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Sample records for subset construction strategy

  1. Constructive Thinking Strategies in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Contreras Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify the strategies of constructive thinking that are used by university students. Constructive thinking is the automatic representation of the world, ourselves, and the future, it direct our actions to solve everyday problems. Results show that, there are no significant differences in global constructive thinking between male and female students. Although, exist differences in the copy style: men are better at emotional copies, they diminish the emotional cost of the events, and overcame faster negative experiences, they also show higher self-esteem. Women, on the other hand, show better strategies in order to solve problems (behavioral copy.

  2. Factors Affecting Competitive Strategies in International Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe ERCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rising competition in the international construction market, competitive strategies are becoming ever more important. This study aims to identify the level of importance of a variety of competitive strategies in construction companies to create a theoretical framework for competitive strategies in international construction business. In the questionnaire titled: ‘Identifying the Parameters of Strategic Performance Comparison Tool in International Construction Companies’, professionals were asked the level of importance of parameters in acquiring a competitive edge in international markets for construction companies. 82 people who currently work for international construction companies responded the questionnaire. The Relative Importance Index (RII of competitive strategies in construction companies was calculated using the survey results. The construct was redesigned through the Pearson Correlation and principal components analysis (PCA. The results of the PCA denoted that the construct of competitive strategies in construction companies can be explained by three main factors in sync with Porter’s three generic competitive strategy types: F1 Cost Leadership in Construction, F2 Specialization and Focus and F3 Differentiation in Construction and Company Resources. The analysis results show that the competitive strategies related to “Differentiation in Construction and Company Resources” have a greater importance level, while the diversification strategies have a lower importance level. Which means specialization in some type of construction activity and focus on a specific group of customers is more effective than diversification strategies in gaining a competitive advantage in the market.

  3. Factors Affecting Competitive Strategies in International Construction Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe ERCAN; Almula KÖKSAL

    2013-01-01

    Due to rising competition in the international construction market, competitive strategies are becoming ever more important. This study aims to identify the level of importance of a variety of competitive strategies in construction companies to create a theoretical framework for competitive strategies in international construction business. In the questionnaire titled: ‘Identifying the Parameters of Strategic Performance Comparison Tool in International Construction Companies’, professionals ...

  4. Construction machine control guidance implementation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Machine Controlled Guidance (MCG) technology may be used in roadway and bridge construction to improve construction efficiencies, potentially resulting in reduced project costs and accelerated schedules. The technology utilizes a Global Positioning S...

  5. IT in construction. Aligning IT and business strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, A.; Laan, Albertus; Leuven, A.; Kolkman, S.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Greenwood, D

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which information technology (IT) infrastructures and strategies are aligned with business processes and strategies varies widely along firms. The objective of this paper is to explain the success or failure of IT in construction firms by focusing on the alignment (or lack of it)

  6. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  7. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick X.W. Zou

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to review the current corruption prevention practices in China’s construction industry and suggest ways for improvement. To collect useful and insightful information, desktop studies, focus-group workshops and face-to-face interviews were conducted with supervisory and construction officers at different levels – state, province and municipal in China, who have direct responsibilities and experience in cracking down construction corruption. It was found that corruption happens in different forms during any stage of construction project procurement, and the current anti-corrupt practices are reactive rather than proactive. It was also found that improvements on the legal system, inspection strategies and processes, and promotion of ethical culture are all required. Based on the research findings, corruption prevention strategies were developed. The paper concludes that institution of random and regular checks, severe punishment and prosecution to corrupt personnel, and promotion of a healthy and clean construction culture are all necessary to mitigate the scourge.

  8. Bending the urban flow: a construction-migration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1980-01-01

    The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate

  9. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick X.W. Zou

    2006-01-01

    Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  10. Green Performance Contracting Strategy for Highway Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    With the growing awareness of sustainability and global climate change, state highway agencies are taking essential steps to reduce carbon emissions from highway infrastructure on a life cycle basis. While much is known regarding climate change mitigation and adaption strategies during highway operation, very little is understood about how climate change issues should be integrated into highway planning, delivery, and construction processes. This paper presents the current contracting pra...

  11. The Subset Sum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim

    2014-03-16

    In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an [Formula: see text]-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem.

  12. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  13. Experimental Design Strategy As Part of an Innovative Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier Laterveer

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory and conceptual article sets out to research what arguments and possibilities for experimentation in construction exists and if experimentation can contribute towards more innovative construction as a whole. Traditional, -western- construction is very conservative and regional, often

  14. Inspection and Other Strategies for Assuring Quality in Government Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ledbetter, William B; Lemer, Andrew C

    1991-01-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE ON INSPECTION FOR QUALITY CONTROL ON FEDERAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL William B. Ledbetter Andrew C. Lemer Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original h...

  15. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  16. Optimum unambiguous discrimination between subsets of nonorthogonal quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuqing; Hillery, Mark; Bergou, Janos A.

    2002-01-01

    It is known that unambiguous discrimination among nonorthogonal but linearly independent quantum states is possible with a certain probability of success. Here, we consider a variant of that problem. Instead of discriminating among all of the different states, we shall only discriminate between two subsets of them. In particular, for the case of three nonorthogonal states, { vertical bar ψ 1 >, vertical bar ψ 2 >, vertical bar ψ 3 >}, we show that the optimal strategy to distinguish vertical bar ψ 1 > from the set { vertical bar ψ 2 >, vertical bar ψ 3 >} has a higher success rate than if we wish to discriminate among all three states. Somewhat surprisingly, for unambiguous discrimination the subsets need not be linearly independent. A fully analytical solution is presented, and we also show how to construct generalized interferometers (multiport) which provide an optical implementation of the optimal strategy

  17. How High School Students Construct Decision-Making Strategies for Choosing Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, George V.; Patrick, Sondra; Yen, Cherng-Jyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how high school seniors construct decision-making strategies for choosing a college to attend. To comprehend their decision-making strategies, we chose to examine this process through the theoretical lens of bounded rationality, which brings to light the complexity in constructing a college choice decision-making strategy…

  18. Sustainable consumption and production strategy for South African construction products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of green building principles and the rollout of energy efficiency regulations for buildings are not sufficient to align the environmental performance of South African construction products with the requirements for environmental...

  19. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries.

  20. Linking response strategies adopted by construction firms during the 2007 economic recession to Porter’s generic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tansey, Paul; Spillane, John P.; Meng, Xianhai

    2014-01-01

    The time period bridging the years 2007 to 2012 will be remembered as one characterised by dramatic changes in the Irish and UK construction industries. Construction companies witnessed unprecedented changes in the environment, namely the coincidence of a sharp economic downturn, the significant decline of public works, a reduction in lending, increased competition, and structural changes in the marketplace. Nevertheless, little has been documented on what response strategies construction com...

  1. Strategies, methods and tools for managing nanorisks in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, J. M.; Vaquero, C.; Boutry, D.; Damlencourt, J. F.; Neofytou, P.; Pilou, M.; Jankowska, E.; Larraza, I.; Pina, R.; Fernández, S.; Contreras, S.; Romero, A.; Calderon, M.; Swiezewsk, P.; Otkallo, K.; Pintea, A.; Salazar, C.; Oroz, T.; Hargreaves, B.; Ciobanu, R.; Tabrea, A.; Hazebrouck, B.; Salvi, O.; Stockmann-Juvala, H.; Vaananen, V.; Pui, D. H. Y.; Thompson, Drew

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the work carried out by European project SCAFFOLD (GA 280535) during its 30 months of life, with special emphasis on risk management component. The research conducted by SCAFFOLD is focused on the European construction sector and considers 5 types of nanomaterials (TiO2, SiO2, carbon nanofibres, cellulose nanofibers and nanoclays), 6 construction applications (Depollutant mortars, selfcompacting concretes, coatings, self-cleaning coatings, fire resistant panels and insulation materials) and 26 exposure scenarios, including lab, pilot and industrial scales. The document focuses on the structure, content and operation modes of the Risk Management Toolkit developed by the project to facilitate the implementation of “nano-management” in construction companies. The tool deploys and integrated approach OHSAS 18001 - ISO 31000 and is currently being validated on 5 industrial case studies.

  2. Strategies, methods and tools for managing nanorisks in construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Vaquero, C; Boutry, D; Damlencourt, J F; Neofytou, P; Pilou, M; Jankowska, E; Larraza, I; Pina, R; Fernández, S; Contreras, S; Romero, A; Calderon, M; Swiezewsk, P; Otkallo, K; Pintea, A; Salazar, C; Oroz, T; Hargreaves, B; Ciobanu, R

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the work carried out by European project SCAFFOLD (GA 280535) during its 30 months of life, with special emphasis on risk management component. The research conducted by SCAFFOLD is focused on the European construction sector and considers 5 types of nanomaterials (TiO 2 , SiO 2 , carbon nanofibres, cellulose nanofibers and nanoclays), 6 construction applications (Depollutant mortars, selfcompacting concretes, coatings, self-cleaning coatings, fire resistant panels and insulation materials) and 26 exposure scenarios, including lab, pilot and industrial scales. The document focuses on the structure, content and operation modes of the Risk Management Toolkit developed by the project to facilitate the implementation of “nano-management” in construction companies. The tool deploys and integrated approach OHSAS 18001 - ISO 31000 and is currently being validated on 5 industrial case studies. (paper)

  3. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  4. Strategies for healthcare facilities, construction, and real estate management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James G

    2012-05-01

    Adventist HealthCare offers the following lessons learned in improving the value of healthcare facilities, construction, and real estate management: Use an integrated approach. Ensure that the objectives of the approach align the hospital or health system's mission and values. Embrace innovation. Develop a plan that applies to the whole organization, rather than specific business units. Ensure commitment of senior leaders.

  5. Emerging Biofabrication Strategies for Engineering Complex Tissue Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedde, R. Daniel; Mirani, Bahram; Navaei, Ali

    2017-01-01

    , outlines the use of common biomaterials and advanced hybrid scaffolds, and describes several design considerations including the structural, physical, biological, and economical parameters that are crucial for the fabrication of functional, complex, engineered tissues. Finally, the applications...... of these biofabrication strategies in neural, skin, connective, and muscle tissue engineering are explored.......The demand for organ transplantation and repair, coupled with a shortage of available donors, poses an urgent clinical need for the development of innovative treatment strategies for long-term repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues and organs. Bioengineering organs, by growing...

  6. An empirical analysis of strategy implementation process and performance of construction companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, F. I.; Zawawi, E. M. A.; Nordin, R. M.; Ahnuar, E. M.

    2018-02-01

    Strategy implementation is known as action stage where it is to be considered as the most difficult stage in strategic planning. Strategy implementation can influence the whole texture of a company including its performance. The aim of this research is to provide the empirical relationship between strategy implementation process and performance of construction companies. This research establishes the strategy implementation process and how it influences the performance of construction companies. This research used quantitative method approached via questionnaire survey. Respondents were G7 construction companies in Klang Valley, Selangor. Pearson correlation analysis indicate a strong positive relationship between strategy implementation process and construction companies’ performance. The most importance part of strategy implementation process is to provide sufficient training for employees which directly influence the construction companies’ profit growth and employees’ growth. This research results will benefit top management in the construction companies to conduct strategy implementation in their companies. This research may not reflect the whole construction industry in Malaysia. Future research may be resumed to small and medium grades contractors and perhaps in other areas in Malaysia.

  7. Geologists' Implicit Persuasive Strategies and the Construction of Evaluative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressen, Dacia

    2003-01-01

    Describes the basis for the evaluational practices of the field geology community, through a qualitative analysis of geologists' implicit strategies coupled with the situated analysis of the field account part-genre, its past and present disciplinary practices. (Author/VWL)

  8. (Re)Constructing Career Strategies After Experiencing Involuntary Job Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mulhall, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This research article focuses on experiences of involuntary job loss following organisational change as occasions for career (re)construction. Using narrative inquiry, it explores the career stories of four former professionals on an Irish active labour market programme assisting the long-term unemployed to transition to employment. The article portrays how, and in what ways, the participants respond when confronted with transformation. Offering an empirically grounded understanding of the ch...

  9. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zuluaga, M. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  10. Design Strategy of Information Construction Based on User Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Jundong

    2017-01-01

    In the design of the Internet products, the information construction is one of the important factors to determine that whether a product is friendly. It is a challenge for every information architect to discover new innovations on the basis of established user habits. In practice, we often found that the development of many new functions did not meet the needs of users and many functions would be improved by users themselves, the fact of which shows the strong desire of users to participate i...

  11. Strategy Guideline: Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new houses become less like conventional houses that were built in the past. New materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. The Guideline for Construction Documents for High Performance Housing provides advice to address this need. The reader will be presented with four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  12. Introspective Multistrategy Learning: Constructing a Learning Strategy under Reasoning Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Barsalou, Hale & Cox, 1989) that was designed to present domain knowledge about lawn mower engines, test their troubleshooting ability, and collect reaction...consider a lawn mower . When the lawn mower breaks down, someone has to repair it so that it will work right in the future. Strategy con- struction is like...choosing the right tools from the a tool box and planning how to use them to fix the broken lawn mower (see Figure 1). The person who does the repair is

  13. An unsupervised adaptive strategy for constructing probabilistic roadmaps

    KAUST Repository

    Tapia, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since planning environments are complex and no single planner exists that is best for all problems, much work has been done to explore methods for selecting where and when to apply particular planners. However, these two questions have been difficult to answer, even when adaptive methods meant to facilitate a solution are applied. For example, adaptive solutions such as setting learning rates, hand-classifying spaces, and defining parameters for a library of planners have all been proposed. We demonstrate a strategy based on unsupervised learning methods that makes adaptive planning more practical. The unsupervised strategies require less user intervention, model the topology of the problem in a reasonable and efficient manner, can adapt the sampler depending on characteristics of the problem, and can easily accept new samplers as they become available. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that in a wide variety of environments, the regions automatically identified by our technique represent the planning space well both in number and placement.We also show that our technique has little overhead and that it out-performs two existing adaptive methods in all complex cases studied.© 2009 IEEE.

  14. Design Strategy of Information Construction Based on User Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jundong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of the Internet products, the information construction is one of the important factors to determine that whether a product is friendly. It is a challenge for every information architect to discover new innovations on the basis of established user habits. In practice, we often found that the development of many new functions did not meet the needs of users and many functions would be improved by users themselves, the fact of which shows the strong desire of users to participate in the development of products. Therefore, this article proposes an information architecture method based on the “users’ partially involved”, that is, when the main framework of a product is determined and the detailed architecture of part of the functions is proposed by users themselves, builders will help users to dig and organize their requirements and eventually integrate them into the design of architecture. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, the article takes the virtual products for social service based on "surrounding geographic information" as an example. A comparison experiment was conducted on the effectiveness of the design of user-participant information architecture, and the experimental results were evaluated.

  15. Challenges, success factors and strategies for women’s career development in the Australian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin E. Rosa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction is traditionally a male industry. Women have long had difficulties entering or advancing their career in construction. Evidence shows that a diversified workforce with gender balance will bring about higher levels of productivity. Despite the importance of this issue, there have been limited studies on women’s career development in construction. This study aims to investigate women’s career development in the Australian construction industry, with objectives to evaluate the challenges and success factors of women’s career development in the construction industry and provide strategies for narrowing the gender imbalance. A mixed approach of questionnaire survey and interview were conducted with female practitioners in the construction industry. Forty-three completed questionnaires were received and 10 interviews were conducted. Stress, family-work balance, and negative perception towards women in construction were the top three challenges identified. Dedication, determination, and independence were the top three success factors of women in construction. This study recommends construction employers consider providing personal development programs and flexible working arrangement for their female employees. Significance of this study lies on contributing to understanding women’s career development in construction. Findings will be useful for government and professional institutions to promulgate strategies for advancing women’s career development in construction.

  16. [Construction and Application of Innovative Education Technology Strategies in Nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Fen; Huang, Hsiang-Ping; Ni, Lee-Fen; Tsai, Chia-Lan; Huang, Tsuey-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of information and communication technologies has deeply impacted education reform, promoted the development of digital-learning models, and stimulated the development of diverse nursing education strategies in order to better fulfill needs and expand in new directions. The present paper introduces the intelligent-learning resources that are available for basic medical science education, problem-based learning, nursing scenario-based learning, objective structured clinical examinations, and other similar activities in the Department of Nursing at Chang Gung University of Science and Technology. The program is offered in two parts: specialized classroom facilities and cloud computing / mobile-learning. The latter includes high-fidelity simulation classrooms, online e-books, and virtual interactive simulation and augmented reality mobile-learning materials, which are provided through multimedia technology development, learning management systems, web-certificated examinations, and automated teaching and learning feedback mechanisms. It is expected that the teaching experiences that are shared in this article may be used as a reference for applying professional wisdom teaching models into nursing education.

  17. A Region-Based Strategy for Collaborative Roadmap Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory; Sandströ m, Read; Julian, Nicole; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Motion planning has seen much attention over the past two decades. A great deal of progress has been made in sampling-based planning, whereby a planner builds an approximate representation of the planning space. While these planners have demonstrated success inmany scenarios, there are still difficult problems where they lack robustness or efficiency, e.g., certain types of narrow spaces. Conversely, human intuition can often determine an approximate solution to these problems quite effectively, but humans lack the speed and precision necessary to perform the corresponding low-level tasks (such as collision checking) in a timely manner. In this work, we introduce a novel strategy called Region Steering in which the user and a PRM planner work cooperatively to map the space while maintaining the probabilistic completeness property of the PRMplanner. Region Steering utilizes two-way communication to integrate the strengths of both the user and the planner, thereby overcoming the weaknesses inherent to relying on either one alone. In one communication direction, a user can input regions, or bounding volumes in the workspace, to bias sampling towards or away from these areas. In the other direction, the planner displays its progress to the user and colors the regions based on their perceived usefulness.We demonstrate that Region Steering provides roadmap customizability, reduced mapping time, and smaller roadmap sizes compared with fully automated PRMs, e.g., Gaussian PRM.

  18. Sexuality Workshop For Adolescents: Participative Strategy For Collective Knowledge Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Silva Marques Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This is a quali- quantitative research  and was conducted in a basic health unit aiming to investigate female adolescents’ knowledge, practices and attitudes concerning sexuality. Methodology: The action-research methodology was used to develop workshop activities because it is a participative methodology. The workshop was performed in two modules with the participation of 29 female adolescents, and data were collected by questionnaires addressing two groups of adolescents who had or had not begun sexual activity. Results: The representations about sexuality were related to sexual relationships and showed erroneous information concerning sexually transmitted infections, which makes the adolescents vulnerable. Many of them reported not to know anything about infections or contraceptive methods, to know about contraceptive pills and condoms and to have doubts about condom use, and when experiencing sexuality, gender manifestation was present in the adolescents’ descriptions. Conclusion: Strict gender roles and a patriarchal and a chauvinistic social structure determine adolescents’ behaviors that make them believe in two opposing worlds, the masculine and the feminine worlds. With this regard, identities are constructed in multiple institutions that produce and reproduce differences. Among such institutions, schools, families and the media are noteworthy, since, despite social and individual resistance movements, they impose behavioral models according to prevailing social practices and to the objectives of the consumer and producer market. It is important to reflect about the inclusion of sexual diversity in order to act in this reality by understanding sexuality in the perspective of human rights. Key words: Sexuality, Adolescent, Health.

  19. Impact of government and corporate strategy on the performance of technology projects in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we focus on road construction and analyze technology development projects. Based on the business strategy literature and literature on technology policy, we test the relative importance of a firm's strategies and government as a buyer and champion. Our empirical findings stress the

  20. Construction of Subgame-Perfect Mixed Strategy Equilibria in Repeated Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Kimmo; Schoenmakers, Gijsbertus

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how to construct subgame-perfect mixed-strategy equilibria in discounted repeated games with perfect monitoring.We introduce a relatively simple class of strategy profiles that are easy to compute and may give rise to a large set of equilibrium payoffs. These sets are called

  1. Identifying Multiple Levels of Discussion-Based Teaching Strategies for Constructing Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Grant; Clement, John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that…

  2. Chesterman’s Syntactic Strategies in Translating English Passive Voice Construction into Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab Ahmad Mizher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive analysis studies occupy a vital role in the course of translation studies. Similarities and differences between systems of languages facilitate the process of learning a foreign/second language along with translating from one language into another. Thus, this study seeks to shed light on strategies employed by EFL learners in translating English passive voice construction into Arabic. More specifically, it investigated these strategies against the syntactic strategies that are proposed by Andrew Chesterman in his book Memes of Translation. Participants from six Jordanian universities (Public and Private who were studying general translation courses were administered to a translation test of five English sentences that contain both agentive and agentless passive constructions in which participants were asked to translate them into Arabic. The results reveal that participants use the following strategies when translating agentive passive sentences: maintaining passive, topicalization, periphrastic structure and activization. However, when translating agentless passive sentences, participants use the following strategies: maintaining passive, periphrastic structure, lexicalization and activization. These strategies correspond to Chesterman’s syntactic strategies: literal translation strategy, transposition, clause structure change and sentence structure change.  Keywords: Chesterman, Memes of Translation, English-Arabic Translation Strategies, Syntactic Strategies, Passive Voice, Contrastive Analysis (CA

  3. Strategies for Promoting Green Building Technologies Adoption in the Construction Industry—An International Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ping Chuen Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Because green building technologies (GBTs adoption is a promising way of ameliorating the sustainability performance of buildings, GBTs are receiving increased interest in the global construction community. The barriers to the adoption of GBTs, such as higher cost and lack of awareness, further indicate that proper strategies need to be devised for promoting the wider adoption of GBTs in buildings development. However, there exist limited empirical studies identifying the strategies for promoting GBTs adoption in the construction industry. This study aims to identify the strategies that are important for promoting GBTs adoption in construction. After a comprehensive literature review to identify strategies for the promotion of GBTs adoption, empirical data were gleaned through a questionnaire survey with 104 green building experts around the world. The analysis results validated the importance of all of the 12 promotion strategies used for the study. Green building experts from different countries and with different backgrounds had significant agreement on the relative importance ranking of the promotion strategies. Furthermore, “financial and further market-based incentives for GBTs adopters”, “availability of better information on cost and benefits of GBTs”, “mandatory governmental policies and regulations”, and “green rating and labeling” were identified as the top four important promotion strategies. The research findings provide a valuable reference to assist practitioners and policy makers in developing practical strategies for promoting GBTs adoption to eventually achieve the sustainable development of buildings. From the perspective of international experts, this study adds to the green building literature by offering empirical evidence of the important strategies for promoting GBTs adoption in the construction industry. Future research will investigate the interrelationships among the promotion strategies and their

  4. Formulating a Long-Term Employment Strategy for Construction Workforce in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh Norazlin Mat; Mat Isa Siti Siti Sarah; Syed Jamalulil Syarifah Nur Nazihah; Ibrahim Irma Hanie; Hussein Edelin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary idea about the research outline to be conducted by the researcher. Overall idea starts with the unremitting issues regarding skilled construction workforce in Malaysia. Unfortunately, unemployment in Malaysia is becoming increasingly serious. Lack of employment factors there is also a source of unemployment. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the existing strategy to encourage the involvement of local skilled construction workforce (LSCW) ons...

  5. Strategies for effective management of health and safety in confined site construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Spillane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The overall aim of this research is to identify and catalogue the numerous managerial strategies for effective management of health and safety on a confined, urban, construction site. Design/Methodology/Approach: This is achieved by utilising individual interviews, focus groups discussion on selected case studies of confined construction sites, coupled with a questionnaire survey. Findings: The top five key strategies include (1 Employ safe system of work plans to mitigate personnel health and safety issues; (2 Inform personnel, before starting on-site, of the potential issues using site inductions; (3 Effective communication among site personnel; (4 Draft and implement an effective design site layout prior to starting on-site; and (5 Use of banksman (traffic co-ordinator to segregate personnel from vehicular traffic. Practical Implication: The construction sector is one of the leading industries in accident causation and with the continued development and regeneration of our urban centres, confined site construction is quickly becoming the norm - an environment which only fuels accident creation within the construction sector. Originality/Value: This research aids on-site management that requires direction and assistance in the identification and implementation of key strategies for the management of health and safety, particularly in confined construction site environments.

  6. Chinese business students’ changes in beliefs and strategy use in a constructively aligned PBL course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a longitudinal retrospective case study approach to investigate Chinese business students’ transitional learning experience in a problem-based learning (PBL) course with innovative assessment practices. The study focused on students’ beliefs and strategy use in a constructively...... that align social constructivist learning principles with students’ beliefs and strategies. The results also highlight the importance of developing appropriate assessment rubrics to enhance student engagement with PBL learning for improved outcomes....

  7. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    , it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...... the coefficient vectors from each subset should be weighted. It is not computationally feasible to calculate the mean subset coefficient vector for larger problems, and thus we suggest an algorithm to find an approximation to the mean subset coefficient vector. In a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study...

  8. Constructing a management strategy for contaminated agricultural systems using the decision support system RODOS and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Milagros; Dvorzhak, Alla

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the event of a radiological accident or incident, the construction of a strategy for managing the possible contaminated systems is an important component into the emergency response process. There are a wide collection of possible management options, but for any one accident scenario only a subset of options conforming a management strategy will be applied. The selection of these options depends on a wide range of criteria (time and space, effectiveness, economic cost, radiological and environmental impact, waste disposal, legislative issues and societal and ethical aspects, for example) which, nowadays, are implemented into tools and systems to guide to the decision-makers. This work aims to establish the usefulness and applicability of the Decision Support System RODOS for representative Spanish situations where food production systems become contaminated after a radiological emergency. This aspect is demonstrated for developing an management strategy for one scenario involving contamination of the food chain after a hypothetical accidental release of 137 Cs and 90 Sr from a Spanish NPP. For this scenario, the NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) data of INM (National Meteorological Institute) have been considered. The deposited contamination, the activity concentration in significant agricultural products for this region, human doses and countermeasures proposed by the RODOS system have been considered and analyzed. There could be defined a ranking of the information intended for the decision makers based on the importance of the decisions to be made from it in each phase of the accident. In the initial moments, there is no detailed radiological information, and urgent countermeasures must be taken promptly to be effective. In regard to the information in which decision is supported during subsequent phases of the accident (late phase), time scheduling is not limiting, being the key requirement to count on the most reliable and complete information

  9. Effects of Constructing versus Playing an Educational Game on Student Motivation and Deep Learning Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and…

  10. Constructing Proxy Variables to Measure Adult Learners' Time Management Strategies in LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Il-Hyun; Kim, Dongho; Yoon, Meehyun

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of constructing proxy variables from recorded log data within a Learning Management System (LMS), which represents adult learners' time management strategies in an online course. Based on previous research, three variables of total login time, login frequency, and regularity of login interval were selected as…

  11. New contexts, new processes, new strategies: the co-construction of meaning in plurilingual interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Capucho

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we will present the analysis of an extract from the Bucharest-Cinco corpus that will allow us to identify the strategies developed in the process of co-construction of meaning in multilingual contexts through a close examination of verbal and non-verbal features.

  12. Construction of Subgame-Perfect Mixed-Strategy Equilibria in Repeated Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Berg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how to construct subgame-perfect mixed-strategy equilibria in discounted repeated games with perfect monitoring. We introduce a relatively simple class of strategy profiles that are easy to compute and may give rise to a large set of equilibrium payoffs. These sets are called self-supporting sets, since the set itself provides the continuation payoffs that are required to support the equilibrium strategies. Moreover, the corresponding strategies are simple as the players face the same augmented game on each round but they play different mixed actions after each realized pure-action profile. We find that certain payoffs can be obtained in equilibrium with much lower discount factor values compared to pure strategies. The theory and the concepts are illustrated in 2 × 2 games.

  13. Constructing a strategy map for banking institutions with key performance indicators of the balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi

    2012-08-01

    This study presents a structural evaluation methodology to link key performance indicators (KPIs) into a strategy map of the balanced scorecard (BSC) for banking institutions. Corresponding with the four BSC perspectives (finance, customer, internal business process, and learning and growth), the most important evaluation indicators of banking performance are synthesized from the relevant literature and screened by a committee of experts. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method, a multiple criteria analysis tool, is then employed to determine the causal relationships between the KPIs, to identify the critical central and influential factors, and to establish a visualized strategy map with logical links to improve banking performance. An empirical application is provided as an example. According to the expert evaluations, the three most essential KPIs for banking performance are customer satisfaction, sales performance, and customer retention rate. The DEMATEL results demonstrate a clear road map to assist management in prioritizing the performance indicators and in focusing attention on the strategy-related activities of the crucial indicators. According to the constructed strategy map, management could better invest limited resources in the areas that need improvement most. Although these strategy maps of the BSC are not universal, the research results show that the presented approach is an objective and feasible way to construct strategy maps more justifiably. The proposed framework can be applicable to institutions in other industries as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies on Bid Success in the Nigeria Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope Samuel Fawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of researches have been carried out prior to the new millennium on the subject of bidding strategies in the construction industry. Today, organizations are faced with a very complex decision of bid/no-bid because it requires the assessment of large number of highly inter-related variables. The study aims at examining different types of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies (CBS with a view to determining their impact on bid success. In line with the aim, the study objectives include; evaluation of different types of CBS and; assessment of the success rate of contractors’ bid. The method of approach elicits information on the number of projects bided and successes recorded over a period of time. A total of one hundred and seventy-one useable responses were retrieved from questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics, tables and percentages as well as mean item score (MIS were used for data analysis. The study showed that lowest bid, public relations and joint venture bidding strategies have great impact on contractors’ bid success especially on residential, educational and administrative projects in the Nigeria Construction Industry (NCI. Therefore, the study concluded that relationship exists between contractors’ bidding strategies and equivalent successes recorded over a period of time. It is important to also know that lowest bid strategy still remains the most effective bidding strategy for public works contracting in the NCI.

  15. A Strategy for Accomplishing Human-Performance Monitoring of Constructing NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chanho; Jung, Yeonsub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The main purpose of HPM(Human performance monitoring) is that no significant safety degradation occurs due to changes in design, procedures, training, or staffing during the plant operation. Accordingly, the strategy for accomplishing HPM should be to maintain the acceptable level of human performance for safety operation. This paper presents a strategy to fulfill HPM effectively for constructing NPPs in Korea. Activities for HPM in constructing plants need to be divided into two large parts on the basis of the fuel loading, which could be a good strategy to accomplish HPM effectively. That is, the activities such as making HPM plan and developing its indexes are performed before the fuel loading, while the activities of maintaining acceptable HP levels are conducted after the fuel loading. This HPM strategy includes not only maintaining the criteria of human performance established during ISV, but also improving human performance through existing activities during the plant operation. Constructing plants will also make actively use of the existing programs for enhancing human performance.

  16. The process evaluation of two alternative participatory ergonomics intervention strategies for construction companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2018-03-26

    To gain insight into the process of applying two guidance strategies - face-to-face (F2F) or e-guidance strategy (EC) - of a Participatory Ergonomics (PE) intervention and whether differences between these guidance strategies occur, 12 construction companies were randomly assigned to a strategy. The process evaluation contained reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change of individual workers. Data were assessed by logbooks, and questionnaires and interviews at baseline and/or after six months. Reach was low (1%). Dose delivered (F2F: 63%; EC: 44%), received (F2F: 42%; EC: 16%) were not sufficient. The precision and competence were sufficient for both strategies and satisfaction was strongly affected by dose received. For behavioural change, knowledge (F2F) and culture (EC) changed positively within companies. Neither strategy was delivered as intended. Compliance to the intervention was low, especially for EC. Starting with a face-to-face meeting might lead to higher compliance, especially in the EC group. Practitioner Summary: This study showed that compliance to a face-to-face and an e-guidance strategy is low. To improve the compliance, it is advised to start with a face-to-face meeting to see which parts of the intervention are needed and which guidance strategy can be used for these parts. ISRCTN73075751.

  17. Construction of International Cooperation strategies: An inquiry into the learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabeza-Pulles, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research is the product of a collection of primary information in the context of the formulation of the International Cooperation strategy of the Municipality of Pasto, for the purpose of determining the path of construction of this process, its impact and challenges and, above all, the learning achieved through the participatory formulation of the International Cooperation strategy. The methodology of the research is of a qualitative interpretative study, which allowed to rebuild from the sight of actors the participatory formulation of the strategy of International Cooperation, rescuing the importance of participation in all levels, recognizing the team working and the generation of partnerships, trust and commitment in the pursuit of strengthening and sustainability of the process of internationalization of the Municipality. Finally, the research concluded with a series of reflections concerning the formulation of strategies for International Cooperation.

  18. Construction of the Questionnaire on Foreign Language Learning Strategies in Specific Croatian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božinović, Nikolina; Sindik, Joško

    2017-03-01

    Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to understand, learn or retain new information, according to the point of view of O’Malley & Chamot. The other view, promoted by Oxford, believes learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more transferrable to new situations of language learning and use. The use of appropriate strategies ensures greater success in language learning. The aim of the research was to establish metric characteristics of the Questionnaire on learning strategies created by the author, in line with the template of the original SILL questionnaire (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning). The research was conducted at the Rochester Institute of Technology Croatia on a sample of 201 participants who learned German, Spanish, French and Italian as a foreign language. The results have shown that one-component latent dimensions which describe the space of foreign language learning strategies according to Oxford’s classification, have metric characteristics which are low, but still satisfactory (reliability and validity). All dimensions of learning strategies appeared not to be adequately defined. Therefore, we excluded compensation strategies and merged social and affective strategies into social-affective strategies into the unique dimension. Overall, this version of Oxford’s original questionnaire, based on Oxford’s theoretical construct, applied on Croatian students, clearly shows that current version of the questionnaire has poor metric characteristics. One of the explanations of the results obtained could be positioned in multicultural context and intercultural dialogue. Namely, particular social, political and economic context in Croatia could shape even foreign language learning strategies.

  19. Recruitment criteria and attraction strategies for local trained labour in Malaysia’s construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, N.; Noh, NH Mohd; Syahrom, N.

    2017-12-01

    Development in Malaysia is booming which can be witnessed by the various construction projects that currently in progress, especially in the state of Johor which has the highest value of construction work completed for the third quarter of 2016. This necessarily requires skilled labours in a high number especially among the locals since it has been reported that Malaysia’s construction industry is having problems related to the shortage of local skilled labour. In addition, the local workers have been reported unable to fulfil the demand of construction market. Hence, it caused the contractor to import foreign workers to meet the needs and requirement of labour market in construction sector. This study aims of two objectives; to determine the criteria set by the construction company in recruiting local skilled labour and to study the strategies that can attract local skilled labour to join construction industry. Questionnaire has been distributed to G7 contractor in the state of Johor in order to achieve the objectives of this study. Collected data was then evaluated and tested for its reliability using the SPSS 20.0 software before it can be analysed in order to obtain the mean value, frequencies and percentage. The outcome of this study indicates that the prospective employer prefers to work with man and they require young, experienced, knowledgeable and skilled workers in doing the job. Most of the strategies that have been selected are mainly related to money namely salary increment, bonus, allowance and overtime payment, apart from upgrading labours welfare and providing a better accommodation. This study can be a guideline to both skills institution and contractor to improve on what they are lacking in order to encourage the local trained skills labour to join the industry.

  20. A puzzle assembly strategy for fabrication of large engineered cartilage tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nover, Adam B; Jones, Brian K; Yu, William T; Donovan, Daniel S; Podolnick, Jeremy D; Cook, James L; Ateshian, Gerard A; Hung, Clark T

    2016-03-21

    Engineering of large articular cartilage tissue constructs remains a challenge as tissue growth is limited by nutrient diffusion. Here, a novel strategy is investigated, generating large constructs through the assembly of individually cultured, interlocking, smaller puzzle-shaped subunits. These constructs can be engineered consistently with more desirable mechanical and biochemical properties than larger constructs (~4-fold greater Young׳s modulus). A failure testing technique was developed to evaluate the physiologic functionality of constructs, which were cultured as individual subunits for 28 days, then assembled and cultured for an additional 21-35 days. Assembled puzzle constructs withstood large deformations (40-50% compressive strain) prior to failure. Their ability to withstand physiologic loads may be enhanced by increases in subunit strength and assembled culture time. A nude mouse model was utilized to show biocompatibility and fusion of assembled puzzle pieces in vivo. Overall, the technique offers a novel, effective approach to scaling up engineered tissues and may be combined with other techniques and/or applied to the engineering of other tissues. Future studies will aim to optimize this system in an effort to engineer and integrate robust subunits to fill large defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Constructing Asymmetric Polyion Complex Vesicles via Template Assembling Strategy: Formulation Control and Tunable Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for constructing polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes with asymmetric structure is described. Poly(methylacrylic acid-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide modified gold nanoparticles (PMAA-b-PNIPAm-@-Au NPs were prepared and then assembled with poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly[1-methyl-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine] (PEG-b-PMMPImB via polyion complex of PMMA and PMMPImB. After removing the Au NPs template, asymmetric PICsomes composed of a PNIPAm inner-shell, PIC wall, and PEG outer-corona were obtained. These PICsomes have low protein absorption and thermally tunable permeability, provided by the PEG outer-corona and the PNIPAm inner-shell, respectively. Moreover, PICsome size can be tailored by using templates of predetermined sizes. This novel strategy for constructing asymmetric PICsomes with well-defined properties and controllable size is valuable for applications such as drug delivery, catalysis and monitoring of chemical reactions, and biomimetics.

  2. Green Nanotechnology in Nordic Construction - Eco-innovation strategies and Dynamics in nordic Window Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Sandén, Björn A.; Palmberg, Christopher

    This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...

  3. Green nanotechnology in Nordic Construction: Eco-innovation strategies and Dynamics in Nordic Window Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...

  4. A Consecutive Spray Printing Strategy to Construct and Integrate Diverse Supercapacitors on Various Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Lu, Qiongqiong; Chen, Chen; Han, Mo; Wang, Qingrong; Li, Haixia; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-08-30

    The rapid development of printable electronic devices with flexible and wearable characteristics requires supercapacitor devices to be printable, light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with flexibility. Herein, we developed a consecutive spray printing strategy to controllably construct and integrate diverse supercapacitors on various substrates. In such a strategy, all supercapacitor components are fully printable, and their thicknesses and shapes are well controlled. As a result, supercapacitors obtained by this strategy achieve diverse structures and shapes. In addition, different nanocarbon and pseudocapacitive materials are applicable for the fabrication of these diverse supercapacitors. Furthermore, the diverse supercapacitors can be readily constructed on various objects with planar, curved, or even rough surfaces (e.g., plastic film, glass, cloth, and paper). More importantly, the consecutive spray printing process can integrate several supercapacitors together in the perpendicular and parallel directions of one substrate by designing the structure of electrodes and separators. This enlightens the construction and integration of fully printable supercapacitors with diverse configurations to be compatible with fully printable electronics on various substrates.

  5. Formulating a Long-Term Employment Strategy for Construction Workforce in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Norazlin Mat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a preliminary idea about the research outline to be conducted by the researcher. Overall idea starts with the unremitting issues regarding skilled construction workforce in Malaysia. Unfortunately, unemployment in Malaysia is becoming increasingly serious. Lack of employment factors there is also a source of unemployment. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the existing strategy to encourage the involvement of local skilled construction workforce (LSCW onsite. Labour is the main asset in the construction project, even nowadays concerned with the use of advanced technology to reduce costs, labor is still required to drive the technology. Therefore, it is importance to develop a long term strategies to sustain the availability in the industry by implementing questionnaire, interview and ended with validation the framework by professional. The target respondent is Employer (Contractor and ABM trainee throughout Malaysia. The outcomes dedicate to raise the interest among the youth to choose career as construction workforce, policy maker for revised any policy and employer for hiring LSCW.

  6. The Identification of Financing Strategy for the Construction of NPP Type Opr-1000 at Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch-Djoko Birmano

    2006-01-01

    The study for identification of financing strategy for the construction of OPR-1000 at Muria Peninsula have been done. This study is continuation of previous study with title T he Economic and Financing Viability of the OPR-1000 Construction at Muria Peninsula . In the previous study have been the economic and financing viability of OPR-1000 construction. The economic viability was known by obtained the generation cost, electricity tariff and construction cost. The meanwhile, the financing viability was known by obtained Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Payback Period (P) by using KEPCO Spread Sheet. From the calculation of economic and financing viability in base case, have been obtained the result of electricity tariff, IRR, FNPV and Payback Period for total investment is 6.640 cent/kWh (after Value Added Tax), 10.37%, US$ 90.52 million and 12.11 years, respectively. From this result of economic and financing viability in base case, have been carried out sensitivity analysis to technical parameter (capacity factor) and economic parameter (discount rate). The result of sensitivity analysis to be used for identifying financing strategy in order to obtain the best and optimal economic and financing viability. (author)

  7. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF THE OPTIMIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE AT IMPLEMENTING THE MAJOR CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Planning and implementation of innovations on the microlevel of management and on the higher levels is a process of innovative projects portfolio implementation. Project management is aimed at some goal; therefore, defining the mission and aims of implementation is of primary importance. These are the part of the notion of development strategy of an enterprise. Creating a strategy for big construction holding companies is complicated by the necessity to account for different factors effecting each business-block and subsidiary companies. The authors specify an algorithm of development and implementation of the activity strategy of a big construction enterprise. A special importance of the correspondence of organizational management structure to the implemented strategy is shown. The innovative character of organizational structure change is justified. The authors offer methods to optimize the organizational management structure based on communication approach with the use of the elements graph theory. The offered methodological provisions are tested on the example of the Russian JSC “RZhDstroy”.

  8. Evaluation of Acquisition Strategies for Image-Based Construction Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM). The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ...) of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i) terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii) aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and (iii) acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane camera

  9. EVALUATION OF ACQUISITION STRATEGIES FOR IMAGE-BASED CONSTRUCTION SITE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tuttas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM. The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ... of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and (iii acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane

  10. Safety Challenges and Improvement Strategies of Ethnic Minority Construction Workers: A Case Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunlin; Luo, Xiaowei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yue; Sapkota, Bibek

    2018-04-18

    Due to cultural differences, ethnic minority construction workers are more difficult to manage and more vulnerable to accidents. This study aims to identify the major barriers faced by ethnic minority workers from their own perspectives and determine potential strategies to enhance safety climate of construction projects, thus ultimately improve their safety performance. A survey with modified Nordic safety climate questionnaire was conducted in a certain sub-contractor in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews, status quo description, major challenge investigation and safety knowledge tests were carried as well. The top three most important safety challenges identified are improper stereotypes from the whole industry, lack of opportunities for job assignment, and language barriers. To improve the safety performance, employers should allocate sufficient personal protective equipment and governments should organize unannounced site visits more frequently. Besides, the higher-level management should avoid giving contradictory instructions to foremen against to the standards of supervisors.

  11. Positive Identity Construction: A Study of Discursive Strategies in an Organizational Newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Grasiele Gomes de Freitas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the dissemination of information based on social actions that value the corporate image. In this qualitative empirical study we analyzed discursive strategies for the dissemination of social practices in the external/internal newspaper from MV do Brasil, “Comunidade MV”,1 in search of positive identity construction. We used as analytical method presuppositions developed by discursive critical studies, mainly research into discourse genre (Bakhtin, 1997, Fairclough, 2001, technologizing (Fairclough, 1997 and value language (White, 2000. The results show that companies maintain incoherence between the discourse and the social exercise.

  12. CRYOPRESERVATION STRATEGY FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTS CONSISTING OF HUMAN MESENHYMAL STEM CELLS AND HYDROGEL BIOMATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Wen, F; Gouk, S S; Lee, E H; Kuleshova, L

    2015-01-01

    The development of vitrification strategy for cell-biomaterial constructs, particularly biologically inspired nanoscale materials and hydrogels mimicking the in vivo environment is an active area. A cryopreservation strategy mimicking the in vivo environment for cell-hydrogel constructs may enhance cell proliferation and biological function. To demonstrate the efficacy of vitrification as a platform technology involving tissue engineering and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Microcarriers made from alginate coated with chitosan and collagen are used. Conventional freezing and vitrification were compared. The vitrification strategy includes 10 min step-wise exposure to a vitrification solution (40% v/v EG, 0.6M sucrose) and immersion into liquid nitrogen. Confocal imaging of live/dead staining of hMSCs cultured on the surface of microcarriers demonstrated that vitrified cells had excellent appearance and prolonged spindle shape morphology. The proliferation ability of post-vitrified cells arbitrated to protein Ki-67 gene expression was not significantly different in comparison to untreated control, while that of post-freezing cells was almost lost. The ability of hMSCs cultured on the surface of microcarriers to proliferate has been not affected by vitrification and it was significantly better after vitrification than after conventional freezing during continuous culture. Collagen II related mRNA expression by 4 weeks post-vitrification and post-freezing showed that ability to differentiate into cartilage was sustained during vitrification and reduced during conventional freezing. No significant difference was found between control and vitrification groups only. Vitrification strategy coupled with advances in hMSC-expansion platform that completely preserves the ability of stem cells to proliferate and subsequently differentiate allows not only to reach a critical cell number, but also demonstrate prospects for effective utilization and transportation of cells

  13. Optical nano-biosensing interface via nucleic acid amplification strategy: construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-03-21

    Modern optical detection technology plays a critical role in current clinical detection due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. However, higher requirements such as extremely high detection sensitivity have been put forward due to the clinical needs for the early finding and diagnosing of malignant tumors which are significant for tumor therapy. The technology of isothermal amplification with nucleic acids opens up avenues for meeting this requirement. Recent reports have shown that a nucleic acid amplification-assisted modern optical sensing interface has achieved satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, high speed and specificity. Compared with isothermal amplification technology designed to work completely in a solution system, solid biosensing interfaces demonstrated better performances in stability and sensitivity due to their ease of separation from the reaction mixture and the better signal transduction on these optical nano-biosensing interfaces. Also the flexibility and designability during the construction of these nano-biosensing interfaces provided a promising research topic for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer diseases. In this review, we describe the construction of the burgeoning number of optical nano-biosensing interfaces assisted by a nucleic acid amplification strategy, and provide insightful views on: (1) approaches to the smart fabrication of an optical nano-biosensing interface, (2) biosensing mechanisms via the nucleic acid amplification method, (3) the newest strategies and future perspectives.

  14. Problems of Rural Food Safety and Strategies of Constructing Supervision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the practical necessity of constructing diversified rural food safety supervision system as follows: it is the necessary requirements of guaranteeing people’s health and life safety; it is an important component of governmental function of social management and the logical extension of administrative responsibilities; it is the basis of maintaining order of rural society and constructing harmonious society. The main problems existing in the supervision of rural food safety are analyzed as follows: first, the legislative work of rural food safety lags behind to some extent; second, the supervision of governmental departments on rural food safety is insufficient; third, the industrial supervision mechanism of rural food security is not perfect; fourth, the role of rural social organizations in supervising food safety is limited; fifth, the farmers’ awareness of food safety supervision is not strong. Based on these problems, the targeted strategies of constructing diversified rural food safety supervision system are put forward as follows: accelerate the legislation of rural food safety, and ensure that there are laws to go by; give play to the dominant role of government, and strengthen administrative supervision on rural food safety; perfect industrial convention of rural food safety, and improve industrial supervision mechanism; actively support the fostering of social organizations, and give play to the role of supervision of organizations; cultivate correct concept of rights and obligations of farmers, and form awareness of food safety supervision.

  15. Efficient Secure Multiparty Subset Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure subset problem is important in secure multiparty computation, which is a vital field in cryptography. Most of the existing protocols for this problem can only keep the elements of one set private, while leaking the elements of the other set. In other words, they cannot solve the secure subset problem perfectly. While a few studies have addressed actual secure subsets, these protocols were mainly based on the oblivious polynomial evaluations with inefficient computation. In this study, we first design an efficient secure subset protocol for sets whose elements are drawn from a known set based on a new encoding method and homomorphic encryption scheme. If the elements of the sets are taken from a large domain, the existing protocol is inefficient. Using the Bloom filter and homomorphic encryption scheme, we further present an efficient protocol with linear computational complexity in the cardinality of the large set, and this is considered to be practical for inputs consisting of a large number of data. However, the second protocol that we design may yield a false positive. This probability can be rapidly decreased by reexecuting the protocol with different hash functions. Furthermore, we present the experimental performance analyses of these protocols.

  16. The Effect of Marketing Strategies Construct on Firm Performance: Results from Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Akbar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties that face small and medium organization in any field are severe nowadays. The importance of SMEs is vital. Different researchers have proposed different success factors for small and medium organization, like finance, skilled workforce, technology, innovation and most importantly marketing. Marketing is the spine of any organization, through marketing firms bring innovation, awareness of competitors, awareness of products, building relation with customers. A good marketing strategy increases the sale of product for sure. The small and medium organization face difficulties in doing marketing, because of limited finance, limited or unskilled staff, unawareness of marketing strategies, no or less use of media. This paper presents the pilot survey result for the study of effect of marketing strategies construct (entrepreneurial, guerrilla, relationship, ambush, viral and niche marketing, on firm performance. Descriptive statistics, normality, reliability and preliminary factor analysis (EFA test were run, all the data were presented in tables below. The result shows that all the questionnaire were normally distributed, and the outcomes are all normal.

  17. Optimizing strategy software for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data using Optimizing Strategy Software (OSS for repetitive construction projects with identical activity’s duration in case of single number of crew such as: project duration, project/bid price, project maximum working capital, and project net present value of the studied project. A simplified multi-objective optimization software (OSS will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor compared with more feasible options generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. OSS is intended to give more scenarios which provide practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price, and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. OSS is designed by java programing code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Ranking the obtained optimal plans according to a set of planner specified weights representing the relative importance of duration, price, maximum working capital and net present value in the analyzed project; (2 Visualizing and viewing the generated optimal trade-off; and (3 Providing seamless integration with available project management calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of OSS, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; (4 A connecting module. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of the proposed software (OSS to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.

  18. Financing of the Construction Strategy of Leningrad During the Siege (1941-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Anastasiya Valeryevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of archival documents the strategy of public authorities aimed at organizing in Leningrad construction, rehabilitation and repair works carried out in 1941-1944, is investigated, the activity of Leningrad lending institutions (Leningrad communal Bank and Agricultural Bank, which provided loans to enterprises, institutions and residents of Leningrad on various types of construction, is analyzed. Leningrad banks performed two main functions: control over the licit distribution of funds in construction organizations that were responsible for operational and residential buildings in Leningrad and providing citizens with affordable loans to buy and build houses. The author presents statistical information on the number of building and installation companies on the eve of the Great Patriotic War and during the siege of Leningrad. In the article the dynamics of building frames in different periods of the war is traced, the sharp deterioration in the training associated with the fact that most of the builders went into the Red army is noted. The article also notes the role of banks in preventing unfair wage calculation, which was carried out by the construction organizations. On the basis of study of experience of Leningrad banks activity in the extreme conditions of the siege, the author makes a conclusion about the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by the Central government and the local authorities on lending to government organizations and individuals. The author points to the important experience of enterprises, which become guarantors for their employees to banks. As a result, the employees received money at a lo interest rate. The author believes that this contributed to increased responsibility of workers for the results of their work that eventually affected the efficiency of enterprises. According to the author, it is necessary to use the historical experience of financing of enterprises, institutions and

  19. The influence of different framing strategies in the social construction of a niche: ambidexterity in developing a bio resource market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loohuis, Raymond Petrus Antonius; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Groen, Arend J.

    2014-01-01

    Which framing strategy helps developing a regional bio resource market? Building on literature interested in the social construction of niches in the renewable energy technology, we examine how the enactment of different framing strategies (diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational) influence how a

  20. ';Best' Practices for Aggregating Subset Results from Archived Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, W. E.; Perez, J.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the exponential growth in science data analysis and visualization capabilities Data Centers have been developing new delivery mechanisms to package and deliver large volumes of aggregated subsets of archived data. New standards are evolving to help data providers and application programmers deal with growing needs of the science community. These standards evolve from the best practices gleaned from new products and capabilities. The NASA Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has developed and deployed production provider-specific search and subset web applications for the CALIPSO, CERES, TES, and MOPITT missions. This presentation explores several use cases that leverage aggregated subset results and examines the standards and formats ASDC developers applied to the delivered files as well as the implementation strategies for subsetting and processing the aggregated products. The following topics will be addressed: - Applications of NetCDF CF conventions to aggregated level 2 satellite subsets - Data-Provider-Specific format requirements vs. generalized standards - Organization of the file structure of aggregated NetCDF subset output - Global Attributes of individual subsetted files vs. aggregated results - Specific applications and framework used for subsetting and delivering derivative data files

  1. Strategi Persaingan Bisnis Jasa Konstruksi Kapal (Studi kasus tentang penerapan strategi bisnis pada perusahaan konstruksi kapal CV. Marine Construction Belawan)

    OpenAIRE

    Meliala, Fifi Febriana

    2015-01-01

    Vessel construction services business is a service business that is promising if the business location support. Business services ship construction is still dominated in the area such as Belawan sea. In conducting its business activities or business often followed by intense competition from competitors. Competition is also experienced by CV. Marine Construction Belawan business that competes with similar services, namely, ship construction services. The company has applied for a competitive ...

  2. Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as an alternative to conventional technologies for wastewater treatment for more than five decades. Recently, the use of various modified CWs to improve treatment performance has also been reported in the literature. However, the available knowledge on various CW technologies considering the intensified and reliable removal of pollutants is still limited. Hence, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current development of CW strategies and techniques for enhanced wastewater treatment. Basic information on configurations and characteristics of different innovations was summarized. Then, overall treatment performance of those systems and their shortcomings were further discussed. Lastly, future perspectives were also identified for specialists to design more effective and sustainable CWs. This information is used to inspire some novel intensifying methodologies, and benefit the successful applications of potential CW technologies.

  3. Double carbometallation of alkynes: an efficient strategy for the construction of polycycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Pan, Xiaolin; Yu, Xingxin; Wu, Jie

    2014-02-07

    Cyclization reactions of alkynes, especially the double carbometallation of alkynes, have drawn much interest from organic chemists because of their high efficiency in the construction of polycycles. Utilizing different nucleophiles or catalytic systems, various efficient strategies to access challenging skeletons have been extensively explored in recent years. In this review, achievements in this field are presented in three major parts (the syn-syn, anti-anti, and syn-anti addition reactions of diynes or two alkyne molecules). Cyclization reactions of diynes initiated by nucleophiles, [2+2+n] cycloaddition, or other processes and reactions, involving two identical or different alkynes are described, which provide facile and reliable approaches to various π systems, medium-sized rings, and even macrocycles.

  4. Construction of a controllable β-carotene biosynthetic pathway by decentralized assembly strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenping; Liu, Min; Lv, Xiaomei; Lu, Wenqiang; Gu, Jiali; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important platform organism for the synthesis of a great number of natural products. However, the assembly of controllable and genetically stable heterogeneous biosynthetic pathways in S. cerevisiae still remains a significant challenge. Here, we present a strategy for reconstructing controllable multi-gene pathways by employing the GAL regulatory system. A set of marker recyclable integrative plasmids (pMRI) was designed for decentralized assembly of pathways. As proof-of-principle, a controllable β-carotene biosynthesis pathway (∼16 kb) was reconstructed and optimized by repeatedly using GAL10-GAL1 bidirectional promoters with high efficiency (80-100%). By controling the switch time of the pathway, production of 11 mg/g DCW of total carotenoids (72.57 mg/L) and 7.41 mg/g DCW of β-carotene was achieved in shake-flask culture. In addition, the engineered yeast strain exhibited high genetic stability after 20 generations of subculture. The results demonstrated a controllable and genetically stable biosynthetic pathway capable of increasing the yield of target products. Furthermore, the strategy presented in this study could be extended to construct other pathways in S. cerevisisae. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A bi-level environmental impact assessment framework for comparing construction and demolition waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ardavan

    2018-04-27

    Several pioneering life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted in the past to assess the environmental impact of specific methods for managing mineral construction and demolition waste (MCDW), such as recycling the waste for use in concrete. Those studies focus on comparing the use of recycled MCDW and that of virgin components to produce materials or systems that serve specified functions. Often, the approaches adopted by the studies do not account for the potential environmental consequence of avoiding the existing or alternative waste management practices. The present work focuses on how product systems need to be defined in recycling LCA studies and what processes need to be within the system boundaries. A bi-level LCA framework is presented for modelling alternative waste management approaches in which the impacts are measured and compared at two scales of strategy and decision-making. Different functional units are defined for each level, all of which correspond to the same flow of MCDW in a cascade of product systems. For the sole purpose of demonstrating how the framework is implemented an illustrative example is presented, based on real data and a number of simplifying assumptions, which compares the impacts of a number of potential MCDW management strategies in New York City. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Construction and Evaluation of Scenarios as a Learning Strategy through Modelling-Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Peñaloza Figueroa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a systemic perspective and in the context of an increasing generalization in the use of new technologies and the change in the educational paradigm -which emphasizes guided and autonomous learning-, the learning strategy should be routed to join logical reasoning and instrumental skills (software. The inclusion of new computing and communication resources to the learning process turns them into teaching tools, which makes it possible to organize the teaching and learning process in a different way. The design of these new scenarios of study has important implications to the way information is processed, to the different levels of learning (descriptive, explanatory or analytical ones and to the way knowledge is acquired and evaluated. In addition, that design takes into account the greater student-content, student-student and student-teacher interactivities, always emphasizing guided independent learning. Thus, the construction, analysis and evaluation of scenarios through models and simulation are the strategy that best suits the current learning style followed by students.

  7. Strategy of Construction and Demolition Waste Management after Chemical Industry Facilities Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkinova, I. N.; Batrakova, G. M.; Vaisman, Ya I.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed waste products are generated in the process of irrelevant industrial projects’ removal if conventional techniques of their demolition and dismantling are applied. In Russia the number of unused chemical industry facilities including structures with high rate of wear is growing. In removing industrial buildings and production shops it is used conventional techniques of demolition and dismantling in the process of which mixed waste products are generated. The presence of hazardous chemicals in these wastes makes difficulties for their use and leads to the increasing volume of unutilized residues. In the process of chemical industry facilities’ removal this fact takes on special significance as a high level of hazardous chemicals in the waste composition demands for the realization of unprofitable measures aimed at ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The proposed strategy of managing waste originated from the demolition and dismantling of chemical industry facilities is based on the methodology of industrial metabolism which allows identifying separate material flows of recycled, harmful and ballast components, performing separate collection of components during removal and taking necessary preventive measures. This strategy has been tested on the aniline synthesis plant being in the process of removal. As a result, a flow of 10 wt. %, subjected to decontamination, was isolated from the total volume of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste). The considered approach allowed using the resource potential of more than 80wt. % of waste and minimizing the disposed waste volume.

  8. Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that zero energy can, in many cases, be achieved within typical construction budgets. To ensure that the momentum behind zero energy buildings and other low-energy buildings will continue to grow, this guide assembles recommendations for replicating specific successes of early adopters who have met their energy goals while controlling costs. Contents include: discussion of recommended cost control strategies, which are grouped by project phase (acquisition and delivery, design, and construction) and accompanied by industry examples; recommendations for balancing key decision-making factors; and quick reference tables that can help teams apply strategies to specific projects.

  9. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  10. A Dutch public-private strategy for innovation in sustainable construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Influenced by the sustainable construction policy of the authorities, organizations in The Netherlands are developing, designing and building sustainable areas and objects. The actions of the authorities, authority-related organizations and commercial organizations in the Dutch construction industry

  11. MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product (MYDARNSS) consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of...

  12. On subset selection from Logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1990-01-01

    Some distributional results are derived for subset selection from Logistic populations, differing only in their location parameter. The probability of correct selection is determined. Exact and numerical results concerning the expected subset size are presented.

  13. Comparison of Different Test Construction Strategies in the Development of a Gender Fair Interest Inventory Using Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt; Passler, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Three test construction strategies are described and illustrated in the development of the Verb Interest Test (VIT), an inventory that assesses vocational interests using verbs. Verbs might be a promising alternative to the descriptions of occupational activities used in most vocational interest inventories because they are context-independent,…

  14. Facilitating Effective Digital Game-Based Learning Behaviors and Learning Performances of Students Based on a Collaborative Knowledge Construction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Han-Yu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recognized the potential of educational computer games in improving students' learning engagement and outcomes; however, facilitating effective learning behaviors during the gaming process remains an important and challenging issue. In this paper, a collaborative knowledge construction strategy was incorporated into an educational…

  15. Making sense of the future: The information search strategies of construction practitioners in exploring the risk landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Maytorena-Sanchez, Eunice

    This paper explores the cognitive strategies that construction practitioners rely on when searching to identify risks in a simulated project. By using the active information search methodology in interviews with 45 industry practitioners, we were able to distinguish three stereotypical information...

  16. INTEGRATED BUSINESS STRATEGY AND ITS CONSTRUCTS: PILOT STUDY AT HOTELS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrin Saad; Khulida Kirana Yahya; Faizuniah Pangil

    2012-01-01

    Since hotel industry is major contributor to the growth of Tourism Industry in Malaysia, it is vital to take into consideration of issues that are being carried by the industry. For example the high turnover of employee in hotel due to poor strategy conducted by hotels’ management. This paper explores the new strategy measurement which is the integrated business strategy dimensions in fitting the hotel industry due to the scarce of hospitality strategy at present. The new strategy is develope...

  17. Strategy Guideline: Application of a Construction Quality Process to Existing Home Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Del Bianco, M.

    2013-08-01

    The Home Innovation Research Labs developed a construction quality process for new and existing high performance homes (HPH) in which high performance goals are established, specifications to meet those goals are defined, and construction monitoring points are added to the construction schedule so that critical energy efficiency details are systematically reviewed, documented, and tested in a timely manner. This report follows the evolution of the construction quality process from its development for new homes, to its application in the construction of a high performance home with enhanced specifications, and its application in a crawlspace renovation.

  18. Strategy Guideline. Application of a Construction Quality Process to Existing Home Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Partnership for Home Innovation developed a construction quality process for new and existing high performance homes (HPH) in which high performance goals are established, specifications to meet those goals are defined, and construction monitoring points are added to the construction schedule so that critical energy efficiency details are systematically reviewed, documented, and tested in a timely manner. This report follows the evolution of the construction quality process from its development for new homes, to its application in the construction of a high performance home with enhanced specifications, and its application in a crawlspace renovation.

  19. Strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-05-31

    Safety measures should be applied to reduce work-related fatal and non-fatal fall injuries. However, according to the labor inspectorate, more than 80% of Dutch construction sites violate safety regulations for working from heights. To increase compliance with safety regulations, employers and workers have to select, implement and monitor safety measures. To facilitate this behavioral change, stimulating knowledge awareness and personalized feedback are frequently advocated behavior change techniques. For this study, two behavior change strategies have been developed in addition to the announcement of safety inspections by the labor inspectorate. These strategies consist of 1) face-to-face contacts with safety consultants and 2) direct mail with access to internet facilities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these two strategies on the safety violations for working from heights, the process and the cost measures. This study is a block randomized intervention trial in 27 cities to establish the effects of the face-to-face guidance strategy (N = 9), a direct mailing strategy (N = 9) and a control condition of no guidance (N = 9) on safety violations to record by labor inspectors after three months. A process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine program implementation (reach, dose delivered and dose received), satisfaction, knowledge and perceived safety behavior. A cost analysis will be performed to establish the financial costs for both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. This study increases insight into performing practice-based randomized controlled trials. The outcome will help to evaluate the effect of two guidance strategies on safety violations. If these strategies are effective, implementation of these strategies through the national institute of safety and health or labor inspectorate can take place to guide construction companies in complying with

  20. Ordering Strategy Analysis of Prefabricated Component Manufacturer in Construction Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongxiong; Chung, Jacky K. H.; Chen, Yuhong; Pan, Yifan; Mei, Zhiling; Sun, Xiongle

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the characteristics and present situations of the prefabricated construction supply chain are analyzed; inventory cost models for construction material of every phase order, one-off order, and fractionated order are built based on traditional EOQ model and construction supply chain theory. Next, the order decision is represented in binary numbers 0 and 1, in which 0 stands for “no order” and 1 for “order.” The analysis uses the genetic algorithm, sets the objective function, and unde...

  1. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  2. Exploring Students' Knowledge Construction Strategies in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Discussions Using Sequential Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukor, N.B.A.; Tasir, Z.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Harun, J.

    2014-01-01

    Online collaborative learning allows discussion to occur at greater depth where knowledge can be constructed remotely. However students were found to construct knowledge at low-level where they discussed by sharing and comparing opinions; those are inadequate for new knowledge creation. As such,

  3. Building a Tree Structure: The Development of Hierarchical Complexity and Interrupted Strategies in Children's Construction Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Patricia Marks; Schneider, Leslie

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the construction of a mobile with plastic construction straws in order to study the development of tree representations in a domain other than language. Subjects were 70 children between the ages of 3 and 11. (Author/JMB)

  4. Optimizing strategy for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of a contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. Cash flow analysis of construction projects has a long history and has been an important topic in construction management. Determination of project cash flows is very sensitive, especially for repetitive construction projects. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data for repetitive construction projects such as: project duration, project cost, project/bid price, project cash flows, project maximum working capital and project net present value that is equivalent to net profit at the beginning of the project. A simplified multi-objective optimization formulation will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor comparing with more feasible options that are generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. This mathematical formulation is intended to give more scenarios which provide a practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate the applications of proposed technique to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.

  5. The construction strategy and measures for ecological analysis of China's ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Junjie; Shou, Youping; Wang, Ning; Qiao, Jianzhe; Tian, Mingjing

    2018-04-01

    The Port is an important transport hub, one of the important infrastructure of the national economy, the corresponding regional development has a great role in promoting.The construction of the port has been developed rapidly, but it has also brought about more serious environmental problems. Therefore, this paper discusses the nature of ecological ports, summarized the experience of ecological protection measures on the international advanced ports and port construction ecology. The central idea is to explore the construction of ecological port ideas and development countermeasures.

  6. National evaluation of strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; den Herder, Aalt; Warning, Jan; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face strategy and a direct mail strategy on safety violations while working from heights among construction companies compared to a control condition. Construction companies with workers at risk for fall injuries were eligible

  7. Zhengdong New District Smart Government Application System Construction and Its Development Strategy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart government is the advanced stage of e-government development, whose essence is the fusion of Internet, Internet of things, cloud computing, big data and other high and new technology and e-government, to achieve the efficient management of all kinds of information resources and make the government services more transparent, scientific and wisdom. Based on the introduce, basic principle and construct meaning, application system construction, main problems and developing countermeasures and other aspects of smart government to make a comprehensive analysis in the construction of Zhengdong new district smart government, then advise the government departments to speed up the transformation of government management functions and social service mode to integrate the business processes, and promote the construction of service-oriented and smart-oriented government actively.

  8. Analysis of Patterns of Interaction and Knowledge Construction in On-Line Learning Environments: A Methodological Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benilde García Cabrero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of analysis of interaction and construction of knowledge in educational environments based on computer-mediated communication (CMC is proposed. This proposal considers: 1 the contextual factors that constitute the input and the scenario of interaction, 2 the interaction processes: types of interaction and its contents (Garrison, Anderson and Archer, 2000 as well as the discursive strategies (Lemke, 1997, and 3 learning results that involve the quality of the knowledge constructed by the participants (Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson, 1997. This model was applied to the analysis of the interaction among a group of participants in two web forums (with or without the presence of a teacher, during the teaching of a PhD in Psychology program. The results show evidence of the model’s viability to describe the patterns of interaction and the levels of construction of knowledge in web forums.

  9. A Novel Strategy to Engineer Pre-Vascularized Full-Length Dental Pulp-like Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athirasala, Avathamsa; Lins, Fernanda; Tahayeri, Anthony; Hinds, Monica; Smith, Anthony J; Sedgley, Christine; Ferracane, Jack; Bertassoni, Luiz E

    2017-06-12

    The requirement for immediate vascularization of engineered dental pulp poses a major hurdle towards successful implementation of pulp regeneration as an effective therapeutic strategy for root canal therapy, especially in adult teeth. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to engineer pre-vascularized, cell-laden hydrogel pulp-like tissue constructs in full-length root canals for dental pulp regeneration. We utilized gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels with tunable physical and mechanical properties to determine the microenvironmental conditions (microstructure, degradation, swelling and elastic modulus) that enhanced viability, spreading and proliferation of encapsulated odontoblast-like cells (OD21), and the formation of endothelial monolayers by endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). GelMA hydrogels with higher polymer concentration (15% w/v) and stiffness enhanced OD21 cell viability, spreading and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell spreading and monolayer formation. We then fabricated pre-vascularized, full-length, dental pulp-like tissue constructs by dispensing OD21 cell-laden GelMA hydrogel prepolymer in root canals of extracted teeth and fabricating 500 µm channels throughout the root canals. ECFCs seeded into the microchannels successfully formed monolayers and underwent angiogenic sprouting within 7 days in culture. In summary, the proposed approach is a simple and effective strategy for engineering of pre-vascularized dental pulp constructs offering potentially beneficial translational outcomes.

  10. The Strategy of Management Тraining in the Construction Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khripko Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The operating efficiency of leaders in the construction industry is largely determined by the level of formation of managerial skills. Along with this, it is stated that the process of formation and development of managerial skills for leaders in the construction engineering is attended by a number of difficulties and frequently doesn’t make it past the threshold. This paper formulates a new approach in the formation of managerial skills of leaders in the construction engineering. The cross-sectoral assessment of managerial skills featuring the heads of the construction engineering and other industries, such as energy, metallurgy, showed low-performing managerial skills for the heads of the construction industry. The reasons of the formation of low-performing managerial skills in this article are referred to as peculiar features of organizational behavior in the construction engineering, in particular an imminent regression in the leader-follower system. Based on the results of the research conducted, the similarity of issues in regard to managerial skills in these areas is inherent in key differences in the formulation of priorities of corporate competencies.

  11. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  12. Subset Selection by Local Convex Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman; Madsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    This paper concerns selection of the optimal subset of variables in a lenear regression setting. The posed problem is combinatiorial and the globally best subset can only be found in exponential time. We define a cost function for the subset selection problem by adding the penalty term to the usual...... of the subset selection problem so as to guarantee positive definiteness of the Hessian term, hence avoiding numerical instability. The backward Elemination type algorithm attempts to improve the results upon termination of the modified Newton-Raphson search by sing the current solution as an initial guess...

  13. Strategies of employees in the construction industry to increase their sustainable employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; de Kruif, Anja Th C M; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2018-01-01

    The aging work force makes sustainable employability (SE) of workers a priority. However, it is unknown to what extent employees use implemented SE measures. To determine the utilization of 1) SE measures offered by employers, 2) employee SE strategies, and 3) to identify barriers and facilitators of SE strategies. Survey data were collected among 731 blue collar and 879 white collar workers to determine the utilization of employer SE measures. Focus groups were held with 16 blue collar and 17 white collar workers to identify employee SE strategies and their barriers and facilitators. Utilization of employer SE measures was highest for personal development measures. Strategies applied by blue collar workers included using equipment, suggesting improvements of their working conditions, and seeking promotion to a less physically demanding job. White collar workers named engaging in leisure time physical activity and seeking an adequate work-life balance. Implementation of these strategies was influenced by employee awareness and self-efficacy, the accessibility and costs and benefits of the strategy, management support and company culture. Usage of employer SE measures was generally low and recommendations are given for both blue and white collar workers to improve SE strategies.

  14. Construction and applications of exon-trapping gene-targeting vectors with a novel strategy for negative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinta; Ura, Kiyoe; Kodama, Miho; Adachi, Noritaka

    2015-06-30

    Targeted gene modification by homologous recombination provides a powerful tool for studying gene function in cells and animals. In higher eukaryotes, non-homologous integration of targeting vectors occurs several orders of magnitude more frequently than does targeted integration, making the gene-targeting technology highly inefficient. For this reason, negative-selection strategies have been employed to reduce the number of drug-resistant clones associated with non-homologous vector integration, particularly when artificial nucleases to introduce a DNA break at the target site are unavailable or undesirable. As such, an exon-trap strategy using a promoterless drug-resistance marker gene provides an effective way to counterselect non-homologous integrants. However, constructing exon-trapping targeting vectors has been a time-consuming and complicated process. By virtue of highly efficient att-mediated recombination, we successfully developed a simple and rapid method to construct plasmid-based vectors that allow for exon-trapping gene targeting. These exon-trap vectors were useful in obtaining correctly targeted clones in mouse embryonic stem cells and human HT1080 cells. Most importantly, with the use of a conditionally cytotoxic gene, we further developed a novel strategy for negative selection, thereby enhancing the efficiency of counterselection for non-homologous integration of exon-trap vectors. Our methods will greatly facilitate exon-trapping gene-targeting technologies in mammalian cells, particularly when combined with the novel negative selection strategy.

  15. A dynamic model for assessing the effects of management strategies on the reduction of construction and demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hongping; Chini, Abdol R.; Lu Yujie; Shen Liyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We proposes a model for projecting C and D waste reduction of construction projects. ► The model can simulate effects of various management strategies on waste reduction. ► The model integrates all essential variables that affect C and D waste reduction. ► By using the model, best strategies could be identified before being implemented. - Abstract: During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C and D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C and D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C and D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C and D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C and D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity – interrelationships and dynamics – of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C and D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C and D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate the validation and application of the proposed model. Results of the case study not only

  16. Isolation of Human Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized leukocytes with antigen-processing and antigen-presenting functions. DCs can be divided into distinct subsets by anatomical location, phenotype and function. In human, the two most accessible tissues to study leukocytes are peripheral blood and skin. DCs are rare in human peripheral blood (skin covering an average total surface area of 1.8 m(2) has approximately tenfold more DCs than the average 5 L of total blood volume (Wang et al., J Invest Dermatol 134:965-974, 2014). DCs migrate spontaneously from skin explants cultured ex vivo, which provide an easy method of cell isolation (Larsen et al., J Exp Med 172:1483-1493, 1990; Lenz et al., J Clin Invest 92:2587-2596, 1993; Nestle et al., J Immunol 151:6535-6545, 1993). These factors led to the extensive use of skin DCs as the "prototype" migratory DCs in human studies. In this chapter, we detail the protocols to isolate DCs and resident macrophages from human skin. We also provide a multiparameter flow cytometry gating strategy to identify human skin DCs and to distinguish them from macrophages.

  17. A dynamic model for assessing the effects of management strategies on the reduction of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongping; Chini, Abdol R; Lu, Yujie; Shen, Liyin

    2012-03-01

    During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C&D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C&D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C&D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C&D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C&D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity - interrelationships and dynamics - of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C&D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C&D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate the validation and application of the proposed model. Results of the case study not only built confidence in the model so that it can be used for quantitative analysis, but also assessed and compared the effect of three designed policy scenarios on C&D waste reduction. One major contribution of this study is the development of a dynamic model for evaluating C&D waste reduction strategies under various scenarios, so that best management strategies could be identified before being implemented

  18. Construction of Multivalent Homo- and Heterofunctional ABO Blood Group Glycoconjugates Using a Trifunctional Linker Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskhan, Gour Chand; Tran, Hanh-Thuc Ton; Meloncelli, Peter J; Lowary, Todd L; West, Lori J; Cairo, Christopher W

    2018-02-21

    The design and synthesis of multivalent ligands displaying complex oligosaccharides is necessary for the development of therapeutics, diagnostics, and research tools. Here, we report an efficient conjugation strategy to prepare complex glycoconjugates with 4 copies of 1 or 2 separate glycan epitopes, providing 4-8 carbohydrate residues on a tetravalent poly(ethylene glycol) scaffold. This strategy provides complex glycoconjugates that approach the size of glycoproteins (15-18 kDa) while remaining well-defined. The synthetic strategy makes use of three orthogonal functional groups, including a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester moiety on the linker to install the first carbohydrate epitope via reaction with an amine. A masked amine functionality on the linker is revealed after the removal of a fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-protecting group, allowing the attachment to the NHS-activated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffold. An azide group in the linker was then used to incorporate the second carbohydrate epitope via catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Using a known tetravalent PEG scaffold (PDI, 1.025), we prepared homofunctional glycoconjugates that display four copies of lactose and the A-type II or the B-type II human blood group antigens. Using our trifunctional linker, we expanded this strategy to produce heterofunctional conjugates with four copies of two separate glycan epitopes. These heterofunctional conjugates included Neu5Ac, 3'-sialyllactose, or 6'-sialyllactose as a second antigen. Using an alternative strategy, we generated heterofunctional conjugates with three copies of the glycan epitope and one fluorescent group (on average) using a sequential dual-amine coupling strategy. These conjugation strategies should be easily generalized for conjugation of other complex glycans. We demonstrate that the glycan epitopes of heterofunctional conjugates engage and cluster target B-cell receptors and CD22 receptors on B cells, supporting the

  19. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can be used......Scenario planning is a well-known way to develop corporate strategy by creating multiple images of alternative futures. Yet although scenario planning grew from very hands-on strategy development efforts in the military and from operations research dedicated to solving practical problems, the use...... of scenarios in business has, in many cases, remained a cumbersome affair. Very often a large group of consultants, employees and staff is involved in the development of scenarios and strategies, thus making the whole process expensive in terms of time, money and human resources. In response, this article uses...

  20. Triple Recycling Channel Strategies for Remanufacturing of Construction Machinery in a Retailer-Dominated Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Firms engaged in remanufacturing activities generally adopt more than one recycling channel to collect more used products and gain more profits. This paper explores the optimal strategies for a retailer-dominated closed-loop supply chain (CLSC with a triple recycling channel in the construction machinery remanufacturing context. In this special system, the retailer is the leader and authorized by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM to remanufacture. Moreover, the OEM, the retailer, and the secondary market all take part in the used products collection activities. Considering the differentiation of the OEM, the retailer, and the secondary market in collecting the used construction machinery, a mathematical model of the CLSC system based on reasonable assumptions is built, the closed-form optimal pricing decisions are derived, and the optimal collection efforts allocation strategies are explored within the framework of the game theory. In addition, the impacts of the reverse logistics cost coefficient, the competing coefficient, and the buy-back price coefficient on the supply chain performance are elaborately analyzed. These achievements provide decision makers with managerial insights and offer efficient guidelines for the construction machinery remanufacturing firms to solve similar puzzles.

  1. Impact of Constructive Marketing Strategies on Return (Revenue & Profitability): A Case Study of Mcdonald?s

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez Azim; Samreen Azim

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the analytical view of the marketing strategic shift of McDonald’s and its effectiveness with respect to the growth of the company. Marketing strategies of the company are discussed in the three dimensions, which are marketing philosophy, company’s status with respect to the time of entrance in the market, and nature of the market served. Company continued to retain the strategies of market pull and national high share in the first and third dimensions respectively since i...

  2. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance.

  4. Educational Strategies of Minority Youth and the Social Constructions of Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    From observations of different minority groups in the nine countries participating in the EDUMIGROM research programme, this chapter explores minority students' views on their educational options and the role they attribute to schooling in their life. She distinguishes three types of educational ...... strategies of 'mobilization', 'instrumentation' and 'opposition' to schooling, which are unevenly distributed across the different countries and the different ethnic groups observed....

  5. Effects of constructing versus playing an educational game on student motivation and deep learning strategy use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, N.W.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Denessen, E.J.P.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128)

  6. Strategies of employees in the construction industry to increase their sustainable employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; de Kruif, Anja Th C M; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aging work force makes sustainable employability (SE) of workers a priority. However, it is unknown to what extent employees use implemented SE measures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utilization of 1) SE measures offered by employers, 2) employee SE strategies, and 3) to identify

  7. From Scale Control to Institutional Construction:Transformation of China’s Urbanization Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> 1. Introduction The scale-oriented urbanization strategy in China, which is regarded as the inevitable selection in the specific historical conditions, will be greatly revised, along with the continual deepening of the reform of marketization and in the macro environment of making the enlargement of internal demand as the primary object for developing the economy of the coun-

  8. Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Strategies in Children: A Father-Child Co-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaud-Droisy, Helene; Zaouche-Gaudron, Chantal

    2003-01-01

    The interpersonal conflict gives an opportunity to learn living together and to accept differences. We consider the interpersonal conflict resolution strategies as an indicator of the socialization and as such of the autonomisation and social integration. If, at the earliest age, the child has the advantage of a differentiated and early paternal…

  9. (Non)Construction of the Teacher: An Inquiry into Ontario's Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Kevin; Cepin, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we perform a critical discourse analysis on the policy document Ontario's Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy (2009). We examine the three core priorities the policy outlines: improve student achievement, reduce achievement gap and increase public confidence in public education. This document is approached from the context of new…

  10. Constructed Wetlands as a Mitigation Strategy to Reduce Pesticide Loads in Agricultural Tailwater

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides have been found in numerous waterways throughout the United States. Monitoring studies within the San Diego Creek watershed in Orange County, California, confirmed that runoff from agricultural fields are a primary contributor to pesticide loads within these waterways. As a mitigation option for non-point pesticide pollution, constructed wetlands were investigated in this study to reduce pesticide loading in agricultural tailwaters. Multiple wetlan...

  11. Fostering of Innovative Talents Based on Disciplinary Construction: HRD Strategy of Chinese Nuclear Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuanwei

    2014-01-01

    Workforce challenge to nuclear power industry: • We are facing the aging workforce and talent loss since the tough time of nuclear power industry. • Professional workforce fostering in nuclear power industry always needs a long period of time. • Professional workforce fostering in nuclear power industry is a systematic and interdisciplinary work. Talents fostering in nuclear power industry: Major measures → national overall planning; engineering practice; knowledge management; disciplinary construction; cooperation and communication

  12. The Promotion Strategy of Green Construction Materials: A Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Fah Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.

  13. The Promotion Strategy of Green Construction Materials: A Path Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Fah; Chen, Jung-Lu

    2015-10-14

    As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.

  14. Batch versus continuous feeding strategies for pharmaceutical removal by subsurface flow constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Zhu, Junfei; Hua, Tao; Jinadasa, K.B.S.N.; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of continuous and batch feeding on the removal of 8 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, salicylic acid, ketoprofen and clofibric acid) from synthetic wastewater in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs). Both loading modes were operated at hydraulic application rates of 5.6 cm day −1 and 2.8 cm day −1 . Except for carbamazepine, clofibric acid and naproxen, removal in CWs was significantly (p ow ) and removal efficiencies of pharmaceutical compounds in the CWs, showed that pharmaceutical removal efficiency was significantly (p ow value, but not with log K ow value. - Highlights: ► Batch feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal. ► K values for the 8 pharmaceuticals were in the range of 0.01–0.1 m day −1 . ► The pharmaceutical removal efficiency was inversely correlated with log D ow value. - Batch (drain and fill) feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal.

  15. Variable and subset selection in PLS regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some useful methods for introductory analysis of variables and subsets in relation to PLS regression. We present here methods that are efficient in finding the appropriate variables or subset to use in the PLS regression. The general conclusion...... is that variable selection is important for successful analysis of chemometric data. An important aspect of the results presented is that lack of variable selection can spoil the PLS regression, and that cross-validation measures using a test set can show larger variation, when we use different subsets of X, than...

  16. Design and construction strategies for reducing embodied impacts from buildings – Case study analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Tove; Nehasilova, Marie; Moncaster, Alice

    2018-01-01

    , individual building projects. This is done by a systematic analysis of the Annex 57 case study collection as well as additional scientific literature. While it should be noted that the actual EEG savings at building level illustrated in this collection of studies are only applicable to each specific case...... of national energy mixes. Stakeholders therefore have a growing interest in understanding the possibilities for reducing em- bodied impacts in buildings. In the IEA EBC project ‘Annex 57’ a broad call for case studies was launched with the aim to identify design strategies for reducing embodied energy and GHG...... emissions (EEG) from buildings. The aim of this paper is to identify and provide a collected and comprehensive overview of quantitative reduction potentials of the particular EEG reduction strategies which should be considered by the stakeholders engaged in, and with the capacity to influence the outcome of...

  17. Constructed wetlands targeting nitrogen removal in agricultural drainage discharge – a subcatchment scale mitigation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Bruun, Jacob Druedahl

    analysis of variable mitigation strategies and cost-efficiency analysis reveals that even at low to moderate yearly N removal efficiencies (20-25% N removal efficiency) CWs targeting drainage water are highly efficient and cost-efficient measures. Thus, although challenges remain regarding site......-specific documentations, CWs targeting drainage discharge has been included as new mitigation strategy in the Danish environmental regulation....... of recipients, drainage water nutrient loads have a major impact on water quality, and end-of-pipe drainage filter solution may offer the benefits of a targeted measure. This calls for a paradigm shift towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...

  18. On-surface construction of low-dimensional nanostructures with terminal alkynes: Linking strategies and controlling methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Qi-Wei Chen; Kai Wu

    2017-01-01

    Bottom-up approach to constructing low-dimensional nanostructures on surfaces with terminal alkynes has drawn great interest because of its potential applications in fabricating advanced functional nanomaterials.The diversity of the achieved products manifests rich chemistry of terminal alkynes and hence careful linking strategies and proper controlling methodologies are required for selective preparations of high-quality target nanoarchitectures.This review summarizes various on-surface linking strategies for terminal alkynes,including non-bonding interactions as well as organometallic and covalent bonds,and presents examples to show effective control of surface assemblies and reactions of terminal alkynes by variations of the precursor structures,substrates and activation modes.Systematic studies of the on-surface linkage of terminal alkynes may help efficient and predictable preparations of surface nanomaterials and further understanding of surface chemistry.

  19. Offensive and Defensive Competitive Marketing Strategy: The Development of Construct & Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Pantri Heriyati; Ign. Heruwasto; Sari Wahyuni

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is opening parts of its services to greater foreign participation due to globalization. Local banks have since consolidated a decade ago and foreign banks expanding their businesses in local markets have intensified the competition. As a result, credit card adoption is getting more challenging to marketers. Hence effective marketing strategies are important. The theoretical model of the paper is based on the buyer behaviour model by Kotler and Armstrong (1999). The ...

  20. [Strategy of constructing post-market integral evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Yan-Ping; Lin, Li-Kai; Shang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2017-08-01

    As an important representative of modern Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injzection has become an indispensable part of the Chinese medicine industry. However, its development is now restricted by the bottleneck of insufficient core competitiveness, low-level research and production, even injection quality and the safe use are not guaranteed. Thus, it is urgent to reevaluate post-marketing TCM injection generally and to make secondary development. Under current circumstances, taking major brands which have good clinical and market foundation, as well as research value, as the main subject of cultivation and evaluation is an important approach to innovative development of TCM injection industry. Unlike oral proprietary Chinese medicine, the cultivatation of major brands of TCM injection needs higher technical support, quality standards and more timely feedback. Therefore, a post-market integral evaluation system adaptive to TCM injection is required. This article discussed some key points on the construction of a post-market integral evaluation system of TCM injection in three levels: optimizing evaluation methods, building synergistic innovation platforms which combine the medical research institutions and pharmaceutical enterprises, and finally constructing the integral evaluation system. A "five to one" structure has been proposed to enhance TCM injection effectiveness, safety and adaptability on the whole, which are from the following aspects: mechanism research, clinical evidence validation, literature information mining, sustainable development of resources and industrialization operation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Development of a synchronous subset of AADL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filali, Mamoun; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We study the definition and the mapping of an AADL subset: the so called synchronous subset. We show that the data port protocol used for delayed and immediate connections between periodic threads can be interpreted in a  synchronous way. In this paper, we formalize this interpretation and study ...... the development of its mapping such that the original synchronous semantics is preserved. For that purpose, we use refinements through the Event B method....

  2. The strategy of fusion genes construction determines efficient expression of introduced transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, Tomasz; Konieczny, Paweł; Sekuła, Małgorzata; Sułkowski, Maciej; Majka, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    The main goal in gene therapy and biomedical research is an efficient transcription factors (TFs) delivery system. SNAIL, a zinc finger transcription factor, is strongly involved in tumor, what makes its signaling pathways an interesting research subject. The necessity of tracking activation of intracellular pathways has prompted fluorescent proteins usage as localization markers. Advanced molecular cloning techniques allow to generate fusion proteins from fluorescent markers and transcription factors. Depending on fusion strategy, the protein expression levels and nuclear transport ability are significantly different. The P2A self-cleavage motif through its cleavage ability allows two single proteins to be simultaneously expressed. The aim of this study was to compare two strategies for introducing a pair of genes using expression vector system. We have examined GFP and SNAI1 gene fusions by comprising common nucleotide polylinker (multiple cloning site) or P2A motif in between them, resulting in one fusion or two independent protein expressions respectively. In each case transgene expression levels and translation efficiency as well as nuclear localization of expressed protein have been analyzed. Our data showed that usage of P2A motif provides more effective nuclear transport of SNAIL transcription factor than conventional genes linker. At the same time the fluorescent marker spreads evenly in subcellular space.

  3. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Offensive and Defensive Competitive Marketing Strategy: The Development of Construct & Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantri Heriyati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is opening parts of its services to greater foreign participation due to globalization. Local banks have since consolidated a decade ago and foreign banks expanding their businesses in local markets have intensified the competition. As a result, credit card adoption is getting more challenging to marketers. Hence effective marketing strategies are important. The theoretical model of the paper is based on the buyer behaviour model by Kotler and Armstrong (1999. The model identifies the major factors which influence consumer buyer behaviour and how buyer decision process affects the buyer behaviour. The paper aims to examine the effectiveness of marketing strategies in enhancing credit card adoption. A survey was conducted on 251 respondents using a survey instrument. The data collected was analyzed using a series of statistical techniques. The results of the analysis are discussed and the findings revealed that social status is an important factor associated with customers’ behaviour. This factor is also associated with sales promotions. Findings also revealed that credits cards that create social admiration are preferred.

  5. A Communitarian Approach to Constructing Accountability and Strategies for Sustainable Abstract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesh Arunachalam

    2007-12-01

    formulating strategies for sustainable development of the Taupo District in New Zealand. Alternating between our pre-understanding and the empirical data, a process known as “fusion of horizons” (Gadamer, 1975 in philosophical hermeneutics, is a means by which theories can be developed. This interpretive study indicates that meaning of accountability can be extended beyond a narrow conventional sense portraying accountability as a process of providing an account. Accountability also involves other dimensions such as moral responsibility, cooperative enquiry, information sharing, transparency and joint responsibility. From a communitarian perspective these dimensions of accountability emphasise the centrality of community and communal values. Accountability for environmental and social issues extends beyond the domain of corporations, and involves community participation.

  6. A Strategy for Rapid Construction of Blood Vessel-Like Structures with Complex Cell Alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nuoxin; Peng, Yunhu; Zheng, Wenfu; Tang, Lixue; Cheng, Shiyu; Yang, Junchuan; Liu, Shaoqin; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-04-17

    A method is developed that can rapidly produce blood vessel-like structures by bonding cell-laden electrospinning (ES) films layer by layer using fibrin glue within 90 min. This strategy allows control of cell type, cell orientation, and material composition in separate layers. Furthermore, ES films with thicker fibers (polylactic-co-glycolic acid, fiber diameter: ≈3.7 µm) are used as cell-seeding layers to facilitate the cell in-growth; those with thinner fibers (polylactic acid, fiber diameter: ≈1.8 µm) are used as outer reinforcing layers to improve the mechanical strength and reduce the liquid leakage of the scaffold. Cells grow, proliferate, and migrate well in the multilayered structure. This design aims at a new type of blood vessel substitute with flexible control of parameters and implementation of functions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. New Strategies for Constructing Polymeric Micelles and Hollow Spheres Via Self-Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, self-assembly of block copolymers leading to micelles in selective solvents, which dissolve only one of the blocks, has developed rapidly because the micelles are very strong candidates for potential applications in advanced technologies. The micelles usually have core-shell structure which are connected by covalent bonds. Based on our long-term research on interpolymer complexation due to hydrogen bonding, where we noticed that the complexation often led to the formation of irregular aggregates, we succeeded recently in developing a series of new approaches to polymeric micelles and hollow spheres via specific intermolecular interactions. As in these approaches, a variety of polymers with interacting groups i.e. homopolymers, random copolymers, graft copolymers as well as low mass compounds (LMC), can be used as building blocks, our research strategies have substantially extended the field of self-assembly.

  8. Construction strategies and lifetime uncertainties for nuclear projects: A real option analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Shashi, E-mail: s.jain@cwi.nl [TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands); Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Oosterlee, Cornelis W., E-mail: c.w.oosterlee@cwi.nl [CWI – Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Real options can be used to value flexibility of modular reactors. • Value of NPPs increases with implementation of long term cost reductions. • Levels of uncertainties affect the choice between projects. -- Abstract: Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs (according to IAEA, ‘small’ are reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the advantages of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. Using real option analysis (ROA) we help a utility determine the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations, like possibility of rare events, learning, uncertain lifetimes are reported for a single large unit and modular SMRs.

  9. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadel, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gursel, Petek [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-18

    Structural materials in commercial buildings in the United States account for a significant fraction of national energy use, resource consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Robust decisions for balancing and minimizing these various environmental effects require that structural materials selections follow a life-cycle, systems modeling approach. This report provides a concise overview of the development and use of a new life-cycle assessment (LCA) model for structural materials in U.S. commercial buildings-the Berkeley Lab Building Materials Pathways (B-PATH) model. B-PATH aims to enhance environmental decision-making in the commercial building LCA, design, and planning communities through the following key features: (1) Modeling of discrete technology options in the production, transportation, construction, and end of life processes associated U.S. structural building materials; (2) Modeling of energy supply options for electricity provision and directly combusted fuels across the building life cycle; (3) Comprehensiveness of relevant building mass and energy flows and environmental indicators; (4) Ability to estimate modeling uncertainties through easy creation of different life-cycle technology and energy supply pathways for structural materials; and (5) Encapsulation of the above features in a transparent public use model. The report summarizes literature review findings, methods development, model use, and recommendations for future work in the area of LCA for commercial buildings.

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Construction strategies and lifetime uncertainties for nuclear projects: A real option analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shashi; Roelofs, Ferry; Oosterlee, Cornelis W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Real options can be used to value flexibility of modular reactors. • Value of NPPs increases with implementation of long term cost reductions. • Levels of uncertainties affect the choice between projects. -- Abstract: Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs (according to IAEA, ‘small’ are reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the advantages of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. Using real option analysis (ROA) we help a utility determine the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations, like possibility of rare events, learning, uncertain lifetimes are reported for a single large unit and modular SMRs

  12. Global ergonomics strategy in Volkswagen: from the product construction, over the planning until the serial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The Volkswagen Group operates and coordinates the activities of ergonomics from Wolfsburg in Germany and works with its contact persons of every plant and brand of the group towards an integrated proceeding relating to ergonomics. For the ergonomic process it is very important to consider the ergonomics in the whole production process, still from the beginning the conception and construction of the vehicle in the early phases. In these phases there is a big potential to work in the preventive ergonomics and avoid correcting the workstations after start of production. Therefore, it is important to have fluently information in all this phases and identify the potential in each of them. In order to attend these items, Volkswagen has defined different activity fields: coordination of ergonomic standards and the roll-out into all the plants, introducing the ergonomic items in the product development process (PEP), considering the constant improvement of the workplaces in the Volkswagen-Way (KVP and 3P Workshops), taking care of an adequate qualification concept in ergonomics and the intern and extern information exchange within the committees. This topic is established in the industrial engineering of the production area of the group. We are working interdisciplinary with the medical services, human resources, work council and the protection of labor.

  13. (Re Constructing scenarios for action in mental health in the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Lima Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the interaction between mental health and primary care, as well as analyze if these services enable the embracement process and reintegration of users in family and community. Methods: An exploratory study with qualitative approach developed in 13 basic health units (UBS and type II Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS II in Cajazeiras-PB, Brazil. The instruments used in data collection were simple observation,field diaries and semi-structured interview. Study subjects were nurses of UBS and graduate professionals of CAPS II. Results: We perceive the lack of coordination between the Family Health Strategy team and Mental Health team, resulting in the care provided to the user with mental distress centered in CAPS II with no coordination with primary care network. Conclusion: The lack of integration between ESF and CAPS II regarding the care provided to the user with psychological distress indicate the need for deployment of municipal public policies that promote the interrelationship between mental health and primary care network.

  14. Vocabulary comprehension and strategies in name construction among children using aided communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliberato, Débora; Jennische, Margareta; Oxley, Judith; Nunes, Leila Regina d'Oliveira de Paula; Walter, Cátia Crivelenti de Figueiredo; Massaro, Munique; Almeida, Maria Amélia; Stadskleiv, Kristine; Basil, Carmen; Coronas, Marc; Smith, Martine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Vocabulary learning reflects the language experiences of the child, both in typical and atypical development, although the vocabulary development of children who use aided communication may differ from children who use natural speech. This study compared the performance of children using aided communication with that of peers using natural speech on two measures of vocabulary knowledge: comprehension of graphic symbols and labeling of common objects. There were 92 participants not considered intellectually disabled in the aided group. The reference group consisted of 60 participants without known disorders. The comprehension task consisted of 63 items presented individually in each participant's graphic system, together with four colored line drawings. Participants were required to indicate which drawing corresponded to the symbol. In the expressive labelling task, 20 common objects presented in drawings had to be named. Both groups indicated the correct drawing for most of the items in the comprehension tasks, with a small advantage for the reference group. The reference group named most objects quickly and accurately, demonstrating that the objects were common and easily named. The aided language group named the majority correctly and in addition used a variety of naming strategies; they required more time than the reference group. The results give insights into lexical processing in aided communication and may have implications for aided language intervention.

  15. Construction Strategies of Social Security System for Wan-jiang Urban Belt’s Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.

  16. Strategies for specifically directing metal functionalization of protein nanotubes: constructing protein coated silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Fuentes, Liliana; Palomares, Laura A; Ramírez, Octavio T; Ascencio, Jorge A; Medina, Ariosto; Aguila, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Biological molecules that self-assemble in the nanoscale range are useful multifunctional materials. Rotavirus VP6 protein self-assembles into tubular structures in the absence of other rotavirus proteins. Here, we present strategies for selectively directing metal functionalization to the lumen of VP6 nanotubes. The specific in situ metal reduction in the inner surface of nanotube walls was achieved by the simple modification of a method previously reported to functionalize the nanotube outer surface. Silver nanorods and nanowires as long as 1.5 μm were formed inside the nanotubes by coalescence of nanoparticles. Such one-dimensional structures were longer than others previously obtained using bioscaffolds. The interactions between silver ions and the nanotube were simulated to understand the conditions that allowed nanowire formation. Molecular docking showed that a naturally occurring arrangement of aspartate residues enabled the stabilization of silver ions on the internal surface of the VP6 nanotubes. This is the first time that such a spatial arrangement has been proposed for the nucleation of silver nanoparticles, opening the possibility of using such an array to direct functionalization of other biomolecules. These results demonstrate the natural capabilities of VP6 nanotubes to function as a versatile biotemplate for nanomaterials. (paper)

  17. Blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexandr K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with approaches to the analysis of competitiveness in the construction field. The methodology of blue ocean strategy was analyzed. Based on the conducted analysis a set of measures related to blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure was developed. Implementation of the proposed methodological provisions will allow improving investment efficiency in the course of construction projects implementation and enhancing the competitive ability of the developer.

  18. A novel strategy to construct yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Tao

    Full Text Available Very high gravity (VHG fermentation is aimed to considerably increase both the fermentation rate and the ethanol concentration, thereby reducing capital costs and the risk of bacterial contamination. This process results in critical issues, such as adverse stress factors (ie., osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition and high concentrations of metabolic byproducts which are difficult to overcome by a single breeding method. In the present paper, a novel strategy that combines metabolic engineering and genome shuffling to circumvent these limitations and improve the bioethanol production performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under VHG conditions was developed. First, in strain Z5, which performed better than other widely used industrial strains, the gene GPD2 encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was deleted, resulting in a mutant (Z5ΔGPD2 with a lower glycerol yield and poor ethanol productivity. Second, strain Z5ΔGPD2 was subjected to three rounds of genome shuffling to improve its VHG fermentation performance, and the best performing strain SZ3-1 was obtained. Results showed that strain SZ3-1 not only produced less glycerol, but also increased the ethanol yield by up to 8% compared with the parent strain Z5. Further analysis suggested that the improved ethanol yield in strain SZ3-1 was mainly contributed by the enhanced ethanol tolerance of the strain. The differences in ethanol tolerance between strains Z5 and SZ3-1 were closely associated with the cell membrane fatty acid compositions and intracellular trehalose concentrations. Finally, genome rearrangements in the optimized strain were confirmed by karyotype analysis. Hence, a combination of genome shuffling and metabolic engineering is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of yeast strains for desirable industrial phenotypes.

  19. Band Subset Selection for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new approach to band subset selection (BSS for hyperspectral image classification (HSIC which selects multiple bands simultaneously as a band subset, referred to as simultaneous multiple band selection (SMMBS, rather than one band at a time sequentially, referred to as sequential multiple band selection (SQMBS, as most traditional band selection methods do. In doing so, a criterion is particularly developed for BSS that can be used for HSIC. It is a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV derived from adaptive beamforming in array signal processing which can be used to model misclassification errors as the minimum variance. To avoid an exhaustive search for all possible band subsets, two numerical algorithms, referred to as sequential (SQ and successive (SC algorithms are also developed for LCMV-based SMMBS, called SQ LCMV-BSS and SC LCMV-BSS. Experimental results demonstrate that LCMV-based BSS has advantages over SQMBS.

  20. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4......OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...

  1. A Genetic Algorithm for Selection of Fixed-Size Subsets with Application to Design Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wolters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The R function kofnGA conducts a genetic algorithm search for the best subset of k items from a set of n alternatives, given an objective function that measures the quality of a subset. The function fills a gap in the presently available subset selection software, which typically searches over a range of subset sizes, restricts the types of objective functions considered, or does not include freely available code. The new function is demonstrated on two types of problem where a fixed-size subset search is desirable: design of environmental monitoring networks, and D-optimal design of experiments. Additionally, the performance is evaluated on a class of constructed test problems with a novel design that is interesting in its own right.

  2. Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132,000.

  3. Hybridization of MOFs and COFs: A New Strategy for Construction of MOF@COF Core-Shell Hybrid Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Zhao, Meiting; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Zhicheng; Huang, Ying; Dai, Fangna; Lai, Zhuangchai; Cui, Xiaoya; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of new porous hybrid materials is of great importance because of their unique properties and promising applications in separation of materials, catalysis, etc. Herein, for the first time, by integration of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), a new type of MOF@COF core-shell hybrid material, i.e., NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF, with high crystallinity and hierarchical pore structure, is synthesized. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF hybrid material is used as an effective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine B. The synthetic strategy in this study opens up a new avenue for the construction of other MOF-COF hybrid materials, which could have various promising applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for construction of Bi2O2CO3/BiOI photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Peng-Yuan; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Wei-De

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterostructured Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI microspheres were prepared via anion exchange. • Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange for construction of composite photocatalysts. • Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI composites show high visible light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI heterojuncted photocatalysts were constructed through a facile partial anion exchange strategy starting from BiOI microspheres and urea with the assistance of sodium citrate. The content of Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 in the catalysts was regulated by modulating the amount of urea as a precursor, which was decomposed to generate CO 3 2− in the hydrothermal process. Citrate anion plays a key role in controlling the morphology and composition of the products. The Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI catalysts display much higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiOI and Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 towards the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of the heterojuncted catalysts is attributed to the formation of p–n junction between p-BiOI and n-Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 , which is favorable for retarding the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the holes are demonstrated to be the main active species for the degradation of RhB and BPA

  5. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Holmgren, O.; Reisbacka, H.; Vinha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH 50 , i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is -1 . Pressure differences in Finnish low-rise residential houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h -1 , the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100 % in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h -1 . This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations. (authors)

  6. Metabolic Engineering of the Shikimate Pathway for Production of Aromatics and Derived Compounds—Present and Future Strain Construction Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils J. H. Averesch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic nature of shikimate pathway intermediates gives rise to a wealth of potential bio-replacements for commonly fossil fuel-derived aromatics, as well as naturally produced secondary metabolites. Through metabolic engineering, the abundance of certain intermediates may be increased, while draining flux from other branches off the pathway. Often targets for genetic engineering lie beyond the shikimate pathway, altering flux deep in central metabolism. This has been extensively used to develop microbial production systems for a variety of compounds valuable in chemical industry, including aromatic and non-aromatic acids like muconic acid, para-hydroxybenzoic acid, and para-coumaric acid, as well as aminobenzoic acids and aromatic α-amino acids. Further, many natural products and secondary metabolites that are valuable in food- and pharma-industry are formed outgoing from shikimate pathway intermediates. (Reconstruction of such routes has been shown by de novo production of resveratrol, reticuline, opioids, and vanillin. In this review, strain construction strategies are compared across organisms and put into perspective with requirements by industry for commercial viability. Focus is put on enhancing flux to and through shikimate pathway, and engineering strategies are assessed in order to provide a guideline for future optimizations.

  7. Psychological stress during exercise: lymphocyte subset redistribution in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Garten, Ryan S; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-10-05

    The purpose of this study examined the changes in heart rate (HR), catecholamines (NE, EPI) and percentages of blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD3- CD56+ NK cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes [NK cells+T cells+B cells]) in firefighters exposed to a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge while participating in moderate intensity exercise. Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and blood lymphocyte subsets following combined mental and physical challenge. Ten professional male firefighters participated in two counterbalanced exercise conditions on a cycle ergometer: (1) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) (exercise alone condition; EAC) and (2) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) along with 20min of a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge (firefighting strategies condition; FSC). FSC elicited significantly greater HR, NE, and EPI when compared to EAC. Both EAC and FSC elicited increases in CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The percentages of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes were lower immediately following both conditions. Following dual challenge NE AUC was negatively correlated with percentage of CD19+ B cells immediately post challenge, and HR was negatively associated with the percent change in the CD4/CD8 ratio from pre to post challenge. These elevations in NE and heart rate simultaneously in response to the dual challenge suggest greater sympathetic activation that in turn would possibly explain the alteration in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Distributional and efficiency results for subset selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1996-01-01

    Assume k (??k \\geq 2) populations are given. The associated independent random variables have continuous distribution functions with an unknown location parameter. The statistical selec??tion goal is to select a non??empty subset which contains the best population,?? that is the pop??ulation with

  9. Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huichi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.

  10. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  11. Selecting Optimal Subset of Security Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Yevseyeva, I.; Basto-Fernandes, V.; Michael, Emmerich, T. M.; Moorsel, van, A.

    2015-01-01

    Open Access journal Choosing an optimal investment in information security is an issue most companies face these days. Which security controls to buy to protect the IT system of a company in the best way? Selecting a subset of security controls among many available ones can be seen as a resource allocation problem that should take into account conflicting objectives and constraints of the problem. In particular, the security of the system should be improved without hindering productivity, ...

  12. A facile construction strategy of stable lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery using a hydrogel-thickened microemulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabing; Xiao, Ling; Du, Danrong; Mou, Dongsheng; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel facile method for preparing stable nanoparticles with inner spherical solid spheres and an outer hydrogel matrix using a hot O/W hydrogel-thickened microemulsion with spontaneous stability. The nanoparticles with average diameters of about 30.0 nm and 100.0 nm were constructed by cooling the hot hydrogel-thickened microemulsion at different temperatures, respectively. We explained the application of these nanoparticles by actualizing the cutaneous delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles. The in vitro skin permeation studies showed that the nanoparticles could significantly reduce the penetration of model drugs through skin and resulted in their dermal uptakes in skin. The sol-gel process of TEOS was furthermore used in the template of HTM to regulate the particle size of nanoparticles. The coating of silica on the surface of nanoparticles could regulate the penetration of drug into skin from dermal delivery to transdermal delivery. This strategy provides a facile method to produce nanoparticles with long-term stability and ease of manufacture, which might have a promising application in drug delivery.

  13. Construction of public discussions and the strategies of deproblimatization in the debate on Russia's accession to the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazun Anastasia, D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Russia's accession to the WTO remained one of the most talked economic events for a long time. Representatives of various interest groups (both supporters and opponents of joining the organization attended in the public debate on this issue. The paper presents the results of the analysis of publications in the print media on Russia's accession to the WTO over a period from December 2010 to December 2013. The focuses of our attention are two time slots: one and a half years prior to the entry and one and a half years after. The total number of analyzed articles is 397. As a result of the research we made some conclusions about the features of the construction of the WTO's media image. The paper presents an analysis of the positions of representatives of different groups and an evaluation of their involvement in the discussion. In addition, we provide illustrations of basic strategies used for deproblematization of the Russia's accession to the WTO, as well as to make assumptions about the reasons for which such actions became necessary.

  14. A linear concatenation strategy to construct 5'-enriched amplified cDNA libraries using multiple displacement amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, Vijay J; Filion, Martin

    2013-06-01

    In various experimental systems, limiting available amounts of RNA may prevent a researcher from performing large-scale analyses of gene transcripts. One way to circumvent this is to 'pre-amplify' the starting RNA/cDNA, so that sufficient amounts are available for any downstream analysis. In the present study, we report the development of a novel protocol for constructing amplified cDNA libraries using the Phi29 DNA polymerase based multiple displacement amplification (MDA) system. Using as little as 200 ng of total RNA, we developed a linear concatenation strategy to make the single-stranded cDNA template amenable for MDA. The concatenation, made possible by the template switching property of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, resulted in the amplified cDNA library with intact 5' ends. MDA generated micrograms of template, allowing large-scale polymerase chain reaction analyses or other large-scale downstream applications. As the amplified cDNA library contains intact 5' ends, it is also compatible with 5' RACE analyses of specific gene transcripts. Empirical validation of this protocol is demonstrated on a highly characterized (tomato) and an uncharacterized (corn gromwell) experimental system.

  15. Data approximation using a blending type spline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmo, Rune; Bratlie, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) is a blending type spline construction where local functions at each knot are blended together by C k -smooth basis functions. One way of approximating discrete regular data using GERBS is by partitioning the data set into subsets and fit a local function to each subset. Partitioning and fitting strategies can be devised such that important or interesting data points are interpolated in order to preserve certain features. We present a method for fitting discrete data using a tensor product GERBS construction. The method is based on detection of feature points using differential geometry. Derivatives, which are necessary for feature point detection and used to construct local surface patches, are approximated from the discrete data using finite differences

  16. A Hybrid Soft Computing Approach for Subset Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Crawford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subset problems (set partitioning, packing, and covering are formal models for many practical optimization problems. A set partitioning problem determines how the items in one set (S can be partitioned into smaller subsets. All items in S must be contained in one and only one partition. Related problems are set packing (all items must be contained in zero or one partitions and set covering (all items must be contained in at least one partition. Here, we present a hybrid solver based on ant colony optimization (ACO combined with arc consistency for solving this kind of problems. ACO is a swarm intelligence metaheuristic inspired on ants behavior when they search for food. It allows to solve complex combinatorial problems for which traditional mathematical techniques may fail. By other side, in constraint programming, the solving process of Constraint Satisfaction Problems can dramatically reduce the search space by means of arc consistency enforcing constraint consistencies either prior to or during search. Our hybrid approach was tested with set covering and set partitioning dataset benchmarks. It was observed that the performance of ACO had been improved embedding this filtering technique in its constructive phase.

  17. The regulatory roles of B cell subsets in transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhulang; Zou, Weilong; Xu, Yanan; Sun, Qiquan; Zhao, Yong

    2018-02-01

    B cells mediate allograft rejection through antigen presentation, and production of cytokines and antibodies. More and more immunosuppressive agents specifically targeting B cells and plasma cells have been applied in clinical transplantation. However, recent studies have indicated the regulatory roles of B cells. Therefore, it is vital to clarify the different effects of B cell subsets in organ transplantation so that we can completely understand the diverse functions of B cells in transplantation. Areas covered: This review focuses on the regulatory roles of B cells in transplantation. B cell subsets with immune modulation and factors mediating immunosuppressive functions of regulatory B (Breg) cells were analyzed. Therapies targeting B cells and the application of B cells for transplant tolerance induction were discussed. Expert commentary: Besides involving rejection, B cells could also play regulatory roles in transplantation. Breg cells and the related markers may be used to predict the immune tolerant state in transplant recipients. New therapeutic strategies targeting B cells should be explored to promote tolerance induction with less impact on the host's protective immunity in organ transplanted patients.

  18. Pivotal statistics for testing subsets of structural parameters in the IV Regression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.

    2000-01-01

    We construct a novel statistic to test hypothezes on subsets of the structural parameters in anInstrumental Variables (IV) regression model. We derive the chi squared limiting distribution of thestatistic and show that it has a degrees of freedom parameter that is equal to the number ofstructural

  19. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance

  20. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-04-17

    More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance strategies. When these strategies are

  1. Lymphocytic subsets and low-dose exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Eybl, E.

    1993-03-01

    The present investigations proved the differential radiosensitivity of lymphocytic subpopulations: From in vivo and in vitro irradiations it may be followed that the most sensitive subset are CD8 positive suppressor T cells. CD4/CD8 ratios are increased both in peripheral blood and after mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes of exposed persons. The decrease in B cells is pronounced only at higher radiation doses. Though the rate of DNA synthesis after mitogen stimulation was reduced in some exposed persons, that was no general phenomenon. Especially after tritium exposure, the observed lymphopenia correlated with an increased stimulation by PHA and an increased rate of DNA synthesis in some probands. Thus the present investigations indicate that - despite an inhibition of some immune parameters by radioexposure - the body is able to maintain its immunological homoeostasis. (authors)

  2. TCR tuning of T cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Sprent, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    After selection in the thymus, the post-thymic T cell compartments comprise heterogenous subsets of naive and memory T cells that make continuous T cell receptor (TCR) contact with self-ligands bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. T cell recognition of self-MHC ligands elicits covert TCR signaling and is particularly important for controlling survival of naive T cells. Such tonic TCR signaling is tightly controlled and maintains the cells in a quiescent state to avoid autoimmunity. Here, we review how naive and memory T cells are differentially tuned and wired for TCR sensitivity to self and foreign ligands. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Subset simulation for structural reliability sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shufang; Lu Zhenzhou; Qiao Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Based on two procedures for efficiently generating conditional samples, i.e. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and importance sampling (IS), two reliability sensitivity (RS) algorithms are presented. On the basis of reliability analysis of Subset simulation (Subsim), the RS of the failure probability with respect to the distribution parameter of the basic variable is transformed as a set of RS of conditional failure probabilities with respect to the distribution parameter of the basic variable. By use of the conditional samples generated by MCMC simulation and IS, procedures are established to estimate the RS of the conditional failure probabilities. The formulae of the RS estimator, its variance and its coefficient of variation are derived in detail. The results of the illustrations show high efficiency and high precision of the presented algorithms, and it is suitable for highly nonlinear limit state equation and structural system with single and multiple failure modes

  4. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  5. There is a need for new systemic sclerosis subset criteria. A content analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Soowamber, M L; Fransen, J; Khanna, D; Van Den Hoogen, F; Baron, M; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Denton, C P; Medsger, T A; Carreira, P E; Riemekasten, G; Distler, J; Gabrielli, A; Steen, V; Chung, L; Silver, R; Varga, J; Müller-Ladner, U; Vonk, M C; Walker, U A; Wollheim, F A; Herrick, A; Furst, D E; Czirjak, L; Kowal-Bielecka, O; Del Galdo, F; Cutolo, M; Hunzelmann, N; Murray, C D; Foeldvari, I; Mouthon, L; Damjanov, N; Kahaleh, B; Frech, T; Assassi, S; Saketkoo, L A; Pope, J E

    2018-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is heterogenous. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the purpose, strengths and limitations of existing SSc subset criteria, and identify ideas among experts about subsets. We conducted semi-structured interviews with randomly sampled international SSc experts. The interview transcripts underwent an iterative process with text deconstructed to single thought units until a saturated conceptual framework with coding was achieved and respondent occurrence tabulated. Serial cross-referential analyses of clusters were developed. Thirty experts from 13 countries were included; 67% were male, 63% were from Europe and 37% from North America; median experience of 22.5 years, with a median of 55 new SSc patients annually. Three thematic clusters regarding subsetting were identified: research and communication; management; and prognosis (prediction of internal organ involvement, survival). The strength of the limited/diffuse system was its ease of use, however 10% stated this system had marginal value. Shortcomings of the diffuse/limited classification were the risk of misclassification, predictions/generalizations did not always hold true, and that the elbow or knee threshold was arbitrary. Eighty-seven percent use more than 2 subsets including: SSc sine scleroderma, overlap conditions, antibody-determined subsets, speed of progression, and age of onset (juvenile, elderly). We have synthesized an international view of the construct of SSc subsets in the modern era. We found a number of factors underlying the construct of SSc subsets. Considerations for the next phase include rate of change and hierarchal clustering (e.g. limited/diffuse, then by antibodies).

  6. Role of distinct CD4(+) T helper subset in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Dunfang; Han, Qi; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Xu, Yi; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Qianming

    2016-07-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases with T-cell-mediated immune pathogenesis. In subepithelial and lamina propria of OLP local lesions, the presence of CD4(+) T helper (CD4(+) Th) cells appeared as the major lymphocytes. These CD4(+) T lymphocytes can differentiate into distinct Th cell types such as Th1, Th2, Treg, Th17, Th22, Th9, and Tfh within the context of certain cytokines environment. Growing evidence indicated that Th1/Th2 imbalance may greatly participate into the cytokine network of OLP immunopathology. In addition, Th1/Th2 imbalance can be regulated by the Treg subset and also greatly influenced by the emerging novel CD4(+) Th subset Th17. Furthermore, the presence of novel subsets Th22, Th9 and Tfh in OLP patients is yet to be clarified. All these Th subsets and their specific cytokines may play a critical role in determining the character, extent and duration of immune responses in OLP pathogenesis. Therefore, we review the roles of distinct CD4(+) Th subsets and their signature cytokines in determining disease severity and susceptibility of OLP and also reveal the novel therapeutic strategies based on T lymphocytes subsets in OLP treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The influence of government targeted procurement strategies on the growth performance of construction small and medium-sized contractors (SMCs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurauf Adediran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines government targeted procurement (TP strategies in South Africa and whether these strategies have an influence on the growth performance of Small and medium-sized contractors (SMCs in the construction industry. The rationale for this study stems from reports that while TP has been widely used as an instrument to improve the position of SMCs in the South African construction industry, three out of five SMCs do not become established firms. In addition, the nature of the influence of TP strategies on the growth performance of SMCs is not known. Following a review of existing literature, the study mainly adopted a quantitative research approach. Questionnaire surveys were administered to Construction Industry Development Board (cidb Grades 3 to 6 contractors that have executed TP projects within the last 5 years. The collected data was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses – Spearman’s rank order correlation was used as an index of association between the study variables. The study found that tendering equity is the most frequently used TP strategy, closely followed by preferencing and mandatory subcontracting. The study also found that positive significant associations exists among preferencing and turnover; third-party management and company assets; tendering equity, turnover and number of employees; as well as accelerated rotations, turnover and number of employees. The study concluded that government intervention through targeted procurement has the potential to achieve its intended results of improving the position of historically disadvantaged SMCs in the construction industry in South Africa if selected and implemented appropriately.

  8. Alignment of Partnering with Construction IT : Exploration and Synthesis of network strategies to integrate BIM-enabled Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadonikolaki, E.

    2016-01-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Building Information Modelling (BIM) are seen as innovations that can manage complexities in construction by focusing on integrating processes and products respectively. Whereas these two innovations have been considered compatible, their practical combination has

  9. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  10. National evaluation of strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; den Herder, Aalt; Warning, Jan; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2016-01-09

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face strategy and a direct mail strategy on safety violations while working from heights among construction companies compared to a control condition. Construction companies with workers at risk for fall injuries were eligible for this three-armed randomized controlled trial. In total, 27 cities were randomly assigned to intervention groups-where eligible companies were given either a face-to-face guidance strategy or a direct mailing strategy with access to internet facilities-or to a control group. The primary outcomes were the number and type of safety violations recorded by labor inspectors after three months. A process evaluation for both strategies was performed to determine reach, program implementation, satisfaction, knowledge and perceived safety behavior. A cost analysis was performed to establish the financial costs for each intervention strategy. Analyses were done by intention to treat. In total, 41% (n = 88) of the companies eligible for the face-to-face intervention participated and 73% (n = 69) for direct mail. Intervention materials were delivered to 69 % (face-to-face group) and 100 % (direct mail group); completion of intervention activities within companies was low. Satisfaction, increase in knowledge, and safety behavior did not differ between the intervention groups. Costs for personal advice were 28% higher than for direct mail. Ultimately, nine intervention companies were captured in the 288 worksite measurements performed by the labor inspectorate. No statistical differences in mean number of safety violations (1.8-2.4) or penalties (72%-100%) were found between the intervention and control groups based on all worksite inspections. No conclusions about the effect of face-to-face and direct mail strategies on safety violations could be drawn due to the limited number of intervention companies captured in the primary outcome measurements. The costs for a face

  11. Emergency gas operation strategy and system establishment for large-scale disaster; Strategie d'operation en urgence et construction de systemes pour parer aux desastres de grande importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshihira, Hara [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Yoshihisa, Shimizu [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Takashi, Imagawa [Toho Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Japan's gas companies have wide-ranging experience of earthquakes and other disasters and have for long put the lessons learned from these disasters to good use through regular reviews of their emergency gas operation strategies. However, the Great Hanshin Earthquake disaster of January 1995 made them acutely aware of the need for a more radical review of this strategy. Japan's big gas companies are currently devoting maximum resources to reviewing their emergency strategies and constructing the sorts of systems needed to deal with major disasters. In the first half of the present paper, we discuss the experience of Toho Gas, which has just finished work on a comprehensive group of systems, and explain the 'thinking behind the systems'. In the second half of the paper, we discuss some of the ways in which Tokyo Gas has been endeavoring to further refine and enhance its systems and introduce the reader to the latest emergency strategy support systems in the shape of the 'sub-center concept, training system construction, and damage estimation systems'. These should also make useful references for gas companies from other countries. (authors)

  12. Strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety measures should be applied to reduce work-related fatal and non-fatal fall injuries. However, according to the labor inspectorate, more than 80% of Dutch construction sites violate safety regulations for working from heights. To increase compliance with safety regulations, employers and

  13. Contribution of Regional White Matter Integrity to Visuospatial Construction Accuracy, Organizational Strategy, and Memory for a Complex Figure in Abstinent Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2009-12-01

    Visuospatial construction ability as used in drawing complex figures is commonly impaired in chronic alcoholics, but memory for such information can be enhanced by use of a holistic drawing strategy during encoding. We administered the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) to 41 alcoholic and 38 control men and women and assessed the contribution of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of integrity of selected white matter tracts to ROCFT copy accuracy, copy strategy, and recall accuracy. Although alcoholics copied the figure less accurately than controls, a more holistic strategy at copy was associated with better recall in both groups. Greater radial diffusivity, reflecting compromised myelin integrity, in occipital forceps and external capsule was associated with poorer copy accuracy in both groups. Lower FA, reflecting compromised fiber microstructure in the inferior cingulate bundle, which links frontal and medial temporal episodic memory systems, was associated with piecemeal copy strategy and poorer immediate recall in the alcoholics. The correlations were generally modest and should be considered exploratory. To the extent that the inferior cingulate was relatively spared in alcoholics, it may have provided an alternative pathway to the compromised frontal system for successful copy strategy and, by extension, aided recall.

  14. Tracking a Subset of Skeleton Joints: An Effective Approach towards Complex Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a robust algorithm for complex human activity recognition for natural human-robot interaction. The algorithm is based on tracking the position of selected joints in human skeleton. For any given activity, only a few skeleton joints are involved in performing the activity, so a subset of joints contributing the most towards the activity is selected. Our approach of tracking a subset of skeleton joints (instead of tracking the whole skeleton is computationally efficient and provides better recognition accuracy. We have developed both manual and automatic approaches for the selection of these joints. The position of the selected joints is tracked for the duration of the activity and is used to construct feature vectors for each activity. Once the feature vectors have been constructed, we use a Support Vector Machines (SVM multiclass classifier for training and testing the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a purposely built dataset of depth videos recorded using Kinect camera. The dataset consists of 250 videos of 10 different activities being performed by different users. Experimental results show classification accuracy of 83% when tracking all skeleton joints, 95% when using manual selection of subset joints, and 89% when using automatic selection of subset joints.

  15. Strategies for the implementation of an environmental mining plan of the construction materials in Bogota. Phase 1 Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Oviedo, Leopoldo; Parrado L, Guillermo; Cardenas, John Fernan

    1995-01-01

    The study contains the geologic aspects, miners and environmental of 10 areas selected in Bogota where construction materials exist, like they are sands, clays, and gravels, in each area a definition is made, the productive units are described, reserves, mining production and environmental impacts are given generated by the material exploitation; a prioritizing of potential areas is included to implement a miner-environmental plan of this industry in Bogota

  16. A facile strategy to construct binder-free flexible carbonate composite anode at low temperature with high performances for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Shaojun; Zhang, Ming; Deng, Tingting; Wang, Ting; Yang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The schematic illustration of the strategy for preparations and the mechanism for the stability of structure Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A facile strategy is applied to construct flexible carbonate composite anode. •Carbon nano-fiber matrix serves as fast charge channel and efficient buffer. •High specific capacity of 958 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 is obtained. •After 200 cycles at 1 A g −1 , there is not obvious capacity decline. •The mechanism for stress release is further analyzed. -- Abstract: High temperature is usually necessary for carbon modification or electrospinning to obtain flexible anode with excellent conductivity and stability. However, due to the unstable instinct of carbonate, it’s hard to obtain carbonate when any of the synthesis process undergoes high temperature treatment. Thus, a facile strategy is applied to construct binder-free flexible carbonate composite anode at low temperature with high electrochemical performances. The carbon nano-fiber matrix is first synthesized through electrospinning followed by a facile solvothermal process to in-situ grow carbonate on carbon nano-fibers to form a well combinative flexible anode. The carbon nano-fiber matrix serves not only as a fast channel for charge transfer, but also as an efficient buffer to release the stress resulting from the hysteresis of lithiation for carbonate particles during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Owing to the synergistic effect of carbon nano-fiber and the carbonate, the flexible anode exhibits high specific capacity of 958 mAh g −1 . And after 200 cycles at 1 A g −1 , no obvious capacity decline. The reaction mechanism for stress release is also well analyzed to display the merit of our strategy. It is considered as one of the most promising way to get binder-free flexible carbonate anode with remarkable properties.

  17. The efficiency of subset selection of an almost best treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1991-01-01

    A generalized goal using subset selection is discussed for the location parameter case. This goal is to select a non-empty subset from a set of k (k \\geq 2) treatments that contains at least one \\epsilon-best treatment with confidence level P*. For a set of treatments an \\epsilon-best treatment is

  18. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  19. Data mining a small molecule drug screening representative subset from NIH PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-03-01

    PubChem is a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiatives. It is a compound repository created to facilitate information exchange and data sharing among the NIH Roadmap-funded Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) and the scientific community. However, PubChem has more than 10 million records of compound information. It will be challenging to conduct a drug screening of the whole database of millions of compounds. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a data mining cheminformatics approach in order to construct a representative and structure-diverse sublibrary from the large PubChem database. In this study, a new chemical diverse representative subset, rePubChem, was selected by whole-molecule chemistry-space matrix calculation using the cell-based partition algorithm. The representative subset was generated and was then subjected to evaluations by compound property analyses based on 1D and 2D molecular descriptors. The new subset was also examined and assessed for self-similarity analysis based on 2D molecular fingerprints in comparing with the source compound library. The new subset has a much smaller library size (540K compounds) with minimum similarity and redundancy without loss of the structural diversity and basic molecular properties of its parent library (5.3 million compounds). The new representative subset library generated could be a valuable structure-diverse compound resource for in silico virtual screening and in vitro HTS drug screening. In addition, the established subset generation method of using the combined cell-based chemistry-space partition metrics with pairwised 2D fingerprint-based similarity search approaches will also be important to a broad scientific community interested in acquiring structurally diverse compounds for efficient drug screening, building representative virtual combinatorial chemistry libraries for syntheses, and data mining large compound databases like the PubChem library in general.

  20. Linkage analysis by genotyping of sibling populations: a genetic map for the potato cyst nematode constructed using a "pseudo-F2" mapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouppe van der Voort, J N; van Eck, H J; van Zandvoort, P M; Overmars, H; Helder, J; Bakker, J

    1999-07-01

    A mapping strategy is described for the construction of a linkage map of a non-inbred species in which individual offspring genotypes are not amenable to marker analysis. After one extra generation of random mating, the segregating progeny was propagated, and bulked populations of offspring were analyzed. Although the resulting population structure is different from that of commonly used mapping populations, we show that the maximum likelihood formula for a normal F2 is applicable for the estimation of recombination. This "pseudo-F2" mapping strategy, in combination with the development of an AFLP assay for single cysts, facilitated the construction of a linkage map for the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Using 12 pre-selected AFLP primer combinations, a total of 66 segregating markers were identified, 62 of which were mapped to nine linkage groups. These 62 AFLP markers are randomly distributed and cover about 65% of the genome. An estimate of the physical size of the Globodera genome was obtained from comparisons of the number of AFLP fragments obtained with the values for Caenorhabditis elegans. The methodology presented here resulted in the first genomic map for a cyst nematode. The low value of the kilobase/centimorgan (kb/cM) ratio for the Globodera genome will facilitate map-based cloning of genes that mediate the interaction between the nematode and its host plant.

  1. The strategies of DNA immobilization and hybridization detection mechanism in the construction of electrochemical DNA sensor: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sensor has recently emerged as promising alternative clinical diagnostic devices especially for infectious disease by exploiting DNA recognition events and converting them into an electrochemical signal. This is because the existing DNA diagnostic method possesses certain drawbacks such as time-consuming, expensive, laborious, low selectivity and sensitivity. DNA immobilization strategies and mechanism of electrochemical detection are two the most important aspects that should be considered before developing highly selective and sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor. Here, we focus on some recent strategies for DNA probes immobilization on the surface of electrochemical transducer such as adsorption, covalent bonding and Avidin/Streptavidin-Biotin interaction on the electrode surface for specific interaction with its complementary DNA target. A numerous approach for DNA hybridization detection based electrochemical technique that frequently used including direct DNA electrochemical detection and label based electrochemical (redox-active indicator, enzyme label and nanoparticles were also discussed in aiming to provide general guide for the design of electrochemical DNA sensor. We also discussed the challenges and suggestions to improve the application of electrochemical DNA sensor at point-care setting. Keywords: Electrochemical DNA sensor, DNA immobilization, DNA hybridization, Electrochemical mechanism

  2. The construction and use of bacterial DNA microarrays based on an optimized two-stage PCR strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesta David

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool with important applications such as global gene expression profiling. Construction of bacterial DNA microarrays from genomic sequence data using a two-stage PCR amplification approach for the production of arrayed DNA is attractive because it allows, in principal, the continued re-amplification of DNA fragments and facilitates further utilization of the DNA fragments for additional uses (e.g. over-expression of protein. We describe the successful construction and use of DNA microarrays by the two-stage amplification approach and discuss the technical challenges that were met and resolved during the project. Results Chimeric primers that contained both gene-specific and shared, universal sequence allowed the two-stage amplification of the 3,168 genes identified on the genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, an important prokaryotic model organism for the study of oxygenic photosynthesis. The gene-specific component of the primer was of variable length to maintain uniform annealing temperatures during the 1st round of PCR synthesis, and situated to preserve full-length ORFs. Genes were truncated at 2 kb for efficient amplification, so that about 92% of the PCR fragments were full-length genes. The two-stage amplification had the additional advantage of normalizing the yield of PCR products and this improved the uniformity of DNA features robotically deposited onto the microarray surface. We also describe the techniques utilized to optimize hybridization conditions and signal-to-noise ratio of the transcription profile. The inter-lab transportability was demonstrated by the virtual error-free amplification of the entire genome complement of 3,168 genes using the universal primers in partner labs. The printed slides have been successfully used to identify differentially expressed genes in response to a number of environmental conditions, including salt stress. Conclusions The technique detailed

  3. An Integrated Carbon Policy-Based Interactive Strategy for Carbon Reduction and Economic Development in a Construction Material Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions from the construction material industry have become of increasing concern due to increasingly urbanization and extensive infrastructure. Faced with serious atmospheric deterioration, governments have been seeking to reduce carbon emissions, with carbon trading and carbon taxes being considered the most effective regulatory policies. Over time, there has been a global consensus that integrated carbon trading/carbon tax policies are more effective in reducing carbon emissions. However, in an integrated carbon reduction policy framework, balancing the relationship between emission reductions and low-carbon benefits has been found to be a critical issue for governments and enterprises in both theoretical research and carbon emission reduction practices. As few papers have sought to address these issues, this paper seeks to reach a trade-off between economic development and environmental protection involving various stakeholders: regional governments which aim to maximize social benefits, and producers who seek economic profit maximization. An iterative interactive algorithmic method with fuzzy random variables (FRVs is proposed to determine the satisfactory equilibrium between these decision-makers. This methodology is then applied to a real-world case to demonstrate its practicality and efficiency.

  4. Remediation strategy, capping construction and ongoing monitoring for the mill tailings pond, Ningyo-Toge uranium mine, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Saito; Tomihiro Taki

    2013-01-01

    Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine is subject to the environmental remediation. The main purposes are to take measures to ensure the radiation protection from the exposure pathways to humans in future, and to prevent the occurrence of mining pollution. The Yotsugi Mill Tailings Pond in the Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine has deposited mining waste and impounded water as a buffer reservoir before it is transferred to the Water Treatment Facility. It is located at the upstream of the water-source river and as the impact on its environment in case of earthquake is estimated significant, the highest priority has been put to it among mine-related facilities in the Mine. So far, basic concept has been examined and a great number of data has been acquired, and using the data, some remediation activities have already done, including capping construction for the upstream part of the Mill Tailings Pond. The capping is to reduce rainwater penetration to lower the burden of water treatment, and to reduce radon exhalation and dose rates. Only natural materials are used to alleviate the future maintenance. Data, including settlement amount and underground temperature is now being acquired and accumulated to verify the effectiveness of the capping, and used for the future remediation of the Downstream with revision of its specifications if necessary. (authors)

  5. Combining rational and random strategies in β-glucosidase Zm-p60.1 protein library construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Turek

    Full Text Available Saturation mutagenesis is a cornerstone technique in protein engineering because of its utility (in conjunction with appropriate analytical techniques for assessing effects of varying residues at selected positions on proteins' structures and functions. Site-directed mutagenesis with degenerate primers is the simplest and most rapid saturation mutagenesis technique. Thus, it is highly appropriate for assessing whether or not variation at certain sites is permissible, but not necessarily the most time- and cost-effective technique for detailed assessment of variations' effects. Thus, in the presented study we applied the technique to randomize position W373 in β-glucosidase Zm-p60.1, which is highly conserved among β-glucosidases. Unexpectedly, β-glucosidase activity screening of the generated variants showed that most variants were active, although they generally had significantly lower activity than the wild type enzyme. Further characterization of the library led us to conclude that a carefully selected combination of randomized codon-based saturation mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis may be most efficient, particularly when constructing and investigating randomized libraries with high fractions of positive hits.

  6. Combining rational and random strategies in β-glucosidase Zm-p60.1 protein library construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Dušan; Klimeš, Pavel; Mazura, Pavel; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2014-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a cornerstone technique in protein engineering because of its utility (in conjunction with appropriate analytical techniques) for assessing effects of varying residues at selected positions on proteins' structures and functions. Site-directed mutagenesis with degenerate primers is the simplest and most rapid saturation mutagenesis technique. Thus, it is highly appropriate for assessing whether or not variation at certain sites is permissible, but not necessarily the most time- and cost-effective technique for detailed assessment of variations' effects. Thus, in the presented study we applied the technique to randomize position W373 in β-glucosidase Zm-p60.1, which is highly conserved among β-glucosidases. Unexpectedly, β-glucosidase activity screening of the generated variants showed that most variants were active, although they generally had significantly lower activity than the wild type enzyme. Further characterization of the library led us to conclude that a carefully selected combination of randomized codon-based saturation mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis may be most efficient, particularly when constructing and investigating randomized libraries with high fractions of positive hits.

  7. Definition and construction of a first database for assessing the impacts on health and the environment of different strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, O.; Ouzounian, G.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle assessment framework has been applied to the management of used fuel cycle to determine a general methodology to study the impacts on health and the environment of the back end of the fuel cycle. System definition starts with a definite waste fuel composition and covers all the industrial steps until all elements of the waste are stored. It is recommended to use electricity generation as a functional unit especially for comparing different strategies. In this case, as some parts of the nuclear waste may be recycled to produce electricity, systems have to be expanded to cover both front and back ends of the fuel cycle. A first bibliographical database covering different stages of the nuclear cycle has been constructed and stored with the standard Ecobilan format developed for environmental analysis and management. Data collection includes all steps from mining extraction to ultimate disposal. Together with the constitution of this database several typical strategies for PWR fuels have been assessed. A first list of criteria has been chosen to best represent the impacts of each strategy on both human health of population and workers and the environment. Data gathered for each step are ready to be reused for designing and assessing simulations on alternative nuclear cycles. (author)

  8. Devolución constructiva: Una estrategia para mejorar el aprendizaje Constructive feedback: A strategy to enhance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E. Alves De Lima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La devolución constructiva o feedback es definida como el acto de dar información a un estudiante o a un residente describiendo su desempeño en una situación clínica observada. Las claves que requiere la devolución para mejorar el desempeño son: la observación de un evento, una apreciación por parte del docente de ese desempeño siempre de acuerdo a un patrón o estándar previamente establecido, y una recomendación para mejorar. El mayor impacto se obtiene cuando el estudiante o residente compara la devolución del docente con su propio desempeño. La disonancia entre el desempeño deseado y el realizado, es un potente generador de motivación y de aprendizaje profundo. La mayoría de los docentes lo consideran fundamental pero en general lo hacen en forma breve y no específica. Los estudiantes de medicina y los residentes quieren y necesitan devoluciones constructivas y las asocian claramente a enseñanza de alta calidad. Aunque las valoran es raro que las soliciten. Es fundamental aprovechar la devolución en toda su magnitud dando recomendaciones, provocando reacciones y auto reflexión y también definiendo un apropiado plan de acción. Es una herramienta que lleva tiempo y esfuerzo aplicarla pero es de gran valor para el crecimiento y el desarrollo académico de estudiantes y residentes.Constructive feedback is defined as the act of giving information to a student or resident through the description of their performance in an observed clinical situation. The following keys are required during feedback in order to get student´s performance improvement: the observation of an event, the instructor´s comment on said performance, by following always a pre-established pattern or standard, and advice on improvement. Major impact takes place when a student or a resident compares the teacher´s feedback to its own performance. The dissonance between desired and actual performance constitutes a strong motivation and deep

  9. Constructing Two-, Zero-, and One-Dimensional Integrated Nanostructures: an Effective Strategy for High Microwave Absorption Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Xu, Jianle; Qiao, Wen; Xu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Xing; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2016-11-23

    A novel "201" nanostructure composite consisting of two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets, zero-dimensional Ni nanoparticles and one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was prepared successfully by a two-step method: Ni nanopaticles were deposited onto the surface of few-layer MoS 2 nanosheets by a wet chemical method, followed by chemical vapor deposition growth of CNTs through the catalysis of Ni nanoparticles. The as-prepared 201-MoS 2 -Ni-CNTs composites exhibit remarkably enhanced microwave absorption performance compared to Ni-MoS 2 or Ni-CNTs. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of 201-MoS 2 -Ni-CNTs/wax composites with filler loading ratio of 30 wt % reached -50.08 dB at the thickness of 2.4 mm. The maximum effective microwave absorption bandwidth (RL< -10 dB) of 6.04 GHz was obtained at the thickness of 2.1 mm. The excellent absorption ability originates from appropriate impedance matching ratio, strong dielectric loss and large surface area, which are attributed to the "201" nanostructure. In addition, this method could be extended to other low-dimensional materials, proving to be an efficient and promising strategy for high microwave absorption performance.

  10. Strategy and research needs for nuclear power plant development: plant modernization and possible new construction in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, Lasse; Vanttola, Timo

    2001-01-01

    The four NPP units in Finland have been in operation for about 20 years and have a very good operating record. In the mid-1990s, comprehensive modernization programmes were launched with operating licence extension and power uprating as major short-term goals. The licences were extended by 10-20 years, a total of 350 MW new capacity was obtained at a low cost, and PSAs indicate significant improvements in safety level. The current national energy strategy of 1997 and the political agenda of the new government formed in April 1999 keeps the option open for new nuclear power capacity. NPP unit of 1000-1600 MW, to be operational by 2010, was submitted to the government in November 2000. New nuclear power appears competitive in Finnish conditions, and it would be the most cost-effective way of meeting the Kyoto target for 2010. Nationally coordinated research and technology programmes have been established to support continued safety and performance improvements of the operating NPPs, particularly for life extension and severe accident management, and to advance preparedness for a new NPP unit. International collaboration, often within Euratom research programmes, is a key ingredient in the research approach

  11. China's Maritime Strategy Peaceful Rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horrell, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    .... As a result the global maritime environment will be key to this continental power's continued growth As a subset of maritime strategy China's naval strategy and accompanying People's Liberation Army...

  12. Analyzing the Knowledge Construction and Cognitive Patterns of Blog-Based Instructional Activities Using Four Frequent Interactive Strategies (Problem Solving, Peer Assessment, Role Playing and Peer Tutoring): A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Instructional strategies can be helpful in facilitating students' knowledge construction and developing advanced cognitive skills. In the context of collaborative learning, instructional strategies as scripts can guide learners to engage in more meaningful interaction. Previous studies have been investigated the benefits of different instructional…

  13. On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the

  14. Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic Subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic subset contains marine surface weather reports for the region north of 65 degrees N from ships,...

  15. Subset Statistics in the linear IV regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the limiting distributions of subset generalizations of the weak instrument robust instrumental variable statistics are boundedly similar when the remaining structural parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. They are bounded from above by the limiting distributions which

  16. Decarbonylative Cross-Couplings: Nickel Catalyzed Functional Group Interconversion Strategies for the Construction of Complex Organic Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin

    2018-04-13

    -mediated decarbonylation process of esters and proposed a reaction mechanism involving a C(acyl)-O bond cleavage and a CO extrusion. Key nickel intermediates were isolated and characterized by Shi and co-workers, supporting the assumption of a nickel/ N-heterocyclic carbene-promoted C(acyl)-O bond activation and functionalization. Our combined experimental and computational study of a ligand-controlled chemoselective nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of aromatic esters with alkylboron reagents provided further insight into the reaction mechanism. We demonstrated that nickel complexes with bidentate ligands favor the C(aryl)-C bond cleavage in the oxidative addition step, resulting in decarbonylative alkylations, while nickel complexes with monodentate phosphorus ligands promote the activation of the C(acyl)-O bond, leading to the production of ketone products. Although more detailed mechanistic investigations need to be undertaken, the successful development of decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions can serve as a solid foundation for future studies. We believe that this type of decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions will be of significant value, in particularly in combination with the retrosynthetic analysis and synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules. Thus, the presented ester substitution methods will pave the way for successful applications in the construction of complex frameworks by late-stage modification and functionalization of carboxylic acid derivatives.

  17. Decarbonylative Cross-Couplings: Nickel Catalyzed Functional Group Interconversion Strategies for the Construction of Complex Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-05-15

    -mediated decarbonylation process of esters and proposed a reaction mechanism involving a C(acyl)-O bond cleavage and a CO extrusion. Key nickel intermediates were isolated and characterized by Shi and co-workers, supporting the assumption of a nickel/ N-heterocyclic carbene-promoted C(acyl)-O bond activation and functionalization. Our combined experimental and computational study of a ligand-controlled chemoselective nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of aromatic esters with alkylboron reagents provided further insight into the reaction mechanism. We demonstrated that nickel complexes with bidentate ligands favor the C(aryl)-C bond cleavage in the oxidative addition step, resulting in decarbonylative alkylations, while nickel complexes with monodentate phosphorus ligands promote the activation of the C(acyl)-O bond, leading to the production of ketone products. Although more detailed mechanistic investigations need to be undertaken, the successful development of decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions can serve as a solid foundation for future studies. We believe that this type of decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions will be of significant value, in particularly in combination with the retrosynthetic analysis and synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules. Thus, the presented ester substitution methods will pave the way for successful applications in the construction of complex frameworks by late-stage modification and functionalization of carboxylic acid derivatives.

  18. Decarbonylative Cross-Couplings: Nickel Catalyzed Functional Group Interconversion Strategies for the Construction of Complex Organic Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    -mediated decarbonylation process of esters and proposed a reaction mechanism involving a C(acyl)-O bond cleavage and a CO extrusion. Key nickel intermediates were isolated and characterized by Shi and co-workers, supporting the assumption of a nickel/ N-heterocyclic carbene-promoted C(acyl)-O bond activation and functionalization. Our combined experimental and computational study of a ligand-controlled chemoselective nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of aromatic esters with alkylboron reagents provided further insight into the reaction mechanism. We demonstrated that nickel complexes with bidentate ligands favor the C(aryl)-C bond cleavage in the oxidative addition step, resulting in decarbonylative alkylations, while nickel complexes with monodentate phosphorus ligands promote the activation of the C(acyl)-O bond, leading to the production of ketone products. Although more detailed mechanistic investigations need to be undertaken, the successful development of decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions can serve as a solid foundation for future studies. We believe that this type of decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions will be of significant value, in particularly in combination with the retrosynthetic analysis and synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules. Thus, the presented ester substitution methods will pave the way for successful applications in the construction of complex frameworks by late-stage modification and functionalization of carboxylic acid derivatives.

  19. A Quantum Approach to Subset-Sum and Similar Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the subset-sum problem by using a quantum heuristic approach similar to the verification circuit of quantum Arthur-Merlin games. Under described certain assumptions, we show that the exact solution of the subset sum problem my be obtained in polynomial time and the exponential speed-up over the classical algorithms may be possible. We give a numerical example and discuss the complexity of the approach and its further application to the knapsack problem.

  20. Stochastic subset selection for learning with kernel machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinelander, Jason; Liu, Xiaoping P

    2012-06-01

    Kernel machines have gained much popularity in applications of machine learning. Support vector machines (SVMs) are a subset of kernel machines and generalize well for classification, regression, and anomaly detection tasks. The training procedure for traditional SVMs involves solving a quadratic programming (QP) problem. The QP problem scales super linearly in computational effort with the number of training samples and is often used for the offline batch processing of data. Kernel machines operate by retaining a subset of observed data during training. The data vectors contained within this subset are referred to as support vectors (SVs). The work presented in this paper introduces a subset selection method for the use of kernel machines in online, changing environments. Our algorithm works by using a stochastic indexing technique when selecting a subset of SVs when computing the kernel expansion. The work described here is novel because it separates the selection of kernel basis functions from the training algorithm used. The subset selection algorithm presented here can be used in conjunction with any online training technique. It is important for online kernel machines to be computationally efficient due to the real-time requirements of online environments. Our algorithm is an important contribution because it scales linearly with the number of training samples and is compatible with current training techniques. Our algorithm outperforms standard techniques in terms of computational efficiency and provides increased recognition accuracy in our experiments. We provide results from experiments using both simulated and real-world data sets to verify our algorithm.

  1. Restoration of STORM images from sparse subset of localizations (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentine M.

    2016-02-01

    To construct a Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) image one should collect sufficient number of localized fluorophores to satisfy Nyquist criterion. This requirement limits time resolution of the method. In this work we propose a probabalistic approach to construct STORM images from a subset of localized fluorophores 3-4 times sparser than required from Nyquist criterion. Using a set of STORM images constructed from number of localizations sufficient for Nyquist criterion we derive a model which allows us to predict the probability for every location to be occupied by a fluorophore at the end of hypothetical acquisition, having as an input parameters distribution of already localized fluorophores in the proximity of this location. We show that probability map obtained from number of fluorophores 3-4 times less than required by Nyquist criterion may be used as superresolution image itself. Thus we are able to construct STORM image from a subset of localized fluorophores 3-4 times sparser than required from Nyquist criterion, proportionaly decreasing STORM data acquisition time. This method may be used complementary with other approaches desined for increasing STORM time resolution.

  2. Nanostructured composite films of ceria nanoparticles with anti-UV and scratch protection properties constructed using a layer-by-layer strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Songsong; Li, Jie; Guo, Xianpeng; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yingwei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabrication of LbL multilayers used functional nanoparticles. • The film structure can be controlled in the nanoscopic range. • The constructed multilayers were transparent in the visible spectral region and presented anti-UV properties. • The multilayers presented scratch protection properties. - Abstract: Rare earth cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles have attracted extensive research attention due to their advantageous anti-UV and anti-scratch properties. However, a general and facile method for the fabrication of composite films using ceria and possessing these advantages is still lacking. Here, we report the fabrication of multilayers of ceria and polymeric species poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethyl ammonium) (PDDA) via the layer-by-layer deposition strategy. The thickness of the multilayers increased linearly with the number of bilayers, indicating accurate control of the film structure in the nanoscopic range. The constructed multilayers were transparent in the visible spectral region and at the same time presented anti-UV properties. In addition, the multilayers also presented scratch protection properties.

  3. STRATÉGIES DE CONSTRUCTION D’UN DISCOURS POSITIF. LE CAS DES SITES WEB DES PRATICIENS DE L’ART DENTAIRE / STRATEGIES OF POSITIVE DISCOURSE CONSTRUCTION. THE CASE OF DENTAL ART PRACTICES WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra-Teodora Porumb

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, before choosing a dentist and request an appointment, the patient gets informed from relatives, friends, and acquaintances. Nowadays he also has the opportunity to make the choice by consulting websites or Facebook pages of dentists. The trust is outlined prior to the meeting itself, before stepping into the cabinet. For good visibility, for attracting and retaining a greater number of patients, for an effective communication with patients as well as for gaining their trust, many dentists have decided to create their websites so as to present the cabinet and their services on the Internet. Moreover, their mere presence on the Internet gives authority and gives the impression of strong, well-prepared, modern and open personalities. If the speech they build manages to calm the fears and anxieties of the patient, if the tone is warm and close to the patient, if the site is attractive, not only informative, the patient will be convinced of the qualities and competence of the doctor and his team, of the fact that they will benefit of quality treatment in a pleasant and modern environment. We consulted numerous sites from different cultural environments – French, Italian and Romanian and, given the size of this paper, we presented the theme construction of the discourse in three of them, from the perspective of the French School of discourse analysis. In our view, the theme construction gives clues on how the organization shapes its identity, being a collective discursive construction. We examined what information was selected to be presented, the way they are organized and prioritized, the layout, titration, the text – photo / audio-visual documents relation. Each and every time we found the concern to provide information and explanations, the focus on some keywords (quality, accuracy, competence, experience, performance, innovation, the constant presence of the word “smile” in the discourse, an important number of images

  4. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... natural gas distribution construction. Natural gas distribution pipelines are subject to a unique subset... distribution pipeline construction practices. This workshop will focus solely on natural gas distribution...

  5. Subset-sum phase transitions and data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Neri

    2011-09-01

    We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset-sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset-sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.

  6. Probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Yanlin; Zhang, Ziyun

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that a quantum state, secretly chosen from a certain set, can be probabilistically cloned with positive cloning efficiencies if and only if all the states in the set are linearly independent. In this paper, we focus on probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states. We show that a linearly-independent subset of linearly-dependent quantum states {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩} can be probabilistically cloned if and only if any state in the subset cannot be expressed as a linear superposition of the other states in the set {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩}. The optimal cloning efficiencies are also investigated.

  7. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  8. On the size of the subset partial order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim

    2012-01-01

    Given a family of k sets with cardinalities S 1,S 2,⋯, S k and N=Σ k i=1S i, we show that the size of the partial order graph induced by the subset relation (called the subset graph) is O(Σ si≤B 2si+N/lgN·Σ si>Blg(s i/B)), 2 where B=lg(N/lg 2N). This implies a simpler proof to the O(N 2/lg 2N...

  9. Calibration sets selection strategy for the construction of robust PLS models for prediction of biodiesel/diesel blends physico-chemical properties using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Anna; Miró, Aira; Blanco, Marcelo; Larraz, Rafael; Gómez, José Francisco; Martínez, Teresa; González, Josep Maria; Alcalà, Manel

    2017-06-01

    Even when the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression for prediction of physico-chemical properties of biodiesel/diesel blends has been widely demonstrated, inclusion in the calibration sets of the whole variability of diesel samples from diverse production origins still remains as an important challenge when constructing the models. This work presents a useful strategy for the systematic selection of calibration sets of samples of biodiesel/diesel blends from diverse origins, based on a binary code, principal components analysis (PCA) and the Kennard-Stones algorithm. Results show that using this methodology the models can keep their robustness over time. PLS calculations have been done using a specialized chemometric software as well as the software of the NIR instrument installed in plant, and both produced RMSEP under reproducibility values of the reference methods. The models have been proved for on-line simultaneous determination of seven properties: density, cetane index, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) content, cloud point, boiling point at 95% of recovery, flash point and sulphur.

  10. Facilitating Preschoolers' Scientific Knowledge Construction via Computer Games Regarding Light and Shadow: The Effect of the Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2011-10-01

    Educational researchers have suggested that computer games have a profound influence on students' motivation, knowledge construction, and learning performance, but little empirical research has targeted preschoolers. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of implementing a computer game that integrates the prediction-observation-explanation (POE) strategy (White and Gunstone in Probing understanding. Routledge, New York, 1992) on facilitating preschoolers' acquisition of scientific concepts regarding light and shadow. The children's alternative conceptions were explored as well. Fifty participants were randomly assigned into either an experimental group that played a computer game integrating the POE model or a control group that played a non-POE computer game. By assessing the students' conceptual understanding through interviews, this study revealed that the students in the experimental group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the concepts regarding "shadow formation in daylight" and "shadow orientation." However, children in both groups, after playing the games, still expressed some alternative conceptions such as "Shadows always appear behind a person" and "Shadows should be on the same side as the sun."

  11. Training Classifiers under Covariate Shift by Constructing the Maximum Consistent Distribution Subset

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xu; Yu, Miao; Xu, Li-xun; Yang, Jing; Xie, Zhi-qiang

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that the training and testing samples are drawn from the same distribution is violated under covariate shift setting, and most algorithms for the covariate shift setting try to first estimate distributions and then reweight samples based on the distributions estimated. Due to the difficulty of estimating a correct distribution, previous methods can not get good classification performance. In this paper, we firstly present two types of covariate shift problems. Rather than estim...

  12. Range-reference determination of lymphocyte subsets in Moroccan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Med V Rabat, Morocco. 3. Service ... The percentage of CD3-CD56+ subsets was affected by smoking (p < 0.01). Our analysis .... lymphocyte subpopulations in non-smokers and.

  13. Subset selection for an epsilon-best population : efficiency results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1991-01-01

    An almost best or an \\epsilon-best population is defined as a population with location parameter on a distance not larger than \\epsilon (\\geq 0) from the best population (with largest value of the location parameter). For the subset selection tables with the relative efficiency of selecting an

  14. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4...

  15. T lymphocyte subsets in prostate cancer subjects in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...

  16. NKT Cell Subsets Can Exert Opposing Effects in Autoimmunity, Tumor Surveillance and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, Rachael; Ware, Randle; Maricic, Igor; Chaturvedi, Varun; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    The innate-like natural killer T (NKT) cells are essential regulators of immunity. These cells comprise at least two distinct subsets and recognize different lipid antigens presented by the MHC class I like molecules CD1d. The CD1d-dependent recognition pathway of NKT cells is highly conserved from mouse to humans. While most type I NKT cells can recognize αGalCer and express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR), a major population of type II NKT cells reactive to sulfatide utilizes an oligoclonal TCR. Furthermore TCR recognition features of NKT subsets are also distinctive with almost parallel as opposed to perpendicular footprints on the CD1d molecules for the type I and type II NKT cells respectively. Here we present a view based upon the recent studies in different clinical and experimental settings that while type I NKT cells are more often pathogenic, they may also be regulatory. On the other hand, sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells mostly play an inhibitory role in the control of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Since the activity and cytokine secretion profiles of NKT cell subsets can be modulated differently by lipid ligands or their analogs, novel immunotherapeutic strategies are being developed for their differential activation for potential intervention in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25288922

  17. Comparison of the Functional microRNA Expression in Immune Cell Subsets of Neonates and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsu, Te-Yao; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou; Yang, Kuender D.; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of biological molecules in newborn and adult immune cells contributes to differences in cell function and atopic properties. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are reported to involve in the regulation of immune system. Therefore, determining the miRNA expression profile of leukocyte subpopulations is important for understanding immune system regulation. In order to explore the unique miRNA profiling that contribute to altered immune in neonates, we comprehensively analyzed the functional miRNA signatures of eight leukocyte subsets (polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and myeloid dendritic cells) from both neonatal and adult umbilical cord and peripheral blood samples, respectively. We observed distinct miRNA profiles between adult and neonatal blood leukocyte subsets, including unique miRNA signatures for each cell lineage. Leukocyte miRNA signatures were altered after stimulation. Adult peripheral leukocytes had higher let-7b-5p expression levels compared to neonatal cord leukocytes across multiple subsets, irrespective of stimulation. Transfecting neonatal monocytes with a let-7b-5p mimic resulted in a reduction of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-α production, while transfection of a let-7b-5p inhibitor into adult monocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-α production. With this functional approach, we provide intact differential miRNA expression profiling of specific immune cell subsets between neonates and adults. These studies serve as a basis to further understand the altered immune response observed in neonates and advance the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:28066425

  18. Comparison of the functional microRNA expression in immune cell subsets of neonates and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of biological molecules in newborn and adult immune cells contributes to differences in cell function and atopic properties. Micro RNAs (miRNAs are reported involve in the regulation of immune system. Therefore, determining the miRNA expression profile of leukocyte sub-populations is important for understanding immune system regulation. In order to explore the unique microRNA profiling that contribute to altered immune in neonates, we comprehensively analyzed the functional miRNA signatures of eight leukocyte subsets (polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs, and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs from both neonatal and adult umbilical cord and peripheral blood samples, respectively. We observed distinct miRNA profiles between adult and neonatal blood leukocyte subsets, including unique miRNA signatures for each cell lineage. Leukocyte miRNA signatures were altered after stimulation. Adult peripheral leukocytes had higher let-7b-5p expression levels compared to neonatal cord leukocytes across multiple subsets, irrespective of stimulation. Transfecting neonatal monocytes with a let-7b-5p mimic resulted in a reduction of LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha production, while transfection of a let-7b-5p inhibitor into adult monocytes enhanced IL-6 and TNF-alpha production. With this functional approach, we provide intact differential microRNA expression profiling of specific immune cell subsets between neonates and adults. These studies serve as a basis to further understand the altered immune response observed in neonates and advance the development of therapeutic strategies.

  19. Characterization of Peripheral Immune Cell Subsets in Patients with Acute and Chronic Cerebrovascular Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Immune cells (IC play a crucial role in murine stroke pathophysiology. However, data are limited on the role of these cells in ischemic stroke in humans. We therefore aimed to characterize and compare peripheral IC subsets in patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (AIS/TIA, chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD and healthy volunteers (HV. We conducted a case-control study of patients with AIS/TIA (n = 116 or CCD (n = 117, and HV (n = 104 who were enrolled at the University Hospital Würzburg from 2010 to 2013. We determined the expression and quantity of IC subsets in the three study groups and performed correlation analyses with demographic and clinical parameters. The quantity of several IC subsets differed between the AIS/TIA, CCD, and HV groups. Several clinical and demographic variables independently predicted the quantity of IC subsets in patients with AIS/TIA. No significant changes in the quantity of IC subsets occurred within the first three days after AIS/TIA. Overall, these findings strengthen the evidence for a pathophysiologic role of IC in human ischemic stroke and the potential use of IC-based biomarkers for the prediction of stroke risk. A comprehensive description of IC kinetics is crucial to enable the design of targeted treatment strategies.

  20. Implementing Modifed Burg Algorithms in Multivariate Subset Autoregressive Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre Trindade

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The large number of parameters in subset vector autoregressive models often leads one to procure fast, simple, and efficient alternatives or precursors to maximum likelihood estimation. We present the solution of the multivariate subset Yule-Walker equations as one such alternative. In recent work, Brockwell, Dahlhaus, and Trindade (2002, show that the Yule-Walker estimators can actually be obtained as a special case of a general recursive Burg-type algorithm. We illustrate the structure of this Algorithm, and discuss its implementation in a high-level programming language. Applications of the Algorithm in univariate and bivariate modeling are showcased in examples. Univariate and bivariate versions of the Algorithm written in Fortran 90 are included in the appendix, and their use illustrated.

  1. Design of a verifiable subset for HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J. C.; Good, D. I.; Tripathi, A. R.; Young, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt to evaluate the applicability of program verification techniques to the existing programming language, HAL/S is discussed. HAL/S is a general purpose high level language designed to accommodate the software needs of the NASA Space Shuttle project. A diversity of features for scientific computing, concurrent and real-time programming, and error handling are discussed. The criteria by which features were evaluated for inclusion into the verifiable subset are described. Individual features of HAL/S with respect to these criteria are examined and justification for the omission of various features from the subset is provided. Conclusions drawn from the research are presented along with recommendations made for the use of HAL/S with respect to the area of program verification.

  2. Auditing Complex Concepts in Overlapping Subsets of SNOMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wei, Duo; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A.; Hripcsak, George

    2008-01-01

    Limited resources and the sheer volume of concepts make auditing a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, a daunting task. It is essential to devise techniques that can aid an auditor by automatically identifying concepts that deserve attention. A methodology for this purpose based on a previously introduced abstraction network (called the p-area taxonomy) for a SNOMED CT hierarchy is presented. The methodology algorithmically gathers concepts appearing in certain overlapping subsets, defined exclusively with respect to the p-area taxonomy, for review. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy are presented. These results are compared against a control sample composed of concepts residing in subsets without the overlaps. With the use of the double bootstrap, the concept group produced by our methodology is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of error discoveries. PMID:18998838

  3. Massive two-loop Bhabha scattering - the factorizable subset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Tarasov, O.V.; Werthenbach, A.

    2002-11-01

    The experimental precision that will be reached at the next generation of colliders makes it indispensable to improve theoretical predictions significantly. Bhabha scattering (e + e - → e + e - ) is one of the prime processes calling for a better theoretical precision, in particular for non-zero electron masses. We present a first subset of the full two-loop calculation, namely the factorizable subset. Our calculation is based on DIANA. We reduce tensor integrals to scalar integrals in shifted (increased) dimensions and additional powers of various propagators, so-called dots-on-lines. Recurrence relations remove those dots-on-lines as well as genuine dots-on-lines (originating from mass renormalization) and reduce the dimension of the integrals to the generic d=4-2ε dimensions. The resulting master integrals have to be expanded to O(ε) to ensure proper treatment of all finite terms. (orig.)

  4. Individual discriminative face recognition models based on subsets of features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of data classification methods depends considerably on the data representation and on the selected features. In this work, the elastic net model selection is used to identify meaningful and important features in face recognition. Modelling the characteristics which distinguish one...... person from another using only subsets of features will both decrease the computational cost and increase the generalization capacity of the face recognition algorithm. Moreover, identifying which are the features that better discriminate between persons will also provide a deeper understanding...... of the face recognition problem. The elastic net model is able to select a subset of features with low computational effort compared to other state-of-the-art feature selection methods. Furthermore, the fact that the number of features usually is larger than the number of images in the data base makes feature...

  5. Survey report for fiscal 1999 on foundation of strategy formation for industrial technologies. High-priority strategy (Construction of society of citizens giving full play to their ability, construction of society with safety and comfort); 1999 nendo sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa hokokusho. Jutenka senryaku (kojin noryoku hakki no shakai kochiku anshin anzenna shakai kochiku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concrete methods of technology-related strategy construction were studied, and a prototype was built. Proposed as a basic concept was a method to follow the steps of the grasping of people's needs, mapping of people's needs, translation of people's needs into technological tasks, and finally the matching of technological tasks and technological seeds. Questionnaires were conducted and it was learned that safety and comfort, computerization, environment, and energy were the needs, and then they were set as the major targets. In this study, a process was taken up in which safety and comfort and computerization develop into technological tasks. A study was made of people's needs on a needs matrix, and intermediate targets in the field of safety and comfort were established. They are the 'building of an environment in which everyone is independent and a participant in social activities,' the 'construction of a safe and comfortable life,' and the 'sustenance and enhancement of good health.' Intermediate targets set for the field of computerization are an 'efficient electric government and administration,' 'information disclosure and distribution on the global scale,' and the 'maintenance of peace and order in the cyberspace.' (NEDO)

  6. Roquin Paralogs Differentially Regulate Functional NKT Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Christoph; Vahl, J Christoph; Bortoluzzi, Sabrina; Heger, Klaus D; Fischer, Julius C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2017-04-01

    NKT cells represent a small subset of glycolipid-recognizing T cells that are heavily implicated in human allergic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. In the thymus, precursor cells recognize self-glycolipids by virtue of their semi-invariant TCR, which triggers NKT cell lineage commitment and maturation. During their development, NKT cells are polarized into the NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 subsets, defined through their cytokine-secretion patterns and the expression of key transcription factors. However, we have largely ignored how the differentiation into the NKT cell subsets is regulated. In this article, we describe the mRNA-binding Roquin-1 and -2 proteins as central regulators of murine NKT cell fate decisions. In the thymus, T cell-specific ablation of the Roquin paralogs leads to a dramatic expansion of NKT17 cells, whereas peripheral mature NKT cells are essentially absent. Roquin-1/2-deficient NKT17 cells show exaggerated lineage-specific expression of nearly all NKT17-defining proteins tested. We show through mixed bone marrow chimera experiments that NKT17 polarization is mediated through cell-intrinsic mechanisms early during NKT cell development. In contrast, the loss of peripheral NKT cells is due to cell-extrinsic factors. Surprisingly, Roquin paralog-deficient NKT cells are, in striking contrast to conventional T cells, compromised in their ability to secrete cytokines. Altogether, we show that Roquin paralogs regulate the development and function of NKT cell subsets in the thymus and periphery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodo, Kornélia

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes...... amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets....

  8. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    selection strategy, several distinct cell subsets of human colon epithelial cells, which recapitulate the phenotypic and molecular profile of cells in a discrete crypt location.

  9. Characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: Evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Selecting a climate model subset to optimise key ensemble properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Herger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available End users studying impacts and risks caused by human-induced climate change are often presented with large multi-model ensembles of climate projections whose composition and size are arbitrarily determined. An efficient and versatile method that finds a subset which maintains certain key properties from the full ensemble is needed, but very little work has been done in this area. Therefore, users typically make their own somewhat subjective subset choices and commonly use the equally weighted model mean as a best estimate. However, different climate model simulations cannot necessarily be regarded as independent estimates due to the presence of duplicated code and shared development history. Here, we present an efficient and flexible tool that makes better use of the ensemble as a whole by finding a subset with improved mean performance compared to the multi-model mean while at the same time maintaining the spread and addressing the problem of model interdependence. Out-of-sample skill and reliability are demonstrated using model-as-truth experiments. This approach is illustrated with one set of optimisation criteria but we also highlight the flexibility of cost functions, depending on the focus of different users. The technique is useful for a range of applications that, for example, minimise present-day bias to obtain an accurate ensemble mean, reduce dependence in ensemble spread, maximise future spread, ensure good performance of individual models in an ensemble, reduce the ensemble size while maintaining important ensemble characteristics, or optimise several of these at the same time. As in any calibration exercise, the final ensemble is sensitive to the metric, observational product, and pre-processing steps used.

  11. Selecting a climate model subset to optimise key ensemble properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herger, Nadja; Abramowitz, Gab; Knutti, Reto; Angélil, Oliver; Lehmann, Karsten; Sanderson, Benjamin M.

    2018-02-01

    End users studying impacts and risks caused by human-induced climate change are often presented with large multi-model ensembles of climate projections whose composition and size are arbitrarily determined. An efficient and versatile method that finds a subset which maintains certain key properties from the full ensemble is needed, but very little work has been done in this area. Therefore, users typically make their own somewhat subjective subset choices and commonly use the equally weighted model mean as a best estimate. However, different climate model simulations cannot necessarily be regarded as independent estimates due to the presence of duplicated code and shared development history. Here, we present an efficient and flexible tool that makes better use of the ensemble as a whole by finding a subset with improved mean performance compared to the multi-model mean while at the same time maintaining the spread and addressing the problem of model interdependence. Out-of-sample skill and reliability are demonstrated using model-as-truth experiments. This approach is illustrated with one set of optimisation criteria but we also highlight the flexibility of cost functions, depending on the focus of different users. The technique is useful for a range of applications that, for example, minimise present-day bias to obtain an accurate ensemble mean, reduce dependence in ensemble spread, maximise future spread, ensure good performance of individual models in an ensemble, reduce the ensemble size while maintaining important ensemble characteristics, or optimise several of these at the same time. As in any calibration exercise, the final ensemble is sensitive to the metric, observational product, and pre-processing steps used.

  12. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  13. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  14. Chemical library subset selection algorithms: a unified derivation using spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamprecht, Fred A; Thiel, Walter; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2002-01-01

    If similar compounds have similar activity, rational subset selection becomes superior to random selection in screening for pharmacological lead discovery programs. Traditional approaches to this experimental design problem fall into two classes: (i) a linear or quadratic response function is assumed (ii) some space filling criterion is optimized. The assumptions underlying the first approach are clear but not always defendable; the second approach yields more intuitive designs but lacks a clear theoretical foundation. We model activity in a bioassay as realization of a stochastic process and use the best linear unbiased estimator to construct spatial sampling designs that optimize the integrated mean square prediction error, the maximum mean square prediction error, or the entropy. We argue that our approach constitutes a unifying framework encompassing most proposed techniques as limiting cases and sheds light on their underlying assumptions. In particular, vector quantization is obtained, in dimensions up to eight, in the limiting case of very smooth response surfaces for the integrated mean square error criterion. Closest packing is obtained for very rough surfaces under the integrated mean square error and entropy criteria. We suggest to use either the integrated mean square prediction error or the entropy as optimization criteria rather than approximations thereof and propose a scheme for direct iterative minimization of the integrated mean square prediction error. Finally, we discuss how the quality of chemical descriptors manifests itself and clarify the assumptions underlying the selection of diverse or representative subsets.

  15. Improving the characterization of endothelial progenitor cell subsets by an optimized FACS protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Huizer

    Full Text Available The characterization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs is fundamental to any study related to angiogenesis. Unfortunately, current literature lacks consistency in the definition of EPC subsets due to variations in isolation strategies and inconsistencies in the use of lineage markers. Here we address critical points in the identification of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs, circulating endothelial cells (CECs, and culture-generated outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs from blood samples of healthy adults (AB and umbilical cord (UCB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were enriched using a Ficoll-based gradient followed by an optimized staining and gating strategy to enrich for the target cells. Sorted EPC populations were subjected to RT-PCR for tracing the expression of markers beyond the limits of cell surface-based immunophenotyping. Using CD34, CD133 and c-kit staining, combined with FSC and SSC, we succeeded in the accurate and reproducible identification of four HPC subgroups and found significant differences in the respective populations in AB vs. UCB. Co-expression analysis of endothelial markers on HPCs revealed a complex pattern characterized by various subpopulations. CECs were identified by using CD34, KDR, CD45, and additional endothelial markers, and were subdivided according to their apoptotic state and expression of c-kit. Comparison of UCB-CECs vs. AB-CECs revealed significant differences in CD34 and KDR levels. OECs were grown from PBMC-fractions We found that viable c-kit+ CECs are a candidate circulating precursor for CECs. RT-PCR to angiogenic factors and receptors revealed that all EPC subsets expressed angiogenesis-related molecules. Taken together, the improvements in immunophenotyping and gating strategies resulted in accurate identification and comparison of better defined cell populations in a single procedure.

  16. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  17. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

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    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  18. Changes in T-cell subsets after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.J.; Rafla, S.; Youssef, E.; Selim, H.; Salloum, N.; Chuang, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The T-cell subsets of 129 patients with cancer were counted before and after radiation therapy. The cells were labeled with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for each type of T cell. Significant changes after therapy were decreases in the proportion of T-helper/inducer cells, pan-T cells, and in the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. There was an increase in the percentage of T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. When the site of the primary cancer was considered, genitourinary cancer and cancer of the head and neck both showed a decreased percentage of T-helper/inducer cells and a reduced ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. The percentage of pan-T cells in head and neck cancer and the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells in breast cancer were decreased. The percentage of T-helper cells was particularly decreased by radiation therapy in advanced stages of cancer, in higher grade tumors, and in larger tumors. The absolute numbers of various T-cell subsets were decreased in all groups

  19. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  20. Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.

  1. Subset of nursing diagnoses for the elderly in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Wilker Bezerra Clares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To develop a subset of nursing diagnoses for the elderly followed in primary health care based on the bank of terms for clinical nursing practice with the elderly, in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP(r version 2013, and on the Model of Nursing Care. METHOD Descriptive study developed in sequential steps of construction and validation of the bank of terms, elaboration of the nursing diagnoses based on the guidelines of the International Council of Nurses and the bank of terms, and categorization of diagnostics according to the Care Model. RESULTS The total of 127 nursing diagnoses were elaborated from 359 validated terms, distributed according to the basic human needs. CONCLUSION It is expected that these diagnoses will form the basis for the planning of nursing care and use of a unified language for documentation of clinical nursing practice with the elderly in primary care.

  2. Random-subset fitting of digital holograms for fast three-dimensional particle tracking [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G; Perry, Rebecca W; Fung, Jerome; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2014-09-20

    Fitting scattering solutions to time series of digital holograms is a precise way to measure three-dimensional dynamics of microscale objects such as colloidal particles. However, this inverse-problem approach is computationally expensive. We show that the computational time can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more by fitting to a random subset of the pixels in a hologram. We demonstrate our algorithm on experimentally measured holograms of micrometer-scale colloidal particles, and we show that 20-fold increases in speed, relative to fitting full frames, can be attained while introducing errors in the particle positions of 10 nm or less. The method is straightforward to implement and works for any scattering model. It also enables a parallelization strategy wherein random-subset fitting is used to quickly determine initial guesses that are subsequently used to fit full frames in parallel. This approach may prove particularly useful for studying rare events, such as nucleation, that can only be captured with high frame rates over long times.

  3. Multicentre evaluation of stable reference whole blood for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cherry; Belgrave, Danielle; Janossy, George; Bradley, Nicholas J; Stebbings, Richard; Gaines-Das, Rose; Thorpe, Robin; Sawle, Alex; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Brando, Bruno; Gratama, Jan Willem; Orfao de Matos, Alberto; Papa, Stephano; Papamichail, Michael; Lenkei, Rodica; Rothe, Gregor; Barnett, David

    2005-06-22

    BACKGROUND: Clinical indications for lymphocyte subset enumeration by flow cytometry include monitoring of disease progression and timing of therapeutic intervention in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Until recently international standardisation has not been possible due to a lack of suitable stable reference material. METHODS: This study consisted of two trials of a stabilised whole blood preparation. Eleven participants were sent two standard protocols for staining plus gating strategy and asked to report absolute counts for lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: No significant difference was detected between the two methods when results from the two assays and all partners were pooled. Significant differences in results from the different partners were observed. However, representative mean counts were obtained for geometric means, geometric coefficient of variation, and 95% confidence interval for CD3 910 cells/mul, 9%, and 888 to 933, respectively), CD4 (495 cells/mul, 12%, and 483 to 507), and CD8 (408 cells/mul, 13%, and 393 to 422). CONCLUSION: We have introduced a stabilised blood preparation and a well-characterized biological standard. The availability of this reference material greatly simplifies the validation of new techniques for CD4(+) T-cell enumeration and the expansion of external quality assurance programmes for clinical laboratories, including those that operate in resource-restricted environments. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  5. Urofacial syndrome: A subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Stamatiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is probably a subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes characterized by detrusor-sphincter discoordination along with a characteristic inversion of facial expression with laughing. This characteristic facial expression can facilitate early detection of this disorder, which leads to poor bladder emptying with high residual urine, hydro-nephrosis with vesico-ureteral reflux and potentially renal failure if left untreated. The etiology of the urofacial syndrome is unknown. In our case, a 12-year-old boy of Middle-Eastern origin presented to the Outpatient Department of our hospital with left pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis and bladder dilatation. Voiding cystourethrography performed 15 days later revealed left vesicoureteral reflux. Cystoscopy revealed bladder trabeculation however an anatomic urethral obstruction was not noticed. Both, neurological examination and radiography of the lumbosacral spine were normal. Urodynamic evaluation revealed the typical findings of detrusor-sphincter discoordination.

  6. [Differential diagnosis and atypical subsets of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, P-F; Bruneteau, G

    2006-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. In the absence of any validated biological marker, the diagnosis of ALS depends upon recognition of characteristic symptoms and signs together with supportive electrophysiological findings. The diagnosis of ALS is easy to recognize in its fully developed form but during the early stages both false positive and false negative diagnoses are common. In clinical practice, diagnostic difficulties mostly arise with patients who present either with only upper motor neuron, or with only lower motor neuron signs. It may be difficult to distinguish ALS with clinically predominant lower motor neuron involvement from alternative diagnoses including spinal atrophies of adult onset, Kennedy's disease, inclusion body myositis and motor neuropathies with conduction blocks. The diagnosis of ALS related syndromes (progressive muscular atrophy, primary lateral sclerosis and progressive bulbar palsy) requires the elimination of alternate diagnoses. This paper reviews the main characteristics of diseases mimicking ALS and the atypical subsets of ALS.

  7. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4......+ and CD8+ cells. Two different populations of infants between birth and 1 year of age were examined. Study Group I: infants with a variable duration of breastfeeding. Study Group II: long-term breastfed infants. In both groups a correlation was found between CD8+ cells and the thymic index at 10 months...... to 10 months of age; and a positive correlation between the number of breastfeedings per day at 8 months of age, and an increase in CD4+ cells from 8 to 10 months of age (p Breastfeeding might have both a current and long...

  8. Seronegative necrolytic acral erythema: A distinct clinical subset?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient was referred to us with asymptomatic, erythematous, nonitchy, scaly lesions present bilaterally on the dorsa of his feet and toes since the last 2 months. Both the legs had pitting edema as well. There were hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, acanthosis and scattered spongiosis in the epidermis, and proliferation of capillaries with perivascular infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells in the dermis. There was no serological evidence of hepatitis C virus. Laboratory investigations revealed hypoalbuminemia and low-normal serum zinc. On clinicopathological correlation, we made a diagnosis of necrolytic acral erythema (NAE. The lesions responded dramatically to oral zinc sulfate and topical clobetasol propionate within 3 weeks with disappearance of edema and scaling and only a minimal residual erythema. This is the first reported case of NAE from Eastern India. NAE with negative serology for hepatitis C may be viewed as a distinct subset of the condition that had been originally described.

  9. Truss Structure Optimization with Subset Simulation and Augmented Lagrangian Multiplier Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global optimization method for structural design optimization, which integrates subset simulation optimization (SSO and the dynamic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (DALMM. The proposed method formulates the structural design optimization as a series of unconstrained optimization sub-problems using DALMM and makes use of SSO to find the global optimum. The combined strategy guarantees that the proposed method can automatically detect active constraints and provide global optimal solutions with finite penalty parameters. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by four classical truss sizing problems. The results are compared with those reported in the literature, and show a remarkable statistical performance based on 30 independent runs.

  10. Cholangiocarcinoma stem-like subset shapes tumor-initiating niche by educating associated macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raggi, Chiara; Correnti, Margherita; Sica, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Therapeutically challenging subset, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) clinical severity. Presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has prognostic significance in CCA and other malignancies. Thus, we hypothesized that CSCs may......-activator. Gene expression profile of CCA-SPH activated MØ (SPH MØ) revealed unique molecular TAM-like features confirmed by high invasion capacity. Also, freshly isolated MØs from CCA-resections recapitulated similar molecular phenotype of in vitro educated-MØs. Consistently with invasive features, largest CD163...... providing a rationale for a synergistic therapeutic strategy for CCA-disease. LAY SUMMARY: Immune plasticity represents an important hallmark of tumor outcome. Since cancer stem cells are able to manipulate stromal cells to their needs, a better definition of key deregulated immune subtype responsible...

  11. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  12. Dual-In/Out strategy for genes integration into bacterial chromosome: a novel approach to step-by-step construction of plasmid-less marker-less recombinant E. coli strains with predesigned genome structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biryukova Irina V

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of modern producer strains with metabolically engineered pathways poses special problems that often require manipulating many genes and expressing them individually at different levels or under separate regulatory controls. The construction of plasmid-less marker-less strains has many advantages for the further practical exploitation of these bacteria in industry. Such producer strains are usually constructed by sequential chromosome modifications including deletions and integration of genetic material. For these purposes complex methods based on in vitro and in vivo recombination processes have been developed. Results Here, we describe the new scheme of insertion of the foreign DNA for step-by-step construction of plasmid-less marker-less recombinant E. coli strains with chromosome structure designed in advance. This strategy, entitled as Dual-In/Out, based on the initial Red-driven insertion of artificial φ80-attB sites into desired points of the chromosome followed by two site-specific recombination processes: first, the φ80 system is used for integration of the recombinant DNA based on selective marker-carrier conditionally-replicated plasmid with φ80-attP-site, and second, the λ system is used for excision of inserted vector part, including the plasmid ori-replication and the marker, flanked by λ-attL/R-sites. Conclusion The developed Dual-In/Out strategy is a rather straightforward, but convenient combination of previously developed recombination methods: phages site-specific and general Red/ET-mediated. This new approach allows us to detail the design of future recombinant marker-less strains, carrying, in particular, rather large artificial insertions that could be difficult to introduce by usually used PCR-based Recombineering procedure. The developed strategy is simple and could be particularly useful for construction of strains for the biotechnological industry.

  13. Facilitating Preschoolers' Scientific Knowledge Construction via Computer Games Regarding Light and Shadow: The Effect of the Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers have suggested that computer games have a profound influence on students' motivation, knowledge construction, and learning performance, but little empirical research has targeted preschoolers. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of implementing a computer game that integrates the…

  14. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  15. CD14CD16 Monocyte Subset Levels in Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barisione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to define the distribution of monocyte subsets in a cohort of congestive heart failure (CHF patients, to verify whether increased severity of CHF is linked to the expansion of specific monocyte subsets, and finally to investigate the relationship between monocyte subset relative frequencies, laboratory parameters of inflammation, and monocyte ACE expression.

  16. MoMA’s strategies in the latest exhibition devoted to Latin America: “Latin America in Construction: Architecture 1955-1980”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reyno Capurro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our research is the curatorial strategy behind the project for the last major exhibition devoted to Latin America by the New York Museum of Modern Art. The show is understood itself as a project, where each of the implicated agents—the institution, curators and the works themselves—relate to each other in building an action, a narrative, and in the best of cases, contributing to critical thinking. We will analyze the mass information strategies used by the museum in selecting the works, designing the spaces and advertising the exhibition.

  17. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Andrew E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  18. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew E.; Azhar, Salman; Khalfan, Malik

    2017-06-01

    Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  19. Comprehensive Approach for Identifying the T Cell Subset Origin of CD3 and CD28 Antibody-Activated Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmueck-Henneresse, Michael; Omer, Bilal; Shum, Thomas; Tashiro, Haruko; Mamonkin, Maksim; Lapteva, Natalia; Sharma, Sandhya; Rollins, Lisa; Dotti, Gianpietro; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Rooney, Cliona M

    2017-07-01

    The outcome of therapy with chimeric Ag receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is strongly influenced by the subset origin of the infused T cells. However, because polyclonally activated T cells acquire a largely CD45RO + CCR7 - effector memory phenotype after expansion, regardless of subset origin, it is impossible to know which subsets contribute to the final T cell product. To determine the contribution of naive T cell, memory stem T cell, central memory T cell, effector memory T cell, and terminally differentiated effector T cell populations to the CD3 and CD28-activated CAR-modified T cells that we use for therapy, we followed the fate and function of individually sorted CAR-modified T cell subsets after activation with CD3 and CD28 Abs (CD3/28), transduction and culture alone, or after reconstitution into the relevant subset-depleted population. We show that all subsets are sensitive to CAR transduction, and each developed a distinct T cell functional profile during culture. Naive-derived T cells showed the greatest rate of proliferation but had more limited effector functions and reduced killing compared with memory-derived populations. When cultured in the presence of memory T cells, naive-derived T cells show increased differentiation, reduced effector cytokine production, and a reduced reproliferative response to CAR stimulation. CD3/28-activated T cells expanded in IL-7 and IL-15 produced greater expansion of memory stem T cells and central memory T cell-derived T cells compared with IL-2. Our strategy provides a powerful tool to elucidate the characteristics of CAR-modified T cells, regardless of the protocol used for expansion, reveals the functional properties of each expanded T cell subset, and paves the way for a more detailed evaluation of the effects of manufacturing changes on the subset contribution to in vitro-expanded T cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Range of motion, sacral screw and rod strain in long posterior spinal constructs: a biomechanical comparison between S2 alar iliac screws with traditional fixation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, Chester E; Field, Antony; Ferrara, Lisa A; Freeman, Andrew L; Phan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    S1 screw failure and L5/S1 non-union are issues with long fusions to S1. Improved construct stiffness and S1 screw offloading can help avoid this. S2AI screws have shown to provide similar stiffness to iliac screws when added to L3-S1 constructs. We sought to examine and compare the biomechanical effects on an L2-S1 pedicle screw construct of adding S2AI screws, AxiaLIF, L5-S1 interbody support via transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and to examine the effect of the addition of cross connectors to each of these constructs. Two S1 screws and one rod with strain gauges (at L5/S1) were used in L2-S1 screw-rod constructs in 7 L1-pelvis specimens (two with low BMD). ROM, S1 screw and rod strain were assessed using a pure-moment flexibility testing protocol. Specimens were tested intact, and then in five instrumentation states consisting of: (I) Pedicle screws (PS) L2-S1; (II) PS + S2AI screws; (III) PS + TLIF L5/S1; (IV) PS + AxiaLIF L5/S1; (V) PS + S2AI + AxiaLIF L5/S1. The five instrumentation conditions were also tested with crosslinks at L2/3 and S1/2. Tests were conducted in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion with no compressive preload. S2A1 produces reduced S1 screw strain for flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion, as well as reduced rod strain in lateral bending and axial torsion in comparison to AxiaLIF and interbody instrumentation, at the expense of increased rod flexion-extension strain. Cross-connectors may have a role in further reduction of S1 screw and rod strain. From a biomechanical standpoint, the use of the S2AI technique is at least equivalent to traditional iliac screws, but offers lower prominence and ease of assembly compared to conventional sacroiliac stabilization.

  1. The strategic management of construction companies during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... South Africa, to identify the key strategies that are able to keep construction entities in operation. .... executed to implement the corporate strategy of an organisation and any step taken in the ..... Exploring corporate strategy: Text and cases.

  2. Application of subset simulation methods to dynamic fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mengyun; Liu Jingquan; She Ding

    2015-01-01

    Although fault tree analysis has been implemented in the nuclear safety field over the past few decades, it was recently criticized for the inability to model the time-dependent behaviors. Several methods are proposed to overcome this disadvantage, and dynamic fault tree (DFT) has become one of the research highlights. By introducing additional dynamic gates, DFT is able to describe the dynamic behaviors like the replacement of spare components or the priority of failure events. Using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) approach to solve DFT has obtained rising attention, because it can model the authentic behaviors of systems and avoid the limitations in the analytical method. In this paper, it provides an overview and MCS information for DFT analysis, including the sampling of basic events and the propagation rule for logic gates. When calculating rare-event probability, large amount of simulations in standard MCS are required. To improve the weakness, subset simulation (SS) approach is applied. Using the concept of conditional probability and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, the SS method is able to accelerate the efficiency of exploring the failure region. Two cases are tested to illustrate the performance of SS approach, and the numerical results suggest that it gives high efficiency when calculating complicated systems with small failure probabilities. (author)

  3. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Katsuyama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field.

  4. Application of subset simulation in reliability estimation of underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee, Kong Fah; Khan, Lutfor Rahman; Li, Hongshuang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for implementing an advanced Monte Carlo simulation method, called Subset Simulation (SS) for time-dependent reliability prediction of underground flexible pipelines. The SS can provide better resolution for low failure probability level of rare failure events which are commonly encountered in pipeline engineering applications. Random samples of statistical variables are generated efficiently and used for computing probabilistic reliability model. It gains its efficiency by expressing a small probability event as a product of a sequence of intermediate events with larger conditional probabilities. The efficiency of SS has been demonstrated by numerical studies and attention in this work is devoted to scrutinise the robustness of the SS application in pipe reliability assessment and compared with direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. Reliability of a buried flexible steel pipe with time-dependent failure modes, namely, corrosion induced deflection, buckling, wall thrust and bending stress has been assessed in this study. The analysis indicates that corrosion induced excessive deflection is the most critical failure event whereas buckling is the least susceptible during the whole service life of the pipe. The study also shows that SS is robust method to estimate the reliability of buried pipelines and it is more efficient than MCS, especially in small failure probability prediction

  5. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Takayuki; Tsokos, George C.; Moulton, Vaishali R.

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field. PMID:29868033

  6. Decontaminate feature for tracking: adaptive tracking via evolutionary feature subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoyuan; Wang, Yuru; Yin, Minghao; Ren, Jinchang; Li, Ruizhi

    2017-11-01

    Although various visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the last 2-3 decades, it remains a challenging problem for effective tracking with fast motion, deformation, occlusion, etc. Under complex tracking conditions, most tracking models are not discriminative and adaptive enough. When the combined feature vectors are inputted to the visual models, this may lead to redundancy causing low efficiency and ambiguity causing poor performance. An effective tracking algorithm is proposed to decontaminate features for each video sequence adaptively, where the visual modeling is treated as an optimization problem from the perspective of evolution. Every feature vector is compared to a biological individual and then decontaminated via classical evolutionary algorithms. With the optimized subsets of features, the "curse of dimensionality" has been avoided while the accuracy of the visual model has been improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on several publicly available datasets with various tracking challenges and benchmarked with a number of state-of-the-art approaches. The comprehensive experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  7. Bayesian Subset Modeling for High-Dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a new prior setting for high-dimensional generalized linear models, which leads to a Bayesian subset regression (BSR) with the maximum a posteriori model approximately equivalent to the minimum extended Bayesian information criterion model. The consistency of the resulting posterior is established under mild conditions. Further, a variable screening procedure is proposed based on the marginal inclusion probability, which shares the same properties of sure screening and consistency with the existing sure independence screening (SIS) and iterative sure independence screening (ISIS) procedures. However, since the proposed procedure makes use of joint information from all predictors, it generally outperforms SIS and ISIS in real applications. This article also makes extensive comparisons of BSR with the popular penalized likelihood methods, including Lasso, elastic net, SIS, and ISIS. The numerical results indicate that BSR can generally outperform the penalized likelihood methods. The models selected by BSR tend to be sparser and, more importantly, of higher prediction ability. In addition, the performance of the penalized likelihood methods tends to deteriorate as the number of predictors increases, while this is not significant for BSR. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  8. Lymphocyte subsets and response to PHA among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Noguchi, Kyouichi; Eida, Kazuyuki; Tashiro, Kazunori; Hayashida, Ken

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the effect of radiation exposure on immune competence in man, the number of lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets, and the percentage of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation of lymphocytes were determined in 66 cancer patients, 25 of whom were exposed to atomic radiation at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero and 41 others were not exposed. The number of lymphocytes was decreased with increasing age at exposure. The percentage of OKT3-positive cells tended to be lower in exposed patients who were in their twenties at the time of exposure than the non-exposed patients. Among patients in their teens and twenties at the time of exposure, there was a tendency toward decreased percentage of OKT4-positive cells (T4) and increased percentage of OKT8-positive cells (T8). The T4/T8 ratio was reduced. Patients who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure tended to have decreased OKIa 1-positive cells, and increased Leulla-positive cells. Patients exposed in their twenties and thirties had slightly decreased percentage of PHA-induced transformation of lymphocytes. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Optimization of the Dutch Matrix Test by Random Selection of Sentences From a Preselected Subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolph Houben

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix tests are available for speech recognition testing in many languages. For an accurate measurement, a steep psychometric function of the speech materials is required. For existing tests, it would be beneficial if it were possible to further optimize the available materials by increasing the function’s steepness. The objective is to show if the steepness of the psychometric function of an existing matrix test can be increased by selecting a homogeneous subset of recordings with the steepest sentence-based psychometric functions. We took data from a previous multicenter evaluation of the Dutch matrix test (45 normal-hearing listeners. Based on half of the data set, first the sentences (140 out of 311 with a similar speech reception threshold and with the steepest psychometric function (≥9.7%/dB were selected. Subsequently, the steepness of the psychometric function for this selection was calculated from the remaining (unused second half of the data set. The calculation showed that the slope increased from 10.2%/dB to 13.7%/dB. The resulting subset did not allow the construction of enough balanced test lists. Therefore, the measurement procedure was changed to randomly select the sentences during testing. Random selection may interfere with a representative occurrence of phonemes. However, in our material, the median phonemic occurrence remained close to that of the original test. This finding indicates that phonemic occurrence is not a critical factor. The work highlights the possibility that existing speech tests might be improved by selecting sentences with a steep psychometric function.

  10. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

    2010-02-01

    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  11. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  12. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  13. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  14. The Impact of a Suicide Prevention Strategy on Reducing the Economic Cost of Suicide in the New South Wales Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Gullestrup, Jorgen; Swannell, Sarah; Milner, Allison

    2016-03-01

    Little research has been conducted into the cost and prevention of self-harm in the workplace. To quantify the economic cost of self-harm and suicide among New South Wales (NSW) construction industry (CI) workers and to examine the potential economic impact of implementing Mates in Construction (MIC). Direct and indirect costs were estimated. Effectiveness was measured using the relative risk ratio (RRR). In Queensland (QLD), relative suicide risks were estimated for 5-year periods before and after the commencement of MIC. For NSW, the difference between the expected (i.e., using NSW pre-MIC [2008-2012] suicide risk) and counterfactual suicide cases (i.e., applying QLD RRR) provided an estimate of potential suicide cases averted in the post-MIC period (2013-2017). Results were adjusted using the average uptake (i.e., 9.4%) of MIC activities in QLD. Economic savings from averted cases were compared with the cost of implementing MIC. The cost of self-harm and suicide in the NSW CI was AU $527 million in 2010. MIC could potentially avert 0.4 suicides, 1.01 full incapacity cases, and 4.92 short absences, generating annual savings of AU $3.66 million. For every AU $1 invested, the economic return is approximately AU $4.6. MIC represents a positive economic investment in workplace safety.

  15. Molecular subsets in the gene expression signatures of scleroderma skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Milano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a complex phenotype. The disease is characterized by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis, internal organ dysfunction, and immune dysfunction resulting in autoantibody production.We analyzed the genome-wide patterns of gene expression with DNA microarrays in skin biopsies from distinct scleroderma subsets including 17 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc, 7 patients with SSc with limited scleroderma (lSSc, 3 patients with morphea, and 6 healthy controls. 61 skin biopsies were analyzed in a total of 75 microarray hybridizations. Analysis by hierarchical clustering demonstrates nearly identical patterns of gene expression in 17 out of 22 of the forearm and back skin pairs of SSc patients. Using this property of the gene expression, we selected a set of 'intrinsic' genes and analyzed the inherent data-driven groupings. Distinct patterns of gene expression separate patients with dSSc from those with lSSc and both are easily distinguished from normal controls. Our data show three distinct patient groups among the patients with dSSc and two groups among patients with lSSc. Each group can be distinguished by unique gene expression signatures indicative of proliferating cells, immune infiltrates and a fibrotic program. The intrinsic groups are statistically significant (p<0.001 and each has been mapped to clinical covariates of modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, gastrointestinal involvement, digital ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease duration. We report a 177-gene signature that is associated with severity of skin disease in dSSc.Genome-wide gene expression profiling of skin biopsies demonstrates that the heterogeneity in scleroderma can be measured quantitatively with DNA microarrays. The diversity in gene expression demonstrates multiple distinct gene expression programs in the skin of patients with scleroderma.

  16. Identification of an Immunogenic Subset of Metastatic Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Luke D; Sabesan, Arvind C; Stephens, Daniel J; Chandran, Smita S; Paria, Biman C; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Somerville, Robert; Wunderlich, John R; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Xi, Liqiang; Pham, Trinh H; Raffeld, Mark; Jailwala, Parthav; Kasoji, Manjula; Kammula, Udai S

    2016-05-01

    Uveal melanoma is a rare melanoma variant with no effective therapies once metastases develop. Although durable cancer regression can be achieved in metastatic cutaneous melanoma with immunotherapies that augment naturally existing antitumor T-cell responses, the role of these treatments for metastatic uveal melanoma remains unclear. We sought to define the relative immunogenicity of these two melanoma variants and determine whether endogenous antitumor immune responses exist against uveal melanoma. We surgically procured liver metastases from uveal melanoma (n = 16) and cutaneous melanoma (n = 35) patients and compared the attributes of their respective tumor cell populations and their infiltrating T cells (TIL) using clinical radiology, histopathology, immune assays, and whole-exomic sequencing. Despite having common melanocytic lineage, uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma metastases differed in their melanin content, tumor differentiation antigen expression, and somatic mutational profile. Immunologic analysis of TIL cultures expanded from these divergent forms of melanoma revealed cutaneous melanoma TIL were predominantly composed of CD8(+) T cells, whereas uveal melanoma TIL were CD4(+) dominant. Reactivity against autologous tumor was significantly greater in cutaneous melanoma TIL compared with uveal melanoma TIL. However, we identified TIL from a subset of uveal melanoma patients which had robust antitumor reactivity comparable in magnitude with cutaneous melanoma TIL. Interestingly, the absence of melanin pigmentation in the parental tumor strongly correlated with the generation of highly reactive uveal melanoma TIL. The discovery of this immunogenic group of uveal melanoma metastases should prompt clinical efforts to determine whether patients who harbor these unique tumors can benefit from immunotherapies that exploit endogenous antitumor T-cell populations. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2237-49. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Changes in the host lymphocyte subsets during chemical carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodt, P.; Lala, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Changes in small lymphocyte subsets in the lymphoid organs of young C3H mice were studied following i.m. injection of a carcinogenic dose of 3-methylcholanthrene (mc). Using monoclonal anti-Lyt antibodies and a sandwich radiolabeling method with 125 I-labeled rabbit anti-mouse Immunoglobulin, the lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus, spleen, and draining lymph node were examined by radioautography. During the fifth week following the administration of the carcinogen a sharp decrease in the level of Ly-1,2+ small lymphocyte population in the thymus was noted which coincided with a considerable increase (10-fold) in the Ly-2+. During the same period, a similar increase in the Ly-2+ population was also observed in the draining. The high levels of Ly-2+ cells lasted for more than 4 weeks in the thymus while, in the draining node, they lasted for 2 weeks and dropped to normal levels (0 to 2%) simultaneously with the appearance of tumor cells identified in histological preparations. These systemic increases coincided with the appearance of macroscopic tumor nodules. The mixed lymphocyte reaction response of the draining node cells, but not of the spleen, was suppressed during the period of increased level of Ly-2+ cells. Furthermore, during this period, s.c. transplantation of a syngeneic mammary tumor in the same leg resulted in enhanced local growth as well as metastatic spread of the tumor to the lungs in mc treated mice. These findings suggest that a localized immunosuppression associated with the rise in the Ly-2+ cells may be of functional significance during carcinogen-induced tumor development

  18. Secondary influences and ectopic causes of canine hip dysplasia. Critical constructive thoughts to hip dysplasia diagnostics and to current breeding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schawalder, P.; Spreng, D.; Dietschi, E.; Dolf, G.; Gaillard, C.

    1996-01-01

    This article questions the stagnation of breeding results by hip dysplasia screening and its current etiology. The ''Coxa Valga Antetorta'', anteversion of the hip joint and ''soft tissue displasia'' are discussed besides a multitude of primary diseases leading to growth deformities and other diseases in the hip. Ectopic primary causes like malformation of the spine leading to a secondary ''dysplatic'' osteoarthritis of the hip (functional secondary dysplasia) are also discussed in this article. Recent and very promising breeding strategies (estimation of the breeding value) in the battle against hip dysplasia are presented. Biochemical, immunological and structural aspects are presented as a not totally utopic perspecitive. Molecular genetic markers for hip dysplasia will offer in the near future a possibility to detect carriers ct the disease by a blood sample ion before clinical manifestation

  19. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  20. Construction Management: Planning Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsht, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

  1. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  2. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  3. An Intrinsic Encoding of a Subset of C and its Application to TLS Network Packet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynald Affeldt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TLS is such a widespread security protocol that errors in its implementation can have disastrous consequences. This responsibility is mostly borne by programmers, caught between specifications with the ambiguities of natural language and error-prone low-level parsing of network packets. We report here on the construction in the Coq proof-assistant of libraries to model, specify, and verify C programs to process TLS packets. We provide in particular an encoding of the core subset of C whose originality lies in its use of dependent types to guarantee statically well-formedness of datatypes and correct typing. We further equip this encoding with a Separation logic that enables byte-level reasoning and also provide a logical view of data structures. We also formalize a significant part of the RFC for TLS, again using dependent types to capture succinctly constraints that are left implicit in the prose document. Finally, we apply the above framework to an existing implementation of TLS (namely, PolarSSL of which we specify and verify a parsing function for network packets. Thanks to this experiment, we were able to spot ambiguities in the RFC and to correct bugs in the C source code.

  4. (Re Constructing scenarios for action in mental health in the Family Health Strategy - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p109

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Bezerra de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the interaction between mental health and primary care, as well as analyze if these services enable the embracement process and reintegration of users in family and community. Methods: An exploratory study with qualitative approach developed in 13 basic health units (UBS and type II Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS II in Cajazeiras-PB, Brazil. The instruments used in data collection were simple observation, field diaries and semi-structured interview. Study subjects were nurses of UBS and graduate professionals of CAPS II. Results: We perceive the lack of coordination between the Family Health Strategy team and Mental Health team, resulting in the care provided to the user with mental distress centered in CAPS II with no coordination with primary care network. Conclusion: The lack of integration between ESF and CAPS II regarding the care provided to the user with psychological distress indicate the need for deployment of municipal public policies that promote the interrelationship between mental health and primary care network.

  5. A homozygous recA mutant of Synechocystis PCC6803: construction strategy and characteristics eliciting a novel RecA independent UVC resistance in dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minda, Renu; Ramchandani, Jyoti; Joshi, Vasudha P; Bhattacharjee, Swapan Kumar

    2005-12-01

    We report here the construction of a homozygous recA460::cam insertion mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that may be useful for plant molecular genetics by providing a plant like host free of interference from homologous recombination. The homozygous recA460::cam mutant is highly sensitive to UVC under both photoreactivating and non-photoreactivating conditions compared to the wild type (WT). The liquid culture of the mutant growing in approximately 800 lx accumulates nonviable cells to the tune of 86% as estimated by colony counts on plates incubated at the same temperature and light intensity. The generation time of recA mutant in standard light intensity (2,500 lx) increases to 50 h compared to 28 h in lower light intensity (approximately 800 lx) that was used for selection, thus explaining the earlier failures to obtain a homozygous recA mutant. The WT, in contrast, grows at faster rate (23 h generation time) in standard light intensity compared to that at approximately 800 lx (26 h). The Synechocystis RecA protein supports homologous recombination during conjugation in recA (-) mutant of Escherichia coli, but not the SOS response as measured by UV sensitivity. It is suggested that using this homozygous recA460::cam mutant, investigations can now be extended to dissect the network of DNA repair pathways involved in housekeeping activities that may be more active in cyanobacteria than in heterotrophs. Using this mutant for the first time we provide a genetic evidence of a mechanism independent of RecA that causes enhanced UVC resistance on light to dark transition.

  6. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  7. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  8. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  9. Constructing Cd0.5Zn0.5S@ZIF-8 nanocomposites through self-assembly strategy to enhance Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianhao; Zhang, Xiong-Fei; Zhang, Xingguang; Feng, Yi; Li, Yuxin; Yang, Lvye; Lu, Haiqiang; Yao, Jianfeng

    2018-05-05

    A novel and highly efficient photocatalyst of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S@ZIF-8 nanocomposite has been developed by a facile self-assembly strategy. This is the first report on the application of Cd x Zn 1-x S and metal-organic framework (MOF) nanocomposite as photocatalysts for the reduction of Cr(VI). The resulting Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S@ZIF-8 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of pristine Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S and ZIF-8. Particularly, the CZS@Z60 composite with 60 wt% of ZIF-8 exhibited a photocatalytic activity that is about 1.6 times as high as that of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S. The dominant reason for the improved photocatalytic reduction potential is proved to be the newly-formed interfacial SZn bonds that firmly connect Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S and ZIF-8 and substantially improve the separation efficiency of photo-excited electrons and holes. The newly-formed chemical bonds are confirmed by XPS analyses, and the prolonged lifetime of photo-excited electrons is evidenced by the electrochemical measurement of photocurrent, which shows that the photocurrent on Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S@ZIF-8 is much higher than that of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S and ZIF-8. This study clearly demonstrates that the MOF-based composite nanomaterials hold great promises for applications in the field of environmental remediation and for design of novel photocatalytic materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A review on sustainable construction management strategies for monitoring, diagnosing, and retrofitting the building’s dynamic energy performance: Focused on the operation and maintenance phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Kim, Jimin; Lee, Minhyun; Jeong, Kwangbok

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study reviews the state-of-the-art in “energy” as well as “building”. • Building’s dynamic energy performance should be managed in the built environments. • This study summarizes recent progress in the building’s dynamic energy performance. • The major phases can be categorized into monitoring, diagnosing, and retrofitting. • This study proposes the specific future development directions and challenges by phase. - Abstract: According to a press release, the building sector accounts for about 40% of the global primary energy consumption. Energy savings can be achieved in the building sector by improving the building’s dynamic energy performance in terms of sustainable construction management in the urban-based built environments (referred to as an “Urban Organism”). This study implements the concept of “dynamic approach” to reflect the unexpected changes in the climate and energy environments as well as in the energy policies and technologies. Research in this area is very significant for the future of the building, energy, and environmental industries around the world. However, there is a lack of studies from the perspective of the dynamic approach and the system integration, and thus, this study is designed to fill the research gap. This study highlights the state-of-the-art in the major phases for a building’s dynamic energy performance (i.e., monitoring, diagnosing, and retrofitting phases), focusing on the operation and maintenance phase. This study covers a wide range of research works and provides various illustrative examples of the monitoring, diagnosing, and retrofitting of a building’s dynamic energy performance. Finally, this study proposes the specific future developments and challenges by phase and suggests the future direction of system integration for the development of a carbon-integrated management system as a large complex system. It is expected that researchers and practitioners can

  11. Diversity analysis and establishment of core subsets of hyacinth bean collection of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Plant Genetic Resource Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh, maintained 484 hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureusL.) accessions. Distribution of vine colors, flower and pod colors, pod curvature and beak position on pod noticed the presence of substantial variation in the collection. Shannon Diversity Index also revealed high phenotypic diversity in vine and pod characters. High diversities were estimated in quantitative characters of inflorescence and pod characters. Considering a core collection strategy, the accessions were stratified into two groups based on vine colors: green and purple. Maximum genotypes of the collection were of green vine. Each of two subgroups were divided into three groups according to colors of pod i.e., green, white and red. Each group again divided itself into two according to beak position as central and marginal of pod. High diversity was also found regarding pod curvature and beak position on it. Strategically, a core subset consisting of 36 accessions out of 484 accessions was determined. Diversity Indices of different characters of the core accessions were of equal or higher magnitudes to the respective characters of base collection indicating the better representation of core to the original collection. (author)

  12. The role of T cell subsets and cytokines in the regulation of intracellular bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses are a critical part of the host's defense against intracellular bacterial infections. Immunity to Brucella abortus crucially depends on antigen-specific T cell-mediated activation of macrophages, which are the major effectors of cell-mediated killing of this organism. T lymphocytes that proliferate in response to B. abortus were characterized for phenotype and cytokine activity. Human, murine, and bovine T lymphocytes exhibited a type 1 cytokine profile, suggesting an analogous immune response in these different hosts. In vivo protection afforded by a particular cell type is dependent on the antigen presented and the mechanism of antigen presentation. Studies using MHC class I and class II knockout mice infected with B. abortus have demonstrated that protective immunity to brucellosis is especially dependent on CD8+ T cells. To target MHC class I presentation we transfected ex vivo a murine macrophage cell line with B. abortus genes and adoptively transferred them to BALB/c mice. These transgenic macrophage clones induced partial protection in mice against experimental brucellosis. Knowing the cells required for protection, vaccines can be designed to activate the protective T cell subset. Lastly, as a new strategy for priming a specific class I-restricted T cell response in vivo, we used genetic immunization by particle bombardment-mediated gene transfer

  13. Defending a single object against an attacker trying to detect a subset of false targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, R.; Zhai, Q.Q.; Levitin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of false targets can be a very important and effective measure for enhancing the survivability of an object subjected to intentional attacks. Existing papers have assumed that false targets are either perfect or can be detected with a constant probability. In practice, the attacker may allocate part of its budget into intelligence actions trying to detect a subset of false targets. Analogously, the defender can allocate part of its budget into disinformation actions to prevent the false targets from being detected. In this paper, the detection probability of each false target is assumed to be a function of the intelligence and disinformation efforts allocated on the false target. The optimal resource distribution between target identification/disinformation and attack/protection efforts is studied as solutions of a non-cooperative two period min–max game between the two competitors for the case of constrained defense and attack resources. - Highlights: • A defense-attack problem is studied as a two-period min–max game. • Both intelligence contest over false targets and impact contest are considered. • Optimal defense and attack strategies are investigated with different parameters.

  14. A Single HIV-1 Cluster and a Skewed Immune Homeostasis Drive the Early Spread of HIV among Resting CD4+ Cell Subsets within One Month Post-Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Nembot, Georges; Mélard, Adeline; Blanc, Catherine; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Slama, Laurence; Allegre, Thierry; Allavena, Clotilde; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Duvivier, Claudine; Katlama, Christine; Goujard, Cécile; Seksik, Bao Chau Phung; Leplatois, Anne; Molina, Jean-Michel; Meyer, Laurence; Autran, Brigitte; Rouzioux, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing therapeutic strategies for an HIV cure requires better understanding the characteristics of early HIV-1 spread among resting CD4+ cells within the first month of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). We studied the immune distribution, diversity, and inducibility of total HIV-DNA among the following cell subsets: monocytes, peripheral blood activated and resting CD4 T cells, long-lived (naive [TN] and central-memory [TCM]) and short-lived (transitional-memory [TTM] and effector-memory cells [TEM]) resting CD4+T cells from 12 acutely-infected individuals recruited at a median 36 days from infection. Cells were sorted for total HIV-DNA quantification, phylogenetic analysis and inducibility, all studied in relation to activation status and cell signaling. One month post-infection, a single CCR5-restricted viral cluster was massively distributed in all resting CD4+ subsets from 88% subjects, while one subject showed a slight diversity. High levels of total HIV-DNA were measured among TN (median 3.4 log copies/million cells), although 10-fold less (p = 0.0005) than in equally infected TCM (4.5), TTM (4.7) and TEM (4.6) cells. CD3−CD4+ monocytes harbored a low viral burden (median 2.3 log copies/million cells), unlike equally infected resting and activated CD4+ T cells (4.5 log copies/million cells). The skewed repartition of resting CD4 subsets influenced their contribution to the pool of resting infected CD4+T cells, two thirds of which consisted of short-lived TTM and TEM subsets, whereas long-lived TN and TCM subsets contributed the balance. Each resting CD4 subset produced HIV in vitro after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28+IL-2 with kinetics and magnitude varying according to subset differentiation, while IL-7 preferentially induced virus production from long-lived resting TN cells. In conclusion, within a month of infection, a clonal HIV-1 cluster is massively distributed among resting CD4 T-cell subsets with a flexible inducibility, suggesting that

  15. A single HIV-1 cluster and a skewed immune homeostasis drive the early spread of HIV among resting CD4+ cell subsets within one month post-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Bacchus

    Full Text Available Optimizing therapeutic strategies for an HIV cure requires better understanding the characteristics of early HIV-1 spread among resting CD4+ cells within the first month of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI. We studied the immune distribution, diversity, and inducibility of total HIV-DNA among the following cell subsets: monocytes, peripheral blood activated and resting CD4 T cells, long-lived (naive [TN] and central-memory [TCM] and short-lived (transitional-memory [TTM] and effector-memory cells [TEM] resting CD4+T cells from 12 acutely-infected individuals recruited at a median 36 days from infection. Cells were sorted for total HIV-DNA quantification, phylogenetic analysis and inducibility, all studied in relation to activation status and cell signaling. One month post-infection, a single CCR5-restricted viral cluster was massively distributed in all resting CD4+ subsets from 88% subjects, while one subject showed a slight diversity. High levels of total HIV-DNA were measured among TN (median 3.4 log copies/million cells, although 10-fold less (p = 0.0005 than in equally infected TCM (4.5, TTM (4.7 and TEM (4.6 cells. CD3-CD4+ monocytes harbored a low viral burden (median 2.3 log copies/million cells, unlike equally infected resting and activated CD4+ T cells (4.5 log copies/million cells. The skewed repartition of resting CD4 subsets influenced their contribution to the pool of resting infected CD4+T cells, two thirds of which consisted of short-lived TTM and TEM subsets, whereas long-lived TN and TCM subsets contributed the balance. Each resting CD4 subset produced HIV in vitro after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28+IL-2 with kinetics and magnitude varying according to subset differentiation, while IL-7 preferentially induced virus production from long-lived resting TN cells. In conclusion, within a month of infection, a clonal HIV-1 cluster is massively distributed among resting CD4 T-cell subsets with a flexible inducibility

  16. A search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: proof of concept and evaluation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-12-01

    PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese.

  17. The construction and operation strategy of cultivation mode for geophsics in engineering colleges%工科院校地球物理学专业培养模式的构建及其实施策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林年添; 赵俐红; 支鹏遥; 杨思通

    2014-01-01

    专业培养模式的有效构建有助于专业人才目标的实现。鉴于工科院校地球物理学专业所具有的行业和区域特点,文章提出了工科院校地球物理学专业培养模式构建方法。根据专业所具有的特色设定专业目标,并依此设计培养方案及制定相关的实施策略,以期为工科院校地球物理学专业人才培养效益最大化提供借鉴。%Construction of cultivation mode is essential to fulfil ment of training professionals. I put forward the method of construction mode for geophysics in engineering col eges based upon industry features regional characteristics. According to feature of related major, the specialty education objective is set, and training scheme and operation strategy are designed. I hope it can guide the maximization of training profesionals for geophysics in engineering col eges.

  18. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  19. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  20. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  1. Clinically Relevant Subsets Identified by Gene Expression Patterns Support a Revised Ontogenic Model of Wilms Tumor: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Gadd

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumors (WT have provided broad insights into the interface between development and tumorigenesis. Further understanding is confounded by their genetic, histologic, and clinical heterogeneity, the basis of which remains largely unknown. We evaluated 224 WT for global gene expression patterns; WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutation; and 11p15 copy number and methylation patterns. Five subsets were identified showing distinct differences in their pathologic and clinical features: these findings were validated in 100 additional WT. The gene expression pattern of each subset was compared with published gene expression profiles during normal renal development. A novel subset of epithelial WT in infants lacked WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutations and nephrogenic rests and displayed a gene expression pattern of the postinduction nephron, and none recurred. Three subsets were characterized by a low expression of WT1 and intralobar nephrogenic rests. These differed in their frequency of WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, in their age, in their relapse rate, and in their expression similarities with the intermediate mesoderm versus the metanephric mesenchyme. The largest subset was characterized by biallelic methylation of the imprint control region 1, a gene expression profile of the metanephric mesenchyme, and both interlunar and perilobar nephrogenic rests. These data provide a biologic explanation for the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity seen within WT and enable the future development of subset-specific therapeutic strategies. Further, these data support a revision of the current model of WT ontogeny, which allows for an interplay between the type of initiating event and the developmental stage in which it occurs.

  2. Estratégias discursivo-interacionais de construção de identidade de consumidor em audiências de conciliação Interactional and discursive strategies of identity construction of consumer in conciliation hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia Terezinha Ladeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga a construção de identidade que emerge da produção discursiva dos consumidores nas audiências de conciliação de um Juizado especial Cível de relações de Consumo de uma cidade mineira. a partir de teorias da Sociolinguística interacional e da utilização de técnicas da análise da Conversa, gravamos quatro audiências em áudio e analisamos a construção de identidade de consumidor por meio de seus relatos nas audiências. A análise dos dados confirmou a riqueza de construções identitárias nas narrativas analisadas. Percebemos que os reclamantes constroem suas identidades a fim de se posicionarem como vítimas e posicionarem o seu oponente como vilão. Para isso, as estratégias mais frequentes por eles utilizadas são: a exploração de um grande número de repetições, a utilização de termos extremos e a incorporação de diferentes categorias identitárias.This study investigates the construction of identity that emerges in the consumers' discursive production of a conciliation hearing in a kind of Brazilian Small Claim Court (Juizado especial de relações de Consumo in Minas Gerais state. Based on theories of interactional Sociolinguistic and on Conversation analyses techniques, we recorded four conciliation hearings and analyzed the identity construction of the consumer through their accounts. The data analysis confirmed the richness of identity construction in the narratives we analyzed. We perceived that consumers construct their identities in order to align themselves in the role of victim and align their opponent in the role of villain. For that, the most used strategies are: the exploration of a great number of repetition, the use of extreme terms, and the incorporation of different identity categories.

  3. 民族地區地方課程建構的基本理念與實踐策略 Idea and Strategy of Local Curriculum Construction in Minority Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王巧玲Qiao-Ling Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 民族地區地方課程建構的基本理念應是:地方課程建構為實現少數民族文化傳承與發展服務。其要點有:地方課程建構為尊重當地居民發展需求和根本利益服務;地方課程建構為在保護少數民族文化基礎上實現「適應性」創新服務;地方課程建構為著力激發當地居民的文化自覺服務。民族地區地方課程的開發模式應是「綜合性課程」開發模式。民族地區地方課程內容的文化選擇標準應是:注重少數民族文化的整體性、凸顯少數民族文化特質、適時體現世界多元文化、追逐少數民族文化的時代發展。 民族地區地方課程建構的實踐策略應是:在課程開發歷程方面,應將當地需求作為核心;在課程內容開發方面,可將可持續發展價值觀作為邏輯架構的獨特視點;在課程性質定位方面,要將體驗課程付諸實踐;在課程目標確立方面,應將價值觀目標、技能目標和行為目標並重。 Three basic ideas of local curriculum construction in minority region are put forward: Local curriculum construction should service for the development of ethnic minorities’ traditional culture; Model of local curriculum development should be “Integrated” development model; The cultural choice of local curriculum should pay special attention to cultural traits & integrity of culture & diversification & modern features. Three practice strategies of local curriculum construction in minority region include as follows: Special view of the logical construction is value of sustainable development; Experienced curriculum is put into practice; Equal stress was laid on the objects of value and behavior.

  4. Advanced construction methods in ACR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Choy, E.; Yu, S.K.W.

    2002-01-01

    The ACR - Advanced CANDU Reactor, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is designed with constructability considerations as a major requirement during all project phases from the concept design stage to the detail design stage. This necessitated a much more comprehensive approach in including constructability considerations in the design to ensure that the construction duration is met. For the ACR-700, a project schedule of 48 months has been developed for the nth replicated unit with a 36 month construction period duration from First Concrete to Fuel Load. An overall construction strategy that builds on the success of the construction methods that are proven in the construction of the Qinshan CANDU 6 project has been developed for the ACR. The overall construction strategy comprises the 'Open Top' construction technique using a Very Heavy Lift crane, parallel construction activities, with extensive modularization and prefabrication. In addition, significant applications of up to date construction technology will be implemented, e.g. large volume concrete pours, prefabricated rebar, use of climbing forms, composite structures, prefabricated permanent formwork, automatic welding, and utilization of the latest electronic technology tools such as 3D CADDs modelling yields a very high quality, clash free product to allow construction to be completed 'right the first time' and eliminates rework. Integration of 3D CADDs models and scheduling tools such as Primavera has allowed development of actual construction sequences and an iterative approach to schedule verification and improvement. Modularization and prefabrication are major features of the ACR design in order to achieve the project schedule. For the reactor building approximately 80% of the volume will be installed as modules or prefabricated assembles. This ensures critical path activities are achieved. This paper examines the advanced construction methods implemented in the design in order to

  5. Circulating regulatory B cell subsets in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinming; Sun, Li; Wang, Zhongkun; Fan, Xueli; Wang, Lifang; Song, Yang-Yang; Zhu, Jie; Jin, Tao

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed the populations of three different subsets of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and explored the relationship between the changes in these subsets of Bregs and the severity of NMOSD. A total of 22 patients with relapsed NMOSDs before treatment were recruited in our study, along with 20 age and gender-matched healthy controls, from May 2015 to March 2016. The percentages and numbers for three different subsets of Bregs including the CD19 + CD24 hi CD38 hi , CD19 + CD24 hi CD27 + , and CD19 + CD5 + CD1d hi populations were evaluated in parallel by flow cytometry. Afterwards, correlations between the change of three different subsets of Bregs and disease severity were analyzed. We found significantly lower percentages of CD19 + CD24 hi CD38 hi and CD19 + CD5 + CD1d hi Bregs in NMOSDs patients than in healthy individuals. In contrast, the CD19 + CD24 hi CD27 + Bregs population was significantly higher in NMOSDs patients than in healthy individuals. However, the three different Bregs subsets showed no significant correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) or annualized relapse rate (ARR). Our findings suggest that the subsets of Bregs may play complex roles in the pathogenesis of NMOSDs and are not correlated with clinical disease severity. Further insights into the potential role of subsets of Bregs could increase our basic knowledge of NMOSDs pathogenesis.

  6. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  7. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  8. Long-Term Land Subsidence Monitoring of Beijing (China Using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced techniques of multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR represent a valuable tool in ground subsidence studies allowing remote investigation of the behavior of mass movements in long time intervals by using large datasets of SAR images covering the same area and acquired at different epochs. Beijing is susceptible to subsidence, producing undesirable environmental impacts and affecting dense population. Excessive groundwater withdrawal is thought to be the primary cause of land subsidence, and rapid urbanization and economic development, mass construction of skyscrapers, highways and underground engineering facilities (e.g., subway are also contributing factors. In this paper, a spatial–temporal analysis of the land subsidence in Beijing was performed using one of the MT-InSAR techniques, referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS. This technique allows monitoring the temporal evolution of a deformation phenomenon, via the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series from a data set of acquired SAR images. 52 C-band ENVISAT ASAR images acquired from June 2003 to August 2010 were used to produce a linear deformation rate map and to derive time series of ground deformation. The results show that there are three large subsidence funnels within this study area, which separately located in Balizhuang-Dajiaoting in Chaoyang district, Wangjing-Laiguangying Chaoyang district, Gaoliying Shunyi district. The maximum settlement center is Wangsiying-Tongzhou along the Beijing express; the subsidence velocity exceeds 110 mm/y in the LOS direction. In particular, we compared the achieved results with leveling measurements that are assumed as reference. The estimated long-term subsidence results obtained by SBAS approach agree well with the development of the over-exploitation of ground water, indicating that SBAS techniques is adequate for the retrieval of land subsidence in Beijing from multi-temporal SAR data.

  9. A subset of herpes simplex virus replication genes induces DNA amplification within the host cell genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbronn, R.; zur Hausen, H. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (West Germany))

    1989-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) induces DNA amplification of target genes within the host cell chromosome. To characterize the HSV genes that mediate the amplification effect, combinations of cloned DNA fragments covering the entire HSV genome were transiently transfected into simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells. This led to amplification of the integrated SV40 DNA sequences to a degree comparable to that observed after transfection of intact virion DNA. Transfection of combinations of subclones and of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven expression constructs for individual open reading frames led to the identification of sic HSV genes which together were necessary and sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification: UL30 (DNA polymerase), UL29 (major DNA-binding protein), UL5, UL8, UL42, and UL52. All of these genes encode proteins necessary for HSV DNA replication. However, an additional gene coding for an HSV origin-binding protein (UL9) was required for origin-dependent HSV DNA replication but was dispensable for SV40 DNA amplification. The results show that a subset of HSV replication genes is sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification. This opens the possibility that HSV expresses functions sufficient for DNA amplification but separate from those responsible for lytic viral growth. HSV infection may thereby induce DNA amplification within the host cell genome without killing the host by lytic viral growth. This may lead to persistence of a cell with a new genetic phenotype, which would have implications for the pathogenicity of the virus in vivo.

  10. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  11. Strategies change as nuclear plant construction declines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    As conditions in the nuclear industry change some companies are taking a positive approach to falling orders by moving into the area of servicing existing plant. How Newport News Industrial Corporation has made just such a move by offering preventive maintenance services is described. The company has several advantages to offer: large existing facilities and a wide range of skills available from their 23000 employees. (author)

  12. Constructing Effective Search Strategies for Electronic Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Lynn; Parente, Sharon Campbell

    Electronic databases have grown tremendously in both number and popularity since their development during the 1960s. Access to electronic databases in academic libraries was originally offered primarily through mediated search services by trained librarians; however, the advent of CD-ROM and end-user interfaces for online databases has shifted the…

  13. Selective disruption of acetylcholine synthesis in subsets of motor neurons: a new model of late-onset motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Santamaria, Julie; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Herbin, Marc; Saurini, Françoise; Misawa, Hidemi; Maisonobe, Thierry; Pradat, Pierre-François; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Mallet, Jacques; Berrard, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Motor neuron diseases are characterized by the selective chronic dysfunction of a subset of motor neurons and the subsequent impairment of neuromuscular function. To reproduce in the mouse these hallmarks of diseases affecting motor neurons, we generated a mouse line in which ~40% of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brainstem become unable to sustain neuromuscular transmission. These mice were obtained by conditional knockout of the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the biosynthetic enzyme for acetylcholine. The mutant mice are viable and spontaneously display abnormal phenotypes that worsen with age including hunched back, reduced lifespan, weight loss, as well as striking deficits in muscle strength and motor function. This slowly progressive neuromuscular dysfunction is accompanied by muscle fiber histopathological features characteristic of neurogenic diseases. Unexpectedly, most changes appeared with a 6-month delay relative to the onset of reduction in ChAT levels, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms preserve muscular function for several months and then are overwhelmed. Deterioration of mouse phenotype after ChAT gene disruption is a specific aging process reminiscent of human pathological situations, particularly among survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis. These mutant mice may represent an invaluable tool to determine the sequence of events that follow the loss of function of a motor neuron subset as the disease progresses, and to evaluate therapeutic strategies. They also offer the opportunity to explore fundamental issues of motor neuron biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A rare subset of skin-tropic regulatory T cells expressing Il10/Gzmb inhibits the cutaneous immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Vandenbon, Alexis; Honda, Tetsuya; Shand, Francis H W; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tomura, Michio

    2016-10-19

    Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node (dLN) have a strong immunosuppressive effect on the cutaneous immune response. However, the subpopulations responsible for their inhibitory function remain unclear. We investigated single-cell gene expression heterogeneity in Tregs from the dLN of inflamed skin in a contact hypersensitivity model. The immunosuppressive genes Ctla4 and Tgfb1 were expressed in the majority of Tregs. Although Il10-expressing Tregs were rare, unexpectedly, the majority of Il10-expressing Tregs co-expressed Gzmb and displayed Th1-skewing. Single-cell profiling revealed that CD43 + CCR5 + Tregs represented the main subset within the Il10/Gzmb-expressing cell population in the dLN. Moreover, CD43 + CCR5 + CXCR3 - Tregs expressed skin-tropic chemokine receptors, were preferentially retained in inflamed skin and downregulated the cutaneous immune response. The identification of a rare Treg subset co-expressing multiple immunosuppressive molecules and having tissue-remaining capacity offers a novel strategy for the control of skin inflammatory responses.

  15. Deconstruction of O-glycosylation-GalNAc-T isoforms direct distinct subsets of the O-glycoproteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Katrine T; Joshi, Hiren J; Kong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is found on most proteins trafficking through the secretory pathway in metazoan cells. The O-glycoproteome is regulated by up to 20 polypeptide GalNAc-Ts and the contributions and biological functions of individual GalNAc-Ts are poorly understood. Here, we used a zinc......-finger nuclease (ZFN)-directed knockout strategy to probe the contributions of the major GalNAc-Ts (GalNAc-T1 and GalNAc-T2) in liver cells and explore how the GalNAc-T repertoire quantitatively affects the O-glycoproteome. We demonstrate that the majority of the O-glycoproteome is covered by redundancy, whereas...... distinct subsets of substrates are modified by non-redundant functions of GalNAc-T1 and GalNAc-T2. The non-redundant O-glycoproteome subsets and specific transcriptional responses for each isoform are related to different cellular processes; for the GalNAc-T2 isoform, these support a role in lipid...

  16. Sofrimento psíquico no trabalho e estratégias defensivas dos operários terceirizados da construção civil Psychic suffering at work and defensive strategies of outsourced worker at building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Castro da Rocha Barros

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga as estratégias defensivas contra o sofrimento utilizadas pelos trabalhadores terceirizados de uma construtora em Brasília, utilizando como referencial teórico-metodológico a Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Realizam-se entrevistas coletivas semi-estruturadas com 20 trabalhadores, distribuídos em quatro grupos com cinco participantes cada um, submetidas à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados apontam que os trabalhadores encontram-se vulneráveis e inseguros diante do modelo de produção terceirizado, que negligencia seus direitos e exige alta produtividade. O sofrimento torna-se visível por meio de indicadores de mal-estar tais como desgaste físico e mental e falta de reconhecimento, que é enfrentado mediante estratégias de mediação defensivas de negação e controle. O pressuposto inicial de que o modelo de produção baseado nos princípios tayloristas e na acumulação flexível de capital, preponderante no setor da construção civil, potencializa o sofrimento no contexto de produção é, então, confirmado.This paper investigated defensive strategies to confront suffering used by outsourced workers of building constructions builders in Brasília, having as theoretic-methodological reference the Psychodynamics of Work. Semi structured collective interview were undertaken with 20 workers, distributed in four groups with five participants each one. The interview was submitted to content analysis. The results show the workers presenting vulnerability and insecurity to face outsourced production models that would disregard their rights and demand high productivity. The suffering becomes visible by mal-being symptoms indicated as physic and mental stress and lack of recognition, that is copping by negation and control as defensive mediation strategies. The results confirm the initial presuppositions that the production model based on Taylorist principles and flexible accumulation of capital, predominant at the

  17. The performance of tests on endogeneity of subsets of explanatory variables scanned by simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiviet, J.F.; Pleus, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tests for classification as endogenous or predetermined of arbitrary subsets of regressors are formulated as significance tests in auxiliary IV regressions and their relationships with various more classic test procedures are examined. Simulation experiments are designed by solving the data

  18. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  19. Treg subsets in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinoma: Characteristics, role, and therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, Egbert H.; te Velde, Anje A.

    2016-01-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) play an important role in the regulation of autoimmunity, autoinflammation, allergic diseases, infection, and the tumor environment. Different subsets are characterized that use a number of regulatory mechanisms. Tregs can influence the progression of inflammatory bowel

  20. The detection of influential subsets in linear regression using an influence matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Daniel; Yohai, Víctor J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to identify influential subsets in linear regression problems. The procedure uses the eigenstructure of an influence matrix which is defined as the matrix of uncentered covariance of the effect on the whole data set of deleting each observation, normalized to include the univariate Cook's statistics in the diagonal. It is shown that points in an influential subset will appear with large weight in at least one of the eigenvector linked to the largest eigenvalue...

  1. SOCP relaxation bounds for the optimal subset selection problem applied to robust linear regression

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of finding the globally optimal subset of h elements from a larger set of n elements in d space dimensions so as to minimize a quadratic criterion, with an special emphasis on applications to computing the Least Trimmed Squares Estimator (LTSE) for robust regression. The computation of the LTSE is a challenging subset selection problem involving a nonlinear program with continuous and binary variables, linked in a highly nonlinear fashion. The selection of a ...

  2. Effects of low dose radiation on regulatory function between lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hailin; Su Liaoyuan; Du Zeji; Zou Huawei; Wang Aiqing

    1997-01-01

    Four kinds of McAbs (anti CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 and CD 57 ) were used to separate CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 (B) and CD 57 (NK) lymphocyte subsets from human peripheral blood by 'Panning-direct' method. First the natural killing activity of each subsets and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. Then the effects of low dose radiation on the function of CD 57 cells and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. The results showed that the NK activity was found in all of the four subsets, with CD 57 cell having the strongest activity. When CD 4 and CD 57 cells were co-cultured, the total NK activity was higher than that of the sum of these two single subsets, i.e. there was synergistic effect between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. When CD 8 or CD 19 cells were co-cultured separately with CD 57 cells, no synergistic effect was found. Irradiation by gamma rays at doses of 50 cGy and 80 cGy was able to stimulate the function of CD 57 cells. After Cd 4 or CD 57 cells were irradiated, the total NK activity of their co-culture increased significantly. This phenomenon was not found in other subsets. This suggested that low dose radiation can enhance the synergistic action between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. So at least four subsets (CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 , CD 57 ) contribute to the total NK activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (15 refs., 4 tabs.)

  3. The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmann, T R; Sad, S

    1996-03-01

    Since their discovery nearly ten years ago, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 subsets have been implicated in the regulation of many immune responses. In this article, Tim Mosmann and Subash Sad discuss the increasing number of T-cell subsets defined by cytokine patterns; the differentiation pathways of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; the contribution of other cell types to these patterns; and the cytokine interactions during infection and pregnancy.

  4. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  5. Constructing dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    as an aesthetic strategy and a technical procedure, taking inspiration from both visual arts and architecture. Montage is presented as a means of creating active, architectural interactions - material as well as in terms of meaning - not only in the realm of industrialization but also in the intersection between...

  6. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  7. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2015-02-12

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  8. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing; Wang, B.; Lubineau, Gilles; Moussawi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  9. Non-suppressive regulatory T cell subset expansion in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Yoshiharu; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Uga, Sayuri; Higashi, Akifumi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been reported to play a pivotal role in the vascular remodeling of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recent studies have revealed that Tregs are heterogeneous and can be characterized by three phenotypically and functionally different subsets. In this study, we investigated the roles of Treg subsets in the pathogenesis of PAH in eight patients with PAH and 14 healthy controls. Tregs and their subsets in peripheral blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. Treg subsets were defined as CD4(+)CD45RA(+)FoxP3(low) resting Tregs (rTregs), CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(high) activated Tregs (aTregs), and CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(low) non-suppressive Tregs (non-Tregs). The proportion of Tregs among CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in PAH patients than in controls (6.54 ± 1.10 vs. 3.81 ± 0.28 %, p < 0.05). Of the three subsets, the proportion of non-Tregs was significantly elevated in PAH patients compared with controls (4.06 ± 0.40 vs. 2.79 ± 0.14 %, p < 0.01), whereas those of rTregs and aTregs were not different between the two groups. Moreover, the expression levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, a functional cell surface molecule, in aTregs (p < 0.05) and non-Tregs (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in PAH patients compared with controls. These results suggested the non-Treg subset was expanded and functionally activated in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from IPAH patients. We hypothesize that immunoreactions involving the specific activation of the non-Treg subset might play a role in the vascular remodeling of PAH.

  10. Listeria arpJ gene modifies T helper type 2 subset differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Makoto; Maruyama, Saho; Shen, Hua; Matsumoto, Akira; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Przybilla, Karin; Gouin, Edith; Cossart, Pascale; Goebel, Werner; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-15

    Although the T-cell subset differentiation pathway has been characterized extensively from the view of host gene regulation, the effects of genes of the pathogen on T-cell subset differentiation during infection have yet to be elucidated. Especially, the bacterial genes that are responsible for this shift have not yet been determined. Utilizing a single-gene-mutation Listeria panel, we investigated genes involved in the host-pathogen interaction that are required for the initiation of T-cell subset differentiation in the early phase of pathogen infection. We demonstrate that the induction of T helper types 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) subsets are separate phenomena and are mediated by distinct Listeria genes. We identified several candidate Listeria genes that appear to be involved in the host-Listeria interaction. Among them, arpJ is the strongest candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 subset induction. Furthermore, the analysis utilizing arpJ-deficient Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) revealed that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (Tnfsf) 9-TNF receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf) 9 interaction inhibits the Th2 response during Lm infection. arpJ is the candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 T-cell subset induction. The arpJ gene product influences the expression of Tnfsf/Tnfrsf on antigen-presenting cells and inhibits the Th2 T-cell subset differentiation during Listeria infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  12. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  13. An Analysis of the Military Family Housing Construction Contractor Supplier Base at MCB Camp Pendleton and a Report on How an Understanding of These Trends May Improve the Acquisition Strategy for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannon, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    ...? The study surveyed potential Public Private Venture (PPV) developers and current housing construction contractors' attitudes towards the Navy's recent trend in the design, construction, and maintenance of Marine Corps military family housing...

  14. Comparative analysis of cervical spine management in a subset of severe traumatic brain injury cases using computer simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbroe J Carter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No randomized control trial to date has studied the use of cervical spine management strategies in cases of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI at risk for cervical spine instability solely due to damaged ligaments. A computer algorithm is used to decide between four cervical spine management strategies. A model assumption is that the emergency room evaluation shows no spinal deficit and a computerized tomogram of the cervical spine excludes the possibility of fracture of cervical vertebrae. The study's goal is to determine cervical spine management strategies that maximize brain injury functional survival while minimizing quadriplegia. METHODS/FINDINGS: The severity of TBI is categorized as unstable, high risk and stable based on intracranial hypertension, hypoxemia, hypotension, early ventilator associated pneumonia, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and age. Complications resulting from cervical spine management are simulated using three decision trees. Each case starts with an amount of primary and secondary brain injury and ends as a functional survivor, severely brain injured, quadriplegic or dead. Cervical spine instability is studied with one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses providing rankings of cervical spine management strategies for probabilities of management complications based on QALYs. Early collar removal received more QALYs than the alternative strategies in most arrangements of these comparisons. A limitation of the model is the absence of testing against an independent data set. CONCLUSIONS: When clinical logic and components of cervical spine management are systematically altered, changes that improve health outcomes are identified. In the absence of controlled clinical studies, the results of this comparative computer assessment show that early collar removal is preferred over a wide range of realistic inputs for this subset of traumatic brain injury. Future research is needed on identifying factors in

  15. Regulation of EMMPRIN (CD147) on monocyte subsets in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturhan, Henrik; Ungern-Sternberg, Saskia N I v; Langer, Harald; Gawaz, Meinrad; Geisler, Tobias; May, Andreas E; Seizer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The role of individual monocyte subsets in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases is insufficiently understood. Although the Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) regulates important processes for inflammation such as MMP-release, its expression and regulation on monocyte subsets has not been characterized. In this clinical study, blood was obtained from 80 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), 49 with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 34 healthy controls. Monocytes were divided into 3 subsets: CD14(++)CD16(-) (low), CD14(++)CD16(+) (intermediate), CD14(+)CD16(++) (high) according to phenotypic markers analyzed by flow cytometry. Surface expression of EMMPRIN was evaluated and compared with CD36 and CD47 expression. In all patients, EMMPRIN expression was significantly different among monocyte subsets with the highest expression on "classical" CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes. EMMPRIN was upregulated on all monocyte subsets in patients with AMI as compared to patients with stable CAD. Notably, neither CD47 nor CD36 revealed a significant difference in patients with AMI compared to patients with stable CAD. EMMPRIN could serve as a marker for classical monocytes, which is upregulated in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical image reconstruction for transmission tomography using relaxed ordered subset algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, J S

    2005-01-01

    Statistical reconstruction methods offer possibilities for improving image quality as compared to analytical methods, but current reconstruction times prohibit routine clinical applications in x-ray computed tomography (CT). To reduce reconstruction times, we have applied (under) relaxation to ordered subset algorithms. This enables us to use subsets consisting of only single projection angle, effectively increasing the number of image updates within an entire iteration. A second advantage of applying relaxation is that it can help improve convergence by removing the limit cycle behaviour of ordered subset algorithms, which normally do not converge to an optimal solution but rather a suboptimal limit cycle consisting of as many points as there are subsets. Relaxation suppresses the limit cycle behaviour by decreasing the stepsize for approaching the solution. A simulation study for a 2D mathematical phantom and three different ordered subset algorithms shows that all three algorithms benefit from relaxation: equal noise-to-resolution trade-off can be achieved using fewer iterations than the conventional algorithms, while a lower minimal normalized mean square error (NMSE) clearly indicates a better convergence. Two different schemes for setting the relaxation parameter are studied, and both schemes yield approximately the same minimal NMSE

  17. Probability matching and strategy availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J; James, Greta

    2010-09-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought to their attention, more participants subsequently engage in maximizing. Third, matchers are more likely than maximizers to base decisions in other tasks on their initial intuitions, suggesting that they are more inclined to use a choice strategy that comes to mind quickly. These results indicate that a substantial subset of probability matchers are victims of "underthinking" rather than "overthinking": They fail to engage in sufficient deliberation to generate a superior alternative to the matching strategy that comes so readily to mind.

  18. Subset-row inequalities applied to the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2008-01-01

    constraints as the pricing problem. We introduce the subset-row inequalities, which are Chvatal-Gomory rank-1 cuts based on a subset of the constraints in the master problem. Applying a subset-row inequality in the master problem increases the complexity of the label-setting algorithm used to solve......This paper presents a branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for the vehicle-routing problem with time windows. The standard Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of the arc flow formulation leads to a set-partitioning problem as the master problem and an elementary shortest-path problem with resource...... the pricing problem because an additional resource is added for each inequality. We propose a modified dominance criterion that makes it possible to dominate more labels by exploiting the step-like structure of the objective function of the pricing problem. Computational experiments have been performed...

  19. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  20. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...... T4 cells and decreased numbers of T4 cells harvested from IFN MLRs (days 5-6 of culture). In contrast, it was shown that the T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) subset in MLRs was either not affected or slightly stimulated by the addition of IFN. The depression of the T4 cells by IFN was accompanied...... by a decrease in the number of activated T cells expressing Ia antigens. On the other hand, IFN MLRs contained greater numbers of cells expressing the T10 differentiation antigen. In experiments with purified T-cell subsets the IFN effect was exerted directly on the T4 cells and not mediated by either T8...

  1. Estimation of functional failure probability of passive systems based on subset simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongqing; Wang Baosheng; Zhang Jianmin; Jiang Jing

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of multi-dimensional epistemic uncertainties and small functional failure probability of passive systems, an innovative reliability analysis algorithm called subset simulation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo was presented. The method is found on the idea that a small failure probability can be expressed as a product of larger conditional failure probabilities by introducing a proper choice of intermediate failure events. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to efficiently generate conditional samples for estimating the conditional failure probabilities. Taking the AP1000 passive residual heat removal system, for example, the uncertainties related to the model of a passive system and the numerical values of its input parameters were considered in this paper. And then the probability of functional failure was estimated with subset simulation method. The numerical results demonstrate that subset simulation method has the high computing efficiency and excellent computing accuracy compared with traditional probability analysis methods. (authors)

  2. A combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy to construct well-defined core-shell epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with high encapsulation loading, super thermal stability and nonpolar solvent tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available SiO2-based microcapsules containing hydrophobic molecules exhibited potential applications such as extrinsic self-healing, drug delivery, due to outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiO2. However, to construct SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability is still a troublesome issue, limiting their further utilization. We herein design a single-batch route, a combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy, to fabricate epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability. The final SiO2-based microcapsules preserve high encapsulation loading of 85.7 wt% by controlling exclusively hydrolysis and condensed polymerization at oil/water interface in the initial interfacial polymerization step. In the subsequent in-situ polymerization step, the initial SiO2-based microcapsules as seeds could efficiently harvest SiO2 precursors and primary SiO2 particles to finely tune the SiO2 wall thickness, thereby enhancing long-term structural stability of the final SiO2-based microcapsules including high thermal stability with almost no any weight loss until 250°C, and strong tolerance against nonpolar solvents such as CCl4 with almost unchanged core-shell structure and unchanged core weight after immersing into strong solvents for up to 5 days. These SiO2-based microcapsules are extremely suited for processing them into anticorrosive coating in the presence of nonpolar solvents for self-healing application.

  3. Modeling Coherent Strategies for the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B.; Obersteiner, M.; Herrero, M.; Riahi, K.; Fritz, S.; van Vuuren, D.; Havlik, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity and inclusivity. Societies have largely responded to this call with siloed strategies capable of making progress on selected subsets of these goals. However, agendas crafted specifically to alleviate poverty, hunger, deforestation, biodiversity loss, or other ills may doom the SDG agenda, as policies and strategies designed to accomplish one or several goals can impede and in some cases reverse progress toward others at national, regional, and global levels. We adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand the basis for tradeoffs among environmental conservation initiatives (goals 13-15) and food prices (goal 2). We show that such tradeoffs are manifestations of policy-driven pressure in land (i.e. agricultural and environmental) systems. By reducing total land system pressure, Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP, goal 12) policies minimize tradeoffs and should therefore be regarded as necessary conditions for achieving multiple SDGs. SDG strategies constructed around SCP policies escape problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policymakers to negotiate tradeoffs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.

  4. Hierarchical modeling for rare event detection and cell subset alignment across flow cytometry samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cron

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is the prototypical assay for multi-parameter single cell analysis, and is essential in vaccine and biomarker research for the enumeration of antigen-specific lymphocytes that are often found in extremely low frequencies (0.1% or less. Standard analysis of flow cytometry data relies on visual identification of cell subsets by experts, a process that is subjective and often difficult to reproduce. An alternative and more objective approach is the use of statistical models to identify cell subsets of interest in an automated fashion. Two specific challenges for automated analysis are to detect extremely low frequency event subsets without biasing the estimate by pre-processing enrichment, and the ability to align cell subsets across multiple data samples for comparative analysis. In this manuscript, we develop hierarchical modeling extensions to the Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM approach we have previously described for cell subset identification, and show that the hierarchical DPGMM (HDPGMM naturally generates an aligned data model that captures both commonalities and variations across multiple samples. HDPGMM also increases the sensitivity to extremely low frequency events by sharing information across multiple samples analyzed simultaneously. We validate the accuracy and reproducibility of HDPGMM estimates of antigen-specific T cells on clinically relevant reference peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples with known frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. These cell samples take advantage of retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked into autologous PBMC samples to give a defined number of antigen-specific T cells detectable by HLA-peptide multimer binding. We provide open source software that can take advantage of both multiple processors and GPU-acceleration to perform the numerically-demanding computations. We show that hierarchical modeling is a useful probabilistic approach that can provide a

  5. Characterization of the myeloid-derived suppressor cell subset regulated by NK cells in malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kanako; Shinga, Jun; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawano, Fumio; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Satoru; Asakura, Miki; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population with the ability to suppress immune responses and are currently classified into three distinct MDSC subsets: monocytic, granulocytic and non-monocytic, and non-granulocytic MDSCs. Although NK cells provide an important first-line defense against newly transformed cancer cells, it is unknown whether NK cells can regulate MDSC populations in the context of cancer. In this study, we initially found that the frequency of MDSCs in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients was increased and inversely correlated with that of NK cells, but not that of T cells. To investigate the regulation of MDSC subsets by NK cells, we used an EL4 murine lymphoma model and found the non-monocytic and non-granulocytic MDSC subset, i.e., Gr1 + CD11b + Ly6G med Ly6C med MDSC, is increased after NK cell depletion. The MDSC population that expresses MHC class II, CD80, CD124, and CCR2 is regulated mainly by CD27 + CD11b + NK cells. In addition, this MDSC subset produces some immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-10 but not nitric oxide (NO) or arginase. We also examined two subsets of MDSCs (CD14 + HLA-DR - and CD14 - HLA-DR - MDSC) in NHL patients and found that higher IL-10-producing CD14 + HLA-DR - MDSC subset can be seen in lymphoma patients with reduced NK cell frequency in peripheral blood. Our analyses of MDSCs in this study may enable a better understanding of how MDSCs manipulate the tumor microenvironment and are regulated by NK cells in patients with lymphoma.

  6. Approximate Bayesian Computation by Subset Simulation using hierarchical state-space models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakilzadeh, Majid K.; Huang, Yong; Beck, James L.; Abrahamsson, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    A new multi-level Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm for Approximate Bayesian Computation, ABC-SubSim, has recently appeared that exploits the Subset Simulation method for efficient rare-event simulation. ABC-SubSim adaptively creates a nested decreasing sequence of data-approximating regions in the output space that correspond to increasingly closer approximations of the observed output vector in this output space. At each level, multiple samples of the model parameter vector are generated by a component-wise Metropolis algorithm so that the predicted output corresponding to each parameter value falls in the current data-approximating region. Theoretically, if continued to the limit, the sequence of data-approximating regions would converge on to the observed output vector and the approximate posterior distributions, which are conditional on the data-approximation region, would become exact, but this is not practically feasible. In this paper we study the performance of the ABC-SubSim algorithm for Bayesian updating of the parameters of dynamical systems using a general hierarchical state-space model. We note that the ABC methodology gives an approximate posterior distribution that actually corresponds to an exact posterior where a uniformly distributed combined measurement and modeling error is added. We also note that ABC algorithms have a problem with learning the uncertain error variances in a stochastic state-space model and so we treat them as nuisance parameters and analytically integrate them out of the posterior distribution. In addition, the statistical efficiency of the original ABC-SubSim algorithm is improved by developing a novel strategy to regulate the proposal variance for the component-wise Metropolis algorithm at each level. We demonstrate that Self-regulated ABC-SubSim is well suited for Bayesian system identification by first applying it successfully to model updating of a two degree-of-freedom linear structure for three cases: globally

  7. The total graph of a module with respect to multiplicative-prime subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heydarinejad Astaneh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Let M be a module over a commutative ring R and U a nonempty proper subset of M. In this paper, a generalization of the total graph T(Γ(M, denoted by T(Γ_U (M is presented, where U is a multiplicative prime subset of M. It is the graph with all elements of M as vertices, and for two distinct elements m, n ∈ M, the vertices m and n are adjacent if and only if m + n ∈ U. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the definitions and properties given in [1] and [10] to a more general case.

  8. Strategies in PRholog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besik Dundua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PRholog is an experimental extension of logic programming with strategic conditional transformation rules, combining Prolog with Rholog calculus. The rules perform nondeterministic transformations on hedges. Queries may have several results that can be explored on backtracking. Strategies provide a control on rule applications in a declarative way. With strategy combinators, the user can construct more complex strategies from simpler ones. Matching with four different kinds of variables provides a flexible mechanism of selecting (subterms during execution. We give an overview on programming with strategies in PRholog and demonstrate how rewriting strategies can be expressed.

  9. A systems biology approach to the analysis of subset-specific responses to lipopolysaccharide in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David G; Shklovskaya, Elena; Guy, Thomas V; Falsafi, Reza; Fjell, Chris D; Ritchie, William; Hancock, Robert E W; Fazekas de St Groth, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for regulating CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity, controlling Th1, Th2, and Th17 commitment, generating inducible Tregs, and mediating tolerance. It is believed that distinct DC subsets have evolved to control these different immune outcomes. However, how DC subsets mount different responses to inflammatory and/or tolerogenic signals in order to accomplish their divergent functions remains unclear. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides an excellent model for investigating responses in closely related splenic DC subsets, as all subsets express the LPS receptor TLR4 and respond to LPS in vitro. However, previous studies of the LPS-induced DC transcriptome have been performed only on mixed DC populations. Moreover, comparisons of the in vivo response of two closely related DC subsets to LPS stimulation have not been reported in the literature to date. We compared the transcriptomes of murine splenic CD8 and CD11b DC subsets after in vivo LPS stimulation, using RNA-Seq and systems biology approaches. We identified subset-specific gene signatures, which included multiple functional immune mediators unique to each subset. To explain the observed subset-specific differences, we used a network analysis approach. While both DC subsets used a conserved set of transcription factors and major signalling pathways, the subsets showed differential regulation of sets of genes that 'fine-tune' the network Hubs expressed in common. We propose a model in which signalling through common pathway components is 'fine-tuned' by transcriptional control of subset-specific modulators, thus allowing for distinct functional outcomes in closely related DC subsets. We extend this analysis to comparable datasets from the literature and confirm that our model can account for cell subset-specific responses to LPS stimulation in multiple subpopulations in mouse and man.

  10. Reduction of the CD16(-CD56bright NK cell subset precedes NK cell dysfunction in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Chul Koo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural cytotoxicity, mediated by natural killer (NK cells plays an important role in the inhibition and elimination of malignant tumor cells. To investigate the immunoregulatory role of NK cells and their potential as diagnostic markers, NK cell activity (NKA was analyzed in prostate cancer (PCa patients with particular focus on NK cell subset distribution. METHODS: Prospective data of NKA and NK cell subset distribution patterns were measured from 51 patients initially diagnosed with PCa and 54 healthy controls. NKA was represented by IFN-γ levels after stimulation of the peripheral blood with Promoca®. To determine the distribution of NK cell subsets, PBMCs were stained with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Then, CD16(+CD56(dim and CD16(-CD56(bright cells gated on CD56(+CD3(- cells were analyzed using a flow-cytometer. RESULTS: NKA and the proportion of CD56(bright cells were significantly lower in PCa patients compared to controls (430.9 pg/ml vs. 975.2 pg/ml and 2.3% vs. 3.8%, respectively; p<0.001. Both tended to gradually decrease according to cancer stage progression (p for trend = 0.001. A significantly higher CD56(dim-to-CD56(bright cell ratio was observed in PCa patients (41.8 vs. 30.3; p<0.001 along with a gradual increase according to cancer stage progression (p for trend = 0.001, implying a significant reduction of CD56(bright cells in relation to the alteration of CD56(dim cells. The sensitivity and the specificity of NKA regarding PCa detection were 72% and 74%, respectively (best cut-off value at 530.9 pg/ml, AUC = 0.786. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of CD56(bright cells may precede NK cell dysfunction, leading to impaired cytotoxicity against PCa cells. These observations may explain one of the mechanisms behind NK cell dysfunction observed in PCa microenvironment and lend support to the development of future cancer immunotherapeutic strategies.

  11. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  12. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS, provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested—there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  13. An efficient algorithm to compute subsets of points in ℤ n

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Martínez, Ana María; Real Jurado, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show a more efficient algorithm than that in [8] to compute subsets of points non-congruent by isometries. This algorithm can be used to reconstruct the object from the digital image. Both algorithms are compared, highlighting the improvements obtained in terms of CPU time.

  14. Criteria to Extract High-Quality Protein Data Bank Subsets for Structure Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    It is often necessary to build subsets of the Protein Data Bank to extract structural trends and average values. For this purpose it is mandatory that the subsets are non-redundant and of high quality. The first problem can be solved relatively easily at the sequence level or at the structural level. The second, on the contrary, needs special attention. It is not sufficient, in fact, to consider the crystallographic resolution and other feature must be taken into account: the absence of strings of residues from the electron density maps and from the files deposited in the Protein Data Bank; the B-factor values; the appropriate validation of the structural models; the quality of the electron density maps, which is not uniform; and the temperature of the diffraction experiments. More stringent criteria produce smaller subsets, which can be enlarged with more tolerant selection criteria. The incessant growth of the Protein Data Bank and especially of the number of high-resolution structures is allowing the use of more stringent selection criteria, with a consequent improvement of the quality of the subsets of the Protein Data Bank.

  15. Massively-parallel best subset selection for ordinary least-squares regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseke, Fabian; Polsterer, Kai Lars; Mahabal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Selecting an optimal subset of k out of d features for linear regression models given n training instances is often considered intractable for feature spaces with hundreds or thousands of dimensions. We propose an efficient massively-parallel implementation for selecting such optimal feature...

  16. A Feature Subset Selection Method Based On High-Dimensional Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Kwoh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important step in building accurate classifiers and provides better understanding of the data sets. In this paper, we propose a feature subset selection method based on high-dimensional mutual information. We also propose to use the entropy of the class attribute as a criterion to determine the appropriate subset of features when building classifiers. We prove that if the mutual information between a feature set X and the class attribute Y equals to the entropy of Y , then X is a Markov Blanket of Y . We show that in some cases, it is infeasible to approximate the high-dimensional mutual information with algebraic combinations of pairwise mutual information in any forms. In addition, the exhaustive searches of all combinations of features are prerequisite for finding the optimal feature subsets for classifying these kinds of data sets. We show that our approach outperforms existing filter feature subset selection methods for most of the 24 selected benchmark data sets.

  17. Ontogeny of surface markers on functionally distinct T cell subsets in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, K N; Böck, G; Boyd, R L; Ratheiser, K; Wick, G

    1984-01-01

    Three subsets of chicken peripheral T cells (T1, T2 and T3) have been identified in peripheral blood of adult chickens on the basis of fluorescence intensity after staining with certain xenogeneic anti-thymus cell sera (from turkeys and rabbits). They differentiate between 3-10 weeks of age in parallel with development of responsiveness to the mitogens concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Functional tests on the T subsets, sorted with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, have shown that T2, 3 cells respond to Con A, PHA and PWM and are capable of eliciting a graft-vs.-host reaction (GvHR). In contrast, although T1 cells respond to Con A, they respond poorly to PHA and not at all to PWM or in GvHR. There was some indication of cooperation between T1 and T2,3 cells for the PHA response. Parallels between these chicken subsets and helper and suppressor/cytotoxic subsets in mammalian systems are discussed.

  18. Solubility on compact subsets for differential equations with real principal pencil of symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shananin, N A

    2006-01-01

    The central result is a theorem on the solubility on compact subsets for differential equations of quasiprincipal type with real principal pencil of symbols. The proof is based on the analysis of the microlocal structure of the singularities of solutions of equations in this class.

  19. Testing over-representation of observations in subsets of a DEA technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Olesen, Ole Bent

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a test for whether data are over-represented in a given production zone, i.e. a subset of a production possibility set which has been estimated using the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. A binomial test is used that relates the number of observations...

  20. Design of focused and restrained subsets from extremely large virtual libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamois, Eric A; Lin, Chien T; Waldman, Marvin

    2003-11-01

    With the current and ever-growing offering of reagents along with the vast palette of organic reactions, virtual libraries accessible to combinatorial chemists can reach sizes of billions of compounds or more. Extracting practical size subsets for experimentation has remained an essential step in the design of combinatorial libraries. A typical approach to computational library design involves enumeration of structures and properties for the entire virtual library, which may be unpractical for such large libraries. This study describes a new approach termed as on the fly optimization (OTFO) where descriptors are computed as needed within the subset optimization cycle and without intermediate enumeration of structures. Results reported herein highlight the advantages of coupling an ultra-fast descriptor calculation engine to subset optimization capabilities. We also show that enumeration of properties for the entire virtual library may not only be unpractical but also wasteful. Successful design of focused and restrained subsets can be achieved while sampling only a small fraction of the virtual library. We also investigate the stability of the method and compare results obtained from simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GA).

  1. Distinct patterns of novel gene mutations in poor-prognostic stereotyped subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strefford, J C; Sutton, L-A; Baliakas, P

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed recurrent mutations of the NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), especially among aggressive, chemorefractory cases. Nevertheless, it is currently unknown whether their presence may differ in subsets of patients carrying stereotyped B...

  2. Two Distinct Myeloid Subsets at the Term Human Fetal–Maternal Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, immune cells infiltrate the placenta at different stages of fetal development. NK cells and macrophages are the most predominant cell types. These immune cells play pleiotropic roles, as they control spiral artery remodeling to ensure appropriate blood supply and maintain long-term tolerance to a true allograft; yet, they must be able to mount appropriate immune defenses to pathogens that may threaten the fetus. Whether the same cell type accomplishes all these tasks or if there are dedicated subsets remains controversial. Here, we identify and characterize two distinct subsets of myeloid cells that differ in their pro-inflammatory/regulatory capacity. While one subset predominantly produces the immune-modulating cytokine IL-10, the second subset has superior capacity to secrete pro-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β and IL-6. The putative regulatory myeloid cells also express high levels of inhibitory receptors and their ligands, including programmed cell death 1 (PD1 ligands. Importantly, a large fraction of CD8 and CD4 cells in normal term human placenta are PD1 positive, suggesting that the PD1/PD1 ligands axis might be critical to maintain tolerance during pregnancy.

  3. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-03-15

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  4. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed K.; Al-Rashdi, Zowaina T.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  5. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Golubovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.; intracellular markers (FOXP3; epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic; and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  6. T cell subsets in human airways prior to and following endobronchial administration of endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Plovsing, Ronni R; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bronchial instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides a reversible model of lung inflammation that may resemble early stages of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated the distributions of T-cell subsets in the human airways and sought to deter...

  7. Toll-like receptor activation reveals developmental reorganization and unmasks responder subsets of microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Joerg; Regen, Tommy; Van Rossum, Denise; Seifert, Stefanie; Ribes, Sandra; Nau, Roland; Parsa, Roham; Harris, Robert A.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.; Chuang, Han-Ning; Pukrop, Tobias; Wessels, Johannes T.; Juergens, Tanja; Merkler, Doron; Brueck, Wolfgang; Schnaars, Mareike; Simons, Mikael; Kettenmann, Helmut; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The sentinel and immune functions of microglia require rapid and appropriate reactions to infection and damage. Their Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense both as threats. However, whether activated microglia mount uniform responses or whether subsets conduct selective tasks is unknown. We demonstrate

  8. Some Observations on the Subset Simulation Related to the Wind Turbine Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    systems. It is interesting to determine applicability of the Subset Simulation (SS) techniques, as a powerful representative of Variance Reduction Monte Carlo (VRMC) methods, on the wind turbine systems specifically with an active controller. Hence in this paper we apply and discuss these methods...... on a benchmark wind turbine model and analyze the results in view of their applicability....

  9. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Keustermans

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children.13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed.Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI. The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also

  10. High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Subset of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Vascular Regenerative Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephen E; Kuljanin, Miljan; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Lajoie, Gilles A; Hess, David A

    2017-06-01

    During culture expansion, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an intracellular detoxification enzyme that protects long-lived cells against oxidative stress. Thus, MSC selection based on ALDH-activity may be used to reduce heterogeneity and distinguish MSC subsets with improved regenerative potency. After expansion of human bone marrow-derived MSCs, cell progeny was purified based on low versus high ALDH-activity (ALDH hi ) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and each subset was compared for multipotent stromal and provascular regenerative functions. Both ALDH l ° and ALDH hi MSC subsets demonstrated similar expression of stromal cell (>95% CD73 + , CD90 + , CD105 + ) and pericyte (>95% CD146 + ) surface markers and showed multipotent differentiation into bone, cartilage, and adipose cells in vitro. Conditioned media (CDM) generated by ALDH hi MSCs demonstrated a potent proliferative and prosurvival effect on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) under serum-free conditions and augmented HMVEC tube-forming capacity in growth factor-reduced matrices. After subcutaneous transplantation within directed in vivo angiogenesis assay implants into immunodeficient mice, ALDH hi MSC or CDM produced by ALDH hi MSC significantly augmented murine vascular cell recruitment and perfused vessel infiltration compared with ALDH l ° MSC. Although both subsets demonstrated strikingly similar mRNA expression patterns, quantitative proteomic analyses performed on subset-specific CDM revealed the ALDH hi MSC subset uniquely secreted multiple proangiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor beta, platelet derived growth factor alpha, and angiogenin) and actively produced multiple factors with chemoattractant (transforming growth factor-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1, 2, and 3 (GRO), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8) and matrix

  11. Utilizing platforms in industrialized construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    platform strategies, this researchhighlights key aspects of adapting platform-based developed theory to industrialised construction.Building projects use different layers of product, process and logistics platforms to form the right cost– value ratio for the target market application, while modelling...

  12. T-Cell Subsets Predict Mortality in Malnourished Zambian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C Chisenga

    Full Text Available To estimate the prognostic value of T-cell subsets in Zambian patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART, and to assess the impact of a nutritional intervention on T-cell subsets.This was a sub-study of a randomised clinical trial of a nutritional intervention for malnourished adults initiating ART. Participants in a randomised controlled trial (NUSTART trial were enrolled between April and December 2012. Participants received lipid-based nutritional supplement either with or without additional vitamins and minerals. Immunophenotyping was undertaken at baseline and, in survivors, after 12 weeks of ART to characterize T-cell subsets using the markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RA, CCR7, CD28, CD57, CD31, α4β7, Ki67, CD25 and HLA-DR. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis was performed, and responses to treatment were analysed using the Wicoxon rank-sum test.Among 181 adults, 36 (20% died by 12 weeks after starting ART. In univariate analysis, patients who died had fewer proliferating, more naïve and fewer gut homing CD4+ T-cells compared to survivors; and more senescent and fewer proliferating CD8+ T-cells. In a multivariate Cox regression model high naïve CD4+, low proliferating CD4+, high senescent CD8+ and low proliferating CD8+ subsets were independently associated with increased risk of death. Recent CD4+ thymic emigrants increased less between recruitment and 12 weeks of ART in the intervention group compared to the control group.Specific CD4+ T-cell subsets are of considerable prognostic significance for patients initiating ART in Zambia, but only thymic output responded to this nutritional intervention.

  13. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  14. B cell subset distribution is altered in patients with severe periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoersman, Julien; Pochard, Pierre; Framery, Camille; Simon, Quentin; Boisramé, Sylvie; Soueidan, Assem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have recently highlighted the implication of B cells in physiopathogenesis of periodontal disease by showing that a B cell deficiency leads to improved periodontal parameters. However, the detailed profiles of circulating B cell subsets have not yet been investigated in patients with severe periodontitis (SP). We hypothesised that an abnormal distribution of B cell subsets could be detected in the blood of patients with severe periodontal lesions, as already reported for patients with chronic inflammatory diseases as systemic autoimmune diseases. Fifteen subjects with SP and 13 subjects without periodontitis, according to the definition proposed by the CDC periodontal disease surveillance work group, were enrolled in this pilot observational study. Two flow cytometry panels were designed to analyse the circulating B and B1 cell subset distribution in association with the RANKL expression. A significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells was observed in patients with SP. Among these CD27+ B cells, the proportion of the switched memory subset was significantly higher. At the same time, human B1 cells, which were previously associated with a regulatory function (CD20+CD69-CD43+CD27+CD11b+), decreased in SP patients. The RANKL expression increased in every B cell subset from the SP patients and was significantly greater in activated B cells than in the subjects without periodontitis. These preliminary results demonstrate the altered distribution of B cells in the context of severe periodontitis. Further investigations with a larger cohort of patients can elucidate if the analysis of the B cell compartment distribution can reflect the periodontal disease activity and be a reliable marker for its prognosis (clinical trial registration number: NCT02833285, B cell functions in periodontitis).

  15. B cell subset distribution is altered in patients with severe periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoersman, Julien; Pochard, Pierre; Framery, Camille; Simon, Quentin; Boisramé, Sylvie; Soueidan, Assem

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have recently highlighted the implication of B cells in physiopathogenesis of periodontal disease by showing that a B cell deficiency leads to improved periodontal parameters. However, the detailed profiles of circulating B cell subsets have not yet been investigated in patients with severe periodontitis (SP). We hypothesised that an abnormal distribution of B cell subsets could be detected in the blood of patients with severe periodontal lesions, as already reported for patients with chronic inflammatory diseases as systemic autoimmune diseases. Fifteen subjects with SP and 13 subjects without periodontitis, according to the definition proposed by the CDC periodontal disease surveillance work group, were enrolled in this pilot observational study. Two flow cytometry panels were designed to analyse the circulating B and B1 cell subset distribution in association with the RANKL expression. A significantly higher percentage of CD27+ memory B cells was observed in patients with SP. Among these CD27+ B cells, the proportion of the switched memory subset was significantly higher. At the same time, human B1 cells, which were previously associated with a regulatory function (CD20+CD69-CD43+CD27+CD11b+), decreased in SP patients. The RANKL expression increased in every B cell subset from the SP patients and was significantly greater in activated B cells than in the subjects without periodontitis. These preliminary results demonstrate the altered distribution of B cells in the context of severe periodontitis. Further investigations with a larger cohort of patients can elucidate if the analysis of the B cell compartment distribution can reflect the periodontal disease activity and be a reliable marker for its prognosis (clinical trial registration number: NCT02833285, B cell functions in periodontitis). PMID:29447240

  16. Three distinct subsets of thymic epithelial cells in rats and mice defined by novel antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Sawanobori

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are thought to play an essential role in T cell development and have been detected mainly in mice using lectin binding and antibodies to keratins. Our aim in the present study was to create a precise map of rat TECs using antibodies to putative markers and novel monoclonal antibodies (i.e., ED 18/19/21 and anti-CD205 antibodies and compare it with a map from mouse counterparts and that of rat thymic dendritic cells.Rat TECs were subdivided on the basis of phenotype into three subsets; ED18+ED19+/-keratin 5 (K5+K8+CD205+ class II MHC (MHCII+ cortical TECs (cTECs, ED18+ED21-K5-K8+Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-1+CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC1s, and ED18+ED21+K5+K8dullUEA-1-CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC2s. Thymic nurse cells were defined in cytosmears as an ED18+ED19+/-K5+K8+ subset of cTECs. mTEC1s preferentially expressed MHCII, claudin-3, claudin-4, and autoimmune regulator (AIRE. Use of ED18 and ED21 antibodies revealed three subsets of TECs in mice as well. We also detected two distinct TEC-free areas in the subcapsular cortex and in the medulla. Rat dendritic cells in the cortex were MHCII+CD103+ but negative for TEC markers, including CD205. Those in the medulla were MHCII+CD103+ and CD205+ cells were found only in the TEC-free area.Both rats and mice have three TEC subsets with similar phenotypes that can be identified using known markers and new monoclonal antibodies. These findings will facilitate further analysis of TEC subsets and DCs and help to define their roles in thymic selection and in pathological states such as autoimmune disorders.

  17. SPECIFICITIES OF THE SUBSET PROFILE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA: PATHOGENETIC AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chumakov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In glioblastoma (GB, it is necessary to take into consideration GB-associated secondary immunodeficiency (SID, so-called syndrome of tumor-associated SID (STASID. Cell subsets having effector and regulatory functions, play an important role in developing STASID, and their proportions in patients with different forms of GB can be of pathogenetic importance and have clinical value for treatment and rehabilitation scheduling as well. The most pathogenically and clinically important features of cell subsets profile of peripheral blood were analyzed in patients with different clinical and morphological types of GB. The patients were divided into three groups, i.e., groups I and II were formed by patients with STASID (marked and slightly marked SID, accordingly; group III – patients with SIDTAS (tumor-associated autoimmune syndrome, associated with SID. Marked suppression of cell immunity is typical of group I - imbalance in T-lymphocytes, in a number of specific subsets, and in subsets clusters, as well as disproportions in the immunoregulatory indexes. In group II, the subset profiles of blood were slightly different from the norm. In patients with SIDTAS, activation of cell immunity was evident, forming SID with signs of autoimmune syndrome, affecting effector and regulatory chains of immunity, and influencing the severity and forecast of the disease. Specific features of the immune status in patients with GB identified can be resulted from different clinicalmorphological types of the tumor; the latter are to be considered in differential diagnostics of clinical course of GB and in scheduling of clinical-immunological efficient anti-tumor pharmacotherapy in pre- and postoperative periods.

  18. Studies on the stimulating effect of low dose irradiation on lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Su Liaoyuan

    1994-01-01

    In the study, three kinds of monoclonal antibody were used to separate subsets of lymphocyte, and then the functional changes of the separated subsets after low dose irradiation (LDI) were studied. McAb CD4, CD8 and B were used to obtain CD 4 + , CD8 + and B cells respectively with 'Panning' method, the cells were irradiated with X-ray machine (200 kV, 10 mA) for 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 Gy. 3 H-TdR incorporation was used to reflect functional changes of subsets after LDI. The results indicated that (1) three kinds of subsets could be stimulated by LDI (within 0.2 Gy). The peak effect for CD 4 + and B cells was induced by 0.1 Gy irradiation for CD8 + cell, the peak effect dose was 0.05 Gy; (2) between 0.02 Gy and 0.2 Gy, for same dose, the stimulating effect of CD4 + was higher than that of CD8 + . This result has an important significance in demonstrating the immune mechanism of radiation hormesis. The past viewpoint suggested that immune hormesis was caused by the damage of radiosensitive T cell (Ts) after LDI. Recently, some authors proved that no change of the ratio of Ts to T H existed after LDI. In the study presented, It is found that the values of 3 H-TdR incorporation in CD4 + was bigger than that in CD8 + after LDI. Obvious stimulating effect could still be observed after 0.2 Gy irradiation, it indicated that subsets separated by McAb could have a wide stimulating dose range for LDI

  19. Correction of abnormal B-cell subset distribution by interleukin-6 receptor blockade in polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Alegria, Guillermo; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Renaudineau, Yves; Saraux, Alain; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Cornec, Divi

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to study lymphocyte subsets and circulating cytokines at diagnosis of PMR and after tocilizumab monotherapy. Eighteen untreated patients with PMR were included in a prospective study and received 3-monthly tocilizumab infusions without glucocorticoids. Lymphocyte subset distribution was assessed by flow cytometry and serum cytokines were assayed by a 34-cytokine array and ELISA, at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline data were also compared with age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline, total lymphocytes, T-cell subsets and NK cell counts were similar in patients and controls, but patients had significantly lower B-cell counts attributable to lower transitional, naïve and post-switch memory B-cell subsets. Circulating B-cell counts were positively correlated with the PMR activity score (PMR-AS) in untreated active patients at baseline, but subsequently increased to normal values while disease activity was controlled after tocilizumab therapy. Among serum cytokines, IL-6 showed the largest concentration difference between patients and controls, and the serum IL-6 concentration was correlated with baseline PMR-AS. The effects of tocilizumab on serum IL-6 concentration were heterogeneous, and the patients whose serum IL-6 decreased after tocilizumab therapy exhibited a significant increase in circulating B-cell counts. In patients with PMR, B-cell lymphopenia and abnormal B-cell subset distribution are associated with disease activity and IL-6 concentration, and both are corrected by the IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Lymphocyte subset contents in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Ran Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the lymphocyte subset contents in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis and their correlation with disease. Methods: Children with viral encephalitis were selected as VE group, children excluded of central nervous system infection by lumbar puncture or children without central nervous system diseases but receiving surgery with spinal anesthesia were selected as control group, and then cerebrospinal fluid and serum were collected to detect lymphocyte subset contents, nerve injury molecule contents as well as inflammatory response indicators and oxidative stress response indicators. Results: CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4/CD8 and CD16+CD56+ in cerebrospinal fluid of VE group were lower than those of control group, and both CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ were higher than those of control group; CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4/CD8 and CD16+CD56+ in cerebrospinal fluid of children with abnormal MRI were lower than those of children with normal MRI, and both CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ were higher than those of children with normal MRI; NSE, MBP, S-100 and NPT contents in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of VE group were significantly higher than those of control group and had good correlation with lymphocyte subset contents; MMP9, TNF-α and IL-6 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of VE group were significantly higher than those of control group, and SOD and GSH-Px contents were significantly lower than those of control group and had good correlation with lymphocyte subset contents. Conclusions: CD4+/CD8+T lymphocyte ratio and NK cell content decrease, and B lymphocyte content increases in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis, and lymphocyte subset contents have inhibitory effect on MRI manifestation, degree of inflammatory response and oxidative stress response.

  1. Identification of the Gene for Scleroderma in the Tsk/2 Mouse Strain: Implications for Human Scleroderma Pathogenesis and subset Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    in) the) fibroproliferative) subset) and) Tsk2/+) mice) we) analyzed) the) expression)of)the)TGFβFregulated)gene) tumor )necrosis)factor)receptor... esophagus , and gastrointestinal tract (LeRoy et al., 1988). Survival rates vary significantly between and within subsets of disease, and are usually...patients in the fibroproliferative subset and Tsk2/+ mice we analyzed the expression of the TGFβ- regulated gene tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily

  2. Characteristics of CD8+ T cell subsets in Chinese patients with chronic HIV infection during initial ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yanmei; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Yonghong; Ji, Yunxia; Zhang, Hongwei; Wu, Hao

    2011-03-25

    CD8+ T cells may play an important role in protecting against HIV. However, the changes of CD8+ T cell subsets during early period of ART have not been fully studied. Twenty-one asymptomatic treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with CD4 T+ cells less than 350 cells/μl were enrolled in the study. Naïve, central memory(CM), effective memory(EM) and terminally differentiated effector (EMRA) CD8+ cell subsets and their activation and proliferation subsets were evaluated in blood samples collected at base line, and week 2, 4, 8 and 12 of ART. The total CD8+ T cells declined and the Naïve and CM subsets had a tendency of increase. Activation levels of all CD8+ T cell subsets except EMRA subset decreased after ART. However, proliferation levels of total CD8+ T cells, EMRA, EM and CM subsets increased at the first 4 weeks of ART, then decreased. Proliferation level of the naïve cells decreased after ART. The changes of CD8+ T cell subsets during initial ART are complex. Our results display a complete phenotypical picture of CD8+ cell subsets during initial ART and provide insights for understanding of immune status during ART.

  3. Characteristics of CD8+ T cell subsets in Chinese patients with chronic HIV infection during initial ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongwei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD8+ T cells may play an important role in protecting against HIV. However, the changes of CD8+ T cell subsets during early period of ART have not been fully studied. Methods Twenty-one asymptomatic treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with CD4 T+ cells less than 350 cells/μl were enrolled in the study. Naïve, central memory(CM, effective memory(EM and terminally differentiated effector (EMRA CD8+ cell subsets and their activation and proliferation subsets were evaluated in blood samples collected at base line, and week 2, 4, 8 and 12 of ART. Results The total CD8+ T cells declined and the Naïve and CM subsets had a tendency of increase. Activation levels of all CD8+ T cell subsets except EMRA subset decreased after ART. However, proliferation levels of total CD8+ T cells, EMRA, EM and CM subsets increased at the first 4 weeks of ART, then decreased. Proliferation level of the naïve cells decreased after ART. Conclusion The changes of CD8+ T cell subsets during initial ART are complex. Our results display a complete phenotypical picture of CD8+ cell subsets during initial ART and provide insights for understanding of immune status during ART.

  4. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. The authors have developed a novel two-stage atlas

  5. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Tingting, E-mail: tingtingzhao@mednet.ucla.edu; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [The Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. Methods: An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: The authors

  6. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. Methods: An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: The authors

  7. Can Measured Synergy Excitations Accurately Construct Unmeasured Muscle Excitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Nicholas A; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may reduce the redundancy of muscle excitation solutions predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations). Using treadmill walking data collected at multiple speeds from two subjects (one healthy, one poststroke), we performed muscle synergy analysis on all possible subsets of eight included muscle excitations and evaluated how well the calculated time-varying synergy excitations could construct the remaining excluded muscle excitations (henceforth called "synergy extrapolation"). We found that some, but not all, eight-muscle subsets yielded synergy excitations that achieved >90% extrapolation variance accounted for (VAF). Using the top 10% of subsets, we developed muscle selection heuristics to identify included muscle combinations whose synergy excitations achieved high extrapolation accuracy. For 3, 4, and 5 synergies, these heuristics yielded extrapolation VAF values approximately 5% lower than corresponding reconstruction VAF values for each associated eight-muscle subset. These results suggest that synergy excitations obtained from experimentally measured muscle excitations can accurately construct unmeasured muscle excitations, which could help limit muscle excitations predicted by muscle force optimizations.

  8. A Construction Management Framework for Mass Customisation in Traditional Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Andújar-Montoya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Mass Customisation model is discussed as a competitive positioning strategy in the marketplace adding value to the customer’s end-use. It includes the user as part of the construction process responding to the customer’s demands and wishes. To the present day, almost all proposals for Mass Customisation have been focused on the design phase and single family houses. The reality is that the processes carried out in the work execution are so inefficient that the costs of the Mass Customisation models are assumed by the customer and they do not offer solutions that support the change management. Furthermore, this inefficiency often makes Mass Customisation unfeasible in terms of deadlines and site management. Therefore, the present proposal focuses on achieving the paradigm of Mass Customisation in the traditional residential construction complementary to the existing proposals in the design phase. All this through the proposal of a framework for the integral management in the work execution, which will address change management introduced by the users offering an efficient and productive model that reduces costs in the process. This model will focus on the synergy between different strategies, techniques and technologies currently used in the construction management (such as Lean Construction or Six Sigma, together with, other strategies and technologies that have proven to be valid solutions in other fields (such as Business Process Management, Service Oriented Architecture, etc..

  9. A construction process model for implementing constructability in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langkemper, J.; Al-Jibouri, S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Maas, G.J.; Gassel, van F.

    2003-01-01

    In construction, failure of design professionals to consider how a builder will implement the design can result in scheduling problems, cost escalation, delays and disputes during the construction process. The integration of construction knowledge and experience during planning and design is termed

  10. L1-Penalized N-way PLS for subset of electrodes selection in BCI experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseyev, Andrey; Moro, Cecile; Faber, Jean; Wyss, Alexander; Torres, Napoleon; Mestais, Corinne; Benabid, Alim Louis; Aksenova, Tetiana

    2012-08-01

    Recently, the N-way partial least squares (NPLS) approach was reported as an effective tool for neuronal signal decoding and brain-computer interface (BCI) system calibration. This method simultaneously analyzes data in several domains. It combines the projection of a data tensor to a low dimensional space with linear regression. In this paper the L1-Penalized NPLS is proposed for sparse BCI system calibration, allowing uniting the projection technique with an effective selection of subset of features. The L1-Penalized NPLS was applied for the binary self-paced BCI system calibration, providing selection of electrodes subset. Our BCI system is designed for animal research, in particular for research in non-human primates.

  11. Human papilloma virus: a new risk factor in a subset of head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Manisha; Bist, Sampan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two well known behavioral risk factors associated with head and neck cancer. Recently, evidence is mounting that infection with human papilloma virus, most commonly human papilloma virus-16 is responsible for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma especially tumors of tonsillar origin. The molecular pathway used by human papilloma virus to trigger malignant transformation of tissue is different from that of other well known risk factors, i.e. smoking and alcohol, associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Apparently, these subsets of patients with human papilloma virus positive tumor are more likely to have a better prognosis than human papilloma virus negative tumor. Considering this fact, the human papilloma virus infection should be determined in all oropharyngeal cancers since it can have a major impact on the decision making process of the treatment.

  12. Differential Aspartate Usage Identifies a Subset of Cancer Cells Particularly Dependent on OGDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Allen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although aberrant metabolism in tumors has been well described, the identification of cancer subsets with particular metabolic vulnerabilities has remained challenging. Here, we conducted an siRNA screen focusing on enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and uncovered a striking range of cancer cell dependencies on OGDH, the E1 subunit of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Using an integrative metabolomics approach, we identified differential aspartate utilization, via the malate-aspartate shuttle, as a predictor of whether OGDH is required for proliferation in 3D culture assays and for the growth of xenograft tumors. These findings highlight an anaplerotic role of aspartate and, more broadly, suggest that differential nutrient utilization patterns can identify subsets of cancers with distinct metabolic dependencies for potential pharmacological intervention.

  13. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each PHIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4 + and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each Ppregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Chemokine-mediated distribution of dendritic cell subsets in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middel, Peter; Brauneck, Sven; Meyer, Werner; Radzun, Heinz-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents one of the most immunoresponsive cancers. Antigen-specific vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) in patients with metastatic RCC has been shown to induce cytotoxic T-cell responses associated with objective clinical responses. Thus, clinical trials utilizing DCs for immunotherapy of advanced RCCs appear to be promising; however, detailed analyses concerning the distribution and function of DC subsets in RCCs are lacking. We characterized the distribution of the different immature and mature myeloid DC subsets in RCC tumour tissue and the corresponding normal kidney tissues. In further analyses, the expression of various chemokines and chemokine receptors controlling the migration of DC subsets was investigated. The highest numbers of immature CD1a+ DCs were found within RCC tumour tissue. In contrast, the accumulation of mature CD83+/DC-LAMP+ DCs were restricted to the invasive margin of the RCCs. The mature DCs formed clusters with proliferating T-cells. Furthermore, a close association was observed between MIP-3α-producing tumour cells and immature CCR6+ DC recruitment to the tumour bed. Conversely, MIP-3β and SLC expression was only detected at the tumour border, where CCR7-expressing T-cells and mature DCs formed clusters. Increased numbers of immature DCs were observed within the tumour tissue of RCCs, whereas mature DCs were found in increased numbers at the tumour margin. Our results strongly implicate that the distribution of DC subsets is controlled by local lymphoid chemokine expression. Thus, increased expression of MIP-3α favours recruitment of immature DCs to the tumour bed, whereas de novo local expression of SLC and MIP-3β induces accumulation of mature DCs at the tumour margin forming clusters with proliferating T-cells reflecting a local anti-tumour immune response

  15. Chemokine-mediated distribution of dendritic cell subsets in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Werner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents one of the most immunoresponsive cancers. Antigen-specific vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs in patients with metastatic RCC has been shown to induce cytotoxic T-cell responses associated with objective clinical responses. Thus, clinical trials utilizing DCs for immunotherapy of advanced RCCs appear to be promising; however, detailed analyses concerning the distribution and function of DC subsets in RCCs are lacking. Methods We characterized the distribution of the different immature and mature myeloid DC subsets in RCC tumour tissue and the corresponding normal kidney tissues. In further analyses, the expression of various chemokines and chemokine receptors controlling the migration of DC subsets was investigated. Results The highest numbers of immature CD1a+ DCs were found within RCC tumour tissue. In contrast, the accumulation of mature CD83+/DC-LAMP+ DCs were restricted to the invasive margin of the RCCs. The mature DCs formed clusters with proliferating T-cells. Furthermore, a close association was observed between MIP-3α-producing tumour cells and immature CCR6+ DC recruitment to the tumour bed. Conversely, MIP-3β and SLC expression was only detected at the tumour border, where CCR7-expressing T-cells and mature DCs formed clusters. Conclusion Increased numbers of immature DCs were observed within the tumour tissue of RCCs, whereas mature DCs were found in increased numbers at the tumour margin. Our results strongly implicate that the distribution of DC subsets is controlled by local lymphoid chemokine expression. Thus, increased expression of MIP-3α favours recruitment of immature DCs to the tumour bed, whereas de novo local expression of SLC and MIP-3β induces accumulation of mature DCs at the tumour margin forming clusters with proliferating T-cells reflecting a local anti-tumour immune response.

  16. Proteome profiling of human neutrophil granule subsets, secretory vesicles, and cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvig, Sara; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    2013-01-01

    granules, SVs, and plasma membrane has been performed before. Here, we performed subcellular fractionation on freshly isolated human neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation and density centrifugation on a four-layer Percoll gradient. Granule subsets were pooled and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and gel pieces were in...... subcellular proteome profiles presented here may be used as a database in combination with the mRNA array database to predict and test the presence and localization of proteins in neutrophil granules and membranes....

  17. Flow Cytometry Study of Lymphocyte Subsets in Malnourished and Well-Nourished Children with Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, Oralia; González, Cristina; Toledo, Guadalupe; López, Laura; Ortiz, Rocío

    2004-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is the primary cause of immune deficiency in children across the world. It has been related to changes in peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the proportion of peripheral-lymphocyte subsets in well-nourished non-bacterium-infected (WN), well-nourished bacterium-infected (WNI), and malnourished bacterium-infected (MNI) children by flow cytometry. A prospectively monitored cohort of 15 MNI, 12 WNI, and 17 WN children was studied. All the children were 3 years old or younger and had only bacterial infections. Results showed a significant decrease in the proportion of T CD3+ (P < 0.05 for relative and P < 0.03 for absolute values), CD4+ (P < 0.01 for relative and absolute values), and CD8+ (P < 0.05 for relative values) lymphocyte subsets in WNI children compared to the results seen with WN children. Additionally, B lymphocytes in MNI children showed significant lower values (CD20+ P < 0.02 for relative and P < 0.05 for absolute values) in relation to the results seen with WNI children. These results suggest that the decreased proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets observed in WNI children were associated with infection diseases and that the incapacity to increase the proportion of B lymphocyte was associated with malnutrition. This low proportion of B lymphocytes may be associated with the mechanisms involved in the immunodeficiency of malnourished children. PMID:15138185

  18. B-cell subset alterations and correlated factors in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensieroso, Simone; Galli, Laura; Nozza, Silvia; Ruffin, Nicolas; Castagna, Antonella; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Hejdeman, Bo; Misciagna, Donatella; Riva, Agostino; Malnati, Mauro; Chiodi, Francesca; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2013-05-15

    During HIV-1 infection, the development, phenotype, and functionality of B cells are impaired. Transitional B cells and aberrant B-cell populations arise in blood, whereas a declined percentage of resting memory B cells is detected. Our study aimed at pinpointing the demographic, immunological, and viral factors driving these pathological findings, and the role of antiretroviral therapy in reverting these alterations. B-cell phenotype and correlating factors were evaluated. Variations in B-cell subsets were evaluated by flow cytometry in HIV-1-infected individuals naive to therapy, elite controllers, and patients treated with antiretroviral drugs (virological control or failure). Multivariable analysis was performed to identify variables independently associated with the B-cell alterations. Significant differences were observed among patients' groups in relation to all B-cell subsets. Resting memory B cells were preserved in patients naive to therapy and elite controllers, but reduced in treated patients. Individuals naive to therapy and experiencing multidrug failure, as well as elite controllers, had significantly higher levels of activated memory B cells compared to healthy controls. In the multivariate analysis, plasma viral load and nadir CD4 T cells independently correlated with major B-cell alterations. Coinfection with hepatitis C but not hepatitis B virus also showed an impact on specific B-cell subsets. Successful protracted antiretroviral treatment led to normalization of all B-cell subsets with exception of resting memory B cells. Our results indicate that viremia and nadir CD4 T cells are important prognostic markers of B-cell perturbations and provide evidence that resting memory B-cell depletion during chronic infection is not reverted upon successful antiretroviral therapy.

  19. Study of T cell subsets in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis by immuno-labelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jixiang; Zhang Xueguang; Liu Zhida; Han Huiqin; Xie Wei

    1998-12-01

    As the developing of nuclear industry science, the possibility of nuclear radiation has increased rapidly. Treatments of diseases caused by radiation, especially acute radiation injury, rely heavily on bone marrow transplantation. The usage of immunology inhibitors is crucial to successfully carrying out bone marrow transplantation. So it is important to find out and research on immunology inhibitors. Using the changes of T cell subsets as a marker of immunology function before and after treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis, the authors observed the effect of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW)--an Chinese traditional drug which may probably become an important immunology inhibitor--on the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis. Methods: immuno-labelling technique was used to measure the changes of T cell subsets in 77 CGN patients before and after treated with TW. Results: CD3 + and CD4 + cells in CGN patients were lower than those in healthy control (p + to CD8 + (CD4 + /CD8 + ) cells reduced significantly (p + , CD4 + cells and the ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + in most of the patients with CGN were further reduced. In patients with uremia, only CD3 + cell level was lower than the level before treatment, while the ratio of CD4 + to CD8 + (CD4 + /CD8 + ) did not change markedly. Conclusion: The imbalance of various T cell subsets and dysfunction of these T cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CGN. the increase in γδT cells may be related with the development of CGN. The pharmacological mechanism of TW in the treatment of CGN patients may involve regulation of balance of T cell subsets and inhibition of the T helper functions

  20. Diagnosing Warm Frontal Cloud Formation in a GCM: A Novel Approach Using Conditional Subsetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, James F.; Naud, Catherine M.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes characteristics of clouds and vertical motion across extratropical cyclone warm fronts in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model. The validity of the modeled clouds is assessed using a combination of satellite observations from CloudSat, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis. The analysis focuses on developing cyclones, to test the model's ability to generate their initial structure. To begin, the extratropical cyclones and their warm fronts are objectively identified and cyclone-local fields are mapped into a vertical transect centered on the surface warm front. To further isolate specific physics, the cyclones are separated using conditional subsetting based on additional cyclone-local variables, and the differences between the subset means are analyzed. Conditional subsets are created based on 1) the transect clouds and 2) vertical motion; 3) the strength of the temperature gradient along the warm front, as well as the storm-local 4) wind speed and 5) precipitable water (PW). The analysis shows that the model does not generate enough frontal cloud, especially at low altitude. The subsetting results reveal that, compared to the observations, the model exhibits a decoupling between cloud formation at high and low altitudes across warm fronts and a weak sensitivity to moisture. These issues are caused in part by the parameterized convection and assumptions in the stratiform cloud scheme that are valid in the subtropics. On the other hand, the model generates proper covariability of low-altitude vertical motion and cloud at the warm front and a joint dependence of cloudiness on wind and PW.

  1. Subsetting Tools for Enabling Easy Access to International Airborne Chemistry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, E. A.; Chen, G.; Quam, B. M.; Beach, A. L., III; Silverman, M. L.; Early, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Research Opportunities in Earth and Space Science (ROSES) 2015 release announcement for Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS), researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) proposed to extend the capabilities of the existing Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) to include subsetting functionality to allow for easier access to international airborne field campaign data. Airborne field studies are commonly used to gain a detailed understanding of atmospheric processes for scientific research on international climate change and air quality issues. To accommodate the rigorous process for manipulating airborne field study chemistry data, and to lessen barriers for researchers, TAD was created with the ability to geolocate data from various sources measured on different time scales from a single flight. The analysis of airborne chemistry data typically requires data subsetting, which can be challenging and resource-intensive for end users. In an effort to streamline this process, new data subsetting features and updates to the current database model will be added to the TAD toolset. These will include two subsetters: temporal and spatial, and vertical profile. The temporal and spatial subsetter will allow users to both focus on data from a specific location and/or time period. The vertical profile subsetter will retrieve data collected during an individual aircraft ascent or descent spiral. These new web-based tools will allow for automation of the typically labor-intensive manual data subsetting process, which will provide users with data tailored to their specific research interests. The system has been designed to allow for new in-situ airborne missions to be added as they become available, with only minor pre-processing required. The development of these enhancements will be discussed in this presentation.

  2. Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin, genetics, gender and environmental factors have been shown to influence some immunologic indices, so that development of reference values for populations of different backgrounds may be necessary. We have determined the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood. Lymphocyte subsets were determined using four-colour cytometry in a cross-sectional study of 463 human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed children and adults from birth through 49 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets varied according to age, as previously observed in other studies. However, total CD4+ T cell numbers were lower than what was described in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 (PACTG P1009, which assessed an American population of predominantly African and Hispanic backgrounds until the 12-18 year age range, when values were comparable. Naïve percentages and absolute values of CD8+ T cells, as assessed by CD45RA expression, were also lower than the PACTG P1009 data for all analysed age ranges. CD38 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than the PACTG P1009 values, with a widening gap between the two studies at older age ranges. Different patterns of cell differentiation seem to occur in different settings and may have characteristic expression within each population.

  3. Analysis of T Cell Subsets in Adult Primary/Idiopathic Minimal Change Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salcido-Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterise infiltrating T cells in kidneys and circulating lymphocyte subsets of adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease. Methods. In a cohort of 9 adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change recruited consecutively at disease onset, we characterized (1 infiltrating immune cells in the kidneys using immunohistochemistry and (2 circulating lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry. As an exploratory analysis, association of the numbers and percentages of both kidney-infiltrating immune cells and the circulating lymphocyte subsets with kidney outcomes including deterioration of kidney function and proteinuria, as well as time to complete clinical remission up to 48 months of follow-up, was investigated. Results. In the recruited patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, we observed (a a dominance of infiltrating T helper 17 cells and cytotoxic cells, comprising cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, over Foxp3+ Treg cells in the renal interstitium; (b an increase in the circulating total CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood; and (c an association of some of these parameters with kidney function and proteinuria. Conclusions. In primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, a relative numerical dominance of effector over regulatory T cells can be observed in kidney tissue and peripheral blood. However, larger confirmatory studies are necessary.

  4. Towards Qualifiable Code Generation from a Clocked Synchronous Subset of Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Thiele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available So far no qualifiable automatic code generators (ACGs are available for Modelica. Hence, digital control applications can be modeled and simulated in Modelica, but require tedious additional efforts (e.g., manual reprogramming to produce qualifiable target system production code. In order to more fully leverage the potential of a model-based development (MBD process in Modelica, a qualifiable automatic code generator is needed. Typical Modelica code generation is a fairly complex process which imposes a huge development burden to any efforts of tool qualification. This work aims at mapping a Modelica subset for digital control function development to a well-understood synchronous data-flow kernel language. This kernel language allows to resort to established compilation techniques for data-flow languages which are understood enough to be accepted by certification authorities. The mapping is established by providing a translational semantics from the Modelica subset to the synchronous data-flow kernel language. However, this translation turned out to be more intricate than initially expected and has given rise to several interesting issues that require suitable design decisions regarding the mapping and the language subset.

  5. A Typical Immune T/B Subset Profile Characterizes Bicuspid Aortic Valve: In an Old Status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela R. Balistreri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid valve disease is associated with the development of thoracic aortic aneurysm. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association still need to be clarified. Here, we evaluated the circulating levels of T and B lymphocyte subsets associated with the development of vascular diseases in patients with bicuspid aortic valve or tricuspid aortic valve with and without thoracic aortic aneurysm. We unveiled that the circulating levels of the MAIT, CD4+IL−17A+, and NKT T cell subsets were significantly reduced in bicuspid valve disease cases, when compared to tricuspid aortic valve cases in either the presence or the absence of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Among patients with tricuspid aortic valve, these cells were higher in those also affected by thoracic aortic aneurysm. Similar data were obtained by examining CD19+ B cells, naïve B cells (IgD+CD27−, memory unswitched B cells (IgD+CD27+, memory switched B cells (IgD−CD27+, and double-negative B cells (DN (IgD−CD27−. These cells resulted to be lower in subjects with bicuspid valve disease with respect to patients with tricuspid aortic valve. In whole, our data indicate that patients with bicuspid valve disease show a quantitative reduction of T and B lymphocyte cell subsets. Future studies are encouraged to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation and its pathophysiological significance.

  6. Analysis of Peripheral B Cell Subsets in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Guo, Huanhuan; Liu, Zhuofu; Peng, Tao; Hu, Xianting; Han, Miaomiao; Yang, Xiangping; Zhou, Xuhong; Li, Huabin

    2018-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that B cells can both promote and inhibit the development and progression of allergic disease. However, the characteristics of B cell subsets in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) have not been well documented. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of B cell subsets in the peripheral blood of AR patients. Forty-seven AR patients and 54 healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and the B cell subsets in peripheral blood of all subjects were analyzed by flow cytometry. Moreover, the serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE concentrations secreted into the cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found the peripheral blood of AR patients contained higher percentages of memory B cells, plasma cells, and CD19⁺CD24(hi)CD27⁺ regulatory B cells (Bregs) than those of age-matched healthy controls (PB cells and CD19⁺CD24(hi)CD38(hi) Bregs were significantly lower in AR patients than in healthy individuals (PB cells or plasma cells and decreases in CD19⁺CD24(hi)CD38(hi) Breg cells in the peripheral blood. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease.

  7. Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD): Enhanced Airborne Data Merging Functionality through Spatial and Temporal Subsetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, A. B.; Chen, G.; Beach, A. L., III; Northup, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    NASA has conducted airborne tropospheric chemistry studies for over three decades. These field campaigns have generated a great wealth of observations, including a wide range of the trace gases and aerosol properties. The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton Virginia originally developed the Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) web application in September 2013 to meet the user community needs for manipulating aircraft data for scientific research on climate change and air quality relevant issues. The analysis of airborne data typically requires data subsetting, which can be challenging and resource intensive for end users. In an effort to streamline this process, the TAD toolset enhancements will include new data subsetting features and updates to the current database model. These will include two subsetters: temporal and spatial, and vertical profile. The temporal and spatial subsetter will allow users to both focus on data from a specific location and/or time period. The vertical profile subsetter will retrieve data collected during an individual aircraft ascent or descent spiral. This effort will allow for the automation of the typically labor-intensive manual data subsetting process, which will provide users with data tailored to their specific research interests. The development of these enhancements will be discussed in this presentation.

  8. Molecular marker differences relate to developmental position and subsets of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M Smits

    Full Text Available The development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA neurons located in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc and ventral tegmental area (VTA follow a number of stages marked by distinct events. After preparation of the region by signals that provide induction and patterning, several transcription factors have been identified, which are involved in specifying the neuronal fate of these cells. The specific vulnerability of SNc neurons is thought to root in these specific developmental programs. The present study examines the positions of young postmitotic mdDA neurons to relate developmental position to mdDA subset specific markers. MdDA neurons were mapped relative to the neuromeric domains (prosomeres 1-3 (P1-3, midbrain, and hindbrain as well as the longitudinal subdivisions (floor plate, basal plate, alar plate, as proposed by the prosomeric model. We found that postmitotic mdDA neurons are located mainly in the floorplate domain and very few in slightly more lateral domains. Moreover, mdDA neurons are present along a large proportion of the anterior/posterior axis extending from the midbrain to P3 in the diencephalon. The specific positions relate to some extent to the presence of specific subset markers as Ahd2. In the adult stage more of such subsets specific expressed genes are present and may represent a molecular map defining molecularly distinct groups of mdDA neurons.

  9. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  10. Evolution of a strategy for preparing bioactive small molecules by sequential multicomponent assembly processes, cyclizations, and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahn, James J; Granger, Brett A; Martin, Stephen F

    2014-10-21

    A strategy for generating diverse collections of small molecules has been developed that features a multicomponent assembly process (MCAP) to efficiently construct a variety of intermediates possessing an aryl aminomethyl subunit. These key compounds are then transformed via selective ring-forming reactions into heterocyclic scaffolds, each of which possesses suitable functional handles for further derivatizations and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions. The modular nature of this approach enables the facile construction of libraries of polycyclic compounds bearing a broad range of substituents and substitution patterns for biological evaluation. Screening of several compound libraries thus produced has revealed a large subset of compounds that exhibit a broad spectrum of medicinally-relevant activities.

  11. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  12. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Budiwibowo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia’s construction industry is important to the national economy. However, its competitiveness is considered low due to the lack of success of its development strategy and policy. A new approach known as the cluster approach is being used to make strategy and policy in order to develop a stronger more competitive industry . This paper discusses the layout of the Indonesian construction cluster and its competitiveness. The archival analysis research approach was used to identify the construction cluster. The analysis was based on the I/O tables of the years 1995 and 2000, which were published by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics. The results suggest that the Indonesian construction cluster consists of the industries directly involved in construction as the core, with the other related and supporting industries as the balance. The anatomy of the Indonesian construction cluster permits structural changes to happen within it. These changes depend on policies that regulate the cluster’s constituents.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Circulating Immune Cell Subsets Highlight the Role of Monocytes in Zaire Ebola Virus Makona Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Menicucci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing models of Ebola virus disease (EVD suggest antigen-presenting cells are initial targets of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV. In vitro studies have shown that ZEBOV infection of monocytes and macrophages results in the production of inflammatory mediators, which may cause lymphocyte apoptosis. However, these findings have not been corroborated by in vivo studies. In this study, we report the first longitudinal analysis of transcriptional changes in purified monocytes, T-cells, and B-cells isolated from cynomolgus macaques following infection with ZEBOV-Makona. Our data reveal monocytes as one of the major immune cell subsets that supports ZEBOV replication in vivo. In addition, we report a marked increase in the transcription of genes involved in inflammation, coagulation, and vascular disease within monocytes, suggesting that monocytes contribute to EVD manifestations. Further, genes important for antigen presentation and regulation of immunity were downregulated, potentially subverting development of adaptive immunity. In contrast, lymphocytes, which do not support ZEBOV replication, showed transcriptional changes limited to a small number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and a failure to upregulate genes associated with an antiviral effector immune response. Collectively, these data suggest that ZEBOV-infected monocytes play a significant role in ZEBOV-Makona pathogenesis and strategies to suppress virus replication or modify innate responses to infection in these cells should be a priority for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Improving the Quality of Constructive Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner Denton, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This article presents some simple strategies that instructors can use to improve the quality of the feedback students provide each other during a peer review activity. Briefly, I recommend that emphasis be placed solely on the provision of constructive comments, and that in order to qualify as constructive, a comment must: (1) identify a specific…

  15. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in the Dutch Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies that sustainable entrepreneurs use to interact with their environment in the Dutch construction industry. The Dutch construction industry is under great pressure to move towards sustainability, and entrepreneurs are believed to be able to play a large role in

  16. Sustainable entrepreneurship in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies that sustainable entrepreneurs use to interact with their environment in the Dutch construction industry. The Dutch construction industry is under great pressure to move towards sustainability, and entrepreneurs are believed to be able to play a large role in

  17. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  18. Probabilistic pathway construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofshahi, Mona; Lee, Kyongbum; Hassoun, Soha

    2011-07-01

    Expression of novel synthesis pathways in host organisms amenable to genetic manipulations has emerged as an attractive metabolic engineering strategy to overproduce natural products, biofuels, biopolymers and other commercially useful metabolites. We present a pathway construction algorithm for identifying viable synthesis pathways compatible with balanced cell growth. Rather than exhaustive exploration, we investigate probabilistic selection of reactions to construct the pathways. Three different selection schemes are investigated for the selection of reactions: high metabolite connectivity, low connectivity and uniformly random. For all case studies, which involved a diverse set of target metabolites, the uniformly random selection scheme resulted in the highest average maximum yield. When compared to an exhaustive search enumerating all possible reaction routes, our probabilistic algorithm returned nearly identical distributions of yields, while requiring far less computing time (minutes vs. years). The pathways identified by our algorithm have previously been confirmed in the literature as viable, high-yield synthesis routes. Prospectively, our algorithm could facilitate the design of novel, non-native synthesis routes by efficiently exploring the diversity of biochemical transformations in nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  20. The effect of insulin resistance and exercise on the percentage of CD16(+) monocyte subset in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Mariana A; Duarte, Tamiris C; Ottone, Vinícius de O; Sampaio, Pâmela F da M; Costa, Karine B; de Oliveira, Marcos F Andrade; Moseley, Pope L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Coimbra, Cândido C; Brito-Melo, Gustavo E A; Magalhães, Flávio de C; Amorim, Fabiano T; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammation condition, and macrophages, and possibly monocytes, are involved in the pathological outcomes of obesity. Physical exercise is a low-cost strategy to prevent and treat obesity, probably because of its anti-inflammatory action. We evaluated the percentage of CD16(-) and CD16(+) monocyte subsets in obese insulin-resistant individuals and the effect of an exercise bout on the percentage of these cells. Twenty-seven volunteers were divided into three experimental groups: lean insulin sensitive, obese insulin sensitive and obese insulin resistant. Venous blood samples collected before and 1 h after an aerobic exercise session on a cycle ergometer were used for determination of monocyte subsets by flow cytometry. Insulin-resistant obese individuals have a higher percentage of CD16(+) monocytes (14.8 ± 2.4%) than the lean group (10.0 ± 1.3%). A positive correlation of the percentage of CD16(+) monocytes with body mass index and fasting plasma insulin levels was found. One bout of moderate exercise reduced the percentage of CD16(+) monocytes by 10% in all the groups evaluated. Also, the absolute monocyte count, as well as all other leukocyte populations, in lean and obese individuals, increased after exercise. This fact may partially account for the observed reduction in the percentage of CD16(+) cells in response to exercise. Insulin-resistant, but not insulin-sensitive obese individuals, have an increased percentage of CD16(+) monocytes that can be slightly modulated by a single bout of moderate aerobic exercise. These findings may be clinically relevant to the population studied, considering the involvement of CD16(+) monocytes in the pathophysiology of obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Obesity is now considered to be an inflammatory condition associated with many pathological consequences, including insulin resistance. It is proposed that insulin resistance contributes to the aggravation of the

  1. The impact of internationalization and diversification on construction industry performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horta, Isabel M.; Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Camanho, Ana S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of internationalization and diversification strategies on the financial performance of construction industry companies. The results obtained can guide the design of strategies to pursue company growth and achieve competitive advantage. The evaluation of

  2. Strategy to Ensure Institutional Control Implementation at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document sets forth EPA’s strategy (Strategy) for ensuring that institutional controls (ICs) are successfully implemented at Superfund sites, with an emphasis on evaluating ICs at sites where all construction of all remedies is complete (construction complete sites).

  3. Perspectives of construction robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  4. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  5. The influences of age on T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the age related changes of T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice and immune function. Multi-color immunofluorescence techniques that were used to analyse relative numbers of T lymphocyte subsets include CD4+, CD8+, naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood of C57BL/6 mice from different age groups (Group I: 2 months old; Group II: 7 months old; Group III: 21 months old; Splenocytes isolated from different group mice were stimulated with Con A to evaluate the proliferative ability. Compared with group I, group II had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells, while group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of CD8+, memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood. Compared with group II, group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of naive CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood. The T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro showed that groups II and III had a lower proliferative capacity than group I, between groups II and III, there was not a significant difference. We provide relative values for the T lymphocyte subsets in the different age groups of C57BL/6 mice. The immune system began aging at 7 months old in C57BL/6 mice under a specific pathogen free environment.

  6. Inferences about nested subsets structure when not all species are detected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of species composition among ecological communities of different size have often provided evidence that the species in communities with lower species richness form nested subsets of the species in larger communities. In the vast majority of studies, the question of nested subsets has been addressed using information on presence-absence, where a '0' is interpreted as the absence of a given species from a given location. Most of the methodological discussion in earlier studies investigating nestedness concerns the approach to generation of model-based matrices. However, it is most likely that in many situations investigators cannot detect all the species present in the location sampled. The possibility that zeros in incidence matrices reflect nondetection rather than absence of species has not been considered in studies addressing nested subsets, even though the position of zeros in these matrices forms the basis of earlier inference methods. These sampling artifacts are likely to lead to erroneous conclusions about both variation over space in species richness and the degree of similarity of the various locations. Here we propose an approach to investigation of nestedness, based on statistical inference methods explicitly incorporating species detection probability, that take into account the probabilistic nature of the sampling process. We use presence-absence data collected under Pollock?s robust capture-recapture design, and resort to an estimator of species richness originally developed for closed populations to assess the proportion of species shared by different locations. We develop testable predictions corresponding to the null hypothesis of a nonnested pattern, and an alternative hypothesis of perfect nestedness. We also present an index for assessing the degree of nestedness of a system of ecological communities. We illustrate our approach using avian data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey collected in Florida Keys.

  7. Distribution of cyclophilin B-binding sites in the subsets of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, A; Allain, F; Foxwell, B; Spik, G

    1997-08-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein, mainly associated with the secretory pathway and released in biological fluids. We have recently demonstrated that both free CyPB and CyPB-CsA complex specifically bind to peripheral blood T lymphocytes and are internalized. These results suggest that CyPB might promote the targeting of the drug into sensitive cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are subdivided in several populations according to their biological functions and sensitivity to CsA. We have investigated the binding of CyPB to these different subsets using a CyPB derivatized by fluorescein through its single cysteine which retains its binding properties. We have confirmed that only T cells were involved in the interaction with CyPB. The ligand binding was found to be heterogeneously distributed on the different T-cell subsets and surface-bound CyPB was mainly associated with the CD4-positive cells. No significant difference was noted between the CD45RA and CD45RO subsets, demonstrating that CyPB-binding sites were equally distributed between native and memory T cells. CD3 stimulation of T lymphocytes led to a decrease in the CyPB-binding capacity, that may be explained by a down-regulation of the CyPB-receptor expression upon T-cell activation. Finally, we demonstrated that CyPB-receptor-positive cells, isolated on CyPB sulphydryl-coupled affinity matrices, are more sensitive to CyPB-complexed CsA than mixed peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that CyPB potentiates CsA activity through the binding of the complex. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CyPB-binding sites are mainly associated with resting cells of the helper T lymphocyte, and that CyPB might modulate the distribution of CsA through the drug targeting to sensitive cells.

  8. Cerebellins are differentially expressed in selective subsets of neurons throughout the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigneur, Erica; Südhof, Thomas C

    2017-10-15

    Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer', and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion. Here, we show that Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4 are abundantly expressed in nearly all brain regions, but exhibit strikingly different expression patterns and developmental dynamics. Using newly generated knockin reporter mice for Cbln2 and Cbln4, we find that Cbln2 and Cbln4 are not universally expressed in all neurons, but only in specific subsets of neurons. For example, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are broadly expressed in largely non-overlapping subpopulations of excitatory cortical neurons, but only sparse expression was observed in excitatory hippocampal neurons of the CA1- or CA3-region. Similarly, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are selectively expressed, respectively, in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory mitral projection neurons of the main olfactory bulb; here, these two classes of neurons form dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses with each other. A few brain regions, such as the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, exhibit astoundingly high Cbln2 expression levels. Viewed together, our data show that cerebellins are abundantly expressed in relatively small subsets of neurons, suggesting specific roles restricted to subsets of synapses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of some biased estimation methods (including ordinary subset regression) in the linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.

  10. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  11. Evaluating Stability and Comparing Output of Feature Selectors that Optimize Feature Subset Cardinality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Novovičová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2010), s. 1921-1939 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GA102/07/1594 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection * feature stability * stability measures * similarity measures * sequential search * individual ranking * feature subset-size optimization * high dimensionality * small sample size Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 5.027, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/somol-0348726.pdf

  12. A novel microglial subset plays a key role in myelinogenesis in developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Holtman, Inge; Krueger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system that contribute to homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Although known to play an important role in brain development, their exact function has not been fully described. Here we show that in contrast to healthy adult and inflammation......-activated cells, neonatal microglia show a unique myelinogenic and neurogenic phenotype. A CD11c+ microglial subset that predominates in primary myelinating areas of the developing brain expresses genes for neuronal and glial survival, migration and differentiation. These cells are the major source of insulin...

  13. Transfer by anisotropic scattering between subsets of the unit sphere of directions in linear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetti, T.

    1990-01-01

    The exact kernel method is presented for linear transport problems with azimuth-dependent angular fluxes. It is based on the evaluation of average scattering densities (ASD's) that fully describe the neutron (or particle) transfer between subsets of the unit sphere of directions by anisotropic scattering. Reciprocity and other ASD functional properties are proved and combined with the symmetry properties of suitable SN quadrature sets. This greatly reduces the number of independent ASD's to be computed and stored. An approach for performing ASD computations with reciprocity checks is presented. ASD expressions of the scattering source for typical 2D geometries are explicitly given. (author)

  14. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  15. Mouse NK cell-mediated rejection of bone marrow allografts exhibits patterns consistent with Ly49 subset licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Alvarez, Maite; Ames, Erik; Barao, Isabel; Chen, Mingyi; Longo, Dan L; Redelman, Doug; Murphy, William J

    2012-02-09

    Natural killer (NK) cells can mediate the rejection of bone marrow allografts and exist as subsets based on expression of inhibitory/activating receptors that can bind MHC. In vitro data have shown that NK subsets bearing Ly49 receptors for self-MHC class I have intrinsically higher effector function, supporting the hypothesis that NK cells undergo a host MHC-dependent functional education. These subsets also play a role in bone marrow cell (BMC) allograft rejection. Thus far, little in vivo evidence for this preferential licensing across mouse strains with different MHC haplotypes has been shown. We assessed the intrinsic response potential of the different Ly49(+) subsets in BMC rejection by using β2-microglobulin deficient (β2m(-/-)) mice as donors. Using congenic and allogeneic mice as recipients and depleting the different Ly49 subsets, we found that NK subsets bearing Ly49s, which bind "self-MHC" were found to be the dominant subset responsible for β2m(-/-) BMC rejection. This provides in vivo evidence for host MHC class I-dependent functional education. Interestingly, all H2(d) strain mice regardless of background were able to resist significantly greater amounts of β2m(-/-), but not wild-type BMC than H2(b) mice, providing evidence that the rheostat hypothesis regarding Ly49 affinities for MHC and NK-cell function impacts BMC rejection capability.

  16. Impact of Fragmentation Issue in Construction Industry: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nawi Mohd Nasrun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, fragmentation within the construction industry arises from two areas within the traditional construction process; the construction work process where the most significant division is in the separation of the design and construction phase, and the construction structure itself. The fragmentation process in traditional contracting practice further hinders the integration of construction knowledge among contractors, diminishing the opportunity for them to influence design decisions. When design professionals fail to consider as to how a contractor would construct the designed project results in scheduling problems, delays, and disputes during the construction process. Moving towards team integration is considered a significant strategy for overcoming the issue. Accordingly, this paper discusses the fragmentation issue in more detail including its definition, and causes and effects to the construction projects. It also explores that the team integration strategy alleviates scheduling problems, and helps avoid delays and disputes during the construction process, preventing harm to overall project performance.

  17. Adenovirus-specific T-cell Subsets in Human Peripheral Blood and After IFN-γ Immunomagnetic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chongsheng; Wang, Yingying; Cai, Huili; Laroye, Caroline; De Carvalho Bittencourt, Marcelo; Clement, Laurence; Stoltz, Jean-François; Decot, Véronique; Reppel, Loïc; Bensoussan, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive antiviral cellular immunotherapy by infusion of virus-specific T cells (VSTs) is becoming an alternative treatment for viral infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The T memory stem cell (TSCM) subset was recently described as exhibiting self-renewal and multipotency properties which are required for sustained efficacy in vivo. We wondered if such a crucial subset for immunotherapy was present in VSTs. We identified, by flow cytometry, TSCM in adenovirus (ADV)-specific interferon (IFN)-γ+ T cells before and after IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection, and analyzed the distribution of the main T-cell subsets in VSTs: naive T cells (TN), TSCM, T central memory cells (TCM), T effector memory cell (TEM), and effector T cells (TEFF). In this study all of the different T-cell subsets were observed in the blood sample from healthy donor ADV-VSTs, both before and after IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection. As the IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection system sorts mainly the most differentiated T-cell subsets, we observed that TEM was always the major T-cell subset of ADV-specific T cells after immunomagnetic isolation and especially after expansion in vitro. Comparing T-cell subpopulation profiles before and after in vitro expansion, we observed that in vitro cell culture with interleukin-2 resulted in a significant expansion of TN-like, TCM, TEM, and TEFF subsets in CD4IFN-γ T cells and of TCM and TEM subsets only in CD8IFN-γ T cells. We demonstrated the presence of all T-cell subsets in IFN-γ VSTs including the TSCM subpopulation, although this was weakly selected by the IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic selection system.

  18. Constructability - from Qinshan to the ACR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Fairclough, N.; Ricciuti, R.

    2003-01-01

    AECL has recognised the importance of Constructability for many years and is applying its principals to CANDU projects with increasing success. Constructability is defined as the consideration of construction knowledge and experience during all phases of a project, and recognizes that maximum benefit can be achieved during the concept phases of a project. The CANDU 6 Nuclear Power Plant has been constructed eleven times in the last 25 years, however, the last two units being completed on the Qinshan project in China have employed some very innovative construction methods that have not been used on the previous units. In order to make nuclear power generation more competitive, shorter construction schedules and reduced project costs and risks are essential objectives. The application of constructability principles is a major contributor to achieving these objectives. The success of Qinshan has increased the confidence in the new construction methods which are being implemented on the ACR (Advanced CANDU Reactor) successfully. An ACR construction strategy that utilizes advanced construction techniques has been developed by AECL. The strategy includes paralleling of activities by using extensive modularization and the vertical installation of equipment and modules into the reactor building, using a VHL (Very Heavy Lift) crane. This strategy allows short schedules to be met with a minimum risk to the project. This paper describes the latest construction methods used successfully on the Qinshan CANDU 6 project and looks at the extensive implementation of similar methods for ACR. It is concluded, based on the Qinshan success, that the ACR construction schedule is readily achievable. (author)

  19. Horizon Dam design, construction, and quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Nanaimo, BC (Canada); Sisson, R. [Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the design and construction of the Tar River Diversion Dam and the quality management system (QMS) used during construction. The project was unusual in that the company constructed the project using its own workforce, without contractors, under challenging schedule and site conditions. The topography, geology and geotechnical aspects of the site were discussed along with the embankment design, seepage control measures and construction execution. The QMS was designed to fit the needs of the unique construction execution strategy and meet safety, reliability, performance, and operation requirements, comply with all regulations and approval conditions, and identify and communicate risk to the appropriate entity. Specifications and construction procedures had to be modified to accommodate equipment operators trained with the skills and techniques of mine operations, not those associated with conventional civil construction projects. Foundation movement identified during construction required mid-build design changes, construction rescheduling, and additional deformation analyses to determine long-term stability. The QMS allowed changes in the understanding of site conditions to be quickly addressed and risks to be identified and cost-effectively mitigated. Design consultants were used to modify designs and appropriately identify and mitigate risks. The approach to embankment construction was successful because the QMS included processes for change management, issue resolution, and risk-benefit assessment, and because experienced personnel had a regular presence on the construction site and worked collaboratively. The effective QMS was deemed to be integral to the success of the construction project. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  20. NKT cell subsets as key participants in liver physiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Keya; Marrero, Idania; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that generally recognize lipid antigens and are enriched in microvascular compartments of the liver. NKT cells can be activated by self- or microbial-lipid antigens and by signaling through toll-like receptors. Following activation, NKT cells rapidly secrete pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and thereby determine the milieu for subsequent immunity or tolerance. It is becoming clear that two different subsets of NKT cells—type I and type II—have different modes of antigen recognition and have opposing roles in inflammatory liver diseases. Here we focus mainly on the roles of both NKT cell subsets in the maintenance of immune tolerance and inflammatory diseases in liver. Furthermore, how the differential activation of type I and type II NKT cells influences other innate cells and adaptive immune cells to result in important consequences for tissue integrity is discussed. It is crucial that better reagents, including CD1d tetramers, be used in clinical studies to define the roles of NKT cells in liver diseases in patients. PMID:26972772

  1. NKp46 identifies an NKT cell subset susceptible to leukemic transformation in mouse and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Mitsui, Takeki; Wei, Min; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Shah, Mithun Vinod; Zhang, Jianying; Mishra, Anjali; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Liu, Xingluo; Liu, Shujun; Yokohama, Akihiko; Trotta, Rossana; Marcucci, Guido; Benson, Don M.; Loughran, Thomas P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    IL-15 may have a role in the development of T cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) or NKT leukemias. However, the mechanisms of action and the identity of the cell subset that undergoes leukemic transformation remain elusive. Here we show that in both mice and humans, NKp46 expression marks a minute population of WT NKT cells with higher activity and potency to become leukemic. Virtually 100% of T-LGL leukemias in IL-15 transgenic mice expressed NKp46, as did a majority of human T-LGL leukemias. The minute NKp46+ NKT population, but not the NKp46– NKT population, was selectively expanded by overexpression of endogenous IL-15. Importantly, IL-15 transgenic NKp46– NKT cells did not become NKp46+ in vivo, suggesting that NKp46+ T-LGL leukemia cells were the malignant counterpart of the minute WT NKp46+ NKT population. Mechanistically, NKp46+ NKT cells possessed higher responsiveness to IL-15 in vitro and in vivo compared with that of their NKp46– NKT counterparts. Furthermore, interruption of IL-15 signaling using a neutralizing antibody could prevent LGL leukemia in IL-15 transgenic mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NKp46 identifies a functionally distinct NKT subset in mice and humans that appears to be directly susceptible to leukemic transformation when IL-15 is overexpressed. Thus, IL-15 signaling and NKp46 may be useful targets in the treatment of patients with T-LGL or NKT leukemia. PMID:21364281

  2. Different subsets of natural killer T cells may vary in their roles in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin; Delovitch, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) can regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Type I and type II NKT cell subsets recognize different lipid antigens presented by CD1d, an MHC class-I-like molecule. Most type I NKT cells express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR), but a major subset of type II NKT cells reactive to a self antigen sulphatide use an oligoclonal TCR. Whereas TCR-α dominates CD1d-lipid recognition by type I NKT cells, TCR-α and TCR-β contribute equally to CD1d-lipid recognition by type II NKT cells. These variable modes of NKT cell recognition of lipid–CD1d complexes activate a host of cytokine-dependent responses that can either exacerbate or protect from disease. Recent studies of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases have led to a hypothesis that: (i) although type I NKT cells can promote pathogenic and regulatory responses, they are more frequently pathogenic, and (ii) type II NKT cells are predominantly inhibitory and protective from such responses and diseases. This review focuses on a further test of this hypothesis by the use of recently developed techniques, intravital imaging and mass cytometry, to analyse the molecular and cellular dynamics of type I and type II NKT cell antigen-presenting cell motility, interaction, activation and immunoregulation that promote immune responses leading to health versus disease outcomes. PMID:24428389

  3. NKT-cell subsets: promoters and protectors in inflammatory liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) are innate-like cells which are abundant in liver sinusoids and express the cell surface receptors of NK cells (e.g., NK1.1 (mouse) or CD161+/CD56+(human)) as well as an antigen receptor (TCR) characteristic of conventional T cells. NKT cells recognize lipid antigens in the context of CD1d, a non-polymorphic MHC class I-like molecule. Activation of NKT cells has a profound influence on the immune response against tumors and infectious organisms and in autoimmune diseases. NKT cells can be categorized into at least two distinct subsets: iNKT or type I use a semi-invariant TCR, whereas type II NKT TCRs are more diverse. Recent evidence suggests that NKT-cell subsets can play opposing roles early in non-microbial liver inflammation in that type I NKT are proinflammatory whereas type II NKT cells inhibit type I NKT-mediated liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NKT cell subsets as key participants in liver physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Keya; Marrero, Idania; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-05-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that generally recognize lipid antigens and are enriched in microvascular compartments of the liver. NKT cells can be activated by self- or microbial-lipid antigens and by signaling through toll-like receptors. Following activation, NKT cells rapidly secrete pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and thereby determine the milieu for subsequent immunity or tolerance. It is becoming clear that two different subsets of NKT cells-type I and type II-have different modes of antigen recognition and have opposing roles in inflammatory liver diseases. Here we focus mainly on the roles of both NKT cell subsets in the maintenance of immune tolerance and inflammatory diseases in liver. Furthermore, how the differential activation of type I and type II NKT cells influences other innate cells and adaptive immune cells to result in important consequences for tissue integrity is discussed. It is crucial that better reagents, including CD1d tetramers, be used in clinical studies to define the roles of NKT cells in liver diseases in patients.

  5. Changes in Circulating B Cell Subsets Associated with Aging and Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W L William; Gonzalez, Denise F; Kieu, Hung T; Castillo, Luis D; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Shacklett, Barbara L; Barry, Peter A; Sparger, Ellen E

    2017-01-01

    Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP) model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques. We then utilized the expanded panel to analyze B cell alterations associated with aging and acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in the NHP model. In the aging study, distinct patterns of B cell subset frequencies were observed for macaques aged one to five years compared to those between ages 5 and 30 years. In the SIV infection study, B cell frequencies and absolute number were dramatically reduced following acute infection, but recovered within four weeks of infection. Thereafter, the frequencies of activated memory B cells progressively increased; these were significantly correlated with the magnitude of SIV-specific IgG responses, and coincided with impaired maturation of anti-SIV antibody avidity, as previously reported for HIV-1 infection. These observations further validate the NHP model for investigation of mechanisms responsible for B cells alterations associated with immunosenescence and infectious disease.

  6. Peripheral lymphocyte subset variation predicts prostate cancer carbon ion radiotherapy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ze-Liang; Li, Bing-Xin; Wu, Xian-Wei; Li, Ping; Zhang, Qing; Wei, Xun-Bin; Fu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    The immune system plays a complementary role in the cytotoxic activity of radiotherapy. Here, we examined changes in immune cell subsets after heavy ion therapy for prostate cancer. The lymphocyte counts were compared with acute radiotherapy-related toxicity, defined according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and short-term local efficacy, defined based on prostate-specific antigen concentrations. Confirmed prostate cancer patients who had not received previous radiotherapy were administered carbon ion radiotherapy (CIR) in daily fractions of 2.74 GyE with a total dose of 63-66 GyE. Lymphocyte subset counts were investigated before, during and after radiotherapy, and at a 1 month follow-up. Most notable among our findings, the CD4/CD8 ratio and CD19+ cell counts were consistently higher in patients with a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) to CIR than in those classified in the stable disease (SD) group (P<0.05 for both). But CD3+ and CD8+ cell counts were lower in the CR and PR groups than in the SD group. These results indicate that variations in peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations are predictive of outcome after CIR for prostate cancer. PMID:27029063

  7. Alterations on peripheral B cell subsets following an acute uncomplicated clinical malaria infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng'ang'a Zipporah W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of Plasmodium falciparum on B-cell homeostasis have not been well characterized. This study investigated whether an episode of acute malaria in young children results in changes in the peripheral B cell phenotype. Methods Using flow-cytofluorimetric analysis, the B cell phenotypes found in the peripheral blood of children aged 2–5 years were characterized during an episode of acute uncomplicated clinical malaria and four weeks post-recovery and in healthy age-matched controls. Results There was a significant decrease in CD19+ B lymphocytes during acute malaria. Characterization of the CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood based on expression of IgD and CD38 revealed a significant decrease in the numbers of naive 1 CD38-IgD+ B cells while there was an increase in CD38+IgD- memory 3 B cells during acute malaria. Further analysis of the peripheral B cell phenotype also identified an expansion of transitional CD10+CD19+ B cells in children following an episode of acute malaria with up to 25% of total CD19+ B cell pool residing in this subset. Conclusion Children experiencing an episode of acute uncomplicated clinical malaria experienced profound disturbances in B cell homeostasis.

  8. Biophysical subsets of embryonic stem cells display distinct phenotypic and morphological signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Bongiorno

    Full Text Available The highly proliferative and pluripotent characteristics of embryonic stem cells engender great promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but the rapid identification and isolation of target cell phenotypes remains challenging. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to characterize cell mechanics as a function of differentiation and to employ differences in cell stiffness to select population subsets with distinct mechanical, morphological, and biological properties. Biomechanical analysis with atomic force microscopy revealed that embryonic stem cells stiffened within one day of differentiation induced by leukemia inhibitory factor removal, with a lagging but pronounced change from spherical to spindle-shaped cell morphology. A microfluidic device was then employed to sort a differentially labeled mixture of pluripotent and differentiating cells based on stiffness, resulting in pluripotent cell enrichment in the soft device outlet. Furthermore, sorting an unlabeled population of partially differentiated cells produced a subset of "soft" cells that was enriched for the pluripotent phenotype, as assessed by post-sort characterization of cell mechanics, morphology, and gene expression. The results of this study indicate that intrinsic cell mechanical properties might serve as a basis for efficient, high-throughput, and label-free isolation of pluripotent stem cells, which will facilitate a greater biological understanding of pluripotency and advance the potential of pluripotent stem cell differentiated progeny as cell sources for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  9. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  10. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  11. Attractor controllability of Boolean networks by flipping a subset of their nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafimanzelat, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Fariba

    2018-04-01

    The controllability analysis of Boolean networks (BNs), as models of biomolecular regulatory networks, has drawn the attention of researchers in recent years. In this paper, we aim at governing the steady-state behavior of BNs using an intervention method which can easily be applied to most real system, which can be modeled as BNs, particularly to biomolecular regulatory networks. To this end, we introduce the concept of attractor controllability of a BN by flipping a subset of its nodes, as the possibility of making a BN converge from any of its attractors to any other one, by one-time flipping members of a subset of BN nodes. Our approach is based on the algebraic state-space representation of BNs using semi-tensor product of matrices. After introducing some new matrix tools, we use them to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the attractor controllability of BNs. A forward search algorithm is then suggested to identify the minimal perturbation set for attractor controllability of a BN. Next, a lower bound is derived for the cardinality of this set. Two new indices are also proposed for quantifying the attractor controllability of a BN and the influence of each network variable on the attractor controllability of the network and the relationship between them is revealed. Finally, we confirm the efficiency of the proposed approach by applying it to the BN models of some real biomolecular networks.

  12. A Study on Peripheral T Cell Subsets in Patients with Thyroid Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Soo

    1991-01-01

    To elucidate alteration of peripheral T cell subsets in thyroid tumors, the author enumerated T cell subsets in peripheral blood by indirect immunofluorescent method, using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4 and CD8) in 17 cases of thyroid cancer, 12 cases of thyroid adenoma, and 16 cases of adult healthy subjects as controls. Diagnoses were confirmed histopathologically in thyroid cancer and adenoma, and were established on the basis of commonly accepted clinical and biochemical criteria in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The blood was drawn from veins of (he patients and control subjects in Pusan National University Hospital during the period of January to October 1990. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1) The percentage of CD3+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with healthy subjects. 2) The percentage of CD4+ cells was not different among thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, hashimoto's thyroiditis and control subjects each other. 3) The percentage of CD8+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with adult healthy subjects, and tended to be decreased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. 4) The CD/CDH ratio was significantly increased in thyroid cancer as compared with control subjects, and tended to be increased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. On the basis of (the results, it can be suggested that the immunodysfunction may be due to decreased suppressor/cytotoxic T cells in thyroid cancer.

  13. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete synchronization of chaotic atmospheric models by connecting only a subset of state space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Hiemstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Connected chaotic systems can, under some circumstances, synchronize their states with an exchange of matter and energy between the systems. This is the case for toy models like the Lorenz 63, and more complex models. In this study we perform synchronization experiments with two connected quasi-geostrophic (QG models of the atmosphere with 1449 degrees of freedom. The purpose is to determine whether connecting only a subset of the model state space can still lead to complete synchronization (CS. In addition, we evaluated whether empirical orthogonal functions (EOF form efficient basis functions for synchronization in order to limit the number of connections. In this paper, we show that only the intermediate spectral wavenumbers (5–12 need to be connected in order to achieve CS. In addition, the minimum connection timescale needed for CS is 7.3 days. Both the connection subset and the connection timescale, or strength, are consistent with the time and spatial scales of the baroclinic instabilities in the model. This is in line with the fact that the baroclinic instabilities are the largest source of divergence between the two connected models. Using the Lorenz 63 model, we show that EOFs are nearly optimal basis functions for synchronization. The QG model results show that the minimum number of EOFs that need to be connected for CS is a factor of three smaller than when connecting the original state variables.

  15. A Study on Peripheral T Cell Subsets in Patients with Thyroid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    To elucidate alteration of peripheral T cell subsets in thyroid tumors, the author enumerated T cell subsets in peripheral blood by indirect immunofluorescent method, using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4 and CD8) in 17 cases of thyroid cancer, 12 cases of thyroid adenoma, and 16 cases of adult healthy subjects as controls. Diagnoses were confirmed histopathologically in thyroid cancer and adenoma, and were established on the basis of commonly accepted clinical and biochemical criteria in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The blood was drawn from veins of (he patients and control subjects in Pusan National University Hospital during the period of January to October 1990. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1) The percentage of CD3+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with healthy subjects. 2) The percentage of CD4+ cells was not different among thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, hashimoto's thyroiditis and control subjects each other. 3) The percentage of CD8+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with adult healthy subjects, and tended to be decreased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. 4) The CD/CDH ratio was significantly increased in thyroid cancer as compared with control subjects, and tended to be increased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. On the basis of (the results, it can be suggested that the immunodysfunction may be due to decreased suppressor/cytotoxic T cells in thyroid cancer.

  16. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P chronic renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  17. EKF-GPR-Based Fingerprint Renovation for Subset-Based Indoor Localization with Adjusted Cosine Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Li, Yong; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Chenxi

    2018-01-22

    Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) localization using fingerprint has become a prevailing approach for indoor localization. However, the fingerprint-collecting work is repetitive and time-consuming. After the original fingerprint radio map is built, it is laborious to upgrade the radio map. In this paper, we describe a Fingerprint Renovation System (FRS) based on crowdsourcing, which avoids the use of manual labour to obtain the up-to-date fingerprint status. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in FRS are combined to calculate the current state based on the original fingerprinting radio map. In this system, a method of subset acquisition also makes an immediate impression to reduce the huge computation caused by too many reference points (RPs). Meanwhile, adjusted cosine similarity (ACS) is employed in the online phase to solve the issue of outliers produced by cosine similarity. Both experiments and analytical simulation in a real Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) environment indicate the usefulness of our system to significant performance improvements. The results show that FRS improves the accuracy by 19.6% in the surveyed area compared to the radio map un-renovated. Moreover, the proposed subset algorithm can bring less computation.

  18. EKF–GPR-Based Fingerprint Renovation for Subset-Based Indoor Localization with Adjusted Cosine Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Li, Yong; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) localization using fingerprint has become a prevailing approach for indoor localization. However, the fingerprint-collecting work is repetitive and time-consuming. After the original fingerprint radio map is built, it is laborious to upgrade the radio map. In this paper, we describe a Fingerprint Renovation System (FRS) based on crowdsourcing, which avoids the use of manual labour to obtain the up-to-date fingerprint status. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in FRS are combined to calculate the current state based on the original fingerprinting radio map. In this system, a method of subset acquisition also makes an immediate impression to reduce the huge computation caused by too many reference points (RPs). Meanwhile, adjusted cosine similarity (ACS) is employed in the online phase to solve the issue of outliers produced by cosine similarity. Both experiments and analytical simulation in a real Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) environment indicate the usefulness of our system to significant performance improvements. The results show that FRS improves the accuracy by 19.6% in the surveyed area compared to the radio map un-renovated. Moreover, the proposed subset algorithm can bring less computation. PMID:29361805

  19. 3D design terrain models for construction plans and GPS control of highway construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted with the objectives of 1) identifying and characterizing benefits and technological, institutional, cultural, and : legal impediments associated with adoption of 3D design and construction technologies, identifying strategies t...

  20. A multi-model fusion strategy for multivariate calibration using near and mid-infrared spectra of samples from brewing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Wanping; Wu, Tong; Diao, Yuanbo

    2013-03-01

    Near and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) spectroscopy techniques have gained great acceptance in the industry due to their multiple applications and versatility. However, a success of application often depends heavily on the construction of accurate and stable calibration models. For this purpose, a simple multi-model fusion strategy is proposed. It is actually the combination of Kohonen self-organizing map (KSOM), mutual information (MI) and partial least squares (PLSs) and therefore named as KMICPLS. It works as follows: First, the original training set is fed into a KSOM for unsupervised clustering of samples, on which a series of training subsets are constructed. Thereafter, on each of the training subsets, a MI spectrum is calculated and only the variables with higher MI values than the mean value are retained, based on which a candidate PLS model is constructed. Finally, a fixed number of PLS models are selected to produce a consensus model. Two NIR/MIR spectral datasets from brewing industry are used for experiments. The results confirms its superior performance to two reference algorithms, i.e., the conventional PLS and genetic algorithm-PLS (GAPLS). It can build more accurate and stable calibration models without increasing the complexity, and can be generalized to other NIR/MIR applications.

  1. Toronto green roof construction standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Toronto City Council adopted a green roof strategy in February 2006. This paper reviewed the by-law governing the strategy as well as the work in progress to develop minimum standards for the design and construction of green roofs in Toronto. The strategy included a series of recommendations regarding the installation of green roofs on city buildings; a pilot grant program; using the development process to encourage green roofs; and, public education and promotion. It was noted that compared to Europe, the development of standards for green roofs in North America is in its early stages. As an emerging sustainable technology, there currently are no standards incorporated into Ontario's Building Code against which Toronto can measure the design and construction of green roofs. Therefore this paper included an analysis detailing how the recommended design requirements were able to support the City's green roof policy objectives and integrate the performance criteria for green roofs previously established and supported by Toronto City Council. The key policy objectives of the City's green roof strategy were to reduce the urban heat island effect; to address stormwater management implications in terms of quality and quantity; to improve the energy budgets of individual buildings; and, to improve air quality

  2. Deferred slanted-edge analysis: a unified approach to spatial frequency response measurement on distorted images and color filter array subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, F

    2018-03-01

    The slanted-edge method of spatial frequency response (SFR) measurement is usually applied to grayscale images under the assumption that any distortion of the expected straight edge is negligible. By decoupling the edge orientation and position estimation step from the edge spread function construction step, it is shown in this paper that the slanted-edge method can be extended to allow it to be applied to images suffering from significant geometric distortion, such as produced by equiangular fisheye lenses. This same decoupling also allows the slanted-edge method to be applied directly to Bayer-mosaicked images so that the SFR of the color filter array subsets can be measured directly without the unwanted influence of demosaicking artifacts. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed deferred slanted-edge method in relation to existing methods.

  3. Three distinct developmental pathways for adaptive and two IFN-γ-producing γδ T subsets in adult thymus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Terkild Brink; Ødum, Niels; Geisler, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -producing γδ T cells (γδNKT). Developmental progression towards both IFN-γ-producing subsets can be induced by TCR signalling, and each pathway results in thymic emigration at a different stage. Finally, we show that γδT1 cells are the predominating IFN-γ-producing subset developing in the adult thymus. Thus......, this study maps out three distinct development pathways that result in the programming of γδTn, γδT1 and γδNKT cells.......Murine γδ T cells include subsets that are programmed for distinct effector functions during their development in the thymus. Under pathological conditions, different γδ T cell subsets can be protective or can exacerbate a disease. Here we show that CD117, CD200 and CD371, together with other...

  4. An Empirical Study of Wrappers for Feature Subset Selection based on a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: The Multi-Wrapper Model

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2012-01-01

    proper criterion seeks to find the best subset of features describing data (relevance) and achieving better performance (optimality). Wrapper approaches are feature selection methods which are wrapped around a classification algorithm and use a

  5. Comparison of subset-based local and FE-based global digital image correlation: Theoretical error analysis and validation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, B.; Wang, Bo; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Subset-based local and finite-element-based (FE-based) global digital image correlation (DIC) approaches are the two primary image matching algorithms widely used for full-field displacement mapping. Very recently, the performances

  6. An Empirical Study of Wrappers for Feature Subset Selection based on a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: The Multi-Wrapper Model

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2012-09-01

    Feature selection is the first task of any learning approach that is applied in major fields of biomedical, bioinformatics, robotics, natural language processing and social networking. In feature subset selection problem, a search methodology with a proper criterion seeks to find the best subset of features describing data (relevance) and achieving better performance (optimality). Wrapper approaches are feature selection methods which are wrapped around a classification algorithm and use a performance measure to select the best subset of features. We analyze the proper design of the objective function for the wrapper approach and highlight an objective based on several classification algorithms. We compare the wrapper approaches to different feature selection methods based on distance and information based criteria. Significant improvement in performance, computational time, and selection of minimally sized feature subsets is achieved by combining different objectives for the wrapper model. In addition, considering various classification methods in the feature selection process could lead to a global solution of desirable characteristics.

  7. CP-25 Alleviates Experimental Sjögren's Syndrome Features in NOD/Ltj Mice and Modulates T Lymphocyte Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fang; Xu, Shixia; Zhang, Pengying; Chen, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yujing; Wang, Chun; Gao, Mei; Si, Min; Wang, Xinming; Heinrich, Korner; Wu, Huaxun; Wei, Wei

    2018-04-17

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune illness of the moisture-producing glands such as salivary glands that is characterized by various immune abnormalities. The aetiology of pSS remains unclear and there is no curative agent. In this study, we investigated the putative therapeutic effects on a NOD/Ltj mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome-like disorders of an ester derivative of paeoniflorin, paeoniflorin-6'O-benzene (termed CP-25). Our study showed that CP-25 alleviated effectively clinical manifestations in NOD/Ltj mice resulting, for example, in increased salivary flow and reduced histopathological scores. Furthermore, CP-25 decreased lymphocyte viability in NOD/Ltj mice and attenuated the infiltration of Th1 cells and Th2 cells into the salivary glands of NOD/Ltj mice. In the spleen on NOD/Ltj mice, CP-25 skewed the ratio of Th17 and regulatory T cells towards regulatory T cells. After treatment, concentrations of anti-La/SSB and IgG antibodies were reduced and the titre of the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum on NOD/Ltj mice was alleviated. Thus, we define CP-25 as a novel compound that is a potent therapeutic agent for pSS by modulating T lymphocyte subsets. Future studies will validate the use of CP-25 as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pSS. © 2018 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  8. Identifying the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles in nonlinear kinetic metabolic models via multiobjective global optimization and Pareto filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pozo

    Full Text Available Optimization models in metabolic engineering and systems biology focus typically on optimizing a unique criterion, usually the synthesis rate of a metabolite of interest or the rate of growth. Connectivity and non-linear regulatory effects, however, make it necessary to consider multiple objectives in order to identify useful strategies that balance out different metabolic issues. This is a fundamental aspect, as optimization of maximum yield in a given condition may involve unrealistic values in other key processes. Due to the difficulties associated with detailed non-linear models, analysis using stoichiometric descriptions and linear optimization methods have become rather popular in systems biology. However, despite being useful, these approaches fail in capturing the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the underlying metabolic systems and the regulatory signals involved. Targeting more complex biological systems requires the application of global optimization methods to non-linear representations. In this work we address the multi-objective global optimization of metabolic networks that are described by a special class of models based on the power-law formalism: the generalized mass action (GMA representation. Our goal is to develop global optimization methods capable of efficiently dealing with several biological criteria simultaneously. In order to overcome the numerical difficulties of dealing with multiple criteria in the optimization, we propose a heuristic approach based on the epsilon constraint method that reduces the computational burden of generating a set of Pareto optimal alternatives, each achieving a unique combination of objectives values. To facilitate the post-optimal analysis of these solutions and narrow down their number prior to being tested in the laboratory, we explore the use of Pareto filters that identify the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by means of a case study

  9. Identifying the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles in nonlinear kinetic metabolic models via multiobjective global optimization and Pareto filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Carlos; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Sorribas, Albert; Jiménez, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Optimization models in metabolic engineering and systems biology focus typically on optimizing a unique criterion, usually the synthesis rate of a metabolite of interest or the rate of growth. Connectivity and non-linear regulatory effects, however, make it necessary to consider multiple objectives in order to identify useful strategies that balance out different metabolic issues. This is a fundamental aspect, as optimization of maximum yield in a given condition may involve unrealistic values in other key processes. Due to the difficulties associated with detailed non-linear models, analysis using stoichiometric descriptions and linear optimization methods have become rather popular in systems biology. However, despite being useful, these approaches fail in capturing the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the underlying metabolic systems and the regulatory signals involved. Targeting more complex biological systems requires the application of global optimization methods to non-linear representations. In this work we address the multi-objective global optimization of metabolic networks that are described by a special class of models based on the power-law formalism: the generalized mass action (GMA) representation. Our goal is to develop global optimization methods capable of efficiently dealing with several biological criteria simultaneously. In order to overcome the numerical difficulties of dealing with multiple criteria in the optimization, we propose a heuristic approach based on the epsilon constraint method that reduces the computational burden of generating a set of Pareto optimal alternatives, each achieving a unique combination of objectives values. To facilitate the post-optimal analysis of these solutions and narrow down their number prior to being tested in the laboratory, we explore the use of Pareto filters that identify the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by means of a case study that optimizes the

  10. Effect of cytomegalovirus co-infection on normalization of selected T-cell subsets in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Aaron, Lisa; Montepiedra, Grace; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Pahwa, Savita; Burchett, Sandra; Weinberg, Adriana; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection and viremia on reconstitution of selected CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children ≥ 1-year old who participated in a partially randomized, open-label, 96-week combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-algorithm study. Participants were categorized as CMV-naïve, CMV-positive (CMV+) viremic, and CMV+ aviremic, based on blood, urine, or throat culture, CMV IgG and DNA polymerase chain reaction measured at baseline. At weeks 0, 12, 20 and 40, T-cell subsets including naïve (CD62L+CD45RA+; CD95-CD28+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+) and terminally differentiated (CD62L-CD45RA+; CD95+CD28-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were measured by flow cytometry. Of the 107 participants included in the analysis, 14% were CMV+ viremic; 49% CMV+ aviremic; 37% CMV-naïve. In longitudinal adjusted models, compared with CMV+ status, baseline CMV-naïve status was significantly associated with faster recovery of CD8+CD62L+CD45RA+% and CD8+CD95-CD28+% and faster decrease of CD8+CD95+CD28-%, independent of HIV VL response to treatment, cART regimen and baseline CD4%. Surprisingly, CMV status did not have a significant impact on longitudinal trends in CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+%. CMV status did not have a significant impact on any CD4+ T-cell subsets. In this cohort of PHIV+ children, the normalization of naïve and terminally differentiated CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to cART was detrimentally affected by the presence of CMV co-infection. These findings may have implications for adjunctive treatment strategies targeting CMV co-infection in PHIV+ children, especially those that are now adults or reaching young adulthood and may have accelerated immunologic aging, increased opportunistic infections and aging diseases of the immune system.

  11. Effect of cytomegalovirus co-infection on normalization of selected T-cell subsets in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Kapetanovic

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV co-infection and viremia on reconstitution of selected CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+ children ≥ 1-year old who participated in a partially randomized, open-label, 96-week combination antiretroviral therapy (cART-algorithm study.Participants were categorized as CMV-naïve, CMV-positive (CMV+ viremic, and CMV+ aviremic, based on blood, urine, or throat culture, CMV IgG and DNA polymerase chain reaction measured at baseline. At weeks 0, 12, 20 and 40, T-cell subsets including naïve (CD62L+CD45RA+; CD95-CD28+, activated (CD38+HLA-DR+ and terminally differentiated (CD62L-CD45RA+; CD95+CD28- CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were measured by flow cytometry.Of the 107 participants included in the analysis, 14% were CMV+ viremic; 49% CMV+ aviremic; 37% CMV-naïve. In longitudinal adjusted models, compared with CMV+ status, baseline CMV-naïve status was significantly associated with faster recovery of CD8+CD62L+CD45RA+% and CD8+CD95-CD28+% and faster decrease of CD8+CD95+CD28-%, independent of HIV VL response to treatment, cART regimen and baseline CD4%. Surprisingly, CMV status did not have a significant impact on longitudinal trends in CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+%. CMV status did not have a significant impact on any CD4+ T-cell subsets.In this cohort of PHIV+ children, the normalization of naïve and terminally differentiated CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to cART was detrimentally affected by the presence of CMV co-infection. These findings may have implications for adjunctive treatment strategies targeting CMV co-infection in PHIV+ children, especially those that are now adults or reaching young adulthood and may have accelerated immunologic aging, increased opportunistic infections and aging diseases of the immune system.

  12. Generation of a novel regulatory NK cell subset from peripheral blood CD34+ progenitors promoted by membrane-bound IL-15.

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    Massimo Giuliani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NK cells have been long time considered as cytotoxic lymphocytes competent in killing virus-infected cells and tumors. However, NK cells may also play essential immuno-regulatory functions. In this context, the real existence of a defined NK subset with negative regulatory properties has been hypothesized but never clearly demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we show the in vitro generation from human peripheral blood haematopoietic progenitors (PB-HP, of a novel subset of non-cytolytic NK cells displaying a mature phenotype and remarkable immuno-regulatory functions (NK-ireg. The main functional hallmark of these NK-ireg cells is represented by the surface expression/release of HLA-G, a major immunosuppressive molecule. In addition, NK-ireg cells secrete two powerful immuno-regulatory factors: IL-10 and IL-21. Through these factors, NK-ireg cells act as effectors of the down-regulation of the immune response: reconverting mature myeloid DC (mDC into immature/tolerogenic DC, blocking cytolytic functions on conventional NK cells and inducing HLA-G membrane expression on PB-derived monocytes. The generation of "NK-ireg" cells is obtained, by default, in culture conditions favouring cell-to-cell contacts, and it is strictly dependent on reciprocal trans-presentation of membrane-bound IL-15 forms constitutively and selectively expressed by human CD34(+ PB-HP. Finally, a small subset of NKp46(+ HLA-G(+ IL-10(+ is detected within freshly isolated decidual NK cells, suggesting that these cells could represent an in vivo counterpart of the NK-ireg cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, NK-ireg cells represent a novel truly differentiated non-cytolytic NK subset with a self-sustainable phenotype (CD56(+ CD16(+ NKp30(+ NKp44(+ NKp46(+ CD94(+ CD69(+ CCR7(+ generated from specific pSTAT6(+ GATA3(+ precursors. NK-ireg cells could be employed to develop new immuno-suppressive strategies in autoimmune diseases, transplant

  13. Different spectra of recurrent gene mutations in subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia harboring stereotyped B-cell receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, Lesley-Ann; Young, Emma; Baliakas, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    We report on markedly different frequencies of genetic lesions within subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients carrying mutated or unmutated stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulins in the largest cohort (n=565) studied for this purpose. By combining data on recurrent gene mutations...... subsets implies that the mechanisms underlying clinical aggressiveness are not uniform, but rather support the existence of distinct genetic pathways of clonal evolution governed by a particular stereotyped B-cell receptor selecting a certain molecular lesion(s)....

  14. Radioiodine-induced changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

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    Tofani, A.; Sciuto, R.; Cioffi, R.P.; Pasqualoni, R.; Rea, S.; Festa, A.; Maini, C.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Gandolfo, G.M.; Arista, M.C. [Department of Clinical Pathology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with thyroid carcinoma who received iodine-131 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Twenty thyroid cancer patients were entered in the study after total thyroidectomy: ten patients (group A) underwent whole-body scintigraphy with 185 MBq of {sup 131}I and the other ten (group B) received 3700 MBq of {sup 131}I therapy. All patients were in a hypothyroid state at the time of administration of {sup 131}I and started l-thyroxine 150 {mu}g/day 3 days after {sup 131}I administration. Free and bound triiodothyronine and thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid peroxidase/microsomal antibodies, white blood cell, lymphocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets were serially determined at baseline and at days 2, 7, 15, 30 and 60 after {sup 131}I administration. Twenty healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were used as a reference population for lymphocyte subset values. In group A only a reduction in NK cells at days 7 (P=0.043) and 15 (P=0.037) was observed. In group B, patients showed a delayed reduction in the total lymphocyte count at days 15, 30 and 60 (P=0.008, 0.004 and 0.018, respectively), and a decrease in B cells throughout the study (at days 7, 15, 30 and 60: P=0.006, 0.0017, 0.0017 and 0.0017 respectively). A transient decrease in NK cells was observed at days 15 (P=0.025) and 30 (P=0.008). Among T cells, the helper phenotype (CD4+) was mainly affected, resulting in a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at day 60 (P=0.046). Comparing the two groups, the numbers of B lymphocytes at day 30 (P=0.023) and NK cells at days 2 (P=0.037) and 30 (P=0.023) were significantly lower in group B. Neither group showed any clinical sign of immunosuppression during the follow-up period. In patients with thyroid cancer the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the effects of {sup 131}I administered for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes depends upon lymphocyte phenotype and {sup

  15. Inter-donor variation in cell subset specific immune signaling responses in healthy individuals.

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    Longo, Diane M; Louie, Brent; Wang, Ena; Pos, Zoltan; Marincola, Francesco M; Hawtin, Rachael E; Cesano, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Single cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parameter flow cytometry based approach that allows for the simultaneous interrogation of intracellular signaling pathways in multiple cell subpopulations within heterogeneous tissues, without the need for individual cell subset isolation. Thus, the technology is extremely well-suited for characterizing the multitude of interconnected signaling pathways and immune cell subpopulations that regulate the function of the immune system. Recently, SCNP was applied to generate a functional map of the healthy human immune cell signaling network by profiling immune signaling pathways downstream of 12 immunomodulators in 7 distinct immune cell subsets within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 60 healthy donors. In the study reported here, the degree of inter-donor variation in the magnitude of the immune signaling responses was analyzed. The highest inter-donor differences in immune signaling pathway activity occurred following perturbation of the immune signaling network, rather than in basal signaling. When examining the full panel of immune signaling responses, as one may expect, the overall degree of inter-donor variation was positively correlated (r = 0.727) with the magnitude of node response (i.e. a larger median signaling response was associated with greater inter-donor variation). However, when examining the degree of heterogeneity across cell subpopulations for individual signaling nodes, cell subset specificity in the degree of inter-donor variation was observed for several nodes. For such nodes, relatively weak correlations between inter-donor variation and the magnitude of the response were observed. Further, within the phenotypically distinct subpopulations, a fraction of the immune signaling responses had bimodal response profiles in which (a) only a portion of the cells had elevated phospho-protein levels following modulation and (b) the proportion of responsive cells varied by donor. These data

  16. The role of dendritic cell subsets and innate immunity in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases

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    Jeffrey D. Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are key antigen presenting cells that have an important role in autoimmune pathogenesis. DCs control both steady-state T cell tolerance and activation of pathogenic responses. The balance between these two outcomes depends on several factors, including genetic susceptibility, environmental signals that stimulate varied innate responses, and which DC subset is presenting antigen. Although the specific DC phenotype can diverge depending on the tissue location and context, there are 4 main subsets identified in both mouse and human: conventional cDC1 and cDC2, plasmacytoid DCs, and monocyte-derived DCs. In this review, we will discuss the role of these subsets in autoimmune pathogenesis and regulation, as well as the genetic and environmental signals that influence their function. Specific topics to be addressed include: impact of susceptibility loci on DC subsets, alterations in DC subset development, the role of infection- and host-derived innate inflammatory signals, and the role of the intestinal microbiota on DC phenotype. The effects of these various signals on disease progression and the relative effects of DC subset composition and maturation level of DCs will be examined. These areas will be explored using examples from several autoimmune diseases but will focus mainly on type 1 diabetes.

  17. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  18. Differential expression of granulopoiesis related genes in neutrophil subsets distinguished by membrane expression of CD177

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Nan; Mora-Jensen, Helena; Theilgaard-Mønch, Kim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Differential gene expression in CD177+ and CD177- neutrophils was investigated, in order to detect possible differences in neutrophil function which could be related to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated Vasculitides (AAV). METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy controls (HC......) with high, negative or bimodal CD177 expression, and sorted into CD177+ and CD177- subpopulations. Total RNA was screened for expression of 24,000 probes with Illumina Ref-8 Beadchips. Genes showing differential expression between CD177+ and CD177- subsets in microarray analysis were re-assessed using...... quantitative-PCR. CD177 expression on neutrophil precursors in bone marrow was analyzed using quantitative PCR and flowcytometry. RESULTS: The proportion of CD177+ cells increased during neutrophil maturation in bone marrow. Fold change analysis of gene expression profile of sorted CD177+ and CD177...

  19. On the reduced dynamics of a subset of interacting bosonic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Manuel; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    The quantum dynamics of a subset of interacting bosons in a subspace of fixed particle number is described in terms of symmetrized many-particle states. A suitable partial trace operation over the von Neumann equation of an N-particle system produces a hierarchical expansion for the subdynamics of M ≤ N particles. Truncating this hierarchy with a pure product state ansatz yields the general, nonlinear coherent mean-field equation of motion. In the special case of a contact interaction potential, this reproduces the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. To account for incoherent effects on top of the mean-field evolution, we discuss possible extensions towards a second-order perturbation theory that accounts for interaction-induced decoherence in form of a nonlinear Lindblad-type master equation.

  20. Wash functions downstream of Rho1 GTPase in a subset of Drosophila immune cell developmental migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboon, Jeffrey M.; Rahe, Travis K.; Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila immune cells, the hemocytes, undergo four stereotypical developmental migrations to populate the embryo, where they provide immune reconnoitering, as well as a number of non–immune-related functions necessary for proper embryogenesis. Here, we describe a role for Rho1 in one of these developmental migrations in which posteriorly located hemocytes migrate toward the head. This migration requires the interaction of Rho1 with its downstream effector Wash, a Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome family protein. Both Wash knockdown and a Rho1 transgene harboring a mutation that prevents Wash binding exhibit the same developmental migratory defect as Rho1 knockdown. Wash activates the Arp2/3 complex, whose activity is needed for this migration, whereas members of the WASH regulatory complex (SWIP, Strumpellin, and CCDC53) are not. Our results suggest a WASH complex–independent signaling pathway to regulate the cytoskeleton during a subset of hemocyte developmental migrations. PMID:25739458