India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vivek; TR, Prabhakaran; Krishna, Vijesh

    2011-01-01

    Maize ranks among the most prominent crops of rainfed farming systems in India, grown under traditional farming practices. The major constraints in these farming systems include soil degradation, active erosion in sloping areas, poor-quality seeds, expensive and unreliable fertilizer supplies, labour shortages, competing uses for crop residues and animal manures, poor quality feeds and lack of efficient value chains. The overall goal of the paper is, hence, set to review the trends in rainfed...

  12. Qualification of the adaptive capacities of livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dedieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring what is covered by « adapting to last » with a farming systems approach. Long term dynamics can be analysed as adaptive cycles, the system being permanently exposed to disturbances and shocks. Mobilizing the concept of resilience, we analyse the factors that differentiate the principles for long term action the livestock farmers have, principles which give consistency to the family - farms trajectories. With the concept of operational flexibilty, we qualify the sources of flexibility the livestock farmers maintain to cope with hazards. They are internal, related to the production process regulation properties, to the technical (adaptive or rigid specifications, to the sales policies, or external related to the information and commercial networks. Understanding the production process regulation properties require livestock farming systems models (i.e. combining decisional and biological sub-systems that can simulate how herd dynamics operate under fluctuant rules or productive parameters. It also require to evaluate the room for manoeuvre the work organization let to the farmer. All these aspects are illsutrated with on farm studies in herbivore systems (sheep, dairy, beef.Este artigo busca explorar "adaptações a mudanças" sob a ótica de sistemas de produção animal. Dinâmicas de longo prazo podem ser analisadas como ciclos adaptativos, sendo o sistema permanentemente exposto a distúrbios e choques. Utilizando o conceito de resiliência, analisam-se os fatores que diferenciam os princípios para ações de longo prazo tomadas por produtores rurais, princípios estes que dão consistência à família - trajetórias da propriedade rural. Com o conceito de flexibilidade operacional, qualificam-se as fontes de flexibilidade que os produtores mantêm para lidar com riscos. Eles são internos, relacionados a propriedades de regulação do processo produtivo, a especificações técnicas (adaptáveis ou rígidas, a

  13. Nitrogen management on experimental dairy farm 'De Marke': farming system, objectives &results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, G.J.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.

    2001-01-01

    In the sandy regions of the Netherlands, high nutrient surpluses from dairy farming harm the environment. Government policy aims at reducing nutrient losses to acceptable levels. To explore possibilities and to generate sufficient and accurate information for dairy farmers to reduce surpluses,

  14. Developing novel farming systems: effective use of nutrients from cover crops in intensive organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On-farm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using alfalfa or grass-clover crops directly as fertilizer on other fields: cut-and-carry fertilizers. In two crops in two years, the use of several types of

  15. Factors affecting farmers' adoption of integrated rice-fish farming systems in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Nhan, D.K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the adoption of improved rice–fish farming systems in the Mekong delta to support policy making, agricultural land-use planning and extension of integrated rice–fish farming. Recently these systems have been referred to as adaptations to climate change,

  16. Effect of sensor systems on production, health, reproduction and economics on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensor systems for oestrus and disease detection are increasingly used on dairy farms. It is, however, not known whether using sensor systems also improves production, health, reproduction and economic performance of the farm. The first objective of this study is to investigate the effect of

  17. Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus farming system: water quality and environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Frog farming, if not well managed, may cause environmental damages. The use of antibiotics, the organic discharge and the introduction of exotic species can disseminate risks such as eutrophication, changes in the water quality and organic pollution, factors that affect the human consumption. AIM: Evaluating the water quality of a bullfrog farming system, discussing their relations to production and the environment based on the current legislation. METHODS: Sampling was performed on a monthly basis from November 2006 to March 2007 during growth and fattening phases of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus. Sample sites were distributed according to the water flow: upstream from the mixing zone, affluent (supply water, bay, effluent, mixing zone and downstream from the mixing zone. In the field, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity were measured. In laboratory, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations were analyzed. RESULTS: The concentration of nutrients was determiner for water quality in the bay and its effluent. According to the current legislation, the effluent exceeded the limits for total phosphorus (> 0.030 mg L-1 and total nitrogen (> 1.27 mg L-1. Other variables presented acceptable values in light of the current laws. CONCLUSION: The high values of nutrients and other factors such as conductivity and turbidity are proportional to the animal growth due to the inadequate management practices evidenced by feed conversion rate. The following management options are proposed: maintaining the flow and decreased density of animals; maintaining the flow and density storage with adequate control of the food supply.

  18. The distribution systems for organic farming produce in Poland and Spain – similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacprzak, Ewa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 21st century, European countries experienced a dynamic growth of interest in organic farming and the development of distribution systems for organic farming produce. This article is an attempt to assess the development of the distribution systems for organic farming produce in Spain and Poland and to identify the key drivers determining the systems. A hypothesis has been adopted that, despite different conditions, the systems operate in a similar way in both countries (though various distribution channels have different significance, and that they are becoming more and more similar to the distribution systems for conventional farming produce. New trends in the development of Polish and Spanish distribution channels for organic farming produce have also been identified.

  19. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: A multi-scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, J; Dolman, M A; Vellinga, Th V; de Boer, H C; Gerritsen, A L; Sonneveld, M P W; Bouma, J

    2015-12-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands in comparison to regular benchmark farms using a Life Cycle Assessment. Regular farms were selected on the basis of comparability in terms of milk production per farm and per hectare, soil type and drainage conditions. In addition, the environmental impacts of INC farming at landscape level were evaluated with the integrated modelling system INITIATOR, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use, agricultural management, meteorology and soil, assuming that all farms practised the principle of INC farming. Impact categories used at both farm and landscape levels were global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Additional farm level indicators were land occupation and non-renewable energy use, and furthermore all farm level indicators were also expressed per kg fat and protein corrected milk. Results showed that both on-farm and off-farm non-renewable energy use was significantly lower at INC farms as compared with regular farms. Although nearly all other environmental impacts were numerically lower, both on-farm and off-farm, differences were not statistically significant. Nitrogen losses to air and water decreased by on average 5 to 10% when INC farming would be implemented for the whole region. The impact of INC farming on the global warming potential and eutrophication potential was, however, almost negligible (<2%) at regional level. This was due to a negligible impact on the methane emissions and on the surplus and thereby on the soil accumulation and losses of phosphorus to water at INC farms, illustrating the focus of these farms on closing the nitrogen cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  1. Livestock Farming Systems and Cattle Production Orientation in Eastern High Plains of Algeria, Cattle Farming System in Algerian Semi Arid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lounis Semara; Charefeddine Mouffok; Toufik Madani

    2013-01-01

    This study was an attempt to devise productive orientations of cattle herds in eastern high plains of Algeria. In this regard, 165 farms randomly identified were investigated. The selection of breeders was based to existence of cattle on the farm, and the farmer proposed to investigation must have at least two cows. The approach taken was to identify all systems adopted by farmers in a region through the analysis of the relationship between the maintenance of different types of cattle and pre...

  2. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  3. 50 CFR 92.22 - Subsistence migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence migratory bird species. 92.22... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.22 Subsistence migratory bird species. You may harvest birds or gather...

  4. Co-development of climate smart flooded rice farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Neergaard, Andreas; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Ly, Proyuth; Pandey, Arjun; Duong Vu, Quynh; Tariq, Azeem; Islam, Syed; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Tourdonnet, Stephane; Van Mai, Trinh; Wassmann, Reiner

    2017-04-01

    Mid-season drainage in flooded rice is known to reduce CH4 emission, while effects on N2O emission are more variable. Banning of crop-residue burning, and growing markets for organically fertilized rice, are resulting in systems with larger reactive C input, and potentially larger methane emissions. Tight farming systems with 2 or 3 annual crops are effective in mitigating emissions, in that the land sparing value is high, but put serious constraints on mitigation options under increased C input scenarios. In a series of field (Cambodia, Philippines and Vietnam) and greenhouse experiments, we investigated the effect of a variety of organic amendments and wetting and drying cycles on yield and GHG emissions. Specifically we have tested the effect of inserting very early, or even-pre-planting drainage, as a means to accelerate turnover of straw or other C sources, and reduce methane emission later in the season. Overall, our results showed that drying periods had minimal impact on yields, while reducing overall GHG emission. Methane emission was strongly controlled by C availability in the substrate (on equal total C-input basis), increasing in the order: biochar-composts-animal manure-fresh material. Nitrous oxide emissions generally increased with draining cycles, but did not lead to overall increase in GHG emissions as its contribution was balanced by lowered CH4 emissions. Growth chamber experiments showed that methane emission was significantly reduced for extended periods after re-flooding, hence the idea of early drainage was developed. Meanwhile, Cambodian farmers expressed concerns over re-supply of water after drainage. In response to that, we tested if early-season drainage could replace mid-season drainage. With addition of labile carbon substrates (straw) duration of early season drainage was more important for reducing GHG emissions, than duration of mid-season drainage, and had the highest potential for total emission reduction. In a farmers

  5. SUBSISTENCE LIVING AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    cutting down of trees without replacement and implementation of the components of the national planning programmes, which pertain to afforestation, discourage farmers from charcoal production. Keywords: Fuelwood, Deforestation, Biocharcoal, Subsistence Living. Introduction. Charcoal export started in Nigeria in 1904.

  6. Alaska Subsistence Use Combined 10 Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — In 2004 Stephen R. Braund & Associates, in association with the North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife and under contract to BOEM, initiated a subsistence...

  7. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Saiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type which combines type of horizontal flow and type of vertical flow. The shell used was Polymesoda erosa. The fish used was Tilapia. In the composting sediment activator, biang kompos was used with the composting time of one month. The results indicated that the system of simple filters, constructed wetlands, shells and fish proved to be quite effective to reduce levels of pollutants in wastewater and will be more effective if treatment was accompanied with a proper aeration. While, the sediment composted into fertilizer needed to be composted with a longer time than normal composting time. This was because the composted materials were derived from waste having a very low nutrient, so it took longer to restore nutrients. The results also indicated the potential of shrimp farm waste of PT. IBD to be processed into clean water and fertilizer. With the appropriate policies and strategies, this can lead to the development of an integrated farming system to support sustainable coastal ecologically, economically and socially.

  8. Agricultural Innovation Systems and Farm Technology Adoption: Findings from a Study of the Ghanaian Plantain Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyori, Alirah Emmanuel; Amare, Mulubrhan; Garming, Hildegard; Waibel, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We assess farm technology adoption in an integrated analysis of social networks and innovation in plantain production in Ghana. The paper explores the strength of social networks in the agricultural innovation systems (AISs) and the effect of AISs on adoption of improved farm technology. Methodology/Approach: The paper uses social network…

  9. A methodology to compare specialized and mixed farming systems : case studies, in the Netherlands and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume, D.; PRI,

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the aim was to create a methodology, composed of a set of economic, social and environmental indicators, in order to compare mixed and specialized farming system and to test the methodology in two case studies in the Netherlands and in France. The analysis relies on two farm

  10. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability

  11. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...

  12. 75 FR 64728 - Cooperative Operating Philosophy-Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Cooperative Operating Philosophy--Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions AGENCY: Farm Credit... Board Hereby Adopts the Following Policy Statement: Cooperative Operating Philosophy--Serving the Member..., ``Implementation of cooperative principles.'' \\2\\ See FCA Policy Statement ``Regulatory Philosophy'' (FCA-PS- 59...

  13. Detector : knowledge-based systems for dairy farm management support and policy analysis : methods and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, W.H.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes new methods and knowledge-based systems for the analysis of technical and economic accounting data from the year-end records of individual dairy farms to support the management and, after adaptation, for policy analysis.

    A new method for farm comparison, the

  14. The economic value of Acacia karroo in small-scale farming systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Abstract. The purpose of the investigation was to examine current knowledge, by local people, of the agroforestry roles and the economic importance that the Acacia karroo tree plays in the farming systems of small-scale farmers and game farming in the Dundee district in the ...

  15. Energy use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of farming systems in north Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Rafiee, Shahin; Jafari, Ali; Keyhani, Alireza; Mousavi-Avval, Seyed Hashem; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    Efficient use of energy resources in crop production is an important goal in sustainable agriculture. This study compares the energy flow in farming systems across farm size with their corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - presented in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) - in the

  16. A research agenda to explore the role of conservation agriculture in African smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Corbeels, M.; Nyamangara, J.; Triomphe, B.; Affholder, F.; Scopel, E.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the promotion of conservation agriculture (CA) in smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of CA is a profound change in farm management. Benefits in reduced erosion and stabilized crop production may be obtained, but technical performance at field

  17. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    possibly migrant workers returning home during the Christmas vacation) used the goats mainly for traditional ceremonies, funerals and weddings. Only 10% of farmers indicated that they would invest in goat farming if granted a loan that had to ...

  18. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...... be kept within security limits when wind farm dispatch is optimized by the proposed method....

  19. The Study on Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System Connecting with Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan

    ) Modeling the HMIDC system connecting with an offshore wind farm, and investigating the main factors that affect the system stability under the different disturbances. 2) On the basis of the stability analysis, developing the appropriate control strategies for the studied HMIDC system in order to enhance...... the stability analysis of the basic HMIDC system, the research work moves forward to the control of the HMIDC system comprising the offshore wind farm at the sending end of the VSCHVDC link. In this case, the Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) ability of the VSC-HVDC connected wind farm is one of the most...... the large offshore wind farms, thanks to their flexibility on controlling active and reactive power. Hence, together with the existing LCC-HVDC links, a new power system structure, also named as the Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC system, can be envisioned, where both the LCC- and VSC-HVDC links terminate...

  20. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  1. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.

    2006-10-15

    The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is

  2. Dynamic Modelling of a Wind Farm and Analysis of Its Impact on a Weak Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Suvire, Gastón Orlando; Mercado, Pedro Enrique

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the model aspects and the impact of wind power onto a weak power system have been described. A wind system model was presented that takes into account factors such as a rapidly varying turbulence component of the wind and the aerodynamic effects associated to the layout of wind turbines throughout the farm. A test system was used and case studies for different instances of wind farm operation were analyzed, aiming at evaluating the interaction of the wind farm with the power ...

  3. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  4. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  5. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  6. High Bee and Wasp Diversity in a Heterogeneous Tropical Farming System Compared to Protected Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

  7. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  8. Agro-biodiversity in Subsistence Farming Systems of South Somalia –Collection and Agronomic Assessment of Somali Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzelli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of Siyad Barre' regime, Somalia lost any form of agricultural research with negative consequences on food availability and seed sector stability. A fi rst step to restore food security can be represented by enhancing local genetic resources. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is a very important crop in rainfed areas of Somalia serving as primary source of food and forage. Eight morphological and productive characteristics were chosen to assess the phenotypic variability of 7 accessions from South Somalia. Univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (discriminant and cluster analysis methods were used to assess the productive variation within the accession and to group the 7 accessions into clusters based on quantitative characters. The results showed that there is a wide morpho-agronomical diversity among accessions, especially regarding specifi c features suitable for different purpose, such as grain and/or forage production. Moreover the landraces were able to grow and produce under harsh environmental conditions. The gathered information can be used to promote the conservation and future improvement of local sorghum landraces, thus aiding in the stabilisation of a secure and sustainable food resource for farmers of southern Somalia.

  9. Coupling Dairy Manure Storage with Injection to Improve Nitrogen Management: Whole-Farm Simulation Using the Integrated Farm System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Duncan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of livestock manure to farm soils represents a priority nutrient management concern in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Historically, strong emphasis has been placed on adding manure storage to dairy operations, with the recognition that manure application methods can be improved. The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate manure management on a typical Pennsylvania dairy farm (100 milking cows, 80 ha. Converting the operation from daily haul to 6 mo of storage with broadcast application did not substantially change nitrogen (N losses to the environment. However, switching to manure injection conserved ammonium N and improved manure N use efficiency by crops, even though it increased N leaching by 27% with 6-mo storage and 13% with 12-mo storage. Increasing manure storage from 6 to 12 mo with manure injection reduced nitrate N leaching by 38%, due to better timing of manure application to crop growth, but lowered annual net returns. Overall, manure injection and 6 mo of storage resulted in the best combination of profit and environmental outcome.

  10. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  11. Microbiological evaluation of lettuce produced by conventional and organic systems in farms of Londrina, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Harumi Niguma; Jacinta Sanchez Pelayo; Tereza Cristina Rocha Moreira de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), produced in Londrina, Paraná (PR), with total coliform, coliform at 45 °C, E. coli, and Salmonella spp.; and to determine the E. coli contamination of irrigation water used at the farms studied. Four farms were evaluated, of which three produced lettuce using a conventional system and one using an organic system. An evaluation of the production practices of the farms was also carried out. A total of 111 sam...

  12. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  13. Chopped Straw As A Litter In Sheepdrove Organic Farm Organic Silvo-Poultry System

    OpenAIRE

    Pegg, Vanessa; Dyke, Kirstie; Pearce, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    A trial was undertaken to determine whether there was an advantage in using an alternative litter in the poultry field sheds, than the usual straw, on the Sheepdrove Organic Farms (SOF) silvo-poultry production system.

  14. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at

  15. 78 FR 20106 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board; Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... External Auditor Clifton Larson Allen L.L.P. Executive Session Executive Session of the FCSIC Board Audit Committee with the External Auditor Dated: March 29, 2013. Dale L. Aultman, Secretary, Farm Credit System...

  16. Green farming systems for the Southeast USA using manure-to-energy conversion platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock operations in the Southeastern USA are faced with implementing holistic solutions to address effective manure treatment through efficient energy management and safeguarding of supporting natural resources. By integrating waste-to-energy conversion platforms, future green farming systems ca...

  17. Genomics of high molecular weight plasmids isolated from an on-farm biopurification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Maria C.; Wibberg, Daniel; Lozano, Mauricio; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Albicoro, Francisco J.; Jaenicke, Sebastian; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Petroni, Alejandro; Pilar Garcillan-Barcia, M.; de la Cruz, Fernando; Schlueter, Andreas; Puehler, Alfred; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio; Del Papa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of biopurification systems (BPS) constitutes an efficient strategy to eliminate pesticides from polluted wastewaters from farm activities. BPS environments contain a high microbial density and diversity facilitating the exchange of information among bacteria, mediated by mobile genetic

  18. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  19. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  20. Environmental impact of cereal-tobacco farming system in Miombo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key socio-economic factors identified by the study as drivers for the observed degradation of Miombo woodland include population growth, agricultural expansion and increased demand for fuelwood for tobacco curing. Keywords: Cereal-tobacco farming, Miombo woodland, Shifting cultivation, Deforestation, Tabora ...

  1. Evaluation Of Farming Systems And Informal Insurance Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected through structured questionnaires and interview schedules were analysed using net farm income analysis, Pearson correlation, and two way ANOVA techniques. Results showed a positive correlation between number of sources of risks and uncertainties perceived by farmers and strategies employed to ...

  2. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  3. Variability of African Farming Systems from Phenological Analysis of NDVI Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; deBeurs, K. M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times to meet their dietary needs. The natural resource base is one of the many factors affecting food security. Its variability and decline creates problems for local food production. In this study we characterize for sub-Saharan Africa vegetation phenology and assess variability and trends of phenological indicators based on NDVI time series from 1982 to 2006. We focus on cumulated NDVI over the season (cumNDVI) which is a proxy for net primary productivity. Results are aggregated at the level of major farming systems, while determining also spatial variability within farming systems. High temporal variability of cumNDVI occurs in semiarid and subhumid regions. The results show a large area of positive cumNDVI trends between Senegal and South Sudan. These correspond to positive CRU rainfall trends found and relate to recovery after the 1980's droughts. We find significant negative cumNDVI trends near the south-coast of West Africa (Guinea coast) and in Tanzania. For each farming system, causes of change and variability are discussed based on available literature (Appendix A). Although food security comprises more than the local natural resource base, our results can perform an input for food security analysis by identifying zones of high variability or downward trends. Farming systems are found to be a useful level of analysis. Diversity and trends found within farming system boundaries underline that farming systems are dynamic.

  4. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-06-01

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three farming systems [large-scale closed greenhouses (LSGH), large-scale open farms (LSOF), and small-scale irrigated farms (SSIF)]. Main observations were that 85% of workers did not attain any pesticide-related training, 81% were not aware of modern alternatives for chemical pesticides, 10% used a full set of personal protective equipment, and 62% did not usually bath or shower after work. Among applicators pesticide training attendance was highest in LSGH (35%) and was lowest in SSIF (4%). None of the female re-entry farm workers had received pesticide-related training. Personal protective equipment use was twice as high among pesticide applicators as among re-entry workers (13 versus 7%), while none of the small-scale farm workers used personal protection equipment. Stockpiling and burial of empty pesticide containers and discarding empty pesticide containers in farming fields were reported in both LSOF and by 75% of the farm workers in SSIF. Considerable increment in chemical pesticide usage intensity, illegitimate usages of DDT and Endosulfan on food crops and direct import of pesticides without the formal Ethiopian registration process were also indicated. These results point out a general lack of training and knowledge regarding the safe use of pesticides in all farming systems but especially among small-scale farmers. This in combination with the increase in chemical pesticide usage in the past decade likely results in occupational and environmental health risks. Improved KAP that account for institutional difference among various farming systems and enforcement of regulatory measures including the available occupational and environmental proclamations in Ethiopia are

  5. Building student capacity to lead sustainability transitions in the food system through farm-based authentic research modules in sustainability sciences (FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate courses provide valuable opportunities to train and empower students with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to advance society in more sustainable directions. This article emphasizes the value of bridging primary scientific research with undergraduate education through the presentation of an integrated experiential learning and primary research model called Farm-based Authentic Research Modules in Sustainability Sciences (FARMS. FARMS are collaboratively designed with agricultural stakeholders through a community needs assessment on pressing food system issues and opportunities with the objective for faculty and students to jointly identify evidence-based management solutions. We illustrate the implementation of FARMS in an undergraduate course in Ecological Agriculture at Dartmouth College, NH where students assessed various agroecological solutions for managing plant vitality, weeds, soil quality, pests, pollinators, and biodiversity at the Dartmouth Organic Farm. Student reflections indicate that the FARMS course component was beneficial for understanding agroecological theories and concepts while also motivating involvement in sustainability sciences despite the challenges of primary research. Educator reflections noted that the FARMS pedagogical approach facilitated achieving course objectives to develop students’ ability for systems thinking, critical thinking, and interdisciplinarity while fostering students’ collaboration skills and overall motivation for creating change. Adopting the FARMS model should enable faculty in the sustainability sciences to serve as bridges between the learning, practicing, and scientific communities while supporting educational programming at student and community farms. Ultimately, it is expected that the implementation of FARMS will increase student capacity and prepare the next generation of leaders to address complex challenges of the food system using an evidence-based approach.

  6. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  8. Optimization of Electrical System for Offshore Wind Farms via a Genetic Algorithm Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua

    ). This platform is based on a knowledge database, and composed of several functional modules such as cost calculation, reliability evaluation, losses calculation, AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm etc. All these modules are based on a spreadsheet database which provides an interface for users to input...... of a grid-connected wind farm; 2) the second one is the optimization of electrical system for offshore wind farms (OES-OWF). The capacity of a grid connected wind farm is limited by the transfer capability of the grid system, where the thermal limit of the transmission lines, the voltage stability...... losses and power generation. This work proposes a serial AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms (VSOWF). The model of DC/DC converters is proposed and integrated into the basic DC load flow algorithm by modifying the Jacobian matrix. Two iterative methods are proposed...

  9. Fungal Diversity in Tomato Rhizosphere Soil under Conventional and Desert Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Elham A; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S N; Rethinasamy, Velazhahan; Al-Mahrouqi, Hamed; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M

    2017-01-01

    This study examined fungal diversity and composition in conventional (CM) and desert farming (DE) systems in Oman. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of tomato was assessed using 454-pyrosequencing and culture-based techniques. Both techniques produced variable results in terms of fungal diversity, with 25% of the fungal classes shared between the two techniques. In addition, pyrosequencing recovered more taxa compared to direct plating. These findings could be attributed to the ability of pyrosequencing to recover taxa that cannot grow or are slow growing on culture media. Both techniques showed that fungal diversity in the conventional farm was comparable to that in the desert farm. However, the composition of fungal classes and taxa in the two farming systems were different. Pyrosequencing revealed that Microsporidetes and Dothideomycetes are the two most common fungal classes in CM and DE, respectively. However, the culture-based technique revealed that Eurotiomycetes was the most abundant class in both farming systems and some classes, such as Microsporidetes, were not detected by the culture-based technique. Although some plant pathogens (e.g., Pythium or Fusarium) were detected in the rhizosphere of tomato, the majority of fungal species in the rhizosphere of tomato were saprophytes. Our study shows that the cultivation system may have an impact on fungal diversity. The factors which affected fungal diversity in both farms are discussed.

  10. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  11. Fungal Diversity in Tomato Rhizosphere Soil under Conventional and Desert Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Kazerooni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined fungal diversity and composition in conventional (CM and desert farming (DE systems in Oman. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of tomato was assessed using 454-pyrosequencing and culture-based techniques. Both techniques produced variable results in terms of fungal diversity, with 25% of the fungal classes shared between the two techniques. In addition, pyrosequencing recovered more taxa compared to direct plating. These findings could be attributed to the ability of pyrosequencing to recover taxa that cannot grow or are slow growing on culture media. Both techniques showed that fungal diversity in the conventional farm was comparable to that in the desert farm. However, the composition of fungal classes and taxa in the two farming systems were different. Pyrosequencing revealed that Microsporidetes and Dothideomycetes are the two most common fungal classes in CM and DE, respectively. However, the culture-based technique revealed that Eurotiomycetes was the most abundant class in both farming systems and some classes, such as Microsporidetes, were not detected by the culture-based technique. Although some plant pathogens (e.g., Pythium or Fusarium were detected in the rhizosphere of tomato, the majority of fungal species in the rhizosphere of tomato were saprophytes. Our study shows that the cultivation system may have an impact on fungal diversity. The factors which affected fungal diversity in both farms are discussed.

  12. Optimal Active Power Control of A Wind Farm Equipped with Energy Storage System based on Distributed Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Qinglai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Distributed Model Predictive Control (D-MPC) of a wind farm equipped with fast and short-term Energy Storage System (ESS) for optimal active power control using the fast gradient method via dual decomposition. The primary objective of the D-MPC control of the wind farm...... is independent from the wind farm size and is suitable for the real-time control of the wind farm with ESS....

  13. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  14. Organic farming provides improved management of plant parasitic nematodes in maize and bean cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Atandi, Janet G.; Haukeland, Solveig; Kariuki, George M.; Coyne, Danny L.; Karanja, Edward N.; Musyoka, Martha W.; Fiaboe, Komi K.M.; Bautze, David; Adamtey, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Intensification of agriculture, combined with poor agronomic practices have increased the incidence of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and other soil pathogens in East Africa, which consequently affects crop productivity in small holder farms. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of farming systems in management of PPN and to recommend the best practice to farmers. Therefore, two field trials were established, one infarmer fieldsandoneon-station,usingmaize (Zeamays L.), inter...

  15. Transient stability probability evaluation of power system incorporating with wind farm and SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Miao, Lu; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    and SMES. Firstly, a modified 11-bus test system with both wind farm and SMES has been implemented. The wind farm is represented as a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Then a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system is presented. Uncertain......Large scale renewable power generation brings great challenges to the power system operation and stabilization. Energy storage is one of the most important technologies to face the challenges. This paper proposes a method for transient stability probability evaluation of power system with wind farm...... the probability indices. With the proposed method based on Monte-Carlo simulation and bisection method, system stability is "measured". Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve...

  16. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  17. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  18. Risky Business? Rural Entrepreneurship in Subsistence Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cieslik, Katarzyna; D’Aoust, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Present-day development theory and practice highlight the potential of micro-entrepreneurship for poverty reduction in rural Africa. At the same time, subsequent studies show that entrepreneurial propensity is not often exhibited by subsistence farmers. Basing our analysis on a cross-section

  19. Soil Microbiome Is More Heterogeneous in Organic Than in Conventional Farming System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Korthals, Gerard W.; de Hollander, Mattias; Janssens, Thierry K. S.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming system and sustainable management of soil pathogens aim at reducing the use of agricultural chemicals in order to improve ecosystem health. Despite the essential role of microbial communities in agro-ecosystems, we still have limited understanding of the complex response of microbial diversity and composition to organic and conventional farming systems and to alternative methods for controlling plant pathogens. In this study we assessed the microbial community structure, diversity and richness using 16S rRNA gene next generation sequences and report that conventional and organic farming systems had major influence on soil microbial diversity and community composition while the effects of the soil health treatments (sustainable alternatives for chemical control) in both farming systems were of smaller magnitude. Organically managed system increased taxonomic and phylogenetic richness, diversity and heterogeneity of the soil microbiota when compared with conventional farming system. The composition of microbial communities, but not the diversity nor heterogeneity, were altered by soil health treatments. Soil health treatments exhibited an overrepresentation of specific microbial taxa which are known to be involved in soil suppressiveness to pathogens (plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-borne fungi). Our results provide a comprehensive survey on the response of microbial communities to different agricultural systems and to soil treatments for controlling plant pathogens and give novel insights to improve the sustainability of agro-ecosystems by means of beneficial microorganisms. PMID:28101080

  20. Soil Microbiome Is More Heterogeneous in Organic Than in Conventional Farming System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Korthals, Gerard W; de Hollander, Mattias; Janssens, Thierry K S; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming system and sustainable management of soil pathogens aim at reducing the use of agricultural chemicals in order to improve ecosystem health. Despite the essential role of microbial communities in agro-ecosystems, we still have limited understanding of the complex response of microbial diversity and composition to organic and conventional farming systems and to alternative methods for controlling plant pathogens. In this study we assessed the microbial community structure, diversity and richness using 16S rRNA gene next generation sequences and report that conventional and organic farming systems had major influence on soil microbial diversity and community composition while the effects of the soil health treatments (sustainable alternatives for chemical control) in both farming systems were of smaller magnitude. Organically managed system increased taxonomic and phylogenetic richness, diversity and heterogeneity of the soil microbiota when compared with conventional farming system. The composition of microbial communities, but not the diversity nor heterogeneity, were altered by soil health treatments. Soil health treatments exhibited an overrepresentation of specific microbial taxa which are known to be involved in soil suppressiveness to pathogens (plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-borne fungi). Our results provide a comprehensive survey on the response of microbial communities to different agricultural systems and to soil treatments for controlling plant pathogens and give novel insights to improve the sustainability of agro-ecosystems by means of beneficial microorganisms.

  1. Poultry Farm Vulnerability and Risk of Avian Influenza Re-Emergence in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI remains of concern as a major potential global threat. This article evaluates and discusses the level of vulnerability of medium and small-scale commercial poultry production systems in Thailand related to avian influenza virus re-emergence. We developed a survey on 173 farms in Nakhon Pathom province to identify the global level of vulnerability of farms, and to determine which type of farms appears to be more vulnerable. We used official regulations (the Good Agricultural Practices and Livestock Farm Standards regulations as a reference to check whether these regulations are respected. The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease. Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms. Farms producing eggs (especially duck eggs are more vulnerable than farms producing meat. Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004–2008 outbreaks in Thailand.

  2. Diversified Farming Systems: An Agroecological, Systems-based Alternative to Modern Industrial Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on Diversified Farming Systems is motivated by a desire to understand how agriculture designed according to whole systems, agroecological principles can contribute to creating a more sustainable, socially just, and secure global food system. We first define Diversified Farming Systems (DFS as farming practices and landscapes that intentionally include functional biodiversity at multiple spatial and/or temporal scales in order to maintain ecosystem services that provide critical inputs to agriculture, such as soil fertility, pest and disease control, water use efficiency, and pollination. We explore to what extent DFS overlap or are differentiated from existing concepts such as sustainable, multifunctional, organic or ecoagriculture. DFS are components of social-ecological systems that depend on certain combinations of traditional and contemporary knowledge, cultures, practices, and governance structures. Further, as ecosystem services are generated and regenerated within a DFS, the resulting social benefits in turn support the maintenance of the DFS, enhancing its ability to provision these services sustainably. We explore how social institutions, particularly alternative agri-food networks and agrarian movements, may serve to promote DFS approaches, but note that such networks and movements have other primary goals and are not always explicitly connected to the environmental and agroecological concerns embodied within the DFS concept. We examine global trends in agriculture to investigate to what extent industrialized forms of agriculture are replacing former DFS, assess the current and potential contributions of DFS to food security, food sovereignty and the global food supply, and determine where and under what circumstances DFS are expanding rather than contracting.

  3. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  4. The Complexity Of Government Communication System In Ettawa Crossbed (Ec Goat Farming In Purworejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Handaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to determine the complexity of the environment that is faced by the government communication system and regulation that was used to resolve the issue. The theory used is communication system in the perspective of Niklas Luhmann. The research method used is ethnography. The population of the study are in Purworejo which becomes center of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. Data collection technique is conducted throught interviews and observations. The results of data analysis show that the government communication system has made regulations to resolve the real problems of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming that is done by breeders. When the government communication system produces the regulation, environmental issue has grown more complex. So the regulation that was made becomes irrelevant to the demands and challenge in the crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. The government communication system is slow in reducing the complexity of the environment and producing regulation.

  5. FUNCTIONING OF A FARM ADVISORY SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE FARMERS OF THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm advisory system is a unique form of long-lasting education of framers and rural area dwellers. This attribute is significant as far as a transformation of European agriculture is concerned which resulted in creating a farm advisory system for the territorial scope Europe. The effectiveness of the system depends on many factors mainly, however, on active trust of farmers in the knowledge they acquire. The case study uses a questionnaire data collecting method in the households of the Opole voivodeship. On their basis the place and aim of a farm advisory organisation in the system of both agricultural knowledge and information have been determined as well as kinds of knowledge sought by farmers. The respondents’ evaluation of the significance of this institutional structure in the development of households and in the local development has also been presented. A question of the use of regional internet platforms in the realisation of farm advisory system tasks has been considered. The case study ends with conclusions and recommendation referring to the challenges to be faced by the regional structures of a farm advisory system.

  6. The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lewis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 New Zealand farmers were confronted by the introduction of a GST. Despite the short to medium term difficulties, many farmers have benefited from the experience. The introduction of the GST forced many New Zealand farmers to improve their record systems as they were required to submit more extensive and accurate information to comply with their new GST requirements. This increase in sophistication of their record systems also meant that farmers had a larger store of more accurate information available to support their farm business management decision-making. It is expected that the introduction of GST and PAYG reporting requirements in Australia is also acting as a catalyst in the evolution of dairy farm record systems and increase in dairy farmer’s store of business management skills. This paper reports the results of a survey that describes the characteristics of dairy farm management information systems and indicates the business management skills that dairy farmers perceive they need to acquire in the short term in order to improve their farm management information systems and comply with their GST requirements. Overall, the importance of bookkeeping/ accounting skills is strongly related to BAS. However, the results also show that as the level of sophistication of dairy farm record systems grows the demand for business skills shifts from accounting/ bookkeeping skills to computer and analytical skills.

  7. Intensive dairy farming systems from Holland and Brazil: SWOT analyse comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz Passetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems of milk production in Brazil and Holland are compared by SWOT analysis. Twenty-one farms, 10 in Wageningen, central region of Holland, and 11 in Castro, central-eastern region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, were sampled. Data were retrieved from semi-structured interviews with the owners or people responsible for dairy activities, using a questionnaire guide and a digital recorder. After results were analysed, a table was elaborated representing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and risks for each country. Dairy farms in Holland were uniform, or rather, small and medium-sized farms with high production. It has also been observed that Dutch farms have several problems due to high intensification, for example, hoof diseases with great economic loss. In the case of Brazilian dairy farms, several types of systems and degrees were detected. Brazilian production in the region analysed features a higher quantity than that in Holland, with less intensity when compared to that on Dutch farms.

  8. Investigating the water balance of on-farm techniques for improved crop productivity in rainfed systems: A case study of Makanya catchment, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Rockström, J.; Senzanje, A.

    Water scarcity is a perennial problem in sub-Saharan agricultural systems where extreme rainfall events dominate agricultural seasons. Dry spell occurrences between and during seasons negatively impact on crop yields especially if such dry spells exceed 14 days. The impact of dry spells is felt more at smallholder farming scales where subsistence farming is the only source of livelihood for many households. This paper presents results from on-going research to improve rainfed water productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. The study site is the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where rainfall rarely exceeds 400 mm/season. Rainwater alone is not sufficient to support maize which is the preferred crop. The research introduced new soil and water conservation measures to promote water availability into the root zone. The introduced techniques include deep tillage, runoff diversion, fanya juus (infiltration trenches with bunds) and infiltration pits. The research aims at understanding the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing moisture availability within the root zone. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to measure soil moisture twice weekly at 10 cm depth intervals up to depths of 2 m. Soil moisture fluctuated in the range 5-25% of volume with the beginning of the season recording the driest moisture levels and periods after good rainfall/runoff events recording the highest moisture levels. From the field observations made, a spreadsheet model was developed to simulate soil moisture variations during different maize growth stages. The results obtained show that the zones of greatest soil moisture concentrations are those around the trenches and bunds. Soil moisture is least at the centre of the plots. The study confirms the effectiveness of the introduced techniques to help concentrate the little available rainfall into green water flow paths. Indirect benefits from these improved techniques are the creation of fertile and moist zones around

  9. Modelling as a tool to redesign livestock farming systems: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttenoire, L; Cournut, S; Ingrand, S

    2011-12-01

    Livestock farming has recently come under close scrutiny, in response especially to environmental issues. Farmers are encouraged to redesign their livestock farming systems in depth to improve their sustainability. Assuming that modelling can be a relevant tool to address such systemic changes, we sought to answer the following question: 'How can livestock farming systems be modelled to help farmers redesign their whole farming systems?' To this end, we made a literature review of the models of livestock farming systems published from 2000 to mid-2009 (n = 79). We used an analysis grid based on three considerations: (i) system definition, (ii) the intended use of the model and (iii) the way in which farmers' decision-making processes were represented and how agricultural experts and farmers were involved in the modelling processes. Consistent rationales in approaches to supporting changes in livestock farming were identified in three different groups of models, covering 83% of the whole set. These could be defined according to (i) the way in which farmers' decisions were represented and (ii) the model's type of contribution to supporting changes. The first type gathered models that dynamically simulated the system according to different management options; the farmers' decision-making processes are assumed to consist in choosing certain values for management factors. Such models allow long-term simulations and endorse different disciplinary viewpoints, but the farmers are weakly involved in their design. Models of the second type can indicate the best combination of farm activities under given constraints, provided the farmers' objectives are profit maximisation. However, when used to support redesigning processes, they address neither how to implement the optimal solution nor its long-term consequences. Models of the third type enable users to dynamically simulate different options for the farming system, the management of which is assumed to be planned according

  10. Transforming Farming Systems on Public Lands in the EAA to Support Everglades Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Caloosahatchee River Citizens Association (Riverwatch), LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Ed A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States)

    2010-01-08

    The public purchase of farmlands in the EAA provides an opportunity for transforming farming systems into truly sustainable systems and these can support the Everglades restoration efforts. The concept proposed in this presentation is that by reducing the yield intensity of farms and adding ecosystem services, public farm lands can serve both restoration and the economy more effectively and more efficiently. This working hypothesis will be evaluated by applying systems analysis approaches including life cycle analysis and embodied energy analysis. The rationale for pursuing new approaches ranges from the fact that climate change threats are global, not local, to the fact that eliminating Florida farms and moving production elsewhere yields no net ecological benefit. Historic water flow from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades is shown and the current concept of moving water explained. Southern Flow Way Plan 6 is explained and sustainable farming system in this newly acquired land presented. To determine if an EAA pulse-way strategy would work and meet the sustainability criteria requires integrated analysis of several systems - water budget, soil & water nutrient dynamics, prospects for new sugarcane varieties, soil subsidence and overall energy and carbon budget.

  11. Pyrosequencing reveals the influence of organic and conventional farming systems on bacterial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    Full Text Available It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada's oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation.

  12. Vertical farming monitoring system using the internet of things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yap Shien; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    Vertical farming had become a hot topic among peak development countries. However, vertical farming is hard to practice because minor changes on the surrounding would leave big impact to the productivity and quality of farming activity. Thus, the aim of this project is to provide a vertical farming monitoring system to help keeping track on the physical conditions of crops. In this system, varieties of sensors will be used to detect current physical conditions, and send the data to BeagleBone Black (BBB) microcontroller either in analog or digital input. Then, the data will be processed by BBB and upload to the Thingspeak Cloud. Furthermore, the system will record the position of equipment in used, which make it easier for maintenance when there is equipment broken down. The system also provide basic remote function where users could turn on/off the watering system, and the LED light via web-based application. The web-based application will also be designed to analyze and display data gathered in the form of graphs, charts or figures, for better understanding. With the improvement implemented on the vertical farming culture, it is expected that the productivity and quality of crops would increase significantly.

  13. Pyrosequencing reveals the influence of organic and conventional farming systems on bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Khafipour, Ehsan; Krause, Denis O; Entz, Martin H; de Kievit, Teresa R; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional) and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat) was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada's oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation.

  14. Research on the Voltage Fluctuation Rules of Power System Containing Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixi; Xu, Guchao; Ma, Gang; Li, Feng; Ju, Rong

    2017-05-01

    The global energy shortage and environmental problems have contributed to the rapid development of wind power. However, due to the randomness and volatility of wind power, large-scale access may cause voltage fluctuation in power grid. Therefore, the reactive power control of power system containing wind farms has become a hot research topic in recent years, in which finding key nodes of voltage fluctuation is a foundation work. In this paper, the power model of wind farm is established first. Then, the influence on nodes voltage when wind farms access simple power system is analysed, and promoted to complex power systems in order to reveal the fluctuation rules of nodes voltage, and to summarize the distribution characteristics of key nodes of voltage fluctuation, which can provide the basis for reactive power optimization. At last, the conclusions are verified by IEEE 30-node system.

  15. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise

  16. Generation Ratio Availability Assessment of Electrical Systems for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    An availability index, Generation Ratio Availability (GRA), is proposed to evaluate the electrical system of offshore wind farms (OWF). The GRA is the probability that at least a certain percent of wind power could be transferred to the grid system through the concerned electrical system. The GRA....... Comprehensive studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the network design, component parameters, and wind-speed regimes on the GRA. The analysis presented in this paper is useful for both future wind farm planning and existing OWF evaluation....

  17. Optimization of Electrical System for a Large DC Offshore Wind Farm by Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization platform based on Genetic Algorithm, where the main components of the electrical system of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the topology of the electrical system is to be optimized for a minimum cost and high...... reliability. A method to encode and decode an electrical system is studied. The reliability evaluation for a given network is also investigated. Genetic Algorithm is implemented to find the optimum network design for a large DC wind farm. It is concluded that different topologies may cause very different cost...

  18. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability....... The power losses, wind power production, initial investment and maintenance costs are considered in the production cost. The availability of components and network redundancy are included in the reliability evaluation. The method of coding an electrical system to a binary string, which is processed by GA...

  19. [Nitrogen flow in farming-feeding system and its environmental impact in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-peng; Chen, Ji-ning

    2007-10-01

    By applying nitrogen flow model for farming-feeding system (NFM-FFS) which integrates soil full nitrogen balance model with inventory analysis for agricultural pollution, nitrogen flow in China farming-feeding systems and its environmental impact are analyzed. In 2003, although surface nitrogen surpluses, nitrogen deficit in agricultural soil system in China is estimated to be 623.9 x 10(4) t, and 13.7 kg/hm2 averagely, which implies that soils in China farming-feeding systems are at the risk of nitrogen content decline and potential soil degradation as a whole. With a intense nutrient input in arable land and no extra fertilizer input in grassland in China, there is a nitrogen surplus of 1761.9 x 10(4) t, averagely 142.8 kg/hm2, while grassland has a deficit of 2,385.7 x 10(4) t, averagely 90.7 kg/hm2. As a result, existing negative impact of cropping activities on water environment as well as grassland degradation may be effectively abated by balancing nitrogen input between arable land and grassland. Total nitrogen loss from China farming-feeding system is 2,266 x 10(4) t, including 495.8 x 10(4) t exported into surface water by drainage and surface runoff, and 102.4 x 10(4) t into groundwater by leaching. Lost nitrogen is to be deposited in rivers, lakes and marine system, and is less likely to return to farming-feeding system. Fertilizer should be the priority of rural pollution control and management because of its dominant contribution to nitrogen exported into water environment from farming-feeding system.

  20. Long-term effect of rice-based farming systems on soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Priyanka; Nayak, A K; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Shahid, M; Raja, R; Tripathi, R; Bhattacharyya, P; Panda, B B; Mohanty, S; Rao, K S

    2015-05-01

    Integrated rice-fish culture, an age-old farming system, is a technology which could produce rice and fish sustainably at a time by optimizing scarce resource use through complementary use of land and water. An understanding of microbial processes is important for the management of farming systems as soil microbes are the living part of soil organic matter and play critical roles in soil C and N cycling and ecosystem functioning of farming system. Rice-based integrated farming system model for small and marginal farmers was established in 2001 at Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha. The different enterprises of farming system were rice-fish, fish-fingerlings, fruits, vegetables, rice-fish refuge, and agroforestry. This study was conducted with the objective to assess the soil physicochemical properties, microbial population, carbon and nitrogen fractions, soil enzymatic activity, and productivity of different enterprises. The effect of enterprises induced significant changes in the chemical composition and organic matter which in turn influenced the activities of enzymes (urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in the C, N, and P cycles. The different enterprises of long-term rice-based farming system caused significant variations in nutrient content of soil, which was higher in rice-fish refuge followed by rice-fish enterprise. Highest microbial populations and enzymatic properties were recorded in rice-fish refuge system because of waterlogging and reduced condition prolonged in this system leading to less decomposition of organic matter. The maximum alkaline phosphatase, urease, and FDA were observed in rice-fish enterprise. However, highest acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity were obtained in vegetable enterprise and fish-fingerlings enterprise, respectively.

  1. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  2. Plant-parasitic Nematodes in the Waimanalo, Hawaii Irrigation System from Watershed to Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Schmitt, D P

    2001-12-01

    Nematode occurrence at specific locations throughout a water catchment-irrigation system was determined. Soil samples were collected from five water source locations on the slopes of Olomana Mountain and Maunawili Valley and from about 40 plant species on 18 farms (56 ha of 480 ha irrigated by the reservoir). Water was sampled from the catchment reservoir at 0.3 m, 9 m, and 18 m (bottom). A farm irrigated with potable water was sampled and compared to areas of the same farm irrigated from the reservoir. Nematodes present in soil from the mountain and farms were root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.), lesion (Pratylenchus spp.), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis), stunt (Tylenchorhynchus sp.), ring (Criconema spp.), dagger (Xiphinema sp.), spiral (Helicotylenchus sp.), Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., and pin (Paratylenchus sp.) nematodes. The economically important genera Rotylenchulus, Meloidogyne, and Pratylenchus occurred in very low numbers (10, 41, and 10/250 cm(3) soil, respectively) and in low frequency (10%, 25%, and 8% of the samples, respectively) in the mountain samples compared with high numbers (170-895/250 cm(3) soil) from farms. Frequency of occurrence over all farms was near 40% for Meloidogyne and 80% for Rotylenchulus. No nematodes were detected in water from the reservoir. One sample from the outlets contained two specimens of plant-parasitic nematodes. The population densities of nematodes were not different between the soil samples collected from crops irrigated by potable or reservoir water.

  3. Trajectories of evolution and drivers of change in European mountain cattle farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, A; Olaizola, A; Bernués, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last few decades, significant changes in livestock farming systems and land use were observed in European mountain areas with large implications for the sustainability of grazing agro-ecosystems. System dynamic studies become essential to understand these changes, identify the drivers involved and trying to anticipate what might happen in the future. The objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to analyse the main recent changes that occurred in mountain cattle farming in the Spanish Pyrenees; (ii) to typify diverse trajectories of evolution of these systems; and (iii) to establish drivers of change that might help understand the evolution of mountain agriculture. A constant sample of mountain cattle farms was analysed for the period 1990 to 2004. In total, 30% of farms have disappeared during this time interval. For the remaining farms, the most important general changes observed were as follows: increment of size; change of productive orientation from mixed beef-dairy to pure beef production; extensification of grazing management; reduction of family labour and increase of pluriactivity; reduction of unitary variable costs; and increase of labour productivity. After the elimination of common temporal effects between dates, multivariate techniques allowed for the identification of three patterns and six specific trajectories of evolution that are profiled in the text. Relationships between the patterns of evolution and other variables referring the farm, the household and the socio-economic environment were identified as drivers of change: (i) the specific location of the farm in relation to the capital village of the municipality and the evolution other sectors of the economy, in particular tourism; (ii) the size of the family labour, presence of successors and degree of dynamism of the farmer; and (iii) the initial orientation of production.

  4. FREE PHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kosík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free phenol content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 - 2011. Free phenol content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging method. Whole grain flour and bran had higher content of free phenols in ecological farming system. Antioxidant activity was not affected by farming systems. The content of free phenols and antioxidant activity was affected by growing year and forecrop. Fertilisation had no effect on the content of free phenols and antioxidant activity. White flour contain two times less free phenols and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. The highest free phenol content and antioxidant activity was determined in wheat bran.

  5. Strategic Maintenance Scheduling of an Offshore Wind Farm in a Deregulated Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mazidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for strategic maintenance scheduling of offshore wind farms (SMSOWF in a deregulated power system. The objective of the model is to plan the maintenance schedules in a way to maximize the profit of the offshore wind farm. In addition, some network constraints, such as transmission lines capacity, and wind farm constraints, such as labor working shift, wave height limit and wake effect, as well as unexpected outages, are included in deterministic and stochastic studies. Moreover, the proposedmodel provides theability to incorporate information from condition monitoring systems. SMSOWF is formulated through a bi-level formulation and then transformed into a single-level through Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions. The model is validated through a test system, and the results demonstrate applicability, advantages and challenges of harnessing the full potential of the model.

  6. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, J E; Rotz, C A

    2013-06-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services.

  7. Milk flow traits of buffalo cows in intensive farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zucali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.

  8. Importance of farming system concept in development of less favoured areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Roszkowska-Mądra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a concept of farming system in the term of agricultural economics is presented and its usefulness to adopting the new model of rural development on less favoured areas (LFAs is discussed. Farming system is defined as a holistic description of a farm (or a rural area unit with respect to agricultural land use (crop and animal production, non-agricultural activities and all determinants of the diverse activities including natural conditions, socio-economic environment, infrastructure and institutions. Evaluation of diversity in farming systems existing on LFAs and their typology is a basis to discuss and arrange most efficient pathways of LFA development and promoting them at the local level. Such an approach to supporting and promoting development of LFAs, being the most sensitive for agricultural and rural policy among rural areas, is specially useful and effective for implementation of concepts, theories and paradigms like sustainable rural development, endogenic development as well as agricultural multifunctionality and diversification of farm activities.

  9. Professional transitions towards sustainable farming systems: The development of farmers' professional worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquil, Xavier; Dedieu, Benoît; Béguin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    While farming in France and generally in Europe is continuing to intensify, at the expense of its environmental sustainability, promising alternatives are emerging. The processes whereby farmers change and transform their own work, to shift from an intensive mode of production to a self-sufficient and autonomous one, need to be formalized if we are to further our understanding of why and how these forms of sustainable farming activity emerge. We use the development of professional worlds theory, a systemic representation of workers' activity, whereby their experience is formalized. This can be explained as the praxis1, conceptual and axiological underpinnings form a system with the object of the action. The development of a professional world is analyzed according to the evolution of its components and the search for pragmatic coherence within it. We analyzed professional transitions towards self-sufficient and autonomous mixed farming through a case study. Our findings showed that the transition is initiated by the discovery of the unthinkable, awareness of a discrepancy between what the farmers think and what they do, the appearance of problems, and the response to external constraints. Professional transition is a non-teleological and non-incremental process; it corresponds to a comparison with reality, and a resolution of difficulties. This process is stimulated by the use of artifacts instrumented by the farmers. New perspectives are opened up by this formalization of transitions, in terms of (i) support towards sustainable farming and (ii) the design of sustainable farming systems.

  10. Analysis to develop a program for energy-integrated farm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.; Johnson, K.I.

    1981-09-01

    A program to use renewable energy resources and possibly develop decentralization of energy systems for agriculture is discussed. The purpose of the research presented is to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for program development. The program's objective is determined by: (1) an analysis of the technologies that could be utilized to transform renewable farm resources to energy by the year 2000, (2) the quantity of renewable farm resources that are available, and (3) current energy-use patterns. Individual research, development, and demonstration projects are fit into a national program of energy-integrated farm systems on the basis of: (1) market need, (2) conversion potential, (3) technological opportunities, and (4) acceptability. Quantification of these factors for the purpose of establishing program guidelines is conducted using the following four precepts: (1) market need is identified by current use of energy for agricultural production; (2) conversion potential is determined by the availability of renewable resources; and (3) technological opportunities are determined by the state-of-the-art methods, techniques, and processes that can convert renewable resources into farm energy. Each of these factors is analyzed in Chapters 2 to 4. Chapter 5 draws on the analysis of these factors to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for the distribution of program funds. Chapter 6 then discusses the acceptability of integrated farm systems, which can not be quantified like the other factors.

  11. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  12. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap. Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid

  13. Comparative analysis of village chicken production in two farming systems in Burkino Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.; Nianogo, A.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to describe and compare village chicken production in two farming systems in Burkina Faso. The systems were those in which crops and livestock production were, respectively, the most important. A rapid rural appraisal preceded a monitoring study in which data were collected

  14. Critical introductory notes on farming systems research in developing Third World agriculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.; Brouwer, R.

    1989-01-01

    In Third World agricultural research of household-managed production units, the systems approach is applied in the form of Farming Systems Research (FSR). Several authors reviewed here have criticized the way in which this is done. It appears that most of them neglect the fact that most FSR belongs

  15. Composition and enzymatic activity in bulk milk from dairy farms with conventional or robotic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Monika; Lundh, Åse; Vries, de Ruben; Sjaunja, Kerstin Svennersten

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the studies reported in this research communication was to investigate differences in composition and enzymatic activities in bulk milk samples provided from Swedish dairy farms with different management systems, i.e. automated (AMS) and conventional milking systems (CMS). A bulk

  16. 76 FR 53362 - Approval of Farm Credit System Lending Institutions in FHA Mortgage Insurance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... impairments may access this number via TTY by calling the Federal Information Relay Service at 800-877-8339... 202-708- 1515 (this is not a toll-free number). Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access... Credit System. In addition, investors in Farm Credit System debt are protected by the assets of the self...

  17. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourmad, J.Y.; Ryschawy, J.; Trousson, T.; Bonneau, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Hviid, M.; Zimmer, C.; Nguyen, T.L.T.; Morgensen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The

  18. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  19. The Dutch programme on soil ecology of arable farming systems : farm management monitoring programme and general results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, G.; Faassen, van H.G.; Ouwerkerk, van C.; Brussaard, L.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made between conventional farm management (CONV) and integrated farm management (INT) on a calcareous silty clay loam soil, with a crop rotation of winter wheat, sugar beet, spring barley and potatoes. Both types of management were started at two levels of soil organic matter, 2.2%

  20. Coordinated Control Strategies for Offshore Wind Farm Integration via VSC-HVDC for System Frequency Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yujun; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated control strategies to provide system inertia support for main grid from offshore wind farm that is integrated through HVdc transmission is the subject matter of this paper. The strategy that seeks to provide inertia support to the main grid through simultaneous utilization of HVdc...... scheme. Both strategies can effectively provide inertia support while the second one minimizes the control impacts on harvesting wind energy with the aid of communication between onshore and offshore ac grids. Case studies of a wind farm connecting with a HVdc system considering sudden load variations...... have been successfully conducted to compare and demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategies in DIgSILENT/PowerFactory....

  1. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    management approach may facilitate large savings in the use of herbicides. At the national level, the results clearly show that the benefits to the Danish economy of adopting this new technology is positive with increased income to farmers and a reduction in fuel consumption and pesticides/herbicides use...... farms in Denmark. The results also clearly show that adoption of PF and CTF farming systems will benefit the environment. The agricultural sectors input of environmental harmful inputs are reduced in all scenarios presented in this paper. The adoption of PF and CTF systems should thus be of interest...

  2. [Agricultural policies and farming systems: A case study of landscape changes in Shizuitou Village in the recent four decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-jun; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yan-bin; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural policy in China's rural heartland is driving profound changes to traditional farming systems. A case study covering four decades mapped and recorded farming patterns and processes in Shizuitou Village, a rural village in northwest Shanxi. An integrated geospatial methodology from geography and anthropology was employed in the case study to record the changing dynamics of farming systems in Shizuitou Village to discover the long-term impacts of China's agricultural policies on village farming systems. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural policies on village farming systems were mapped, inventoried and evaluated using Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS). The results revealed traditional polycultures are being gradually replaced by industrialized monocultures. The driving forces behind these farming changes come from a series of government agricultural policies aiming at modernization of farming systems in China. The goal of these policies was to spur rapid development of industrial agriculture under the guise of modernization but is leading to the decay of traditional farming systems in the village that maintained local food security with healthy land for hundreds of years. The paper concluded with a recommendation that in future, agricultural policy makers should strike a more reasonable balance between short-term agricultural profits and long-term farming sustainability based on the principles of ecological sustainable development under the context of global changes.

  3. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  4. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  5. Farm woodlots in rural Rwanda: purposes and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndayambaje, J.D.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of farm woodlots as an alternative source of livelihood for smallholder farmers in diverse biophysical and socio-economic conditions is a challenging issue in developing countries, such as Rwanda, where the majority of the population relies on subsistence farming. There is a need to

  6. Development of Distributed Simulation Platform for Power Systems and Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The study of wind power system strongly relies on simulations in all kinds of methods. In industry, the feasibility and efficiency of wind power projects also will be verified by simulations at first. However, taking time cost and economy into consideration, simulations in large scales often sacr...... and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Energy Management System (EMS), etc. to realize non-real-time semiphysical simulation for wind farm and power system control researches....

  7. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  8. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  9. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion roots from organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan Vivero, G.A.; Paradi, I.; Burger, K.; Baar, J.; Kuyper, T.W.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2009-01-01

    Diversity and colonization levels of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in onion roots were studied to compare organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. In 2004, 20 onion fields were sampled in a balanced survey between farming systems and between two regions,

  10. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink....

  11. A survey of small-scale cattle farming systems in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    A survey of small-scale cattle farming systems in the North West Province of. South Africa ... Abstract. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a purposive sample of 60 small-scale cattle farmers in the .... has a negative impact on pasture and soil resources and represents a potential threat to the sustainability of.

  12. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility.

  13. Steady-state Performance Analysis of Collector System Designs for Large-scale Offshore Wind Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinonez-Varela, G.; Ault, G.W.; McDonald, J.R. [Institute for Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, 204 George St., Glasgow G1 1XW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the steady-state performance of various designs for the electrical collector system of offshore wind farms and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each of these designs and their application within large-scale offshore developments. A series of power systems studies were carried out for a proposed 1 GW wind farm off the northeast coast of Scotland, with the plant set to generate at a range of power outputs in order to investigate the impact on the loading and losses of the collector system. The impact on voltage level changes on the busbars within the wind farm under various conditions of reactive power demand, i.e. considering both typical squirrel-cage machines (with typically low lagging power factors) and modern doubly-fed generators (with capability to vary power factor in lagging/leading ranges), was also investigated. In addition, for collector system designs with redundant cables, contingency conditions of losing one of the cables to the hub end were investigated. The overall results have lead to consider the application of 'single-sided ring' designs for large-scale offshore wind farms since it achieves fewer losses and also provides greater adequacy and reliability. Finally, the authors introduce an alternative design based on 'single-sided ring' arrangement which seems a more suitable option taking into account potential economic barriers from the original one-to-one design.

  14. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zijlstra, Mink; Masikati, Patricia; Crespo, Olivier; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a

  15. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

     “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde” Isaurinda Baptista Summary Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both

  16. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability : study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical

  17. Aligning strategy and performance management systems : the case of the wind-farm industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, R.; O'Dwyer, B.; Schneider, R.

    This article presents a case study examining the problems and possibilities of performance management in a wind-farm company. Drawing on Ferreira and Otley’s recently developed performance management systems (PMSs) framework, the study demonstrates how the framework facilitates in-depth, holistic,

  18. Co-learning cycles to support the design of innovative farm systems in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, Gatien N.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mourik, Van Thomas A.; Adam, Myriam; Sogoba, Bougouna; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Farm systems were re-designed together with farmers during three years (2013–2015) in Southern Mali with the aim to improve income without compromising food self-sufficiency. A cyclical learning model with three steps was used: Step 1 was the co-design of a set of crop/livestock technical

  19. Decision support for mastitis on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833169

    2010-01-01

    For an optimal mastitis management on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), two individual cow decisions are important. First, there is a need for decision support on which mastitis alerts have the highest priority for visual checking for clinical mastitis (CM). In essence, all cows with

  20. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: integrated evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, M.; Klauke, T.N.; Gonzalez, J.; Rydhmer, L.; Ilari-Antoine, E.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Cinar, M.U.; Fabrega, E.; Zimmer, C.; Hviid, M.; Oever, van der B.; Edwards, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an approach for an integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems, taking into account the three classical pillars: economy, environment and society. Eight sustainability themes were considered: Animal Welfare (AW), Animal Health (AH), Breeding

  1. Dust filtering properties and ammonia emission of on-farm drying systems for poultry manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Ellen, H.H.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, measures for mitigation of Particulate Matter (PM) emissions are needed for poultry houses to lower their contribution to elevated ambient PM concentrations. In this study, we 1) investigated whether on-farm drying systems (DS) for poultry manure can remove PM from the exhaust

  2. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zijlstra, Mink; Masikati, Patricia; Crespo, Olivier; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a

  3. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Glomalin Enhance Carbon Sequestration in Organic Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have increased nearly 100 ppm in the last 250 years. Soils may be able to mitigate this by sequestering carbon, but agricultural soils are often a source rather than a sink for carbon. The Rodale Institute’s Farming Systems Trial® (FST), initiated in 1981 ...

  4. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  5. Soil microbiome is more heterogeneous in organic than in conventional farming system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupatini, M.; Korthals, G.W.; De Hollander, M.; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming system and sustainable management of soil pathogens aim at reducing the use of agricultural chemicals in order to improve ecosystem health. Despite the essential role of microbial communities in agro-ecosystems, we still have limited understanding of the complex response of microbial

  6. Simulation of offshore wind farm integrated into power grid using VSC HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hui; Nguyen, Mau Cuong; Rudion, Krzystof; Styczynski, Zbigniew Antoni [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Chair for Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the integration of an offshore wind farm into a power grid is studied based on the simulation of a developed test system including an aggregated DFIG wind farm model and VSC HVDC transmission system model. This paper concentrates on the transient stability and system performance with an applied controller for DFIG and HVDC converter stations. The results are obtained by simulation of the test system subjected to severe grid disturbance, e.g. three-phase short circuit fault at the point of common coupling (PCC). Furthermore, the conformity of the system performance with the current grid code, e.g. fault-ride through capability is investigated and confirmed from the simulation results. In addition, a DC-chopper circuit is modeled to protect the HVDC-link from the overvoltage without disconnection during grid faults. Different time delays of the DC-chopper are considered and simulated to investigate its influence on the system dynamics and performance. (orig.)

  7. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  8. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  9. Diversity of Bacterial Biofilm Communities on Sprinklers from Dairy Farm Cooling Systems in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Y Shpigel

    Full Text Available On dairy farms in hot climates worldwide, cows suffer from heat stress, which is alleviated by the use of water cooling systems. Sprinklers and showerheads are known to support the development of microbial biofilms, which can be a source of infection by pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of microbial biofilms in dairy cooling systems, and to analyze their population compositions using culture-independent technique, 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biofilm samples were collected on eight dairy farms from 40 sprinklers and the microbial constituents were identified by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 9,374 operational taxonomic units (OTUs was obtained from all samples. The mean richness of the samples was 465 ± 268 OTUs which were classified into 26 different phyla; 76% of the reads belonged to only three phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Although the most prevalent OTUs (Paracoccus, Methyloversatilis, Brevundimonas, Porphyrobacter, Gp4, Mycobacterium, Hyphomicrobium, Corynebacterium and Clostridium were shared by all farms, each farm formed a unique microbial pattern. Some known potential human and livestock pathogens were found to be closely related to the OTUs found in this study. This work demonstrates the presence of biofilm in dairy cooling systems which may potentially serve as a live source for microbial pathogens.

  10. Offshore Wind Farms and HVDC Grids Modeling as a Feedback Control System for Stability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Altin, Müfit

    control schemes and may lead the entire system to instability. Assessing the stability and adopting complex coordinated control schemes in an HVDC grid and wind farm turbines are challenging and require a precise model of the HVDC grid, wind farm, and the controllers. In this paper, a linear multivariable...... feedback control system (FCS) model is proposed to represent the dynamic characteristics of HVDC grids and their controllers. The FCS model can be used for different dynamic analyses in time and frequency domains. Moreover, using the FCS model the system stability is analyzed in both open- and closed......-loop forms. The standard eigenanalysis identifies the modes of only the closed-loop system and detects the pertaining state variables. The open-loop model, in the frequency domain, is a complementary tool that helps to have more intuitive insight into the system stability. A four terminal HVDC grid with two...

  11. Ecological and Clinical Consequences of Antibiotic Subsistence by Environmental Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Environmental Origins of Resistance: The Producer Hypothesis Resistome of other Soil Bacteria: Response to the Producers? Early Reports of Antibiotic Catabolism by Soil Bacteria The Antibiotic Subsistome: Who and how much? Antibiotic Subsistence...... as a Scavenger Phenotype Ecological Consequences of the Antibiotic Subsistome Investigating Connections Between Subsistomes and Resistomes Metagenomic Functional Selections for Discovering Genes Enabling Antibiotic Subsistence and Resistance Antibiotic Subsistence by Pathogenic Bacteria Concluding Remarks...

  12. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs.

  13. Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

    2011-03-01

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. Copyright © 2010

  14. Smoothing of wind farm output power using prediction based flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farzana

    Being socially beneficial, economically competitive and environment friendly, wind energy is now considered to be the world's fastest growing renewable energy source. However, the stochastic nature of wind imposes a considerable challenge in the optimal management and operation of wind power system. Wind speed prediction is critical for wind energy conversion system since it greatly influences the issues related to effective energy management, dynamic control of wind turbine, and improvement of the overall efficiency of the power generation system. This thesis focuses on integration of energy storage system with wind farm, considering wind speed prediction in the control scheme to overcome the problems associated with wind power fluctuations. In this thesis, flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with adjustable speed rotary machine has been considered for smoothing of output power in a wind farm composed of a fixed speed wind turbine generator (FSWTG). Since FESS has both active and reactive power compensation ability, it enhances the stability of the system effectively. An efficient energy management system combined with supervisory control unit (SCU) for FESS and wind speed prediction has been developed to improve the smoothing of the wind farm output effectively. Wind speed prediction model is developed by artificial neural network (ANN) which has advantages over the conventional prediction scheme including data error tolerance and ease in adaptability. The model for prediction with ANN is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and interfaced with PSCAD/EMTDC. Effectiveness of the proposed control system is illustrated using real wind speed data in various operating conditions.

  15. A comparison of the energy use and carbon release from two Manitoba farms with contrasting tillage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulden, R.H.; Entz, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    Different cropping systems were studied to determine which would result in lower energy use and carbon emissions released by manufactured inputs. A conventional tillage farming operation was compared with a zero tillage farming operation with similar crop rotations. The research was conducted at two 650 ha commercial farms in Manitoba. Data was collected for a period of 8 years. The crop rotations included combinations of canola, alfalfa, wheat, peas and barley. Results of the study show that a simple method of decreasing the energy use and carbon emissions in the conventional tillage farming system is to shift to a minimum tillage system. Even greater energy savings could be had by switching to a zero tillage system. In the case of zero tillage farming, further cost reductions might be achieved by planting more annual legume crops, or by extending the duration of the alfalfa stand in the rotation, thus cutting down on the amount of nitrogen fertilizer required. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Root system-based limits to agricultural productivity and efficiency: the farming systems context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, John

    2016-07-12

    There has been renewed global interest in both genetic and management strategies to improve root system function in order to improve agricultural productivity and minimize environmental damage. Improving root system capture of water and nutrients is an obvious strategy, yet few studies consider the important interactions between the genetic improvements proposed, and crop management at a system scale that will influence likely success. To exemplify these interactions, the contrasting cereal-based farming systems of Denmark and Australia were used, where the improved uptake of water and nitrogen from deeper soil layers has been proposed to improve productivity and environmental outcomes in both systems. The analysis showed that water and nitrogen availability, especially in deeper layers (>1 m), was significantly affected by the preceding crops and management, and likely to interact strongly with deeper rooting as a specific trait of interest. In the semi-arid Australian environment, grain yield impacts from storage and uptake of water from depth (>1 m) could be influenced to a stronger degree by preceding crop choice (0·42 t ha -1 ), pre-crop fallow management (0·65 t ha -1 ) and sowing date (0·63 t ha -1 ) than by current genetic differences in rooting depth (0·36 t ha -1 ). Matching of deep-rooted genotypes to management provided the greatest improvements related to deep water capture. In the wetter environment of Denmark, reduced leaching of N was the focus. Here the amount of N moving below the root zone was also influenced by previous crop choice or cover crop management (effects up to 85 kg N ha -1 ) and wheat crop sowing date (up to 45 kg ha -1 ), effects which over-ride the effects of differences in rooting depth among genotypes. These examples highlight the need to understand the farming system context and important G × E × M interactions in studies on proposed genetic improvements to root systems for improved productivity or environmental

  17. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  18. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  19. Studies of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Large-Scale Wind Farm Integrated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liu; Hang, Mend

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and construction of large-scale wind farms and grid-connected operation, the series compensation wind power AC transmission is gradually becoming the main way of power usage and improvement of wind power availability and grid stability, but the integration of wind farm will change the SSO (Sub-Synchronous oscillation) damping characteristics of synchronous generator system. Regarding the above SSO problem caused by integration of large-scale wind farms, this paper focusing on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms, aim to summarize the SSO mechanism in large-scale wind power integrated system with series compensation, which can be classified as three types: sub-synchronous control interaction (SSCI), sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI), sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). Then, SSO modelling and analysis methods are categorized and compared by its applicable areas. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the suppression measures of actual SSO projects based on different control objectives. Finally, the research prospect on this field is explored.

  20. A new intelligent electronic nose system for measuring and analysing livestock and poultry farm odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Leilei; Yang, Simon X

    2007-12-01

    This paper introduces a new portable intelligent electronic nose system developed especially for measuring and analysing livestock and poultry farm odours. It can be used in both laboratory and field. The sensor array of the proposed electronic nose consists of 14 gas sensors, a humidity sensor, and a temperature sensor. The gas sensors were especially selected for the main compounds from the livestock farm odours. An expert system called "Odour Expert" was developed to support researchers' and farmers' decision making on odour control strategies for livestock and poultry operations. "Odour Expert" utilises several advanced artificial intelligence technologies tailored to livestock and poultry farm odours. It can provide more advanced odour analysis than existing commercially available products. In addition, a rank of odour generation factors is provided, which refines the focus of odour control research. Field experiments were conducted downwind from the barns on 14 livestock and poultry farms. Experimental results show that the predicted odour strengths by the electronic nose yield higher consistency in comparison to the perceived odour intensity by human panel. The "Odour Expert" is a useful tool for assisting farmers' odour management practises.

  1. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module. The ...... decreasing frequency oscillations and fuel consumptions of the platform, with respect to the simplified configuration. On the other hand, the dynamic response of the combined cycle units is slower due to the thermal inertia of the heat transfer equipment.......Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...

  2. Does farm worker health vary between localised and globalised food supply systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Opondo, Maggie; Nyeko, Philip; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2009-10-01

    Significant environmental benefits are claimed for local food systems, but these biophysical indicators are increasingly recognised as inadequate descriptors of supply chain ethics. Social factors such as health are also important indicators of good practice, and are recognised by the organic and local food movements as important to the development of rounded sustainable agricultural practices. This study compared the self-reported health status of farm workers in the United Kingdom, Spain, Kenya and Uganda who were supplying distant markets with fresh vegetables. Workers on Kenyan export horticulture farms reported significantly higher levels of physical health than did Kenyan non-export farm workers and workers in the other study countries. Mean health levels for farm workers in the United Kingdom were significantly lower than relevant population norms, indicating widespread levels of poor health amongst these workers. These results suggest that globalised supply chains can provide social benefits to workers, while local food systems do not always provide desirable social outcomes. The causal mechanisms of these observations probably relate more to the social conditions of workers than directly to income.

  3. Breaking the Vicious Cycle in Irrigation Farming System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    System for Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria. (pp. 234-245). Oriola, E. O. - Department of Geography, ... Key Words: Irrigation, vicious cycle, food, sustainable, security. Introduction. Irrigation Agriculture in Nigeria is plagued ... the whole system will collapse or at best continue to run at a low potential for food production.

  4. Assessing the users’ need for a spatial decision support system of smallholder farming in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Teucher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data of the natural conditions and agricultural systems with a good spatial resolution are a key factor to tackle food insecurity in developing countries. A broad variety of approaches exists to achieve precise data and information about agriculture. One system, especially developed for smallholder agriculture in East Africa, is the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. It was first published in 1982/83 and fully revised in 2012, now containing 7 volumes. The handbooks contain detailed information on climate, soils, suitable crops and soil care based on scientific research results of the last 30 years. The density of facts leads to time consuming extraction of all necessary information. In this study we analyse the user needs and necessary components of a system for decision support for smallholder farming in Kenya based on a geographical information system (GIS. Required data sources were identified, as well as essential functions of the system. We analysed the results of our survey conducted in 2012 and early 2013 among agricultural officers. The monitoring of user needs and the problem of non-adaptability of an agricultural information system on the level of extension officers in Kenya are the central objectives. The outcomes of the survey suggest the establishment of a decision support tool based on already available open source GIS components. The system should include functionalities to show general information for a specific location and should provide precise recommendations about suitable crops and management options to support agricultural guidance on farm level.

  5. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aguiar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  6. 50 CFR 36.16 - Closure to subsistence uses of fish and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closure to subsistence uses of fish and wildlife. 36.16 Section 36.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES...

  7. The optimal access system for future far-offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Savenije, L.B. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Operation and maintenance (O and M) of offshore wind turbines is one of the main cost drivers of offshore wind energy. One of the aspects critical for an efficient and cost-effective O and M strategy is the selection of the access system which is used to transfer technicians and, optionally, small spare parts. Currently, most offshore wind farms are located close to shore, and their size is relatively small. For these farms the typical access system consists of catamaran-like workboats, which are used to transfer both technicians and small spare parts. As wind farms move further offshore this O and M concept might no longer be cost-effective. Currently, different alternative O and M concepts are being considered for the future far-offshore sites. In this paper an extensive and holistic comparison of different O and M concepts including different access system solutions is presented. This analysis has been performed using the OMCECalculator, ECN's software for advanced O and M cost modelling. Different sites have been considered, which are typical for the future offshore wind farms that will be commissioned during the next five years. The results of the performed analyses indicate that when moving further offshore harbour-based O and M strategies are no longer economical, even when helicopters are added to the mix. Looking at farm-based O and M concepts a supply vessel with a compensated access gangway offers great potential. However, the calculations also indicate that its ability to transfer small spare parts, in addition to technicians, is crucial.

  8. A FARM GROWTH MODEL FOR POLICY ANALYSIS IN AN EXTENSIVE PASTORAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Anthony C.; Dent, J. Barry

    1987-01-01

    The development of a simulation model of an extensive pastoral farming system to assist analysts in their assessment of government policy measures is described. The model was designed to simulate, over a number of years, the physical and financial operation of a sheep and beef production system typically found in the North Island hill country of New Zealand. By manipulating model parameters and data related to prices, costs, taxation and credit, a range of policies can be represented and thei...

  9. The Dynamic Impact of Large Wind Farms on Power System Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, Katherine

    2012-07-01

    As the installed capacity of wind power increases across the world, its impact on power systems is becoming more important. To ensure the reliable operation of a power system which is significantly fed by wind power, the dynamics of the system must be understood. The purpose of this study is to analyse the dynamic impact of large-scale wind farms on the stability of a power grid, and to investigate the possibility of improving the stabilisation and damping of the grid by smart control strategies for wind turbines. When unconventional types of generators are used in a power system, the system behaves differently under abnormal dynamic events. For example, new types of generators such as doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) cause different modes of oscillation in the system. In order to damp oscillations in the system, it is necessary to understand the equipment causing these oscillations, and the methods of optimally damping the oscillations. Large power oscillations can occur in a power system as a result of disturbances. Ordinarily these oscillations are slow and, in principle, it is possible to damp them with the help of wind power. This suggests the use of a power oscillation damping (POD) controller for a DFIG, similar to a power system stabiliser (PSS) for a synchronous generator. To demonstrate this concept, we design PODs for DFIGs in a wind farm. Voltage stability is another important aspect of the safe operation of a power system. It has been shown that the voltage stability of a power system is affected by induction generators and also DFIGs. The voltage stability must therefore also be analysed in order to guard against a power system collapse. In this study we develop models and control strategies for large wind farms comprising DFIGs, and study the impact of the wind farms on power systems. The design of multiple PODs in a wind farm is performed using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and the impact of the wind turbines is investigated through the

  10. Development of a decision support system for individual dairy farms in mixed irrigated farming systems in the Nile Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabana, A.

    2000-01-01

    The principal animal production system in Egypt is the mixed crop-livestock production system with a semi-intensive/semi-commercial orientation. The development strategies emphasized in this study contribute to the development and implementation of improved

  11. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  12. Determining farm effects attributable to the introduction and use of a dairy management information system in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and reproduction data on dairy farms in The Netherlands were obtained to determine whether management information systems significantly improved herd performance variables (management information systems (MIS) effects). The analysis included 357 adopters of a management information

  13. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

      In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a

  14. Targeting resources within diverse, heterogeneous and dynamic farming systems: Towards a ‘uniquely African green revolution’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Misiko, M.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are highly diverse and heterogeneous, often operating in complex socio-ecological environments. Much of the heterogeneity within the farming systems is caused by spatial soil variability, which results in its turn from the interaction between inherent

  15. Diversity of flower-visiting bees in cereal fields: Effects of farming system, landscape composition and regional context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzschuh, A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Kleijn, D.; Tscharntke, T.

    2007-01-01

    1. Agri-environment schemes promote organic farming in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of agricultural intensification on farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination. Farming system, landscape context and regional differences may all influence biodiversity, but their

  16. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: integrated evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, M; Klauke, T N; Gonzàlez, J; Rydhmer, L; Ilari-Antoine, E; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K; Houwers, H W J; Cinar, M U; Fàbrega, E; Zimmer, C; Hviid, M; van der Oever, B; Edwards, S A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an approach for an integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems, taking into account the three classical pillars: economy, environment and society. Eight sustainability themes were considered: Animal Welfare (AW), Animal Health (AH), Breeding Programmes (BP), Environment (EN), Meat Safety (MS), Market Conformity (MC), Economy (EC) and Working Conditions (WC). A total of 37 primary indicators were identified and used for the evaluation of 15 much contrasted pig farming systems in five EU countries. The results show that the eight themes were not redundant and all contributed to the observed variation between systems. The tool was very robust for highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the systems along the eight themes that were considered. The number of primary indicators could be reduced from 37 to 18 with limited impact on the strengths/weaknesses profile of the individual systems. Integrating the eight theme evaluations into a single sustainability score is based on hypotheses or presumptions on the relative weights that should be given to the eight themes, which are very dependent on the context and on the purpose of the users of the tool. Therefore, the present paper does not have the ambition to provide a ready-for-use tool, rather to suggest an approach for the integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems.

  17. Biological activity of soils under systems of organic farming, agroforestry and pasture in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ferro Silva

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate biological indicators of soils used under the systems of organic farming, agroforestry and pasture in the south western part of the Amazon region of Brazil. The experiment was carried out at the Seridó Ecological Site, located in Rio Branco, in the state of Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomised, with five treatments (land-use systems and six replications, with each replication consisting of four single samples. The systems of land use evaluated were: 1 native forest (control; 2 agroforestry (AFS; 3 pasture; 4 intercropped passion fruit, maize, cassava, pineapple and forage peanut; and 5 intercropped passion fruit, maize, cassava, pineapple and tropical kudzu. It was found that organic farming systems intercropped with kudzu resulted in smaller losses of C-CO2 through edaphic respiration, and a greater accumulation of microbial biomass carbon. The intercropped organic farming system which included the forage peanut resulted in a greater loss than retention of carbon in the soil at a depth of 5-10 cm. Soil under the agroforestry system was equivalent to the soil of the control (native forest in relation to the release and retention of carbon through biological activity. At a depth of 5-10 cm, soils under pasture presented similar microbial biomass to those under organic cultivation intercropped with tropical kudzu. However, at that depth, soils under pasture presented greater microbial biomass than those under natural forest, agroforestry or organic cultivation intercropped with forage peanut.

  18. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: the procedure, the evaluated systems and the evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, M; de Greef, K; Brinkman, D; Cinar, M U; Dourmad, J Y; Edge, H L; Fàbrega, E; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Ilari-Antoine, E; Klauke, T N; Phatsara, C; Rydhmer, L; van der Oever, B; Zimmer, C; Edwards, S A

    2014-12-01

    Although a few studies consider the sustainability of animal farming systems along the three classical main pillars (economy, environment and society), most studies on pig farming systems address only one of these pillars. The present paper is the introduction to a series of companion papers presenting the results of a study undertaken within the EU-supported project Q-PorkChains, aiming at building a comprehensive tool for the evaluation of pig farming systems, which is robust to accommodate the large variability of systems existing in Europe. The tool is mostly based on questions to farmers and comprises a total of 37 dimensions distributed along eight themes: Animal Welfare, Animal Health, Breeding Programmes, Environmental Sustainability, Meat Safety, Market Conformity, Economy and Working Conditions. The paper describes the procedure that was used for building the tool, using it on 15 contrasted pig farming systems and analysing the results. The evaluated systems are briefly described and a short overview of the dimensions is provided. Detailed descriptions of the theme-wise tools and results, as well as the results of an integrated evaluation, are available in the companion papers.

  19. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; Molleman, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Social learning is a fundamental element of human cognition. Learning from others facilitates the transmission of information that helps individuals and groups rapidly adjust to new environments and underlies adaptive cultural evolution1–6. While basic human propensities for social learning are traditionally assumed to be species-universal1,7, recent empirical studies show that they vary between individuals and populations8–13. Yet the causes of this variation remain poorly understood9. Here we show that interdependence in everyday social and economic activities can strongly amplify social learning. With an experimental decision-making task we examine individual versus social learning in three recently diverged populations of a single-ethnic group, whose subsistence styles require varying degrees of interdependence. Interdependent pastoralists and urban dwellers have markedly higher propensities for social learning than independent horticulturalists, who predominantly rely on individual payoff information. These results indicate that everyday social and economic practices can mould human social learning strategies and they highlight the flexibility of human cognition to change with local ecology. Our study further suggests that shifts in subsistence styles – which can occur when humans inhabit new habitats or cultural niches2 – can alter reliance on social learning and may therefore impact the ability of human societies to adapt to novel circumstances. PMID:28553662

  20. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; Molleman, Lucas

    2017-04-28

    Social learning is a fundamental element of human cognition. Learning from others facilitates the transmission of information that helps individuals and groups rapidly adjust to new environments and underlies adaptive cultural evolution1-6. While basic human propensities for social learning are traditionally assumed to be species-universal1,7, recent empirical studies show that they vary between individuals and populations8-13. Yet the causes of this variation remain poorly understood9. Here we show that interdependence in everyday social and economic activities can strongly amplify social learning. With an experimental decision-making task we examine individual versus social learning in three recently diverged populations of a single-ethnic group, whose subsistence styles require varying degrees of interdependence. Interdependent pastoralists and urban dwellers have markedly higher propensities for social learning than independent horticulturalists, who predominantly rely on individual payoff information. These results indicate that everyday social and economic practices can mould human social learning strategies and they highlight the flexibility of human cognition to change with local ecology. Our study further suggests that shifts in subsistence styles - which can occur when humans inhabit new habitats or cultural niches2 - can alter reliance on social learning and may therefore impact the ability of human societies to adapt to novel circumstances.

  1. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 genetic diversity and traditional subsistence: a worldwide population survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Sabbagh

    Full Text Available Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 is involved in human physiological responses to a variety of xenobiotic compounds, including common therapeutic drugs and exogenous chemicals present in the diet and the environment. Many questions remain about the evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the high prevalence of slow acetylators in the human species. Evidence from recent surveys of NAT2 gene variation suggests that NAT2 slow-causing variants might have become targets of positive selection as a consequence of the shift in modes of subsistence and lifestyle in human populations in the last 10,000 years. We aimed to test more extensively the hypothesis that slow acetylation prevalence in humans is related to the subsistence strategy adopted by the past populations. To this end, published frequency data on the most relevant genetic variants of NAT2 were collected from 128 population samples (14,679 individuals representing different subsistence modes and dietary habits, allowing a thorough analysis at both a worldwide and continent scale. A significantly higher prevalence of the slow acetylation phenotype was observed in populations practicing farming (45.4% and herding (48.2% as compared to populations mostly relying on hunting and gathering (22.4% (P = 0.0007. This was closely mirrored by the frequency of the slow 590A variant that was found to occur at a three-fold higher frequency in food producers (25% as compared to hunter-gatherers (8%. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Neolithic transition to subsistence economies based on agricultural and pastoral resources modified the selective regime affecting the NAT2 acetylation pathway. Furthermore, the vast amount of data collected enabled us to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of NAT2 worldwide genetic diversity, thus building up a useful resource of frequency data for further studies interested in epidemiological or anthropological research

  2. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genetic diversity and traditional subsistence: a worldwide population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Audrey; Darlu, Pierre; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Poloni, Estella S

    2011-04-06

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in human physiological responses to a variety of xenobiotic compounds, including common therapeutic drugs and exogenous chemicals present in the diet and the environment. Many questions remain about the evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the high prevalence of slow acetylators in the human species. Evidence from recent surveys of NAT2 gene variation suggests that NAT2 slow-causing variants might have become targets of positive selection as a consequence of the shift in modes of subsistence and lifestyle in human populations in the last 10,000 years. We aimed to test more extensively the hypothesis that slow acetylation prevalence in humans is related to the subsistence strategy adopted by the past populations. To this end, published frequency data on the most relevant genetic variants of NAT2 were collected from 128 population samples (14,679 individuals) representing different subsistence modes and dietary habits, allowing a thorough analysis at both a worldwide and continent scale. A significantly higher prevalence of the slow acetylation phenotype was observed in populations practicing farming (45.4%) and herding (48.2%) as compared to populations mostly relying on hunting and gathering (22.4%) (P = 0.0007). This was closely mirrored by the frequency of the slow 590A variant that was found to occur at a three-fold higher frequency in food producers (25%) as compared to hunter-gatherers (8%). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Neolithic transition to subsistence economies based on agricultural and pastoral resources modified the selective regime affecting the NAT2 acetylation pathway. Furthermore, the vast amount of data collected enabled us to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of NAT2 worldwide genetic diversity, thus building up a useful resource of frequency data for further studies interested in epidemiological or anthropological research questions involving

  3. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types...... that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development...... of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose...

  4. Design and Simulation of Dairy Farm Photovoltaic System for a Rural Area in Tlemcen, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Aicha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy in agriculture is a research knows that considerable development in the last decade. In this paper we scrutinized optimal sizing of solar array and battery in a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV system to provide the required electricity for a dairy cow farm located in Terny Beni hdiel in Tlemcen, Algeria. Solar radiation data measured in an hourly time-series format are used based on 22 years. Average between 1983 and 2005. The PVSYST software tool was used for simulation of the system. The study is addressed to loads in the small dairy farm with energy consumption levels of around 121 kWh per day. The stand-alone PV system consists of a Solar panel, DC-DC Converter, Maximum Power Point Tracker, DC/AC Inverter, and Battery.

  5. Sostenibilidad de sistemas agrícolas Sustainability of farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Fabio R.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades agrícolas pueden tener impactos negativos sobre el ambiente, con efectos dentro y fuera de los predios. El presente artículo pretende contribuir al avance de la agricultura sostenible con énfasis en países en vías de desarrollo. Se revisan y analizan los conceptos de sostenibilidad y agricultura sostenible, incluyendo los diferentes puntos de vista en el debate sobre sostenibilidad'. El artículo examina los impactos ambientales debidos a las actividades agrícolas, destacando la importancia de fortalecer la investigación, con publicación de resultados, sobre la relación agricultura y medio ambiente. La complejidad de los factores que determinan la sostenibilidad agrícola exige una concepción de sistemas, integradora, participativa y holística. El uso de indicadores tiene un gran potencial en la evaluación de la sostenibilidad de sistemas productivos. La práctica de agricultura sostenible requiere tener en cuenta las condiciones ambientales, sociales y económicas en las cuales
    se desenvuelve la agricultura.Farming activities have the potential to affect the farming system itself and the offfarm environment. This paper attempts to contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture with emphasis in developing countries. The concepts of sustainability and sustainable agriculture are reviewed and discussed, including the different viewpoints in the sustainability debate. Environmental impacts due to farming activities are examined emphasising the need of promoting further research and publication of findings on the links between environment and agriculture. The complexity of the factors that determine farming sustainability requires
    a systematic, holistic, participative and integrated approach. Indicators are likely to contribute to the development of sustainable farming systems. Understanding environmental, social and economic circumstances is required to promote sustainability.

  6. Comparative assessment of migrant farm worker health in conventional and organic horticultural systems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Barry; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2008-02-25

    This study describes the self-reported health and well-being status of field and packhouse workers in UK vegetable horticulture, and tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the self-reported health of workers on organic and conventional horticultural farms. The majority of those sampled were migrant workers (93%) from Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and the Ukraine. More than 95% of the respondents were aged 18-34 and recruited through university agricultural faculties in East European or employed via UK agencies. The health of 605 farm workers (395 males and 210 females) was measured through the use of four standard health instruments. Farm workers' health was significantly poorer than published national norms for three different health instruments (Short Form 36, EuroQol EQ-5D and the Visual Analogue Scale). There were no significant differences in the health status of farm workers between conventional and organic farms for any of these three instruments. However, organic farm workers scored higher on a fourth health instrument the Short Depression Happiness Scale (SDHS) indicating that workers on organic farms were happier than their counterparts working on conventional farms. Multiple regression analysis suggested that the difference in the SDHS score for organic and conventional farms is closely related to the range and number of tasks the workers performed each day. These findings suggest that a great deal of improvement in the self-reported health of farmers will need to occur before organic farms meet the requirements of the 'Principle of Health' as described by IFOAM. Ensuring that farm workers have a varied range of tasks could be a cost effective means of improving self-reported health status in both organic and conventional farming systems.

  7. A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Kennedy, Christina M; Kremen, Claire; Batáry, Péter; Berendse, Frank; Bommarco, Riccardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Snyder, William E; Williams, Neal M; Winfree, Rachael; Klatt, Björn K; Åström, Sandra; Benjamin, Faye; Brittain, Claire; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Clough, Yann; Danforth, Bryan; Diekötter, Tim; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ekroos, Johan; Elle, Elizabeth; Freitas, Breno M; Fukuda, Yuki; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Grab, Heather; Gratton, Claudio; Holzschuh, Andrea; Isaacs, Rufus; Isaia, Marco; Jha, Shalene; Jonason, Dennis; Jones, Vincent P; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Krauss, Jochen; Letourneau, Deborah K; Macfadyen, Sarina; Mallinger, Rachel E; Martin, Emily A; Martinez, Eliana; Memmott, Jane; Morandin, Lora; Neame, Lisa; Otieno, Mark; Park, Mia G; Pfiffner, Lukas; Pocock, Michael J O; Ponce, Carlos; Potts, Simon G; Poveda, Katja; Ramos, Mariangie; Rosenheim, Jay A; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary; Saunders, Manu E; Schon, Nicole L; Sciligo, Amber R; Sidhu, C Sheena; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja; Veselý, Milan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wilson, Julianna K; Crowder, David W

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts. Using a global metadataset, we quantified the effects of organic farming and plant diversification on abundance, local diversity (communities within fields), and regional diversity (communities across fields) of arthropod pollinators, predators, herbivores, and detritivores. Both organic farming and higher in-field plant diversity enhanced arthropod abundance, particularly for rare taxa. This resulted in increased richness but decreased evenness. While these responses were stronger at local relative to regional scales, richness and abundance increased at both scales, and richness on farms embedded in complex relative to simple landscapes. Overall, both organic farming and in-field plant diversification exerted the strongest effects on pollinators and predators, suggesting these management schemes can facilitate ecosystem service providers without augmenting herbivore (pest) populations. Our results suggest that organic farming and plant diversification promote diverse arthropod metacommunities that may provide temporal and spatial stability of ecosystem service provisioning. Conserving diverse plant and arthropod communities in farming systems therefore requires sustainable practices that operate both within fields and across landscapes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  9. Farming systems ecology : towards ecological intensification of world agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The model of intensification that is deeply rooted in the mind of scientists from the green revolution generation is obsolete. We need to think outside the box. Agriculture needs knowledge-intensive management systems to improve food security and incomes in the South, and to reduce the dependence on

  10. Crop-Livestock Farming Systems Varying with Different Altitudes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland is increasingly converted to cropland, creating diverse crop-livestock practices in different environments. As these practices lead to highly adapted livestock production systems using resources that vary locally and seasonally, not much is known about their similarities and differences.

  11. Systems Approach to Farm Mechanization in Nigeria | Anazodo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various impediments that usually frustrate mechanization schemes in traditional tropical agriculture are briefly discussed. Some fundamental questions are then raised which the author argues can best be studied by a multidisciplinary team using the systems approach in evaluating the appropriate levels of mechanization ...

  12. Work plan for SY Farm Integrated Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-2a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, R.P.; Katz, R.S.

    1994-10-17

    The SY Farm currently has a temporary Data Acquisition & Control System (DACS) housed in a mobile trailer. The system is currently referred to as DACS-1. It was designed and configured to support engineers and scientists conducting the special performance evaluation and testing program for the safety mitigation test equipment located in waste tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY). It is currently being maintained and utilized by engineering personnel to monitor and control the 101-SY mitigation pump activities. Based upon the results of the mitigation testing program, some of the temporary test mitigation equipment (such as mixing pump) will be replaced with longer-term ``operational`` mitigation equipment. This is resulting in new requirements for the Data Acquisition and Control System which will be full-filled by a newer control facility referred to as the DACS-2. A teaming between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been established for the SY farm mitigation program in order to develop and implement the ``next generation`` of the data acquisition and control system for the mitigation pump operations. The new system will be configured for use by the tank farm operational personnel. It will support the routine operations necessary for safety mitigation and the future waste retrieval of Project W-211. It is intended to replace the existing DACS-1 and provide the necessary control room space for future integration of W-211.

  13. 75 FR 51103 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Subsistence Board--Fish and Wildlife Update. 2. Federal Subsistence Board Program Review Update. 3. Alaska Board of Game Update. 4. Subsistence Projects. b. Resource Management Program Update. c. SRC Chairs...

  14. Projecting carbon footprint of Canadian dairy farms under future climate conditions with the integrated farm system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farms are an important sector of Canadian agriculture, and there is an on-going effort to assess their environmental impact. In Canada, like many northern areas of the world, climate change is expected to increase agricultural productivity. This will likely come along with changes in environme...

  15. Phytanic and pristanic acid content in Dutch farm milk and implications for the verification of the farming management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Elgersma, A.; Tres, A.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk samples were collected from 30 Dutch farms and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for phytanic acid (PHY), pristanic acid (PA) and SRR/RRR-diastereomers ratio of PHY. The samples differed in the percentage of fresh grass in the cows' daily ration (0–94%) fed either indoors

  16. The place and importance of indigenous chicken in a subsistence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The place and importance of indigenous chicken in a subsistence economy. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Subsistence chicken production contributes directly to the social and economic well-being of the family while the chicken itself is described as the commonest economic resource ...

  17. Identification of subsistence fishers, fishing areas, resource use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A description is given of the research undertaken to provide a broad overview of the distribution and numbers of people who are subsistence or artisanal fishers and their activities along the coast of South Africa, to assist in the formulation of management protocols and to refine the existing definition of subsistence fishing.

  18. 38 CFR 21.332 - Payments of subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowance. 21.332 Section 21.332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Authorization of Subsistence Allowance and Training and Rehabilitation Services § 21.332 Payments of subsistence allowance. (a) Eligibility. At the end of the month, VA shall pay to an eligible...

  19. Biological and social feasibility of Sesbania fallow practice in small holder agricultural farms in developing countries: a Zambian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, C

    2001-01-01

    Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia, this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil productivity in the small holder farms. However, the paper also reports that the ability for subsistence farmers to adopt the Sesbania fallow system is affected by gender differences in resource allocation to productive resources and institutional, cultural, and social structural settings in which farmers exist and make decisions.

  20. Systems biology: a new tool for farm animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollung, Kristin; Timperio, Anna M; Olivan, Mamen; Kemp, Caroline; Coto-Montes, Ana; Sierra, Veronica; Zolla, Lello

    2014-03-01

    It is rapidly emerging that the tender meat phenotype is affected by an enormous amount of variables, not only tied to genetics (livestock breeding selection), but also to extrinsic factors, such as feeding conditions, physical activity, rearing environment, administration of hormonal growth promotants, pre-slaughter handling and stress. Proteomics has been widely accepted by meat scientists over the last years and is now commonly used to shed light on the postmortem processes involved in meat tenderization. This review discusses the latest findings with the use of proteomics and systems biology to study the different biochemical pathways postmortem aiming at understanding the concerted action of different molecular mechanisms responsible for meat quality. The conversion of muscle to meat postmortem can be described as a sequence of events involving molecular pathways controlled by a complex interplay of many factors. Among the different pathways emerging are the influence of apoptosis and lately also the role of autophagy in muscle postmortem development. This review thus, focus on how systems-wide integrated investigations (metabolomics, transcriptomics, interactomics, phosphoproteomics, mathematical modeling), which have emerged as complementary tools to proteomics, have helped establishing a few milestones in our understanding of the events leading from muscle to meat conversion.

  1. FREE FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system in the years 2009-2010. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 and 2010. Content of free flavonoids and antioxidant activity of white flour and whole grain flour was not affected by farming systems. Antioxidant activity of whole grain flour was more effected by a year and by a forecrop. White flour contain two times less free flavonoids and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. By milling process most of the free flavonoids and other compounds with higher antioxidant activity remain in outer layers of grain.

  2. Seed quality of common bean accessions under organic and conventional farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Medeiros Gindri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiodiversity is essential for a sustainable food production, and the knowledge of the potential characteristics of landrace seeds may prompt farmers to adopt the habit of seed conservation for this species. This study aimed at categorizing landrace and commercial common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions, according to the physiological quality (viability and vigor of seeds produced in the field, during two growing seasons, under organic and conventional farming systems. Germination percentage, field emergence, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, cold test and seedling length were assessed. The landrace bean accessions exhibit diversity in the physiological seed quality, in terms of their viability and vigor. No differences were observed between the farming systems, in relation to the physiological quality of the seeds produced. The categorization of landrace common bean accessions allows to identify those with superior physiological seed quality.

  3. Software configuration management plan, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.F.

    1997-10-30

    This document establishes a Computer Software Configuration Management Plan (CSCM) for controlling software for the MICON Distributed Control System (DCS) located at the 241-AY and 241-AZ Aging Waste Tank Farm facilities in the 200 East Area. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes. A CSCM identifies and defines the configuration items in a system (section 3.1), controls the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle (section 3.2), records and reports the status of configuration items and change requests (section 3.3), and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items (section 3.4). All software development before initial release, or before software is baselined, is considered developmental. This plan does not apply to developmental software. This plan applies to software that has been baselined and released. The MICON software will monitor and control the related instrumentation and equipment of the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farm ventilation systems. Eventually, this software may also assume the monitoring and control of the tank sludge washing equipment and other systems as they are brought on line. This plan applies to the System Cognizant Manager and MICON Cognizant Engineer (who is also referred to herein as the system administrator) responsible for the software/hardware and administration of the MICON system. This document also applies to any other organizations within Tank Farms which are currently active on the system including system cognizant engineers, nuclear operators, technicians, and control room supervisors.

  4. How can landscape management be enhanced by farming systems ? A landscape agronomy perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marraccini, Élisa; Lardon, Sylvie; Rapey, Hélène; DEBOLINI, Marta,; Thenail, Claudine; Benoit, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Agronomists are faced to the multiple stakeholders’ landscape design as a rising issue in the management of farming systems. Furthermore, the European Landscape Convention (ELC) has formally acknowledged the expectations of local stakeholders and decision-makers for a greater support to protect manage and plan the landscapes. A renewed perspective of agronomy on landscape research has recently tried to tackle this challenge. This perspective, called “landscape agronomy” (LA), strives to widen...

  5. Microbiological evaluation of lettuce produced by conventional and organic systems in farms of Londrina, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Harumi Niguma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, produced in Londrina, Paraná (PR, with total coliform, coliform at 45 °C, E. coli, and Salmonella spp.; and to determine the E. coli contamination of irrigation water used at the farms studied. Four farms were evaluated, of which three produced lettuce using a conventional system and one using an organic system. An evaluation of the production practices of the farms was also carried out. A total of 111 samples were analyzed, 71 lettuce samples from the conventional system and 40 samples from the organic system. A total of eight irrigation water samples were collected for analysis. Coliform at 45 °C counts above the limit tolerated by Brazilian legislation were observed in 2.8% (2/71 of conventionally grown lettuce samples, and Salmonella spp. was isolated in 1.4% (1/71 of those samples. In the organic lettuce samples, 12.5% (5/40 had coliform at 45 °C counts above the limit tolerated and Salmonella spp. was not detected. Irrigation water samples from three farms were unsatisfactory, with counts higher than 102MPN of E. coli per 100mL. The results of this study demonstrate that most conventionally grown lettuce samples show good sanitary conditions in production, and that lettuce contamination is not related to contamination found in irrigation water samples. The results also showed that the organic production practices required by Brazilian certification agencies should be applied to ensure that contamination of produced lettuce remains controlled.

  6. ‘La Comida Mambisa’: food, farming, and Cuban identity, 1839-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Lee Dawdy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes how Cuba developed a countrywide system of food meaning and production in the mid-19th c. that became a national, and eventually "nationalist", cuisine during Cuba's revolutionary moments. Author explains how the centrality of food within Cuban national identity was strongly related with the valency associated with the subsistence farming on small family farms ("sitios", producing these native foods and Caribbean ingredients, e.g. cassava, guava, and sweet potatoes. The self-sufficiency of these small farmers was in emerging nationalist discourses opposed to the large-scale, export-oriented, colonial plantations and to slavery. Many small family farmers, of which many were ex-slaves, participated in the armed struggles in part to defend their right of independent, subsistence agriculture. Author outlines how since the early, mid-19th-c. Creole nationalism, Creole food and the small farms remained associated with authentic Cuban folk culture and with national identity, and related to independence struggles, and self-sufficiency, including during and after the 1959 Revolution.

  7. Optimization of a polygeneration system for energy demands of a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polygeneration system is an energy system capable of providing multiple utility outputs to meet local demands by application of process integration. This paper addresses the problem of pinpointing the optimal polygeneration energy supply system for the local energy demands of a livestock farm in terms of optimal system configuration and optimal system capacity. The optimization problem is presented and solved for a case study of a pig farm in the paper. Energy demands of the farm, as well as the super-structure of the polygeneration system were modelled using TRNSYS software. Based on the locally available resources, the following polygeneration modules were chosen for the case study analysis: a biogas fired internal combustion engine co-generation module, a gas boiler, a chiller, a ground water source heat pump, solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic collectors, and heat and cold storage. Capacities of the polygeneration modules were used as optimization variables for the TRNSYS-GenOpt optimization, whereas net present value, system primary energy consumption, and CO2 emissions were used as goal functions for optimization. A hybrid system composed of biogas fired internal combustion engine based co-generation system, adsorption chiller solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors, and heat storage is found to be the best option. Optimal heating capacity of the biogas co-generation and adsorption units was found equal to the design loads, whereas the optimal surface of the solar thermal array is equal to the south office roof area, and the optimal surface of the PV array corresponds to the south facing animal housing building rooftop area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  8. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R.; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon. PMID:26619199

  9. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

  10. Network systems and cloud applications in livestock farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Herd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Einsatz von Automatisierungstechnik und von Sensoren zur Tierüberwachung wächst und damit auch die Datenmenge aus der Tierhaltung. Die Herausforderungen an die Datenanalyse und einfache Informationsdarstellung steigen. Die Beispiele aus Wissenschaft und Praxis zeigen Lösungsmöglichkeiten. Dabei müssen Anlagen unterschiedlicher Hersteller gekoppelt und Daten zielgerichtet ausgewertet werden. Während in wissenschaftlich orientierten Projekten meist Systeme unterschiedlicher Hersteller vertreten sind, um z. B. die Kommunikation und Kooperation zu stärken sowie komplexe Fragestellungen zu beantworten, wird dies in herstellerspezifischen Projekten eher vermieden, da hier der konkrete Anwendervorteil im Vordergrund steht. Anhand ausgewählter Beispiele wird dargestellt, dass mobile Anwendungen als Frühwarnsysteme für Gesundheitsveränderungen in Beständen oder zur Anlagensteuerung implementiert und genutzt werden. Insgesamt ist deutlich zu erkennen, dass sich die Datenauswertung und –nutzung in die Cloud verschiebt. Mit diesen Cloudsystemen erweitert sich das Spektrum der Datenauswertung dahingehend, dass komplexe Algorithmen und mobile Services (Apps, Webberatung oder soziale Netzwerke umgesetzt werden.

  11. Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shabanali Fami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible.

  12. Grape berry bacterial microbiota: impact of the ripening process and the farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Guilherme; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Lauga, Béatrice; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Soulas, Guy; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2012-08-17

    Wine grapes are a primary source of microbial communities that play a prominent role in the quality of grapes prior to harvesting, as well as in the winemaking process. This study investigated the dynamics and diversity of the epiphytic bacteria on the grape berry surface during maturation. The quantitative and qualitative effects of conventional and organic farming systems on this microbial community were investigated, using both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches. Analyses of grape berry bacterial microbiota revealed changes in the size and structure of the population during the berry ripening process, with levels rising gradually and reaching their highest value when the berries were over ripe. As the season progressed to maturity, Gram-negative bacterial communities (mostly Pseudomonas spp.) declined whereas Gram-positive communities (mostly Micrococcus spp.) increased. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultured isolates were analysed and over 44 species were identified from 21 genera in the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. Copper concentrations originating from phytosanitary treatments varied according to the vineyard and farming system. A negative correlation between copper concentrations and cell densities provided clear evidence that copper inhibited bacterial communities. The bacterial community structure was analysed by targeting the 16S rRNA genes, using PCR-DGGE on cultivable populations and T-RFLP on whole communities in cell suspension. The results suggest that the farming system has a clear impact on the bacterial community structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing mechanisms for estimating carbon footprint in farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, María; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Rodríguez Merino, Alejandro; José Moreno Delgado, Juan; Rodado, Concepción Mira; Romero Vicente, Rafael; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is critical to avoid land degradation and to reclaim degraded land for its productive use and for reaping the benefits of crucial ecosystem services and protecting biodiversity. It also helps in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Land and its various uses are affected severely by climate change too (flooding, droughts, etc.). Existing tools and technologies for efficient land management need to be adapted and their application expanded. A large number of human livelihoods and ecosystems can benefit from these tools and techniques since these yield multiple benefits. Disseminating and scaling up the implementation of sustainable land management approaches will, however, need to be backed up by mobilizing strong political will and financial resources. The challenge is to provide an integral decision support tool that can establish relationships between soil carbon content, climate change and land use and management aspects that allow stakeholders to detect, cope with and intervene into land system change in a sustainable way. In order to achieve this goal an agro-ecological meta-model called CarboLAND will be calibrated in several plots located in Andalusia region, Southern Spain, under different scenarios of climate and agricultural use and management. The output will be the CLIMALAND e-platform, which will also include protocols in order to support stakeholders for an integrated ecosystem approach, taking into account biodiversity, hydrological and soil capability, socio-economic aspects, and regional and environmental policies. This tool will be made available at the European context for a regional level, providing user-friendly interfaces and a scientifically-technical platform for the assessment of sustainable land use and management.

  14. 78 FR 19107 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2013-14 and 2014-15 Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... additional dollar benefit to the economy. However, we estimate that two million pounds of meat are harvested.... 801 et seq.), this rule is not a major rule. It does not have an effect on the economy of $100 million... subsistence use or under subsistence regulations in this part as bait for commercial or sport fishing purposes...

  15. Integration of large wind farms into weak power grids. Emphasis on the Ethiopian interconnected system (ICS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantyirga Gessesse, Belachew

    2013-07-18

    The impact of increased wind power on the steady state and dynamic behavior of the Ethiopian power system is the main focus of this thesis. The integration of wind power to the existing grid with conventional generators introduces new set of challenges regarding system security and operational planning, the main cause of the difference arising from the uncertainty of the primary source of energy and the response time following a disturbance. For incorporating wind turbine models into the overall dynamic model of the system and investigating the effect of wind on the dynamic behavior of the wind first models of wind turbine components were put together by reviewing the current state of the art in wind turbine modeling and control concepts. The theoretical insight thus gained was applied to the Ethiopian power system as a case study. Since the models of the installed turbines were either not available or incomplete, an alternative modeling approach based on generic models was adopted. The generic model, in addition to obviating the need for technology or manufacturer specific models, reduces the complexity the dynamic model. Using this procedure, generic dynamic models for wind farm in the system were developed. The capability of dynamic models to reproduce the dynamic response of the system has been verified by comparing simulation results obtained with a detailed and generic wind farm model. It could be shown that the generic wind turbine model is simple, but accurate enough to represent any wind turbine types or entire wind farms for power system stability analysis. The next task was the study of the effect of increased wind power level on the general behavior of the Ethiopian system. It is observed that overall the impact of wind turbines on the operational indices of the system was -as could be expected- more pronounced in the vicinity of the wind farm. But the power angle oscillation following a disturbance was observed across the whole system. Further, as a

  16. Evaluation of a whole-farm model for pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Palliser, C C; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Levy, G; Thorrold, B S; Wastney, M E

    2008-06-01

    In the temperate climate of New Zealand, animals can be grazed outdoors all year round. The pasture is supplemented with conserved feed, with the amount being determined by seasonal pasture growth, genetics of the herd, and stocking rate. The large number of factors that affect production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of an in situ-grazed pasture system has been developed to provide a tool for developing and testing novel farm systems; for example, different levels of bought-in supplements and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application, to maintain sustainability or environmental integrity and profitability. It consists of a software framework that links climate information, on a daily basis, with dynamic, mechanistic component-models for pasture growth and animal metabolism, as well as management policies. A unique feature is that the component models were developed and published by other groups, and are retained in their original software language. The aim of this study was to compare the model, called the whole-farm model (WFM) with a farm trial that was conducted over 3 yr and in which data were collected specifically for evaluating the WFM. Data were used from the first year to develop the WFM and data from the second and third year to evaluate the model. The model predicted annual pasture production, end-of-season cow liveweight, cow body condition score, and pasture cover across season with relative prediction error climate, or the use of genetically improved animals, pastures, or crops.

  17. Seasonality of parasitic helminths of Leporinus macrocephalus and their parasitism rates in farming systems in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Williane Maria de Oliveira; Justo, Márcia Cristina Nascimento; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cohen, Simone Chinicz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the seasonality of parasitic helminths of Leporinus macrocephalus from fish farms in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil, and their parasitism rates. Between June 2014 and March 2015, 200 specimens were sampled from two fish farms: one with a semi-intensive system and the other with an extensive system (100 fish from each farm: 50 during the dry season and 50 during the rainy season). Fifteen species of parasites were found, with seasonal variations of some according to the farming system. In the semi-intensive fish farm, there was greater prevalence of infection during the dry season. Also, Urocleidoides paradoxus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Goezia leporini and Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) acuminata presented differences in their parasitism rates between the seasons. In the extensive fish farm, no variation in the prevalence of infection was observed between the seasons and two species Tereancistrum parvus and G. leporini demonstrated differences only regarding the mean intensity of infection. The data presented here may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of L. macrocephalus in farming systems during the dry and rainy seasons in the state of Acre.

  18. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    . Under these circumstances, research on dc network connection with a novel wind power generator system is presented in this thesis, which mainly consists of two major parts: control of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) system and development of dc-dc converters for a dc network system in a wind farm...... components into the torque reference to compensate the ripples in the actual output torque. The effectiveness and resulting improvement in the performance of both the proposed speed controller and torque minimization technique are demonstrated by simulation results. The modern power electronic interfaces...

  19. Applying a transdisciplinary process to define a research agenda in a smallholder irrigated farming system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Defining an agenda is critical to a research process, and a transdisciplinary approach is expected to improve relevance of an agenda and resultant research outputs. Given the complexity of farming systems, farmer differences and the involvement...

  20. Research on Collection System Optimal Design of Wind Farm with Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Yan, B. Y.; Tan, R. S.; Liu, L. F.

    2017-05-01

    To the collection system optimal design of offshore wind farm, the factors considered are not only the reasonable configuration of the cable and switch, but also the influence of the obstacles on the topology design of the offshore wind farm. This paper presents a concrete topology optimization algorithm with obstacles. The minimal area rectangle encasing box of the obstacle is obtained by using the method of minimal area encasing box. Then the optimization algorithm combining the advantages of Dijkstra algorithm and Prim algorithm is used to gain the scheme of avoidance obstacle path planning. Finally a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on the analytic hierarchy process is constructed to compare the performance of the different topologies. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm and model.

  1. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  2. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Prokaryotic Communities Associated with Organic and Conventional Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, Elizaveta; Valkonen, Jari; Kurki, Päivi; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Chirak, Evgeny; Korvigo, Ilia; Provorov, Nykolay; Andronov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in agriculture is to determine the effectiveness and environmental impact of certain farming practices. The aim of present study was to determine and compare the taxonomic composition of the microbiomes established in soil following long-term exposure (14 years) to a conventional and organic farming systems (CFS and OFS accordingly). Soil from unclared forest next to the fields was used as a control. The analysis was based on RT-PCR and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of bacteria and archaea. The number of bacteria was significantly lower in CFS than in OFS and woodland. The highest amount of archaea was detected in woodland, whereas the amounts in CFS and OFS were lower and similar. The most common phyla in the soil microbial communities analyzed were Proteobacteria (57.9%), Acidobacteria (16.1%), Actinobacteria (7.9%), Verrucomicrobia (2.0%), Bacteroidetes (2.7%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Woodland soil differed from croplands in the taxonomic composition of microbial phyla. Croplands were enriched with Proteobacteria (mainly the genus Pseudomonas), while Acidobacteria were detected almost exclusively in woodland soil. The most pronounced differences between the CFS and OFS microbiomes were found within the genus Pseudomonas, which significantly (pconventional and organic farming systems.

  4. Diversity of farming systems integrating fish pond aquaculture in the province of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mafwila Kinkela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising nutrient fluxes and reducing requirements for external fertilisers. This article analysed the current state of fish farming and the way it is integrated with other farm subsystems in the urban/peri-urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. More precisely, it examined the allocation of resources at the farm level, the recovery of helophytes plants, and the fate of fish production choices and it explored the possibility of intensifying these existing integrated farming systems. After a census of ponds in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, an on-site survey was conducted on 150 fish pond farms to assess the different activities practiced on farms, the impact of integrating crops and livestock to fish pond aquaculture and the constraints of the system. A total of three thousand and twenty (3020 fish ponds were recorded in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa. Among these farms integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems exist with a wide diversity of practices (about 79% of farms combined fish with livestock and/or vegetable production. No striking differences between fish farms according to the allocation of resources, fish production method such as monoculture or polyculture, the recovery of helophytes plants and the fate of fish production choice were found depending on the location. However, fish farms were differently managed when combined with agriculture and/or livestock. Regarding the integration of the different subsystems through nutrient fluxes, 11 different movements of material between subsystems were found in integrated farms. However, not all fluxes are equally used in all farms and therefore improvements cannot be generalised. Improvements to be explored are such as making better use of manure pond mud and

  5. Performance of different biofilters in a recirculating system for rainbow trout farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of different biofilters in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS for trout farming. Materials and methods. It was used a 1m3 plastic tank for fries farming; fabric bags to solids retention; a submersible pump; a constant water level and flow distribution box; six up flow biofilters in 3” PVC tube; sand of D10=0.45mm as carrier. The reactors were operated at local temperature and with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 11 min, the biofilters were inoculated in the next way: R1-Control: RAS water; R2-Fish culture farm sludges; R3- Water from aerated lagoon of Antanas landfill (AL; R4-Aquarium sediments; R5- Aerated lagoon of AL sludges; R6-Sludges from sulfidogenic reactor of AL. The weight gain (WG and the food conversion (FC were evaluated, some physic-chemical parameters were monitored and the nitrogen and suspended solids removal efficiency were evaluated. Results. The WG of the cultured animals was 1.58 g/d and the FC was 1.41. There were no differences for ammonium and nitrite removal between the reactors; the average removal efficiencies were: ammonium 4.78%, nitrite 27.2%, nitrate 32.3%, suspended solids 37.5%; R4 and R5 reactors presented the best performance on nitrate removal, with average efficiencies of 47.4% and 42.8%. R3 presented the best SS removal with an average of 58.2%. Conclusions. The RAS water treatment system guaranteed appropriated liquid quality conditions for trout farming; the most efficient reactor for removal of the different forms of nitrogen was the inoculated with the aerated lagoon of AL sludges.

  6. Effect of inter-annual variability in pasture growth and irrigation response on farm productivity and profitability based on biophysical and farm systems modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Mackay, Alec; Vibart, Ronaldo; Rendel, John; Beautrais, Josef; Dennis, Samuel

    2016-09-15

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used in analysis to inform on farm decision making and evaluate land use policy options at regional scales. These analyses are generally based on the use of average annual pasture yields. In New Zealand (NZ), like in many countries, there is considerable inter-annual variation in pasture growth rates, due to climate. In this study a modelling approach was used to (i) include inter-annual variability as an integral part of the analysis and (ii) test the approach in an economic analysis of irrigation in a case study within the Hawkes Bay Region of New Zealand. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to generate pasture dry matter yields (DMY) for 20 different years and under both dryland and irrigation. The generated DMY were linked to outputs from farm-scale modelling for both Sheep and Beef Systems (Farmaxx Pro) and Dairy Systems (Farmax® Dairy Pro) to calculate farm production over 20 different years. Variation in DMY and associated livestock production due to inter-annual variation in climate was large, with a coefficient of variations up to 20%. Irrigation decreased this inter-annual variation. On average irrigation, with unlimited available water, increased income by $831 to 1195/ha, but when irrigation was limited to 250mm/ha/year income only increased by $525 to 883/ha. Using pasture responses in individual years to capturing the inter-annual variation, rather than the pasture response averaged over 20years resulted in lower financial benefits. In the case study income from irrigation based on an average year were 10 to >20% higher compared with those obtained from individual years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314 Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-09-28

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate.

  8. The effects of roadway characteristics on farm equipment crashes: a geographic information systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Greenan, Mitchell; Toussaint, Maisha; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Rohlman, Diane; Ramirez, Marizen R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tractors and other slow-moving self-propelled farm equipment are often used on public roadway to transfer goods from the farm to a market or distributer. Increased roadway exposure has led to a growing concern on the occurrence of farm equipment crashes. This study aims to compare characteristics of road segments with farm equipment crashes to road segments without farm equipment crashes in the state of Iowa. Methods Data were obtained from the Iowa Department of Transportation fro...

  9. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  10. Influence of automatic feeding systems on design and management of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Da Borso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, many dairy farmers have actively advanced their farms toward automation. Automatic concentrate dispensers and automatic milking systems have been utilised for years, and several manufacturers have introduced automatic feeding systems (AFS. AFSs allow for the increase in frequency of feed distribution with significant advantages in terms of health and production. Furthermore, they provide a reduction of man labour related to preparation of feed, distribution, and propelling the ration closer to the feeding rack. The present research was focused on the monitoring of a dairy farm, located in the Veneto region of Italy, during the transition from a conventional feeding system (CFS, based on a tractor operated mixing wagon, to an automatic system equipped with stationary feeding hoppers, mixing unit, and distribution wagon operating on rail. The article reports a comparative analysis of the structural modifications required for the adoption of AFS, including an analysis of the AFS/CFS systems based on their functionality, energy, and man labour requirements. In the case study, AFS represented an affordable way to reduce covered area of the housings, as a result of the reduction in width of foraging lane and the reduction of manger front length. In addition, AFS demonstrated a reduction in labour requirements and improvement of quality and consistency of work when feeding total mixed ration. Finally, the research was addressed to study dairy cow behaviour. A method for monitoring the feeding, resting, and standing indexes was applied to the CFS farm. As a preliminary result of this activity, a positive correlation between cow resting activity and milk production was discovered.

  11. A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of "reverse desertification". Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L. cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively. Most of the isolates (95% presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuum rhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40% under drought stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the

  12. A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Ettoumi, Besma; Vigani, Gianpiero; Mapelli, Francesca; Borin, Sara; Abou-Hadid, Ayman F; El-Behairy, Usama A; Sorlini, Claudia; Cherif, Ameur; Zocchi, Graziano; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of "reverse desertification". Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress. We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates) were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively). Most of the isolates (95%) presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuum rhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40%) under drought stress. Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the plant root system acting as a "resource island" able to attract and select

  13. A Drought Resistance-Promoting Microbiome Is Selected by Root System under Desert Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Ettoumi, Besma; Vigani, Gianpiero; Mapelli, Francesca; Borin, Sara; Abou-Hadid, Ayman F.; El-Behairy, Usama A.; Sorlini, Claudia; Cherif, Ameur; Zocchi, Graziano; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of “reverse desertification”. Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates) were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively). Most of the isolates (95%) presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuum rhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40%) under drought stress. Conclusions/Significance Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the plant root

  14. Rural Poverty and Diversification of Farming Systems in Upper Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dufumier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Thailand, 85% of the farmers are smallholders who are unable to meet their basic needs from agricultural production only. These tiny farms survive thanks to non-farm income, which faces increased difficulties as other economic sectors ran out of steam during the recent economic crisis of the late 1990s. In this context, farmers have to rely more on their agricultural production activity and income. But how can this be made possible in a region well-known for its very constraining soil and climatic conditions? To answer this question, and to examine the whole complexity of agricultural development issues, this article proposes an analysis of recent agrarian transformations and an understanding of farmers’ current practices and strategies. A diagnostic analysis of a village agrarian system located in Khon Kaen Province in upper northeast Thailand was carried out in 2002 by using a combination of field observations, interviews with key witnesses of the local history, and a farm survey of 26 diverse households. The recent history illustrates that farmers have shown a high adaptability to rapid changes in their economic environment, such as changing market demand for agricultural products and labour. The differentiation among farming households has led to different types of farmers with different resources, practices, and strategies. Families belonging to the most frequent type have a very tiny holding and their members are permanently or seasonally involved in unskilled off-farm activities. Their low and unstable total cash income is often insufficient to meet the family’s basic needs and they become deeply indebted. As efforts to improve water availability are being made, many Isarn families could improve their living conditions by diversifying their agricultural production systems with more small-scale fruit, vegetable, fish, or livestock production to improve household food security and cash income, eventually combined with non

  15. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  16. More biodiversity on organic farms?

    OpenAIRE

    Winqvist, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    Plants benefit from organic farming, particularly plants that are insect pollinated, annuals and rare. Around 20 percent greater diversity has been found on organic farms, when compared to conventional farms. Yet no difference was found between farms that had newly conver - ted to organic farming and those that had been organic for longer. Plant diversity benefited immediately from the change in farming system. This was down to ceasing to use herbicides, growing a wider variety of crops on th...

  17. Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Herrero, M.; Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Rowe, E.C.; Baijukya, F.P.; Mwijage, A.; Smith, J.; Yeboah, E.; Burg, van der W.J.; Sanogo, O.; Misiko, M.; Ridder, de N.; Karanja, S.; Kaizzi, C.K.; K'ungu, J.; Mwale, M.; Nwaga, D.; Pacini, C.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2011-01-01

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date

  18. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  19. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. Wh...

  20. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  1. Assessment of the 1988-89 Kaktovik subsistence fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study is the second of two projects conducted in state fiscal year 1989 by Arctic Region staff of the Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and...

  2. 77 FR 4581 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Meeting Agenda The proposed meeting agenda for each meeting includes the following: 1. Call to Order.... New Business 11. Federal Subsistence Board Updates 12. Alaska Board of Game Updates 13. National Park...

  3. 77 FR 4579 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... includes the following: 1. Call to Order--Confirm Quorum 2. Welcome and Introductions 3. Administrative... Board of Game Updates 13. National Park Service Reports: a. Superintendent Updates b. Subsistence...

  4. 76 FR 57763 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ...: 1. Call to order 2. Welcome and Introductions 3. Administrative Announcements 4. Approve Agenda 5... a. Wildlife b. Fisheries 10. Alaska Board of Game Update 11. Old Business a. Subsistence Uses of...

  5. 77 FR 4578 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... The proposed meeting agenda for each meeting includes the following: 1. Call to Order 2. Welcome and..., Resources and Visitor Protection) 8. Federal Subsistence Board Updates 9. Alaska Board of Game Updates 10...

  6. 32 CFR 732.23 - Collection for subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part. Such members must also be entitled to basic allowance for subsistence (BAS) while hospitalized at... expense while hospitalized in a nonnaval treatment facility. Subpart C contains the creditable accounting...

  7. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  8. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulandaivelu Velmourougane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG and conventional (CON methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%, microbial population (34%, and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  9. A County-Level Program to Assess Farming System Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John

    2012-12-12

    The survival of Florida’s biodiversity and economy is dependent on finding ways to balance farm economics with proper management of water and other natural resources. Taking on this challenge of maximizing the delivery of ecosystems services from agricultural production systems is the mandate of the Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center. Given that sea level rise is the overarching, long-term threat to the south Florida and its ecosystems, the most valuable ecosystems services for the state of Florida are those that mitigate climate change. Biofuels are put forward as one approach to forestalling climate change, but its value as an industry in providing this and other ecosystem services is unproven. The Sustainable Biofuels Center has developed a set of programs to both document and enhance the ecosystems services values of the evolving Florida biofuels industry. The Center engages in agricultural systems evaluation, sustainability indexing and sustainability research. Methods employed for documenting ecosystems services and costs include Life Cycle Assessment, Emergy Analysis, and optimization of cost-benefit functions. Radically new farming and economic compensation systems must be created and implemented if we are to achieve a successful agricultural business model built upon balanced revenue streams from these varied services. Accordingly, the Center also supports field research and demonstration projects to document the capacity for innovative farming systems to deliver ecosystems services such as water storage. To help promote the inclusion of ecosystems services considerations in farm operations, the program includes curriculum development at both the K-12 and college level, as well as programs to bring diverse stakeholders in to collaborative visioning process. Lastly, since county governments are often the level where new industry seek entry to the landscape, the Center is also developing metrics and tools through which economic development officers

  10. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  11. System Level Design of Reconfigurable Server Farms Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangook Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As today’s hardware architecture becomes more and more complicated, it is getting harder to modify or improve the microarchitecture of a design in register transfer level (RTL. Consequently, traditional methods we have used to develop a design are not capable of coping with complex designs. In this paper, we suggest a way of designing complex digital logic circuits with a soft and advanced type of SystemVerilog at an electronic system level. We apply the concept of design-and-reuse with a high level of abstraction to implement elliptic curve crypto-processor server farms. With the concept of the superior level of abstraction to the RTL used with the traditional HDL design, we successfully achieved the soft implementation of the crypto-processor server farms as well as robust test bench code with trivial effort in the same simulation environment. Otherwise, it could have required error-prone Verilog simulations for the hardware IPs and other time-consuming jobs such as C/SystemC verification for the software, sacrificing more time and effort. In the design of the elliptic curve cryptography processor engine, we propose a 3X faster GF(2m serial multiplication architecture.

  12. Statistical analysis and dimensioning of a wind farm energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waśkowicz Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth in renewable power generation and more strict local regulations regarding power quality indices will make it necessary to use energy storage systems with renewable power plants in the near future. The capacity of storage systems can be determined using different methods most of which can be divided into either deterministic or stochastic. Deterministic methods are often complicated with numerous parameters and complex models for long term prediction often incorporating meteorological data. Stochastic methods use statistics for ESS (Energy Storage System sizing, which is somewhat intuitive for dealing with the random element of wind speed variation. The proposed method in this paper performs stabilization of output power at one minute intervals to reduce the negative influence of the wind farm on the power grid in order to meet local regulations. This paper shows the process of sizing the ESS for two selected wind farms, based on their levels of variation in generated power and also, for each, how the negative influences on the power grid in the form of voltage variation and a shortterm flicker factor are decreased.

  13. Efficacy and Efficiency of Italian Energy Policy: The Case of PV Systems in Greenhouse Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of energy from renewable sources is a form of energy production that has less impact on the environment than the traditional one. For the farmer this new form of production represents an opportunity, especially for the economic benefits that can produce, both in terms of the incentives provided by the public operator and for higher revenues, deriving from the sale of energy back to the grid and/or the savings generated by self-consumed energy, that help to increase the farmer’s income. In this paper, we analyzed a case study of a farm that has realized a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system on a greenhouse. In particular, firstly the farm profitability has been estimated and subsequently, in order to assess the efficiency of the energy policy adopted by the Second Conto Energia in Italy, the minimum incentive tariff at which the entrepreneur has an economic advantage to realize a PV system has been determined. Results show that PV system relegates to a marginal role the cultivation of agricultural products compared to energy production and that government PV remuneration policies far outweigh the minimum threshold that makes the investment advantageous.

  14. The potential of the fresh-water fern Azolla in aquatic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Werf, vd, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brouwer, Paul; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    With aquatic farming systems a new avenue in agriculture is explored, in which the competition with conventional arable land is avoided. The aquatic, ubiquitous, floating fern Azolla is not yet widely explored as potential crop in such farming systems, despite its high potential because it grows in many natural systems under low-light intensities, has an enormous annual yield, and has special biomass qualities for applications in food, feed and specialty chemical industries. But, what makes Azolla particularly interesting as cost-effective crop is its capability to take up atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla independent of nitrogen fertilization. In order to explore the potential of Azolla as a crop for a suite of applications, we have assembled a team of expertise: AZOFAST, consisting of agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, chemical engineers and organic chemists. Our growth experiments reveal high annual production yields with constant harvest. We are developing a germination and spore collecting/preservation protocol as a first step to domestication. Finally we have explored the biomass quality of different species of extant Azolla. We performed organic chemical analyses on lipid and tannin extracts, and quantified yields of specific compounds within these fractions. In our presentation we will present some of our results to show the potential of Azolla as a new, sustainable aquatic crop serving all kinds of industrial streams from protein feed to platform chemicals.

  15. Performance of a Constructed Wetland and Pretreatment System Receiving Potato Farm Wash Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bosak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many potato processors require on-farm washing of potatoes, creating large quantities of wastewater that requires treatment, starting in the fall until the end of the potato storage period in mid-summer. We studied the treatment of wastewater from a potato farm in Ontario, Canada, using a system of pretreatment (sedimentation, aeration followed by a surface-flow wetland with a dense growth of cattails (Typha sp.. The raw wastewater had high average concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5; 1113 mg·L−1, total suspended solids (TSS; 4338 mg·L−1, total nitrogen (TN; 311 mg·L−1 and total phosphorus (TP; 42.5 mg·L−1. Due to high influent loads, the pretreatment was enlarged during annual sediment cleaning at the end of Year 1 (Y1, which increased the hydraulic retention time and delayed the seasonal onset of wetland loading from winter in Y1 to spring in Year 2 (Y2. Total concentration reduction for the treatment system (pretreatment + wetland in Y2 was 96% BOD5, 99% TSS, 86% TN and 90% TP; and in Y1 was 79% BOD5, 97% TSS, 62% TN and 54% TP. Overall, the best treatment in both the pretreatment and the wetland was seen in spring months. The enlarged pretreatment system enabled seasonal loading of the wetland during the spring and summer, which facilitated improved treatment performance.

  16. An optimal sizing method for energy storage system in wind farms based on the analysis of wind power forecast error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, R. L.; Guo, Z. Z.; Liu, R. Y.; Liu, J. N.

    2016-11-01

    Energy storage system (ESS) in a wind farm can effectively compensate the fluctuations of wind power. How to determine the size of ESS in wind farms is an urgent problem to be solved. A novel method is proposed for designing the optimal size of ESS considering wind power uncertainty. This approach uses non-parametric estimation method to analysis the wind power forecast error (WPFE) and the cumulative wind power deviation (CWPD) within the scheduling period. Then a cost-benefit analysis model is established to obtain the optimal size of ESS based on the analysis of WPFE and CWPD. A series of wind farm data in California are used as numerical cases, which presents that the algorithm presented in this paper has good feasibility and performance in optimal ESS sizing in wind farms.

  17. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria; Sigsgaard, Torben; Hayes, James; Coggins, Ann Marie

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed is an important exposure determinant; however, the effect of the animal feeding system has not been explored in any detail. To measure the exposure of Irish dairy farmers to inhalable dust, endotoxin, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) during parlour work and to explore whether levels of exposure to these agents depend on the applied feeding system in the farms. Thirty-eight personal exposure measurements were collected from farmers across seven dairy farms. The farms used manual, loft, or semi-automated feeding systems. Information on worker tasks and farm characteristics was collected during the surveys. Associations between exposure concentrations and feeding systems, worker tasks, and other farm characteristics were explored in linear mixed-effect regression models with farmer identity treated as a random effect. Exposure concentrations were variable and had a geometric mean (GM; geometric standard deviation) of 1.5 mg m-3 (1.8) for inhalable dust and 128 EU m-3 (2.5) for endotoxin. More than 50% of the exposure measurements for endotoxin, and organic dust exceeded recommended health-based occupational exposure limits. Endotoxin levels were somewhat lower in farms using semi-automatic feeding systems when compared to those using manual feeding systems but in multivariate regression analysis associations were not statistically significant (β = -0.54, P = 0.4). Performance of activities related to handling and spreading of hay or straw was the strongest determinant for both inhalable dust and endotoxin exposure (β = 0.78, P ≤ 0.001; β = 0.72, P = 0.02, respectively). The level of dust exposure increased also as a consequence of a lower outdoor temperature, and higher ratio of

  18. Environmental, Economic and Social Efficiencies of Irrigated Farming Systems: Using Water Footprint Indicators to Compare Farm Income and Labor Generated per Volume of Water Available in Irrigated Farming Systems in Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, F.; Meybeck, A.; Gitz, V.; Dalla Marta, A.; Cimino, O.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is not only producing food and other products. It is also a major economic sector, representing, especially in developing countries, an important part of GDP; and a major employer, with often more than half of the total workforce in many low income countries. In many of these countries irrigation plays a key role to increase and stabilize income, and it is likely to increase with climate change and increased variability of rain patterns. It is also a crucial mean to increase productivity of small holdings. In many countries, where holdings are small and even in some cases decreasing it is essential to enable farmers to ensure their food security and a decent income. In some countries, including India and many African countries, the workforce is expected to grow, with an important part of it to be employed in agriculture. At the same time many of the regions where agriculture is the most important from an economical and social point of view, are experiencing increasing water scarcity. In many cases, as has been noted for instance for the Mediterranean area, water availability is the main limiting factor to agricultural development. Increasingly agriculture is also in competition for water use with other economic activities. This calls for means to assess and compare agricultural productions systems and irrigation projects not only in terms of physical production of agricultural products but also in terms of income and jobs generated by the activity. In this study, we propose a methodology based on the blue water footprint for assessing and comparing different agricultural productions and farming systems in terms of economic and social outcomes for a given volume of blue water. Examples are drawn from the Campania region of Italy and based on data extracted from the Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). This database contains, among other, data on crop production, irrigation management (irrigated surface, length of irrigation season, volumes of

  19. Collection System Cable Routing and Wake Losses Optimization in Offshore Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragoso Rodrigues, S.M.; Bauer, P.; Bosman, P.A.N.; Pierik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind farms with high installed capacities and located further from the shore are starting to be built by northern European countries. Furthermore, it is expected that by 2020, several dozens of large offshore wind farms will be built in the Baltic, Irish and North seas. These wind farms

  20. Genetic diversity in commercial wineries: effects of the farming system and vinification management on wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, J; Cordero-Bueso, G; Aporta, I; Cabellos, J M; Arroyo, T

    2012-02-01

    Analysis of the diversity and distribution of wine yeasts isolated from organically and conventionally grown grapes, and during the subsequent fermentation with or without starter cultures in six different commercial wineries. PCR-RFLP screening of isolates revealed the involvement of ten different species. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, scarcely isolated from grapes, was the dominant species during the latter phases of fermentation, identifying 108 different genotypes by means of SSR analysis. Species and strains' diversity and presence were strongly influenced by the farming system used to grow the grapes and the system of vinification. Organic farming management was more beneficial in terms of diversity and abundance than the conventional one. Induced fermentation generated a great replacement of native yeasts. Although winery-resident yeasts resulted to be predominant in the process, some noncommercial strains originally in the vineyard were found in final stages of the fermentation, confirming that autochthonous strains of S. cerevisiae are capable to conduct the fermentation process up to its end. The study of natural yeast communities from commercial vineyards and wineries is an important step towards the preservation of native genetic resources. Our results have special relevance because it is the first time that the real situation of the yeast ecology of alcoholic fermentation in commercial wineries belonging to the relevant wine-producing Appellation of Origin 'Vinos de Madrid' is shown. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Planning and costing of agricultural adaptation in the the integrated hill farming systems of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, Bikash; Tamang, B.B.; Lamsal, Krishna; Paudel, Pratima

    2011-09-15

    Despite an existing information gap in scientific evidence regarding the effects of future changes in climate patterns and options for the future, the community-based adaptation process should nevertheless be initiated. This requires community involvement through participatory planning in order to make use of local experiences and knowledge. The existing technologies at the community level, and among researchers supporting communities in undertaking adaptations to climate change, are currently inadequately disseminated. While the generation of additional technologies is regarded as a priority in the long term, transfer of already available technologies to the user community should be the immediate priority. The local adaptation plan of action (LAPA) is an effective means to mainstream adaptation options in national and local governmental plans, and to support local communities in planning for adaptation. Although the initial costs of defining this methodology are high, they will decrease as soon as it is evolved and scaled up. Hence, the adaptation costs and resulting benefits will also remain at the local level. The majority of the adaptation actions identified for the hill farming system in Nepal are long-term actions. In order to achieve sustainability, the adaptation actions should not be part of any project or one-time investment, but must be integrated into the regular agricultural development process. Adaptation priorities for the hill farming system of Nepal mainly incorporate improved practices for integrated soil, land, hedgerow and water management – for instance, through water harvesting and small-scale irrigation measures.

  2. TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN PLANT PROTECTION IN THE PRECISION FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Jurišić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of precision farming as a larger amount of information is its availability to the farmer in making decision. Direct comparison of perennial parameters obtained from the plot results in purposefully, argumentative and optimal use of resources for work (while keeping in mind the ecological impact. Today, the development of satellite navigation technology and monitoring of agricultural machinery, and reducing the cost of these devices again revived the question of the precision agriculture application. Advanced farmers in developed agricultural countries already regularly apply some of the technological possibilities of precision farming. Precision agriculture and plant protection allow the farmer realizing high incomes while keeping safe natural resources. Using modern GIS technology machines collect data directly from the plot using sensors and integrate themselves into the data processing system. Processed information is used by a farmer taking GreenStar system for the new planned operation and achieving significant time and money spare. Precision agriculture offers the possibility of optimal care of each plant, not just the average, or the entire field. Low risk investments are one of the main factors of choice precise plant protection. The use of pilotless aircrafts remote sensing allow fast and economical obtaining data and sufficient precision information. Using modern technology such as Variable Rate Application (applying a variable volume and GreenStar software package it is possible to regulate the amount of care and protection.

  3. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  4. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  5. A New Skid Trail Pattern Design for Farm Tractors Using Linear Programing and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Gumus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm tractor skidding is one of the common methods of timber extraction in Turkey. However, the absence of an optimal skidding plan covering the entire production area can result in time loss and negative environmental impacts. In this study, the timber extraction by farm tractors was analyzed, and a new skid trail pattern design was developed using Linear Programming (LP and Geographical Information Systems (GIS. First, a sample skidding operation was evaluated with a time study, and an optimum skidding model was generated with LP. Then, the new skidding pattern was developed by an optimum skidding model and GIS analysis. At the end of the study, the developed new skid trail pattern was implemented in the study area and tested by running a time study. Using the newly developed “Direct Skid Trail Pattern (DSTP” model, a 16.84% increase in working time performance was observed when the products were extracted by farm tractors compared to the existing practices. On the other hand, the average soil compaction value measured in the study area at depths of 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm was found to be greater in the sample area skid trails than in the control points. The average density of the skid trails was 281 m/ha, while it decreased to 187 m/ha by using the developed pattern. It was also found that 44,829 ton/ha of soil losses were prevented by using the DSTP model; therefore, environmental damages were decreased.

  6. Comparison of carbon sequestration potential in agricultural and afforestation farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsu Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha- 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha- 1 year- 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.

  7. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) occurrence and infestation behaviour as influenced by farm type, cropping systems and soil management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabi, Samuel; Karungi, Jeninah; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    into the trend. A biological monitoring study that covered 150 pineapple farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Farms were categorised under organic and conventional systems. Mealybug population densities (mealybugs/plant) were recorded in relation to seed bed types, cropping system and soil management practices......Occurrence of pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes) has been increasing at an alarming rate on pineapple in Uganda. The cause of the epidemic is unknown. This study was set out to establish whether prevailing cropping systems, production and management practices could provide an insight...... used on each farm. Mealybug population densities were lower in pineapple–banana intercrop system (27.8) than in a sole pineapple crop (81.8) across seasons. Earthed-up seed beds registered higher mealybug densities (84.1) than flat seed beds (31). Earthed-up seed beds created more favourable...

  8. Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming - profitability, productivity and energy efficiency of German, Danish and Turkish rainbow trout grow-out systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasner, Tobias; Brinker, Alexander; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    of freshwater trout farms in Germany, Denmark and Turkey, using a combination of existing data, group discussions and interviews with trout farmers, consultants and researchers. Nine 'typical' trout farming models are described, focusing on profitability, productivity and energy efficiency and allowing in......-depth comparative economic analyses of different production systems at farm level, across regions. Our results show that the majority of the farms investigated have been profitable. Turkish farms benefit from competitive advantages due to low wages, low capital investment and favourable climate conditions. Large....... Organic farms in both countries face challenges of high feed costs and comparatively low productivity with mixed success. Using edible protein energy return on investment (epEROI) as an indicator of ecological sustainability, all surveyed farms compared very favourably with the terrestrial systems...

  9. Clogging Susceptibility Of A Drip Irrigation System Designed For Family Farming [susceptibilidade Ao Entupimento De Um Sistema De Irrigação Por Gotejamento Para Agricultura Familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Deus, Fábio Ponciano de; Universidade Estadual de Campinas/UNICAMP - Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/FEAGRI - Av. Cândido Rondon, 501 - CEP 13083-875 - Campinas - SP; Ferrarezi, Rhuanito Soranz; University of Georgia/UGA - Department of Horticulture/DH - 1111 Miller Plant Science Building - Zip code 30602 - Athens/GA - Estados Unidos; Primo, Renan; Universidade Estadual de Campinas/UNICAMP - Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/FEAGRI - Av. Cândido Rondon, 501 - CEP 13083-875 - Campinas - SP; Martins, Guilherme Alonso; Universidade Estadual de Campinas/UNICAMP - Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/FEAGRI - Av. Cândido Rondon, 501 - CEP 13083-875 - Campinas - SP; Testezlaf, Roberto; Universidade Estadual de Campinas/UNICAMP - Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/FEAGRI - Av. Cândido Rondon, 501 - CEP 13083-875 - Campinas - SP

    2015-01-01

    Family farming is an important part of the agribusiness, accounting for a significant part of food production system that supplies the Brazilian domestic market. Irrigation equipment manufacturers have developed alternative technologies for family farming, as the KIFNET™ drip irrigation system, which uses only gravity to pressurize the emitters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variability of the hydraulic characteristics of a drip irrigation system for family farming, insta...

  10. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  11. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services....

  12. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion roots from organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Guillermo A; Parádi, István; Burger, Karin; Baar, Jacqueline; Kuyper, Thomas W; Scholten, Olga E; Kik, Chris

    2009-06-01

    Diversity and colonization levels of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in onion roots were studied to compare organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. In 2004, 20 onion fields were sampled in a balanced survey between farming systems and between two regions, namely, Zeeland and Flevoland. In 2005, nine conventional and ten organic fields were additionally surveyed in Flevoland. AMF phylotypes were identified by rDNA sequencing. All plants were colonized, with 60% for arbuscular colonization and 84% for hyphal colonization as grand means. In Zeeland, onion roots from organic fields had higher fractional colonization levels than those from conventional fields. Onion yields in conventional farming were positively correlated with colonization level. Overall, 14 AMF phylotypes were identified. The number of phylotypes per field ranged from one to six. Two phylotypes associated with the Glomus mosseae-coronatum and the G. caledonium-geosporum species complexes were the most abundant, whereas other phylotypes were infrequently found. Organic and conventional farming systems had similar number of phylotypes per field and Shannon diversity indices. A few organic and conventional fields had larger number of phylotypes, including phylotypes associated with the genera Glomus-B, Archaeospora, and Paraglomus. This suggests that farming systems as such did not influence AMF diversity, but rather specific environmental conditions or agricultural practices.

  13. Effects of long-term use of different farming systems on some physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna M.; Czyż, Ewa A.; Dexter, Anthony R.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different farming systems (organic, integrated, conventional and monoculture) on some soil properties as: bulk density, contents of readily-dispersible clay, organic matter and particulate organic matter, and enzymatic activity measured in terms of the intensity of fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis. Soil under permanent grass was used as a control. The study was conducted on the 20 years lasting field experiment. Samples of Haplic Luvisol soil were collected twice a year on fields under winter wheat from the layers of 0-5, 5-10, 15-20, and 30-35 cm. Within arable soils the soil under organic farming contained the greatest amount of organic matter, which influenced strongly the readily-dispersible clay content, especially in the layer of 5-20 cm. The readily-dispersible clay content in soil under organic farming was 3 times lower, as compared to the conventional and monoculture farming. The highest contents of particulate organic matter 6.2 and 3.5 mg g-1 air dry soil, on average were measured in the 0-5 cm layer of control soil and soil under organic farming, respectively. Also, soil under organic farming and control soil from the depth of 0-5 cm showed 2-2.5 times greater activity of microorganisms in fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis than soil under conventional and monoculture farming. Increase of concentration of organic matter in soil under organic farming decreased soil bulk density. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations between studied parameters of soil quality and confirmed their effectiveness as indicators of disturbances in soil environment.

  14. Growth of sweetpotato cultured in the newly designed hydroponic system for space farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Wei, X.; Islam, A. F. M. S.; Yamamoto, M.

    Life support of crews in long-duration space missions for other planets will be highly dependent on amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the space farming system with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and cultivars and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. In this study, we developed a new hydroponic method for producing tuberous roots and fresh edible leaves and stems of sweetpotato. In the first experiment, we examined the effects of water contents in the rooting substrate on growth and tuberous root development of sweetpotato. The rooting substrates made with rockwool slabs were inclined in a culture container and absorbed nutrient solution from the lower end of the slabs by capillary action. Tuberous roots developed on the lower surface of the rockwool slabs. The tuberous roots showed better growth and development at locations farther from the water surface on the rockwool slabs, which had lower water content. In the second experiment, three sweetpotato cultivars were cultured in a hydroponic system for five months from June to November under the sun light in Osaka, Japan as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming system. The cultivars employed were ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’. The hydroponic system mainly consisted of culture containers and rockwool slabs. Dry weights of tuberous roots developed in the aerial space between the rockwool slab and the nutrient solution filled at the bottom of the culture container were 0.34, 0.45 and 0.23 kg/plant and dry weights of the top portion (leaves, petioles and stems) were 0.42, 0.29 and 0.61 kg/plant for ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’, respectively. Young stems and leaves as well as

  15. Farming system design for innovative crop-livestock integration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraine, M; Duru, M; Nicholas, P; Leterme, P; Therond, O

    2014-08-01

    The development of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) is a major challenge for the ecological modernisation of agriculture but appears difficult to implement at a large scale. A participatory method for ICLS design has been developed and implemented in 15 case studies across Europe, representing a range of production systems, challenges, constraints and resources for innovation. Local stakeholders, primarily farmers, but also cooperatives, environmental-association representatives and natural-resource managers, were involved in the identification of challenges and existing initiatives of crop-livestock integration; in the design of new options at field, farm and territory levels; and then in qualitative multicriteria assessment of these options. A conceptual framework based on a conceptual model (crops, grasslands, animals) was developed to act as a boundary object in the design step and invite innovative thinking in 'metabolic' and 'ecosystemic' approaches. A diversity of crops and grasslands interacting with animals appeared central for designing sustainable farming systems at the territory level, providing and benefitting from ecosystem services. Within this diversity, we define three types of integrated systems according to their degrees of spatial and temporal coordination: complementarity, local synergy, territorial synergy. Moreover, the options for cooperation and collective organisation between farmers and other stakeholders in territories to organise and manage this diversity of land use revealed opportunities for smart social innovation. The qualitative multicriteria assessment identified farmer workload as the main issue of concern while demonstrating expected benefits of ICLS simultaneously for economic, agronomic, environmental and social criteria. This study concludes that participatory design of ICLS based on a generic multi-level and multi-domain framework and a methodology to deal with a local context can identify new systems to be tested

  16. The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bacon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often overlook the full range of social dimensions, we propose a dual focus on a broad set of criteria, i.e., human health, labor, democratic participation, resiliency, biological and cultural diversity, equity, and ethics, to assess social outcomes, and on institutions that could support diversified farming systems (DFS. A comparative analysis of case studies from California's Central Valley, Mesoamerican coffee agroforestry systems, and European Union agricultural parks finds that DFS practices are unevenly adopted within and among these systems and interdependent with institutional environments that specifically promote diversified farming practices. Influential institutions in these cases include state policies, farmers' cooperatives/associations, and organized civic efforts to influence agroenvironmental policy, share knowledge, and shape markets for more 'sustainable' products. The Californian and Mesoamerican cases considers organic and fair trade certifications, finding that although they promote several DFS practices and generate social benefits, they are inadequate as a single strategy to promote agricultural sustainability. The complex governance and multifunctional management of Europe's peri-urban agricultural parks show unexpected potential for promoting DFS. Unless DFS are anchored in supportive institutions and evaluated against an inclusive set of social and environmental criteria, short-term investments to advance diversified agriculture could

  17. [Energy flow characteristics of the compound agriculture-fruit farming system in Xipo Village, Shaanxi, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fa-Qi; Zhu, Li; Wang, Hong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Taking the crop-fruit farming system in Xipo Village in Chunhua, Shaanxi Province as a case, the energy flow path, input and output structure, and the indices of energy cycle for the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding and human subsystems were compared between 2008 and 2010. Results showed that during the study period the total investment to the agriculture-fruit farming system (CAF) decreased by 1.6%, while the total output increased by 56.7%, which led to a 59.4% increase of the output/input ratio. Energy output/input ratio of the agriculture, fruit, stockbreeding, human subsystems increased by 36.6%, 21.0%, 10.0% and 3.8%, respectively. The Xipo Village still needed to stabilize the agriculture, develop stockbreeding and strengthen fruit to upgrade the compound agriculture-fruit farming system.

  18. The impacts of local farming system development trajectories on greenhouse gas emissions in the northern mountain areas of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisz, Stephen J; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2007-01-01

    fields, paddy, fruit trees and animal husbandry. Discussion in the policy debate and literature focuses on the impacts these changes have on local people's livelihoods. There have been no attempts to evaluate the impact of these changes on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper examines the realities...... of current farming system changes taking place at the hamlet level and other changes that could take place due to government land use policies and extension programs. The paper answers the following questions: How could farming system changes influence net GHGs? Which farming system changes in the NMR......, the trajectories of changes that are currently observed or those that would be followed if farmers adhere strictly to government policies and programs, will have a greater affect on the GHG contributions from agriculture in the region? Could ‘clean development mechanism' (CDM) projects make a difference...

  19. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Land Capability Analysis on Farming System at Serang Sub-Watershed Kedung Ombo Reservoir Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Suyana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil conservation in principle is using the land according to its capability and keep them from damage. This study aims at assessing the land capability classes of farming systems at Serang sub-watershed and evaluate their usages. The results showed that the land capability dominated by Class II (12,096.90 ha, 40.6%, followed by Class III (11,598.92 ha, 38.9%, Class IV (2,879.11 ha, 9.7%, Class I (1,333.14 ha, 4.5%, Class VIII (712.57 ha, 2.4%, Class VII (684.97 ha, 2.3% and Class VI (512.84 ha, 1.7%. The main resistance factors are slope and soil deepth for class II; slope, soil deepth, drainage and erosion for class III; slope and erosion for class IV; and slope for class VIII, VII and VI. The results showed that 94% farm lands at Serang sub-watershed was suitable to its land capability and only 6.0% were not suitable.

  1. A survey analysis of indigenous goat production in communal farming systems of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monau, P I; Visser, C; Nsoso, S J; Van Marle-Köster, E

    2017-08-01

    A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity. The majority (33%) of respondents were older than 60 years. Over 80% of the farmers kept goats for cash required for tuition, school uniforms and household commodities as well as re-stocking of animals. Most farmers (62%) kept indigenous crossed genotypes. Generally, uncontrolled mating was practised with the majority of farmers (41%) using on-farm reared bucks for more than two years of breeding and communal bucks (36%) as an alternative. The major constraints limiting goat productivity in communal areas included uncontrolled breeding, predators, theft and diseases. Issues raised by farmers should be considered in designing and implementing effective breeding programs for goats to improve their overall productivity and contribution to poverty alleviation in these communities.

  2. ALPINE FARM SCALE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND QUALITY OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segato S.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine dairy farming is shifted from an extensive activity based on pasture and low genetic merit cow to an intensive system with specialized breeds and increasing level of concentrate as a supplement in the diet. As a main consequence, a lower echo-compatibility could determine adverse externalities on environment and quality of dairy products. Considering 18 dairy farming located in the mountain area of Veneto Region (Italy, the Environmental Summarizing Indicator (ESI was estimated by using agronomic and dairying variables. Results indicated that variability of ESI was manly due to productive performance of dairy cows probably because there was a lack of information in the assessment of pasture characteristics. However, higher level of ESI were closely related to the increase of N-phile species and/or less attractive vegetation for grazing cows, even if the indicator seems to explain only a limited part of the variability of the phenomenon. The increase of ESI values seemed to lead to a loss of nutritive value of milk because of the incidence of health favourable fatty acids was reduced.

  3. Parasitic infections in mixed system-based heliciculture farms: dynamics and key epidemiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segade, P; García-Estévez, J; Arias, C; Iglesias, R

    2013-04-01

    Heliciculture is an excellent alternative to obtain edible snails but its viability is seriously threatened by pathogens. A parasitological survey was conducted in 3 mixed system-based heliciculture farms in Galicia (NW Spain), with the species Tetrahymena rostrata, Tetrahymena limacis, Tetratrichomonas limacis, Cryptobia helicogenae, Brachylaima aspersae (metacercariae and sporocysts), Alloionema appendiculatum, Nemhelix bakeri, and Riccardoella limacum being commonly found infecting Helix aspersa aspersa (petit-gris) snails. With the exception of C. helicogenae, N. bakeri, and B. aspersae sporocysts, all species were also detected in Helix aspersa maxima (gros-gris) snails, although generally with lower parameters. Most monoxenous infections, and consequently multiple parasitism, exhibited a rising trend during the first 2 months of intensive mating, with tendencies being slowed down or even reversed during the third month as a result of accumulated mortality and a sampling-derived reduction in host density. No parasites were vertically transmitted and infections were initially acquired from invading gastropod and micromammal reservoirs during fattening. Finally, artificial hibernation reduced significantly the prevalence of most species. These results confirm the importance of parasites in heliciculture and emphasize the need to prevent the entry of wild reservoirs into the farms and to rapidly remove the carcasses of dead snails from the reproduction units and fattening pens.

  4. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  5. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  6. [Study of the efficacy of sewage treatment systems for fluid waste on pig farms in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglovský, J; Juris, P; Sokol, J

    1994-01-01

    Bacteriological, helminthological and physico-chemical examinations were carried out to investigate the technological procedure in three water treatment plants treating slurry from large-capacity pig farms (Kosická Polianka, Spisské Vlachy, Vel'ký Dur). Our investigations were focused on the testing of effectiveness of mechanical, chemical and biological treatment system most frequently used in Slovakia. Our investigations revealed that water-treatment plants, operating on pig farms, fulfil only the supplies management requirements concerning the treated water, discharged into the recipient. From the hygienic viewpoint further processing or utilization of the solid fraction remains unsolved. This fraction contains considerable concentrations of bacteria and parasitic germs (Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Isospora sp., Eimeria sp.) most of which exhibit high tenacity in the environment. It is recommended to process this solid fraction by composting before it is applied as a manure. However, the measured values did not exceed the reference hygienic limits. The technological stage of chemical treatment, which follows after the separation and utilizes some coagulants (aluminium sulphate, ferrous sulphate), can increase the chemical load of water stripped of crude organic pollutants, by some undesirable chemical elements.

  7. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  8. Modelling the fate of pesticides in paddy rice-fish pond farming system in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, M.; Nguyen, N.; Streck, T.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decade rice production in Vietnam has tremendously increased due to the introduction of new high yield, short duration rice varieties and an increased application of pesticides. Since pesticides are toxic by design, there is a natural concern on the possible impacts of their presence in the environment on human health and environment quality. In North Vietnam, lowland and upland rice fields were identified to be a major non-point source of agrochemical pollution to surface and ground water, which are often directly used for domestic purposes. Field measurements, however, are time consuming, costly and logistical demanding. Hence, quantification, forecast and risk assessment studies are hampered by a limited amount of field data. One potential way to cope with this shortcoming is the use of process-based models. In the present study we developed a model for simulating short-term pesticide dynamics in combined paddy rice field - fish pond farming systems under the specific environmental conditions of south-east Asia. Basic approaches and algorithms to describe the key underlying biogeochemical processes were mainly adopted from the literature to assure that the model reflects the current standard of scientific knowledge and commonly accepted theoretical background. The model was calibrated by means of the Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm and validated against measured pesticide concentrations (dimethoate and fenitrothion) during spring and summer rice crop season 2008, respectively, of a paddy field - fish pond system typical for northern Vietnam. First simulation results indicate that our model is capable to simulate the fate of pesticides in such paddy - fish pond farming systems. The model efficiency for the period of calibration, for example, was 0.97 and 0.95 for dimethoate and fenitrothion, respectively. For the period of validation, however, the modeling efficiency slightly decreased to 0.96 and 0.81 for dimethoate and fenitrothion

  9. Rainwater harvesting potential for farming system development in a hilly watershed of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariqul Islam, Md.; Mohabbat Ullah, Md.; Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Hossain, Sahadat

    2017-09-01

    Water resources management is an important part in farming system development. Agriculture in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh is predominantly rainfed with an average 2210 mm monsoonal rain, but rainfall during dry winter period (December-February) is inadequate for winter crop production. The natural soil water content (as low as 7 %) of hillslope and hilltop during the dry season is not suitable for shallow-rooted crop cultivation. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of monsoonal rainwater harvesting and its impact on local cropping system development. Irrigation facilities provided by the managed rainwater harvesting reservoir increased research site's cropping intensity from 155 to 300 %. Both gravity flow irrigation of valley land and low lift pumping to hillslope and hilltop from rainwater harvesting reservoir were much more economical compared to forced mode pumping of groundwater because of the installation and annual operating cost of groundwater pumping. To abstract 7548 m3 of water, equivalent to the storage capacity of the studied reservoirs, from aquifer required 2174 kWh energy. The improved water supply system enabled triple cropping system for valley land and permanent horticultural intervention at hilltop and hillslope. The perennial vegetation in hilltop and hillslope would also conserve soil moisture. Water productivity and benefit-cost ratio analysis show that vegetables and fruit production were more profitable than rice cultivation under irrigation with harvested rainwater. Moreover, the reservoir showed potentiality of integrated farming in such adverse area by facilitating fish production. The study provides water resource managers and government officials working with similar problems with valuable information for formulation of plan, policy, and strategy.

  10. Improving efficiency assessments using additive data envelopment analysis models: an application to contrasting dairy farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Diomedes Soteriades

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying holistic indicators to assess dairy farm efficiency is essential for sustainable milk production. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been instrumental for the calculation of such indicators. However, ‘additive’ DEA models have been rarely used in dairy research. This study presented an additive model known as slacks-based measure (SBM of efficiency and its advantages over DEA models used in most past dairy studies. First, SBM incorporates undesirable outputs as actual outputs of the production process. Second, it identifies the main production factors causing inefficiency. Third, these factors can be ‘priced’ to estimate the cost of inefficiency. The value of SBM for efficiency analyses was demonstrated with a comparison of four contrasting dairy management systems in terms of technical and environmental efficiency. These systems were part of a multiple-year breeding and feeding systems experiment (two genetic lines: select vs. control; and two feeding strategies: high forage vs. low forage, where the latter involved a higher proportion of concentrated feeds where detailed data were collected to strict protocols. The select genetic herd was more technically and environmentally efficient than the control herd, regardless of feeding strategy. However, the efficiency performance of the select herd was more volatile from year to year than that of the control herd. Overall, technical and environmental efficiency were strongly and positively correlated, suggesting that when technically efficient, the four systems were also efficient in terms of undesirable output reduction. Detailed data such as those used in this study are increasingly becoming available for commercial herds through precision farming. Therefore, the methods presented in this study are growing in importance.

  11. Falta Petroleo! Perspectives on the emergence of a more ecological farming and food system in post-crisis Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: ecological / organic / agriculture / transition / farming systems / co-operatives / Cuba / food security / food system / institutional learning / crisis / rural livelihoods / coping strategies / localisation

    This research takes as its

  12. Is the choice of a farm’s commercial market an indicator of agricultural intensity? Conventional and short food supply chains in periurban farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Filippini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Short food supply chains (SFSCs have been identified as an economic opportunity for agriculture under urban pressure, as well as drivers for more sustainable farming systems. However, few studies have focused on the intensity of periurban farms that participate in such SFSCs, compared with the performance of the other farms. In this paper, we examined the relationship between agricultural intensity and the market orientation in a representative sample of farms in the urban area of Pisa (Italy. We define agricultural intensity as the intensity of land use and its main drivers (e.g., farm management or the individual characteristics of farmers, and market orientation as the ratio of farm produce within conventional, short or mixed foodsupply chains. The results suggest that the market orientation of periurban farming systems is more correlated to the indicators of farm management and land use intensity than to the individual farmer’s characteristics. This result provides the first evidence that market orientation is a driver of intensity, and that individual farmer’s characteristics are not significantly different in the three groups of market orientation. These findings could be generalised to other urban areas and correlated with the main orientation of farming systems in order to support both the assessment of farming systems and the implementation of innovative urban food policies.

  13. The influence of strain of Holstein-Friesian cow and feeding system on greenhouse gas emissions from pastoral dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Shalloo, L; Grainger, C; Buckley, F; Horan, B; Wallace, M

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the effect of 3 divergent strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in 3 pasture-based feed systems on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 3 strains of Holstein-Friesian compared were high-production North American (HP), high-durability North American (HD), and New Zealand (NZ). The 3 feed systems were a high grass allowance system (MP, control); high stocking rate system (HS); and high concentrate supplementation system (HC). The MP system had an overall stocking rate of 2.47 cows/ha and received 325 kg of dry matter concentrate per cow in early lactation. The HS system had a similar concentrate input to the MP system, but had an overall stocking rate of 2.74 cows/ha. The HC system had a similar overall stocking rate to the MP system, but 1,445 kg of dry matter concentrate was offered per cow. A newly developed integrated economic-GHG farm model was used to evaluate the 9 milk production systems. The GHG model estimates on-farm (emissions arising within the farm's physical boundaries) and production system (incorporating all emissions associated with the production system up to the point milk leaves the farm gate) GHG emissions. Production system GHG emissions were always greater than on-farm emissions, and the ranking of the 9 systems was usually consistent under both methods. The exception was the NZ strain that achieved their lowest GHG emission per unit of product in the HC system when indirect emissions were excluded, but their lowest emission was in the HS system when indirect emissions were included. Generally, the results showed that as cow strain changed from lower (HD and NZ) to higher genetic potential (HP) for milk production, the GHG emission per kilogram of milk solids increased. This was because of a decline in cow fertility in the HP strain that resulted in a higher number of nonproductive animals, leading to a lower total farm milk solids production and an increase in emissions from nonproductive animals. The GHG

  14. Agriculture urbaine et subsistance des ménages dans une zone de post-conflit en Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture and household subsistence in a post-confl ict zone in Central Africa. This study presents an analysis of the technical and socio-economic specifi cities of urban agriculture in a post confl ict region in Central Africa, based on a survey in Brazzaville (Congo in 2002. Hereby 710 households have been randomly selected from a previous survey data base containing 2 800 urban households. About one third of the Brazzaville households are involved in urban agriculture with 29.5% households reporting crop production activities and 8.8% animal production activities. Within animal production, aviculture activities are dominant. Gardening and vegetable production play also an important role. The confl ict situation of 1997 affected negatively urban agricultural production in particular the animal production. Although, urban agriculture is present among different social and professional categories, there is a clear dominance of subsistence and poor households, especially those already active in agriculture before. In contrast to crop production, mainly practised for subsistence reasons, the motivation for animal production is driven more by the income than by the own consumption possibilities. The results also indicate that assuring a sustainable and equitable urban development is possible by a good balance between those practising urban agriculture and those not. This requires the limitation of the negative effects (odour and other nuisances but also the removal of certain constraints limiting the productivity of urban farming, most importantly the provision of inputs, the theft of animals and soil degradation.

  15. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  16. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Duque, María Osley; Cardona-Arango, María Doris; Rodríguez-Ospina, Fabio León; Segura-Cardona, Angela María

    2017-10-05

    To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability.

  17. Local soil fertility management on small-scale farming systems for sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namriah, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni

    2015-09-01

    The sustainability of small-scale farming systems on marginal lands is still being a topic of debate in scientific and institutional communities. To address this, a study was conducted to find a method of sustaining the productivity of marginal lands for food crop production. Agricultural practices (fallow and traditional cultivation) used by the local small-scale farmers in managing soil fertility to meet the natural biological processes above and below the ground were studied in Muna Island Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Participatory approach was used to gather data and information on soil and land as well as to collect soil macrofauna. The results showed that the practices of local small-scale farmers are based on local soil and land suitability. Organic materials are the source of nutrient inputs to sustain the productivity of their lands by fallowing, burning natural vegetation, putting back the crop residues, doing minimum tillage and mix- and inter-crops. In conclusion, the sustainability of local small-scale farming systems will be established by knowing and understanding local soil and land classification systems and preferred crops being planted. Following the nature of fallow and monitoring soil macrofauna diversity and abundance, all preferred crops should be planted during rainy season with different time of harvest until the next rainy season. Therefore, soils are still covered with crops during dry season. It was suggested that planting time should be done in the rainy season. Doing more researches in other locations with different socio-cultural, economical, and ecological conditions is suggested to validate and refine the method.

  18. Sustainable grassland systems: a modelling perspective based on the North Wyke Farm Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Zhang, X; Griffith, B A; Misselbrook, T H

    2016-07-01

    The North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) provides data from the field- to the farm-scale, enabling the research community to address key issues in sustainable agriculture better and to test models that are capable of simulating soil, plant and animal processes involved in the systems. The tested models can then be used to simulate how agro-ecosystems will respond to changes in the environment and management. In this study, we used baseline datasets generated from the NWFP to validate the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS) model in relation to the dynamics of soil water content, water loss from runoff and forage biomass removal. The validated model, together with future climate scenarios for the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s (from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES): medium (A1B) and large (A1F1) emission scenarios), were used to simulate the long-term responses of the system with three contrasting treatments on the NWFP. Simulation results demonstrated that the SPACSYS model could estimate reliably the dynamics of soil water content, water loss from runoff and drainage, and cut biomass for a permanent sward. The treatments responded in different ways under the climate change scenarios. More carbon (C) is fixed and respired by the swards treated with an increased use of legumes, whereas less C was lost through soil respiration with the planned reseeding. The deep-rooting grass in the reseeding treatment reduced N losses through leaching, runoff and gaseous emissions, and water loss from runoff compared with the other two treatments.

  19. 77 FR 12477 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-Subpart C-Board Determinations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... questions specific to National Forest System lands, contact Steve Kessler, Regional Subsistence Program... adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the government... Steve Kessler, Alaska Regional Office, U.S. Forest Service. List of Subjects 36 CFR Part 242...

  20. German support systems for onshore wind farms in the context of Polish acts limiting wind energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European energy system is undergoing a deep transition to low-emission energy sources, mainly wind farms. This transition is caused mostly by energy politics of European Union (EU and its goals in the topic of renewable energy. European wind energy is dominated by Germany that produces half of total wind energy in EU. The aim of this article is to present support systems for wind farms existing in Germany in the context of introducing in Poland the Act of 20 May 2016 on Wind Energy Investments limiting onshore wind farms localization and Act of 22 June 2016 introducing changes to the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (RES and some other acts. It is postulated to make amendments of acts regulating RES while considering German solutions.

  1. Policy and Environmental Implications of Photovoltaic Systems in Farming in Southeast Spain: Can Greenhouses Reduce the Greenhouse Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Carreño-Ortega

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (PV systems have grown in popularity in the farming sector, primarily because land area and farm structures themselves, such as greenhouses, can be exploited for this purpose, and, moreover, because farms tend to be located in rural areas far from energy production plants. In Spain, despite being a country with enormous potential for this renewable energy source, little is being done to exploit it, and policies of recent years have even restricted its implementation. These factors constitute an obstacle, both for achieving environmental commitments and for socioeconomic development. This study proposes the installation of PV systems on greenhouses in southeast Spain, the location with the highest concentration of greenhouses in Europe. Following a sensitivity analysis, it is estimated that the utilization of this technology in the self-consumption scenario at farm level produces increased profitability for farms, which can range from 0.88% (worst scenario to 52.78% (most favorable scenario. Regarding the Spanish environmental policy, the results obtained demonstrate that the impact of applying this technology mounted on greenhouses would bring the country 38% closer to reaching the 2030 greenhouse gas (GHG target. Furthermore, it would make it possible to nearly achieve the official commitment of 20% renewable energies by 2020. Additionally, it would have considerable effects on the regional socioeconomy, with increases in job creation and contribution to gross domestic product (GDP/R&D (Research and Development, allowing greater profitability in agrifood activities throughout the entire region.

  2. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.

    2012-01-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms...... average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm...

  3. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  4. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  5. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  6. Closing the nutrient loops in (peri) urban farming systems through composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed...... 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I...... also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations. Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses...

  7. A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Nykvist, Björn; Malinga, Rebecka; Jaramillo, Fernando; Lindborg, Regina

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  8. Processing biofuels from farm raw materials - A systems study; Pelletering och brikettering av jordbruksraavaror - En systemstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven

    2008-03-15

    Use of processed biofuels (pellets, briquettes) has greatly increased in Sweden in recent decades, mainly to replace fossil fuels in large boilers, e.g. in coal powder boilers. More recently, the demand from private households and residential heating systems has also increased, mainly due to conversion from fossil heating oil. This increased interest in pellets and briquettes for heating is beginning to cause a shortage of the traditional raw materials, sawdust and wood shavings, and therefore attention is turning to using a variety of agricultural products as raw material. Such raw materials include cultivated energy crops and wastes and by-products from agriculture. This study describes the typical systems currently used for production of pellets and briquettes and investigates the possibility of using energy crops (Salix, reed canary-grass and hemp) and various wastes and by-products from processing of farm products (straw, cereal screenings, rape-seed meal and distiller's waste) as raw materials. Previous experiences of pelletizing and briquetting of these raw materials are reviewed in order to comprehensively identify possible combustion problems that may occur. On the basis of the results obtained, scenarios for possible production systems in a five-year perspective are presented and the costs and energy demands for these systems calculated. These future scenarios include large scale plants and micro-scale plants, as well as static and mobile equipment. The five main conclusions from the study are: - The farm raw materials of greatest interest for large-scale production are pelleted Salix and reed canary-grass. They have competitive prices and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelletizing factories in Sweden. - Straw has low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems. Hemp has too high production costs to be of commercial interest, while distiller's waste and rape-seed meal currently

  9. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  10. Differences in sheep and goats milk microbiological profile between conventional and organic farming systems in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malissiova, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Kyriazi, Aikaterini; Mparda, Maria; Sakorafa, Christina; Katsioulis, Antonios; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Kyritsi, Maria; Zdragas, Antonios; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the microbiological profile and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from milk from organic and conventional sheep and goat farms. Twenty-five organic and 25 conventional sheep and goat farms in the region of Thessaly, Greece participated in this study. A standardised detailed questionnaire was used to describe farming practices. A total of 50 samples were collected and analysed for total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and somatic cell count (SCC), while Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were isolated using standard methods. Isolates were identified at species level by Api-test and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Susceptibility to a panel of 20 for E. coli and 16 for S. aureus antimicrobials was determined by the agar dilution method. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for S. aureus and E. coli isolates to determine predominant clones. Lower counts of TVC, TCC and SCC were identified in milk from the organic farms, possibly due to differences in the hygienic farming practices found on those farms. API-tests and MALDI-TOF MS showed no significant differences in the S. aureus and E. coli isolates. Overall, antimicrobial resistance rates were low, while a statistically higher percentage was estimated among strains originating from conventional farms in comparison with organic farms, possibly due to the restriction of antibiotic use in organic farming. PFGE revealed diversity among S. aureus and E. coli populations in both organic and conventional farms indicating circulation of 2-3 main clones changing slightly during their evolution. Consequently, there is evidence that milk from the organic farms presents a better microbiological profile when compared with milk from conventional farms.

  11. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-02-21

    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.

  12. Mark Online, a Full Scale GIS-based Danish Farm Management Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bligaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With its oceanic climate with moderate summers and mild winters in combination with a highly organized infrastructure, farming has traditionally been very intensive in Denmark. The cultivated land constitutes 26,000 km² out of a total of 43,000 km². Most of the arable land is used for intensive plant production with a high level of mechanization and management practices. For more than three decades The Knowledge Centre for Agriculture (KCA has developed and implemented ICT Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS for planning and documentation of all aspects of crop production. Today, updated field specific information on field size, soil type, crops, varieties, soil tillage, sowing, fertilization, pesticide usage etc. is now hosted in the GIS-based FMIS, Mark Online covering more than 80% of the arable land. A centralized Microsoft SQL data base forms the core base for all the information. Based on a MS .NET framework a number of multi-tier client-server applications have been developed. Most of the desk top applications consist of relative thick clients based on Win forms, whereas HTML5 apps and Android/IOS native apps are used for the mobile platform. Data exchange between the clients and server are based on a web service layer using data compression to improve performance. Farmers are one of the two primary target groups. Local agricultural advisors working on behalf of farmers not having their own software is the other primary target group. Nonetheless, both groups are mainly focusing on field record planning, decision making and documentation. Data is transferred between the Mark Online system and the authorities by XML-based web services or ordinary file upload to official websites. The Open Geospatial Consortium’s Web Feature Service (WFS provides another interface allowing requests for geospatial features, which is used between Mark Online and external GIS.

  13. Soil Decomposition of Added Organic C in an Organic Farming System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Sissoko, Alassane; McElhenney, Wendell

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, large quantities of poultry waste are added every year to soil under organic management. Decomposition of the added organic C releases plant nutrients, promotes soil structure, and plays a vital role in the soil food web. In organic agriculture the added C serves as the only source of nutrients for plant growth. Thus understanding the decomposition rates of such C in organic farming systems are critical in making recommendations of organic inputs to organic producers. We investigated and compared relative accumulation and decomposition of organic C in an organic farming system trial at the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station at Tuskegee, Alabama on a Marvyn sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kanhapludults) soil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and four treatments. The main plot (54' × 20') was split into three equal subplots to plant three sweet potato cultivars. The treatments included a weed (control with no cover crop, no fertilizer), crimson clover alone (CC), crimson clover plus broiler litter (BL), and crimson clover plus NPK mineral fertilizers (NPK). For five years, late in fall, the field was planted with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L) that was cut with a mower and incorporated into soil the following spring. Moreover, broiler litter (4.65 Mg ha-1) or ammonium nitrate (150 kg N ha-1), triple super phosphate (120 kg P2O5 ha-1), and potassium chloride (160 kg K2O ha-1) were applied to the BL or the NPK plot and planted with sweet potato. Just before harvest, six soil samples were collected within the two middle rows of each sweet potato plot with an auger at incremental depths of 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm. Samples from each subplot and depth were composited and mixed in a plastic bag. The samples were sieved moist through a

  14. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparango, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy ofin poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this pou......Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy ofin poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates...

  15. Coping with the work constraints in crop-livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Taher Sraïri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to characterize the ways crop-livestock farms adapt themselves to work constraints. A follow-up of work activities was achieved in a sample of 14 family farms. Work times in each agricultural activity (livestock and crops were quantified, distinguishing the contributions of family members and that of the off-farm workers. Results showed that the annual working time averaged 1030 days per year per farm. It increased with multiple activities within farms. Work devoted to livestock averaged 581 days a year, mainly achieved by family members, while crops necessitated 449 days of work, mostly assumed by off farm workers. Farms with limited arable land devoted significant time to livestock. The results also revealed that the gross incomes from one day of work in livestock were almost 50-times less than those from the same duration in cash crops. Altogether, the results confirm the necessity to consider work as a crucial variable determining farming systems’ performances and the use efficiency of this input. As a consequence, in many developing countries, the assumption of plenty of family workers availability may not be valid anymore to justify agricultural policies mainly based on intense on-farm work uses.

  16. Metabolite profiling on wheat grain to enable a distinction of samples from organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Anja; Neuweger, Heiko; Goesmann, Alexander; Thonar, Cécile; Mäder, Paul; Langenkämper, Georg; Niehaus, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Identification of biomarkers capable of distinguishing organic and conventional products would be highly welcome to improve the strength of food quality assurance. Metabolite profiling was used for biomarker search in organic and conventional wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) of 11 different old and new bread wheat cultivars grown in the DOK system comparison trial. Metabolites were extracted using methanol and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Altogether 48 metabolites and 245 non-identified metabolites (TAGs) were detected in the cultivar Runal. Principal component analysis showed a sample clustering according to farming systems and significant differences in peak areas between the farming systems for 10 Runal metabolites. Results obtained from all 11 cultivars indicated a greater influence of the cultivar than the farming system on metabolite concentrations. Nevertheless, a t-test on data of all cultivars still detected 5 metabolites and 11 TAGs with significant differences between the farming systems. Based on individual cultivars, metabolite profiling showed promising results for the categorization of organic and conventional wheat. Further investigations are necessary with wheat from more growing seasons and locations before definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the feasibility to evolve a combined set of biomarkers for organically grown wheat using metabolite profiles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Spatial distribution of nematodes in three banana ( Musa AAA) root parts considering two root thickness in three farm management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M.; De Waele, D.

    2004-10-01

    The spatial location of the banana ( Musa AAA) root parasitic nematodes within three root parts considering two root thickness was determined in three commercial farm management systems, which differ in weed and nematode management. Roots in each farm management system were classified in thick (>5 mm-d) and thin (1 ≤ 5 mm-d) roots. From each root type, the epidermis, the cortical parenchyma (CP) and the vascular cylinder (VC) were separated by fingernail, and nematodes were extracted by maceration of each root part. Independent of the farm management system, and for either root thickness, highest numbers of Radopholus similis per gram of root was found in the CP, followed by the epidermis and VC. The highest number of Helicotylencus spp., Pratylenchus spp. and the total nematode population per gram of root was found in the epidermis. Considering the number of nematodes per root part, the highest number of R. similis and total nematodes was located in the CP, while Helicotylenchus spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were concentrated in the epidermis. These patterns were approximately reproduced in the two root thickness and in the three farm management systems. This behavior suggests that injection of systemic nematicides into the plant pseudostem to replace the granular applications on surface soil might be promissory.

  18. Risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in smallholder farming systems, Madagascar highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, H; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Rakotondrafara, T F; Jourdan, M; Renard, J F; Gil, P; Servan de Almeida, R; Albina, E; Martinez, D; Tillard, E; Rakotondravao, R; Chevalier, V

    2012-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are issues of interest to avian producers in Madagascar. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the major constraint for village aviculture, and avian influenza viruses type A (AIAV) are known to circulate in bird flocks. This study aims at classifying smallholder poultry farms, according to the combination of risk factors potentially associated with NDV and AIAV transmission and to assess the level of infection for each farm class. Two study sites, Lake Alaotra and Grand Antananarivo, were chosen with respect to their differences in terms of agro-ecological features and poultry productions. A typology survey involving 526 farms was performed to identify possible risk factors for (i) within-village, and (ii) between-village virus transmission. A cross-sectional serological study was also carried out in 270 farms to assess sero-prevalences of NDV and AIAV for each farm class and the link between them and risk factor patterns. For within-village transmission, four classes of farms were identified in Grand Antananarivo and five in Lake Alaotra. For between-village virus transmission, four classes of farms were identified for each site. In both sites, NDV sero-prevalence was higher than for AIAV. There was no evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 subtypes of AIAV. Sero-prevalences were significantly higher in Lake Alaotra than in Grand Antananarivo for both viruses (OR=2.4, p=0.02 for NDV, and OR=9.6, p<0.0001 for AIAV). For within-village NDV transmission in Grand Antananarivo, backyard chicken farms (OR=3.6, p<0.001), and chicken farms with biosecurity awareness (OR=3.4, p<0.01) had greater odds of having antibodies against NDV than the others. For between-village virus transmission, farms with multiple external contacts, and farms using many small markets had greater odds of having antibodies against NDV than the others (OR=5.4, p<0.01). For AIAV, there were no differences in sero-prevalences among farm classes. In Lake

  19. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Wolf, Joost; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Schaap, Ben F.; Mandryk, Maryia; Verhagen, Jan; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2015-04-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semi-quantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.

  20. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwest part of Rio de Janeiro state water availability is one of the main limiting factors for human development and crop productivity. In the same way that shortage of freshwater is one of the main problems, the tomato production systems waste water and highly degrade the environment. The search for the water use efficiency is a challenge in tomato sustainable development production systems. This study aimed to contribute towards the development of sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in the northwestern part or Rio de Janeiro state, as well as increase water use efficiency and the improvement of our understanding on the role played by soil and water management practices on soil hydrology, especially on the amount of water available for the plants. The study was carried out at an experimental watershed in the city of São José do Ubá, in the northwestern portion of Rio de Janeiro state. This city has one of the worst human development index (HDI = 0718) of the state, occupying one of the last 6 positions (85 in 91), with serious problems of education, sanitation, water supply and public health. This area is characterized by an extensive steep hilly topography constituted by long convex-concave hillslopes separated by flat valley-bottoms. The original Atlantic Forest was continuously removed for the introduction of farming and grazing activities, which currently dominate the landscape of the region. The combination of such topographic and land-use characteristics tend to generate a variety of erosional processes, including rill and interrill erosion, gullies and even landslides. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 1,171 mm, with most of rain concentrated during the summer season, making December the wetter and July the drier months. The water balance is negative for most of the year, with the exception of the period from November to January. The cultivation in the area is traditionally done using production systems that

  1. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Vazzana, C.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic,

  2. The diversity of rural livelihoods and their influence on soil fertility in agricultural systems of East Africa - A typology of smallholder farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Muriuki, A.; Shepherd, K.D.; Mugendi, D.; Kaizzi, K.C.; Okeyo, J.; Verchot, L.; Coe, R.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2010-01-01

    Technological interventions to address the problem of poor productivity of smallholder agricultural systems must be designed to target socially diverse and spatially heterogeneous farms and farming systems. This paper proposes a categorisation of household diversity based on a functional typology of

  3. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  4. A comparison of statistical and participatory clustering of smallholder farming systems - A case study in Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivanen, K.S.; Michalscheck, M.; Descheemaeker, K.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Mellon-Bedi, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Alvarez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Typologies are often used to understand and capture smallholder farming system heterogeneity, and may be derived using different approaches and methods. This article aims to compare a quantitative, statistical typology based on a survey dataset and multivariate analysis, with a qualitative

  5. Innovative technology and sustainable development of organic dairy farming : the case of automatic milking systems in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Development of organic dairy farming in Denmark is characterized by up-scaling, increasing productivity and automation. Increasing discussion on compliance with organic principles and sustainability has been forwarded. Automatic milking systems (AMS) are part of this development and have been

  6. Short Communication: Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKIMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sukiman, Faturrahman, Rohyani IS, Ahyadi H. 2014. Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 82-85. Eucheuma cottonii is a seaweed commodity that has a high economic value because it contains compounds used as raw materials for industries. Various methods of seaweed farming have been developed, one of which is a system of cultivation Multi Trophic Sea Farming. This study aimed to analyze the growth of E. cottonii by observing the production of biomass in four trophic combinations in the system Multi Trophic Sea Farming. The study was conducted in the area of the marine aquaculture Gerupuk bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Experiments were performed on four plots cages with trophic combination treatment as follows: K1 (E. cottonii-lobster-abalone, K2 (E. cottonii-abalone-red carp, K3 (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper, and K4 (E. cottonii-abalone-pomfret fish. Seedling of E. cottonii weighing 50 g was tied to a rope and placed at a depth of 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Measurement of biomass production was done every ten days until the thirtieth day. The highest biomass production of E. cottonii was obtained in K3 trophic combination (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper fish with a depth of seedlings of 5 cm. The combination of K3 trophic is recommended for cultivation of seaweed in the MTSF system.

  7. Mulching as a strategy to improve soil properties and reduce soil erodibility in coffee farming systems of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stroosnijder, L.; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    In Rwanda, mulch is applied in coffee fields to control soil erosion. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effects of different types of mulch on soil properties and soil erodibility in coffee farming systems in three different agro-ecological zones of the highlands of Rwanda. The

  8. Sandia Wake Imaging System Field Test Report: 2015 Deployment at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herges, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.

  9. Coordinated Control for Flywheel Energy Storage Matrix Systems for Wind Farm Based on Charging/Discharging Ratio Consensus Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qian; Song, Y. D.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for coordination of flywheel energy storage matrix system (FESMS) cooperated with wind farm. A simple and distributed ratio consensus algorithm is proposed to solve FESMS dispatch problem. The algorithm is based on average consensus for both undirected...

  10. Labour not land constrains agricultural production and food self-sufficiency in maize-based smallholder farming systems in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonardo, W.J.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Udo, H.M.J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Sitoe, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite abundant land and favourable climatic conditions, Mozambique remains food insecure. We investigated the diversity, constraints and opportunities to increase smallholder productivity and achieve food self-sufficiency in maize-based farming systems in two Posts in central Mozambique. We

  11. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot

  12. Diversity in organic and agroecological farming systems for mitigation of climate change impact, with examples from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Modernel, P.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the impact of climate change on, and the adaptation potential of, ecologically intensive systems such as those known in different parts of the world as organic farming, or agroecology. To fit into the rationale of this book, this chapter focuses on Latin America, and on the

  13. Sustainability of pasture-based livestock farming systems in the European Mediterranean context: Synergies and trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernués, A.; Ruiz, R.; Olaizola, A.; Villalba, D.; Casasús, I.

    2011-01-01

    The sustainability of livestock farming systems (LFS) in relation to global concerns about climate change, population dynamics and the quality of the agro-ecosystem services that are provided to society and their trade-offs has become a fundamental issue for public and scientific debate. However,

  14. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  15. Adapting the US Food System to Climate Change Goes Beyond the Farm Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    The literature on climate change effects on food and agriculture has concentrated primarily on how crops and livestock likely will be directly affected by climate variability and change and by elevated carbon dioxide. Integrated assessments have simulated large-scale economic response to shifting agricultural productivity caused by climate change, including possible changes in food costs and prices. A small but growing literature has shown how different facets of agricultural production inside the farm gate could be adapted to climate variability and change. Very little research has examined how the full food system (production, processing and storage, transportation and trade, and consumption) is likely to be affected by climate change and how different adaptation approaches will be required by different parts of the food system. This paper will share partial results of a major assessment sponsored by USDA to determine how climate change-induced changes in global food security could affect the US food system. Emphasis is given to understanding how adaptation strategies differ widely across the food system. A common thread, however, is risk management-based decision making. Technologies and management strategies may co-evolve with climate change but a risk management framework for implementing those technologies and strategies may provide a stable foundation.

  16. Livestock system as a mitigation measure of a wind farm in a mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns a mountain territory, bordering Liguria, Piemonte, Lombardia and Emilia, where a high power 151 MW wind farm, with 42 tower of 3.6 MW power, has been proposed. As a measure of environmental mitigation, the realization of a livestock system of a herd of sucker cows pasturing in the wind farm areas is proposed. This has implications for environmental maintenance, employment in a territory gradually losing its population, and for tourism. The study, having focused on those aspects that reduce landscape impact and carrying out an analysis of the individual areas to evaluate forage resources and the different pastoral indexes, identifies the maximum sustainable load of animals (335 UBA/ha in the current conditions of neglect. So, some measures to improve and increase sustainable herds have been proposed and examined. The operations include: stone removal; light harrowing; overseeding; creation of fodder reserves for periods of shortage; and grazing will be managed by taking turns. Based on the results of two other studies, both previous tests carried out on site, encourage us to think that we will be able to increase the maximum sustainable seasonal load for the current situation by more than 50%. This means a herd of 500 UBA equal to a gross PLV, for the grazing period of 180 days, of 400,000 and so guarantee an adequate income to 3-4 UL (labor unit, and of 650,000/year in case the chain is completed during the winter months in structures located in the valley. In this case, the PLV obtained could assure income to 6-7 employees, which would be extremely important for the socio-economic conditions of the valley; in consideration of the induced activities- meat processing, marketing and tourism facilities- which could be made available. Experimental tests of the technical improvements described will be carried out in the next season.

  17. An Inventory and Use Analysis of Information Systems on Small Farms in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean S.

    2007-01-01

    Across the United States, today's farm operators face continuing challenges from global competition, increasing production costs, changing technology, increased regulations, scarce resources, and lower profit margins. To face these challenges, farm operators need to gather and utilize information allowing them to make informed decisions. Several…

  18. A concept of food-web structure in organic arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for a descriptive or topological farm food web is derived from field observations and from references in literature. Important themes in the food-web theory are tentatively applied to this preliminary model, explaining differences between local farm food-web structures and how they are

  19. 76 FR 75542 - Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest Independent Transmission, System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC (Rail Splitter or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Ameren Services Company...

  20. The dairy control and management system in the robotic milking farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devir, S.

    1995-01-01


    The research and development described in this thesis was directed towards the technical and managerial integration of the milking robot into the dairy farm. First a concept and tools for the milking robot dairy farm were developed. A set of parameters was introduced which