Sample records for subsequent american matsutake

  1. Ecology and management of the commercially harvested American matsutake. (United States)

    David Hosford; David Pilz; Randy Molina; Michael. Amaranthus


    The commercial harvest of American matsutake (Tricholoma magnivelare) from forests in the Pacific Northwest has increased dramatically in the last decade. The similarity of this mushroom to the Japanese matsutake (T. matsutake) has prompted its harvest to meet increasing demands for matsutake in Japan. The American matsutake is...

  2. North American matsutake: names clarified and a new species described. (United States)

    Trudell, Steven A; Xu, Jianping; Saar, Irja; Justo, Alfredo; Cifuentes, Joaquin


    Tricholoma matsutake, known widely as "matsutake," has great commercial and cultural significance in Japan. Because Japanese production is insufficient to meet the high domestic demand, morphologically similar mushrooms, thought by many to belong to T. magnivelare, are imported from western North America. However, molecular data produced since the early 2000s have indicated that more than one species of matsutake occur in North America and this raises the question of correct naming for the different species. To address this question, we assessed the phylogenetic diversity within North American matsutake based on nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] barcode) sequences, including newly obtained sequences from the type collections for Agaricus ponderosus and Armillaria arenicola, and morphological characters. Our results agree with earlier indications that three matsutake species occur in North America and allow us to clarify the correct application of names-T. magnivelare from the eastern USA and Canada, T. murrillianum from the western USA and Canada, and T. mesoamericanum from Mexico, newly described here. The existence of the three North American species is further supported by the results of evolutionary divergence analysis, geographical distributions, and morphological characters.

  3. A pediatric case of anaphylaxis caused by matsutake mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) ingestion. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazushi; Ito, Reiko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Aihara, Michiko; Osuna, Hiroyuki; Aihara, Yukoh


    Anaphylaxis is one of the severest forms of allergic diseases. Some kinds of mushroom are known as causative allergens in food anaphylaxis. Matsutake mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) is a typical edible mushroom available in autumn in Japan. We encountered an 8-year-old Japanese girl who developed anaphylaxis after ingesting matsutake mushrooms. We studied the case in detail, by measuring specific IgE antibodies and conducting skin tests, to confirm the diagnosis. We also detected seven cytokines and chemical mediators in the blood in order to study the pathophysiology of the anaphylaxis. We diagnosed anaphylaxis caused by ingestion of matsutake mushrooms based on the following. A skin prick test showed a positive reaction to matsutake mushroom, and specific IgE antibody for matsutake mushroom extract was detected in the patient's serum by fluorometric ELISA. Blood levels of chemical mediators including histamine, ECP, tryptase and cytokines such as IL-6, IL-5 and IL-10 but not IFN-gamma also increased significantly during the allergic episode. We demonstrated that chemical mediators including histamine, tryptase and ECP as well as several cytokines were involved significantly during the episode of anaphylaxis. In addition, eosinophils as well as mast cells played significant roles in the anaphylaxis. Furthermore, CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells that released IL-10 were likely activated during the anaphylaxis. Matsutake mushroom should be considered as a causative allergen in food anaphylaxis.

  4. A new form of collaboration in cultural anthropology: Matsutake worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. K, Choy,; Tsing, Anna


    Experiments in collaboration open new investigative possibilities for cultural anthropologists. In this report, we use our research on matsutake mushrooms to show the promise of collaborative experiments for ethnographers of scale making, global connection, and human–nonhuman relations. Anna Tsing...... introduces. Mogu Mogu (Timothy Choy and Shiho Satsuka) argue that the mushroomic figure of mycorrhizal life illuminates workings of capital and power, nature and culture. Lieba Faier examines contingency—through the effect of weather and bugs on matsutake production—as a form of self-positioning that emerges...

  5. Application of SRAP in the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2010 ... mushrooms. The study firstly applied SRAP technique into genetic diversity of T. matsutake. A total of. 129 strains from 13 geographical locations in northeastern China, were amplified by using ... of the most delicious and valuable edible mushrooms in ..... to examine the genetic diversity in basidiomycetes.

  6. Application of SRAP in the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2010 ... Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus that produces economically important mushrooms. The study firstly ... mercial value and a very important role in non-timber forest products, very little is ... densiflora, as the dominant species (with a frequency higher than. 85%), Quercus mongolica ...

  7. Mapping non-wood forest product (matsutake mushrooms) using logistic regression and a GIS expert system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Skidmore, A.K.; Melick, D.R.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, J.


    Matsutake (Tricholoma spp.) are a group of commercially important mushrooms that are increasingly threatened by over-collection. Ecologically sustainable management of matsutake has been hindered by the lack of essential information such as reliable distribution maps. Although a variety of spatial

  8. Applied Mycology Can Contribute to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Building upon China's Matsutake Management Initiatives. (United States)

    Brown, Madeline; McLellan, Timothy; Li, Huili; Karunarathna, Samantha C


    Matsutake mushrooms are an important part of rural livelihoods and forest ecosystems across large parts of China, as well as elsewhere in East Asia, Northern Europe and North America. Mushroom harvesters have developed sophisticated understandings of matsutake ecology and production, and are applying this knowledge in various innovative management strategies. At the same time, Chinese government agencies and scientists are promoting matsutake-based livelihoods to support development and conservation goals. We collaborated with matsutake harvesters in one Yunnan community to carry out a systematic experiment on a popular shiro-level management technique: covering matsutake shiros with either plastic or leaf litter. Our experimental results suggest that although leaf litter coverings are superior to plastic coverings, shiros that are left uncovered may produce the highest yields. Complementing our experimental work is a multi-sited household survey of existing matsutake management practices across Yunnan, which shows that a high proportion of harvesters are already engaged in a broad range of potentially beneficial management strategies. Though both findings highlight limitations of previous initiatives led by government and research actors in China, this existing body of work is an important foundation and opportunity for developing applied mycology in the region. In and beyond China, working with communities to develop site-specific management strategies through rigorous and participatory scientific inquiry can provide salient benefits for both scientists and resource users.

  9. Mobile DNA distributions refine the phylogeny of "matsutake" mushrooms, Tricholoma sect. Caligata. (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Ota, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Muneyoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Katahata, Shinichiro; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Babasaki, Katsuhiko; Neda, Hitoshi


    "Matsutake" mushrooms are formed by several species of Tricholoma sect. Caligata distributed across the northern hemisphere. A phylogenetic analysis of matsutake based on virtually neutral mutations in DNA sequences resolved robust relationships among Tricholoma anatolicum, Tricholoma bakamatsutake, Tricholoma magnivelare, Tricholoma matsutake, and Tricholoma sp. from Mexico (=Tricholoma sp. Mex). However, relationships among these matsutake and other species, such as Tricholoma caligatum and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, were ambiguous. We, therefore, analyzed genomic copy numbers of σ marY1 , marY1, and marY2N retrotransposons by comparing them with the single-copy mobile DNA megB1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clarify matsutake phylogeny. We also examined types of megB1-associated domains, composed of a number of poly (A) and poly (T) reminiscent of RNA-derived DNA elements among these species. Both datasets resolved two distinct groups, one composed of T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum, and T. caligatum that could have diverged earlier and the other comprising T. magnivelare, Tricholoma sp. Mex, T. anatolicum, and T. matsutake that could have evolved later. In the first group, T. caligatum was the closest to the second group, followed by T. fulvocastaneum and T. bakamatsutake. Within the second group, T. magnivelare was clearly differentiated from the other species. The data suggest that matsutake underwent substantial evolution between the first group, mostly composed of Fagaceae symbionts, and the second group, comprised only of Pinaceae symbionts, but diverged little within each groups. Mobile DNA markers could be useful in resolving difficult phylogenies due to, for example, closely spaced speciation events.

  10. Detecting nonculturable bacteria in the active mycorrhizal zone of the pine mushroom Tricholoma matsutake. (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryota; Siddiqui, Zaki Anwar; Kikuchi, Junichi; Ando, Masaki; Sriwati, Rina; Nozaki, Ai; Futai, Kazuyoshi


    The fungus Tricholoma matsutake forms an ectomycorrhizal relationship with pine trees. Its sporocarps often develop in a circle, which is commonly known as a fairy ring. The fungus produces a solid, compact, white aggregate of mycelia and mycorrhizae beneath the fairy ring, which in Japanese is called a 'shiro'. In the present study, we used soil dilution plating and molecular techniques to analyze the bacterial communities within, beneath, and outside the T. matsutake fairy ring. Soil dilution plating confirmed previous reports that bacteria and actinomycetes are seldom present in the soil of the active mycorrhizal zone of the T. matsutake shiro. In addition, the results showed that the absence of bacteria was strongly correlated with the presence of T. matsutake mycorrhizae. The results demonstrate that bacteria, especially aerobic and heterotrophic forms, and actinomycetes, are strongly inhibited by T. matsutake. Indeed, neither bacteria nor actinomycetes were detected in 11.3% of 213 soil samples from the entire shiro area by culture-dependent methods. However, molecular techniques demonstrated that some bacteria, such as individual genera of Sphingomonas and Acidobacterium, were present in the active mycorrhizal zone, even though they were not detected in soil assays using the dilution plating technique.

  11. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse. (United States)

    Li, Quan; Wang, Yanzhen; Cai, Guangsheng; Kong, Fange; Wang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Chuanbin; Wang, Di; Teng, Lirong


    Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM) and liquid cultured mycelia (TM) in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases.

  12. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li


    Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM and liquid cultured mycelia (TM in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1 in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases.

  13. Trichoderma songyi sp. nov., a new species associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake). (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Hae Jin; Fong, Jonathan J; Cheon, Woo-Jae; Lim, Young Woon


    A new species, Trichoderma songyi, was found to be associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) in Korea. This species was isolated from three different substrates: Tricholoma matsutake basidiomata, as well as roots of Pinus densiflora and soil in the fairy ring. Based on its molecular and phenotypic characteristics, we demonstrate that Trichoderma songyi is unique and distinguishable from closely related species. We performed phylogenetic analyses based on two molecular markers, the genes for both translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Trichoderma songyi is closely related to Trichoderma koningii aggregate and Trichoderma caerulescens. Morphologically, Trichoderma songyi can be distinguished from these closely related taxa by its growth rates, colony morphology on PDA in darkness, and coconut-like odour. Due to the economic importance of the pine mushroom, the relationship between Trichoderma songyi and Tricholoma matsutake should be studied further.

  14. In vitro ectomycorrhizal specificity between the Asian red pine Pinus densiflora and Tricholoma matsutake and allied species from worldwide Pinaceae and Fagaceae forests. (United States)

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi; Kalmiş, Erbil; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Fukuda, Masaki


    Tricholoma matsutake produces commercially valuable, yet uncultivable, mushrooms (matsutake) in association with pines in the Far East and Scandinavia and with both pines and oaks in the foothills of Tibet. Other matsutake mushrooms, such as Tricholoma anatolicum from the Mediterranean regions and Tricholoma magnivelare and Tricholoma sp. from the North Pacific Coast area of Canada and North America as well as Mexico, respectively, are associated with pines or oaks in their natural habitats. Tricholoma bakamatsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum from Asia produce moderately valuable matsutake mushrooms and are solely associated with Fagaceae in nature. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that matsutake mushrooms from Scandinavia, Mediterranean regions, North America, and Tibet form ectomycorrhizae with Pinus densiflora similar to the Far East T. matsutake. In general, worldwide T. matsutake and the symbionts of Pinaceae colonize the rhizospheres of P. densiflora as well as T. matsutake isolated from the host plant. However, T. fulvocastaneum and T. bakamatsutake formed a discontinuous Hartig net and no Hartig net, respectively, and colonized to a lesser extent as compared to T. matsutake. The data suggest that conifer-associated matsutake mushrooms in their native habitat will associate symbiotically with the Asian red pine.

  15. Common and Privatized: Conditions for Wise Management of Matsutake Mushrooms in Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Yang


    Full Text Available Since Hardin's (1968 paper on the "Tragedy of the Commons," property rights of common-pool resources have been a central concern for natural resource management scholars. Matsutake, a common-pool resource, is an economically important mushroom in several locations around the world. Driven by growing international demand over the last few decades, matsutake management is a relatively new practice both for local communities and government agencies. In Northwest Yunnan, China, one of the most productive areas for matsutake globally, numerous local practices and systems have emerged in the last two to three decades. In this study, we investigate the differences between management systems in eight communities and the factors associated with them. The methods used for field research included key-informant interviews, household surveys, and questionnaires. Three main management patterns were identified through use of statistical clustering based on indicators such as physical environment, resource characteristics, tenure arrangements, regulations and implementation, harvesting behavior, income, and market regulation. It was found that private access - the principal characteristic of which is the exclusive use of resources - results in more income at lower labor cost per household than either of the other open-access management patterns. Even though under the context of ongoing Second Forest Tenure Reform in China - in which collective forest privatization is the key task - application of private-access regimes is limited because of site conditions including physical, institutional, and market environments. Common-access management systems have advantages in terms of managing conflict and balancing equity needs. No matter the type of access right, the key issue for wise matsutake management is institutional. Locally rooted innovative strategies should be encouraged, and institutional capacity building should be carried out to support innovations in

  16. Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests. (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi


    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits.

  17. Prediction of the potential geographic distribution of the ectomycorrhizal mushroom Tricholoma matsutake under multiple climate change scenarios (United States)

    Guo, Yanlong; Li, Xin; Zhao, Zefang; Wei, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Gu, Wei


    Effective conservation and utilization strategies for natural biological resources require a clear understanding of the geographic distribution of the target species. Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom with high ecological and economic value. In this study, the potential geographic distribution of T. matsutake under current conditions in China was simulated using MaxEnt software based on species presence data and 24 environmental variables. The future distributions of T. matsutake in the 2050s and 2070s were also projected under the RCP 8.5, RCP 6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 2.6 climate change emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The areas of marginally suitable, suitable and highly suitable habitats for T. matsutake in China were approximately 0.22 × 106 km2, 0.14 × 106 km2, and 0.11 × 106 km2, respectively. The model simulations indicated that the area of marginally suitable habitats would undergo a relatively small change under all four climate change scenarios; however, suitable habitats would significantly decrease, and highly suitable habitat would nearly disappear. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of T. matsutake and can be used as a reference for studies on other ectomycorrhizal mushroom species.

  18. Pre-eclampsia and risk of subsequent hypertension: in an American Indian population. (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; Lunday, Laramie; Webster, Elisha; Falcon, Gilbert R; Beal, James R


    Pre-eclampsia (PE) shares a number of proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms related to those implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, and impaired renal regulation. PE has also been associated with subsequent hypertension, CVD, and related mortality in later life. At follow-up, the four most recent blood pressures, body mass index (BMI), and use of hypertensive medications were recorded from clinic visits of 130 PE cases and 289 normal pregnancies. Student's t test, Chi-square testing, multivariate linear, and logistic regression were used in analysis. Follow-up measurements occurred a mean of 13.11 years post PE pregnancy. Multivariate linear regression showed a significant and independent association between current systolic blood pressure and previous history of PE (β = 4.47, p = 0.04), while adjusting for age, BMI, and blood pressure from 1 year prior to and up to the 20th week of gestation. A similarly adjusted multivariate logistic regression model found an odds ratio of 3.43, 95% CI 1.83-6.43, p = 0.001 for subsequent hypertension. Logistic regression analysis of the quartile with follow-up of less than 7.19 years also shows independent association of prior PE with subsequent hypertension. PE appears to confer risk of subsequent hypertension on this cohort of American Indian women within as little as 8 years. This risk is independent of additional risk factors such as increased age, BMI, and blood pressure prior to 20 weeks of gestation. There is evidence of increased risk among those with more severe PE.

  19. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Inha


    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1{sup st} of June 2013 to 30{sup th} of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen.

  20. Ectomycorrhization of Tricholoma matsutake and two major conifers in Finland-an assessment of in vitro mycorrhiza formation. (United States)

    Vaario, Lu-Min; Pennanen, Taina; Sarjala, Tytti; Savonen, Eira-Maija; Heinonsalo, Jussi


    This study aimed to test the ability of Tricholoma matsutake isolates to form mycorrhizas with aseptic seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. Germinated seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce were separately inoculated with either isolates originating from Finland or Japan. Eight months after inoculation, the Finnish isolate had formed a sheath and Hartig net on both host species. Ectomycorrhizal Scots pine seedlings inoculated with the Finnish isolate showed the same shoot height and dry mass as the controls. Ectomycorrhizal Norway spruce seedlings inoculated with the Finnish isolate had similar shoot height but slightly less dry mass than the control seedlings. For both tree species, inoculation with the Finnish isolate resulted in reduced total nitrogen content per seedling, but carbon content was unaffected. Inoculation with the Japanese isolate resulted in an initial Hartig net-like structure in pine but not in spruce. No typical Hartig net was observed on either tree species. Furthermore, seedlings of both species inoculated with the Japanese isolate showed significantly reduced growth, dry mass, nitrogen, and carbon content per seedling and shoot height (in spruce) compared to the controls. This study documents and describes the in vitro ectomycorrhization between T. matsutake and Scots pine or Norway spruce and the variable mycorrhizal structures that matsutake isolates can form.

  1. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect an immunomodulatory alpha-D-glucan-protein complex, MPG-1, in basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and related processed foods. (United States)

    Hoshi, Hirotaka; Yagi, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ishihara, Yoko; Yasuhara, Tadashi


    We previously isolated a novel immunomodulatory alpha-(1,4)(1,6)(1,2)- d-glucan-protein complex (MPG-1) from mycelia of Tricholoma matsutake in basidiomycetes. In the present study, we raised a polyclonal antibody by immunizing rabbits with MPG-1 and constructed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to examine the distribution of MPG-1 among edible mushrooms and related processed foods. The system detected MPG-1 quantitatively at concentrations of more than 10 ng/mL, with a coefficient of variation of less than 10% by intra-assay and interassay precision. Analysis with the system of chemically modified MPG-1 suggested that the sugar moiety was mainly involved in the detection. The system detected MPG-1 in the extracts of the fruiting bodies of T. matsutake but not in those of 34 other basidiomycete species. Moreover, a significant amount of MPG-1 was detected in the extracts of their cultured mycelia. The antigenic structure of MPG-1 was relatively stable in terms of pH and temperature. MPG-1 was detected in processed foods supplemented with T. matsutake. These results suggest that MPG-1 is distributed predominantly in T. matsutake species and that the ELISA system can detect it in processed foods supplemented with T. matsutake.

  2. Comparability of Accounting Choices in Subsequent Measurement of Fixed Assets, Intangible Assets, and Investment Property in South American Companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flaida Êmine Alves de Souza; Sirlei Lemes


    ... Accounting Standards Board (IASB). In this article, we identified the comparability degree of accounting choices in the subsequent measurement of fixed assets, intangible assets, and investment property (IP...

  3. Admixture Mapping of Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Subsequent Clinical Events Among African Americans in 2 Large Cohort Studies. (United States)

    Shendre, Aditi; Wiener, Howard; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Limdi, Nita A; Overton, Edgar T; Wassel, Christina L; Divers, Jasmin; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Shrestha, Sadeep


    Local ancestry may contribute to the disproportionate burden of subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease among admixed African Americans compared with other populations, suggesting a rationale for admixture mapping. We estimated local European ancestry (LEA) using Local Ancestry inference in adMixed Populations using Linkage Disequilibrium method (LAMP-LD) and evaluated the association with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT) using multivariable linear regression analysis among 1554 African Americans from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). We conducted secondary analysis to examine the significant cCIMT-LEA associations with clinical cardiovascular disease events. We observed genome-wide significance in relation to cCIMT association with the SERGEF gene (secretion-regulating guanine nucleotide exchange factor; β=0.0137; P=2.98×10(-)(4)), also associated with higher odds of stroke (odds ratio=1.71; P=0.02). Several regions, in particular CADPS gene (Ca(2+)-dependent secretion activator 1) region identified in MESA, were also replicated in the ARIC cohort (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). We observed other cCIMT-LEA regions associated with other clinical events, most notably the regions harboring CKMT2 gene (creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2) and RASGRF2 gene (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2) with all clinical events except stroke, the LRRC3B gene (leucine-rich repeat containing 3B) with myocardial infarction, the PRMT3 gene (protein arginine methyltransferase 3) with stroke, and the LHFPL2 gene (lipoma high mobility group protein I-C fusion partner-like 2) with hard and all coronary heart disease. We identified several novel LEA regions, in addition to previously identified genetic variations, associated with cCIMT and cardiovascular disease events among African Americans. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. A Fungal α-Galactosidase from Tricholoma matsutake with Broad Substrate Specificity and Good Hydrolytic Activity on Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueran Geng


    Full Text Available An acidic α-galactosidase designated as TMG was purified from the fruiting bodies The purification protocol entailed ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and of Tricholoma matsutake with 136-fold purification and a specific activity of 909 units/mg. Mono-Q and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. TMG is a monomeric protein exhibiting a molecular mass of 47 kDa in SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The purified enzyme was identified by LC-MS/MS and three inner amino acid sequences were obtained. The optimum pH and temperature for TMG with pNPGal as substrate were pH 4.5 and 55 °C, respectively. The α-galactosidase activity was strongly inhibited by K+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Ag+ and Zn2+ ions. The enzyme activity was inhibited by the chemical modification agent N-bromosuccinimide (NBS, indicating the importance of tryptophan residue(s at or near the active site. Besides hydrolyzing pNPGal, TMG also efficaciously catalyzed the degradation of natural substrates such as stachyose, raffinose, and melibiose. Thus TMG can be exploited commercially for improving the nutritional value of soy milk by degradation of indigestible oligosaccharides.

  5. Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa. (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi


    We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  6. Sex and the Self: The Impact of Early Sexual Onset on the Self-Concept and Subsequent Risky Behavior of African American Adolescents (United States)

    Houlihan, Amy E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Reimer, Rachel A.; Murry, Velma M.


    A 5-year longitudinal study of African American adolescents, aged 10 to 12 at Time 1, used the prototype/willingness (prototype) model to examine the (social) cognitive effects of the onset of sexual behavior on self-concept. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that becoming sexually active was related to favorable changes in adolescents'…


    Jones, Deborah; Marks, Gary; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Weiss, Stephen M; O'Daniels, Christine; Borkowf, Craig B; Simpson, Cathy; Adimora, Ada A; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor


    This cross-sectional study examined African American and Hispanic women's (N = 1,509) self-reports of unwanted forced sex and its association with behavioral and mental health outcomes after the event. Twenty percent of the women had experienced forced sex (1st occurrence at age 15 years or younger for 10%, 1st occurrence at older than 15 years of age for 10%). Regardless of when forced sex 1st occurred, women were more likely to have engaged in unprotected vaginal and anal sex, to have had multiple unprotected sex partners, to have sexually transmitted infections, to have reported binge drinking and illicit drug use, and to exhibit distress and have received mental health counseling. Forced sex may have wide-ranging behavioral and mental health consequences years later.

  8. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  9. SS AMERICAN EAGLE, O.N. 278327; Explosion in the Gulf of Mexico on 26 February 1984 and Subsequent Sinking on 27 February 1984 with Multiple Loss of Life (United States)


    W. Plantation MMD# 976307 FL, 33317 JONES First Assistant 57 8017 Coach Dr. "Ellis E. Engineer Oakland MMD# 435-34-5326 CA, 94605 r. MATIAS Chief 16. They broadcast a mayday several times and received a faint reply from someone who said they were in San Francisco. A workable line of...communication was not established between the AMERICAN EAGLE and the party in San Francisco. Shortly thereafter the M/V MOBIL VALIANT res- ponded to the

  10. Pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Gatny


    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of young women experience pregnancy scares - thinking they might be pregnant, and later discovering that they are not. Although pregnancy scares are distressing events, little is known about who experiences them and whether they are important to our understanding of unintended pregnancy. Objective: We describe the young women who experience pregnancy scares, and examine the link between pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Methods: We used data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life Study. T-tests and regression analyses were conducted using baseline and weekly data to estimate relationships between respondent characteristics and subsequent pregnancy scares. Event history methods were used to assess pregnancy scares as a predictor of unintended pregnancy. Results: Nine percent of the young women experienced a pregnancy scare during the study. African-American race, lack of two-parent family structure, lower GPA, cohabitation, and sex without birth control prior to the study are associated with experiencing a pregnancy scare and with experiencing a greater number of pregnancy scares. Further, experiencing a pregnancy scare is strongly associated with subsequent unintended pregnancy, independent of background factors. Forty percent of the women who experienced a pregnancy scare subsequently had an unintended pregnancy during the study period, relative to only 11Š of those who did not experience a pregnancy scare. Conclusions: Young women from less advantaged backgrounds are more likely to experience a pregnancy scare, and pregnancy scares are often followed by an unintended pregnancy.

  11. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye


    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  12. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye


    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  13. Autoimmune disease and subsequent urological cancer. (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Ji, Jianguang; Forsti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari


    We examined the subsequent risk and prognosis of urological cancer in individuals diagnosed with autoimmune disease. We systematically analyzed the risk and prognosis of prostate, kidney and bladder cancers in individuals diagnosed with any of 33 autoimmune diseases based on a national Swedish database for 1964 through 2008. The SIR and HR were calculated for subsequent urological cancers between 1964 and 2008 in individuals hospitalized for autoimmune disease. An increased SIR for urological cancer was recorded after 26 autoimmune diseases. An increased HR for cancer specific survival was noted after 4 autoimmune diseases and for overall survival after 18. The highest SIRs were seen for kidney cancer after polyarteritis nodosa (2.85) and polymyositis/dermatomyositis (2.68), and for bladder cancer after polymyositis/dermatomyositis (2.45). The highest risk of prostate cancer (1.70) was observed after polyarteritis nodosa. SIRs were lower during followup from 1990 to 2008 compared to the previous period. Individuals diagnosed with prostate and kidney cancers showed an improved cancer specific prognosis, in contrast to the poorer overall prognosis for all 3 urological cancers. The risk of urological cancer was increased after all autoimmune diseases. The most significant changes after individual autoimmune diseases were toward higher risk. Survival data were reassuring since autoimmune disease only marginally influences the prognosis of cancer specific mortality. However, overall survival was decreased for the 3 types of cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Language experience changes subsequent learning. (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik


    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Language experience changes subsequent learning (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik


    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  16. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird


    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  17. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  18. Impact of Selection Bias on Estimation of Subsequent Event Risk. (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Juan; Schmidt, Amand F; Dudbridge, Frank; Holmes, Michael V; Brophy, James M; Tragante, Vinicius; Li, Ziyi; Liao, Peizhou; Quyyumi, Arshed A; McCubrey, Raymond O; Horne, Benjamin D; Hingorani, Aroon D; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Patel, Riyaz S; Long, Qi


    Studies of recurrent or subsequent disease events may be susceptible to bias caused by selection of subjects who both experience and survive the primary indexing event. Currently, the magnitude of any selection bias, particularly for subsequent time-to-event analysis in genetic association studies, is unknown. We used empirically inspired simulation studies to explore the impact of selection bias on the marginal hazard ratio for risk of subsequent events among those with established coronary heart disease. The extent of selection bias was determined by the magnitudes of genetic and nongenetic effects on the indexing (first) coronary heart disease event. Unless the genetic hazard ratio was unrealistically large (>1.6 per allele) and assuming the sum of all nongenetic hazard ratios was bias was usually bias, the probability that a confidence interval included the true effect decreased (undercoverage) with increasing sample size because of increasing precision. Importantly, false-positive rates were not affected by selection bias. In most empirical settings, selection bias is expected to have a limited impact on genetic effect estimates of subsequent event risk. Nevertheless, because of undercoverage increasing with sample size, most confidence intervals will be over precise (not wide enough). When there is no effect modification by history of coronary heart disease, the false-positive rates of association tests will be close to nominal. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. American Women and American Studies. (United States)

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  20. A review of subsequence time series clustering. (United States)

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah


    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  1. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering (United States)

    Teh, Ying Wah


    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332

  2. American Ginseng (United States)

    ... diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)American ginseng might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking American ginseng along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go ...

  3. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. Generally, elective abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...

  4. Crohn’s Disease: The Subsequent Visit


    Manolakis, Catherine S.; Farraye, Francis A.; Di Palma, Jack A.


    The diagnosis and subsequent management of Crohn’s disease are challenging for both the patient and the gastroenterologist. After the initial assessment, subsequent visits should assess the patient’s readiness to begin therapy, monitor progress if therapy has been initiated, assess for complications of the disease or therapy, and ensure that all appropriate health maintenance measures are current. This article is intended to be a companion to our earlier paper “Crohn’s Disease: The First Visi...

  5. Infant and child deaths: Parent concerns about subsequent pregnancies. (United States)

    Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Hannan, Jean; Caicedo, Carmen; Roche, Rosa; Malkawi, Fatima


    Examine parents' concerns about subsequent pregnancies after experiencing an infant or child death (newborn to 18 years). Thirty-nine semistructured parent (white, black, Hispanic) interviews 7 and 13 months post infant/child death conducted in English and/or Spanish, audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed. Mothers' mean age was 31.8 years, fathers' was 39 years; 11 parents were white, 16 black, and 12 Hispanic. Themes common at 7 and 13 months: wanting more children; fear, anxiety, scared; praying to God/God's will; thinking about/keeping the infant's/child's memory and at 7 months importance of becoming pregnant for family members; and at 13 months happy about a new baby. Parents who lost a child in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) commented more than those who lost a child in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Black and Hispanic parents commented more on praying to God and subsequent pregnancies being God's will than white parents. Loss of an infant/child is a significant stressor on parents with documented negative physical and mental health outcomes. Assessing parents' subsequent pregnancy plans, recognizing the legitimacy of their fears about another pregnancy, discussing a plan should they encounter problems, and carefully monitoring the health of all parents who lost an infant/child is an essential practitioner role. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Infant developmental milestones and subsequent cognitive function. (United States)

    Murray, Graham K; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus


    Developmental delay is associated with a subsequent diagnosis of learning disability. However, the relationship between the age of reaching infant developmental milestones and later intellectual function within the general population remains unresolved. We hypothesized that earlier attainment of developmental milestones would be associated with better subsequent intellectual performance throughout the range of abilities, rather than confined to extremes. Developmental data were obtained at age 2 years in the National Survey of Health and Development, a representative sample of 5,362 children born in the United Kingdom in 1946. Data on intellectual function and educational attainment at ages 8, 26, and 53 years were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of age of reaching developmental milestones on subsequent cognition and educational attainment. The age of reaching developmental milestones was associated with intellectual performance at ages 8, 26, and 53 years; for every month earlier a child learned to stand, there was, on average, a gain of one half of one intelligence quotient point at age 8. Speech development had a small but statistically significant effect on subsequent educational attainment (later developers were less likely to progress beyond basic education); this effect was not apparent for motor development. Effect sizes were reduced when the slowest developers were excluded, but many effects remained significant. The association between later development and poorer subsequent intellectual function is small, but it does have theoretical implications; we suggest it is secondary to suboptimal cortical-subcortical connectivity.

  7. Vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Gejl, Michael; Borghammer, Per


    registration of vagotomy and/or upper gastrointestinal disease in the period 1977-2011. Controls had no subsequent diagnosis of diabetes and were matched by incidence density sampling, age and gender. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: 501,724 diabetes patients and 1,375,567 matched controls......BACKGROUND: Vagal signaling is involved in gastric emptying and the secretion and effect of a number of hormones regulating gluco-metabolic processes and, thus, crucial for metabolic homeostasis. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that vagotomy would increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes...... and examined the association between vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted with information on cases and controls from the Danish National Patient Registry. Cases included individuals with a diabetes diagnosis subsequent (>12months) to the first...

  8. Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and subsequent hypothyroidism (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Pouta, Anneli; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Mendola, Pauline; Miettola, Satu; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Suvanto, Eila


    Objectives To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) on subsequent hypothyroidism. Recent studies suggest that women with PE have increased risk for reduced thyroid function, but the association between PE and GH with overt hypothyroidism has not been examined. Study design Two prospective population-based cohort studies, the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986, followed women who had PE (N=955), GH (N=1449) or were normotensive (N=13531) during pregnancy. Finnish national registers were used to confirm subsequent hypothyroidism. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated hypothyroidism risk when comparing women with PE or GH with normotensive women. Main outcome measures Primary hypothyroidism during follow-up of 20–40 years. Results The subsequent prevalence of hypothyroidism was higher among women with PE (4.0%) and GH (4.5%) compared with normotensive women (3.5%), but the risk increase was not significant (aHR for PE 1.13, 95%CI 0.80–1.59 and aHR for GH 1.11, 95%CI 0.85–1.45). Subgroup analysis among nulliparous women revealed a significant association between late PE and subsequent hypothyroidism (aHR 1.82, 95%CI 1.04–3.19). Early or recurrent PE were not associated with hypothyroidism (aHR 0.93, 95%CI 0.46–1.81 and aHR 1.35, 95%CI 0.63–2.88, respectively). Conclusions Overall, PE or GH during pregnancy was not significantly associated with subsequent hypothyroidism in Finnish women after 20–40 years of follow-up. However, late PE in nulliparous women was associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk of subsequent hypothyroidism, a finding that merits further study in other populations. PMID:23439671

  9. 75 FR 82005 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement (United States)


    ... Nonproliferation and International Security, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY..., Canada, to Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. in Yuson-Gu, Taejon, South Korea. The material, which is currently... Energy. Thomas P. D'Agostino, Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration. [FR Doc. 2010...

  10. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N...

  11. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.22...

  12. Subsequent Reproductive Performance in Survivors of Complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 2 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. 103 (44%) of the subjects who still desired pregnancy were yet unable to conceive. Conclusions The subsequent reproductive performance in survivors of complicated abortion appears to be largely characterized by a high rate of sub-fertility, fetal wastage and preterm ...

  13. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.73 - Subsequent loans. (United States)


    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1940, subpart G. (f) Design requirements. All improvements, repairs, and... applicant must obtain architectural services when any of the following conditions exist: (1) Enclosed space... being proposed requires architectural services. (h) Restrictive-use requirements. Subsequent loans are...

  15. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat (United States)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra


    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  16. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn


    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  17. Association of Periodontitis and Subsequent Depression (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung


    Abstract Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression. We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58–1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer. Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted. PMID:26705230

  18. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health. (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M


    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  19. Correlating selection criteria with subsequent performance as residents. (United States)

    Dirschl, Douglas R; Dahners, Laurence E; Adams, George L; Crouch, John H; Wilson, Frank C


    The objective of this study was to determine which criteria in the residency application had the highest correlation with subsequent performance of orthopaedic residents. Data collected from the application files of 58 residents included scores on standardized tests, number of honors grades in the basic and clinical years of medical school, election to Alpha Omega Alpha, numbers of research projects and publications, and numbers of extracurricular activities. Measures of performance included scores on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination and American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Part I Examination, and faculty evaluations of overall, cognitive, affective, and psychomotor performance. The number of honors grades on clinical rotations was the strongest predictor of performance, whereas election to Alpha Omega Alpha was second. The only other significant correlation was between the number of fine motor activities and psychomotor performance. None of the predictor variables had a significant correlation with Orthopaedic In-Training Examination or American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Examination scores. Consistency between faculty rankings in each of the four categories was supported by regression analysis. From the results of this study, it appears that academic performance in clinical clerkships in medical school is the most predictive of resident performance. Range restriction in the data available for orthopaedic residency applicants, however, likely precludes the development of a reliable model to assist in the selection of orthopaedic residents.

  20. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Christiansen, C.F.


    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk...... conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease....

  1. Healthier Americans (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page is about effects on health of Americans.

  2. Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems. (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Magerøy, Nils; Gjerstad, Johannes; Einarsen, Ståle


    Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that exposure to bullying in the workplace is positively correlated with self-reported health problems. However, these studies do not provide a basis to draw conclusions on the extent to which bullying leads to increased health problems or whether health problems increase the risk of being bullied. To provide better indications of a causal relationship, knowledge from prospective studies on the association between bullying in the workplace and health outcomes is therefore summarised. We conducted a systematic literature review of original articles from central literature databases on longitudinal associations between bullying in the workplace and health. Average associations between bullying and health outcomes are calculated using meta-analysis. A consistent finding across the studies is that exposure to bullying is significantly positively related to mental health problems (OR =1.68; 95% KI 1.35-2.09) and somatic symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% KI 1.41-2.22) over time. Mental health problems are also associated with subsequent exposure to bullying (OR = 1.74; 95% KI 1.44-2.12). Bullying is positively related to mental health problems and somatic symptoms. The association between mental health problems and subsequent bullying indicates a self-reinforcing process between mental health and bullying. The methodological quality of the studies that were conducted is relatively sound. However, based on the existing knowledge base there are no grounds for conclusions regarding an unambiguous causal relationship between bullying and health.

  3. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo


    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  4. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became...

  5. Early postpartum discharge and subsequent breastfeeding. (United States)

    Janson, S; Rydberg, B


    Early postpartum discharge of babies was gradually introduced in Sweden in the 1980s on ideological grounds, based on the premise that maternity wards were unnatural settings for mothers and babies and hampered breastfeeding. From about 1990, early discharge was used as a means to reduce costs. The purpose of this study was to examine if mandated early discharge at Central Hospital of Karlstad, Sweden, influenced subsequent breastfeeding. Breastfeeding outcomes of infants up to six months of age of all births in 1993 (n = 3231) were compared with the outcome of newborns in 1990 (n = 1462). Breastfeeding at six months postpartum continued to increase during the early 1990s for both healthy and sick infants, irrespective of whether or not they were discharged early. In infants born in 1995 the breastfeeding rate at six months was 64 percent for healthy newborns and 53 percent for sick newborns. Factors other than the time of discharge, most likely a positive change of attitude in society and vigorous introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, seem to have been more important for successful breastfeeding.

  6. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars


    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  7. Application of SRAP in the genetic diversity of Tricholoma matsutake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... genetic variation was detected within individual populations. Dongning maintained a higher genetic diversity while Hunchun was lower. The analyses found a significant positive correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance and no correlation between genetic distance and altitudinal differences among ...

  8. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. (United States)

    Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H


    To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language. (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D


    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.

  10. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.


    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…

  11. Age at Sexual Debut and Subsequent Sexual Partnering in Adulthood Among American Men. (United States)

    Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Briana M; Chapman, Derek A; Lapane, Kate L


    This study examined the association of sexual debut and sexual partnering among men in the United States aged 21 to 44 years who participated in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Age at debut was categorized as Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serial monogamist, or monogamist in prior year. Eleven percent reported concurrent partnerships and 6% serial monogamy. Sexual debut sexual debut, interventions to reduce risky lifetime number of partners may prevent risky sexual behavior in early adulthood and later in life. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use. (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin


    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Child Welfare and the Transition to Adulthood: Investigating Placement Status and Subsequent Arrests. (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P; Perron, Brian E; Huang, Hui


    Studies of the transition to adulthood in child welfare focus almost exclusively on youth in foster care. Yet, research indicates that maltreated children who remain in the home may display similar risks as compared with their peers in formal foster care settings. Utilizing administrative data from child welfare, juvenile justice and adult corrections, the current study fills a gap in the literature by analyzing justice outcomes for older adolescents involved with the child welfare system regardless of their placement status. We focus on both intact family cases and formal foster care placements. The diverse sample (11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 6% Native American, 9% multi-racial, 56% female) included open child welfare cases involving 17 year olds (n = 9874). Twenty-nine percent of adolescents were associated with a long term out of home placement and 62% were associated with an intact family case. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents associated with long term foster care placement were significantly less likely to experience a subsequent arrest as compared with adolescents associated with a long term intact family case. Males, African Americans and adolescents associated with neglect were also more likely to experience a subsequent arrest. Limited focus on the intact family population in child welfare represents a lost opportunity to support critical developmental gains and facilitate a smooth transition to adulthood.

  14. American Academy of Periodontology (United States)

    ... Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces 2017 Award Winners American Academy of Periodontology ...

  15. Flows around two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation and translation and subsequent clap (United States)

    Mao, Sun; Xin, Yu


    The aerodynamic forces and flow structures of two airfoils performing “fling and subsequent translation” and “translation and subsequent clap” are studied by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in moving overset grids. These motions are relevant to the flight of very small insects. The Reynolds number, based on the airfoil chord length c and the translation velocity U, is 17. It is shown that: (1) For two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation, a large lift is generated both in the fling phase and in the early part of the translation phase. During the fling phase, a pair of leading edge vortices of large strength is generated; the generation of the vortex pair in a short period results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this period. During the early part of the translation, the two leading edge vortices move with the airfoils; the relative movement of the vortices also results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this part of motion. (In the later part of the translation, the vorticity in the vortices is diffused and convected into the wake.) The time averaged lift coefficient is approximately 2.4 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (2) For two airfoils performing translation and subsequent clap, a large lift is generated in the clap phase. During the clap, a pair of trailing edge vortices of large strength are generated; again, the generation of the vortex pair in a short period (which results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse) is responsible for the large lift in this period. The time averaged lift coefficient is approximately 1.6 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (3) When the initial distance between the airfoils (in the case of clap, the final distance between the airfoils) varies from 0.1 to 0.2 c, the lift on an airfoil decreases only slightly but

  16. Immunizations and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  17. American Sign Language (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  18. Cancer risk and subsequent survival after hospitalization for intermittent claudication. (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Baron, John A; Johnsen, Søren P; Pedersen, Lars; Farkas, Dóra K; Sørensen, Henrik T


    Intermittent claudication, muscle ischemia due to reduced arterial circulation, may be associated with an increased risk of cancer risk and death due to neoplasm-induced hypercoagulability and angiogenesis, or to shared risk factors, but the relation is not well understood. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Danish National Registry of Patients to identify patients with intermittent claudication from 1980 to 2011 and no history of cancer. We followed these patients for incident cancers using the Danish Cancer Registry and compared cancer incidence among patients with intermittent claudication to that expected in the general population. We also compared the survival of patients with cancer with and without claudication, matched for sex, cancer site, stage, age at diagnosis, and diagnosis year. A total of 53,762 patients with intermittent claudication were identified. We observed 6,270 incident cancers over a total 269,430 years of follow-up (mean, 5.0), compared with 4,306 cancer cases expected [standardized incidence ratio = 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.42-1.49]. Cancer risk also increased after the exclusion of patients with a prior diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or diabetes, particularly for tobacco-related cancers. The elevated cancer risk persisted over 10 years of follow-up. For patients with cancer, diagnosis of intermittent claudication within 3 months preceding the cancer diagnosis did not influence survival, but before 3 months, was associated with modestly worse survival (mortality rate ratio = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.14-1.25). Intermittent claudication is associated with an increased risk of cancer and poorer subsequent survival. Clinical attention following intermittent claudication diagnosis may reveal incident cancers. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Correlation between trainee candidate selection criteria and subsequent performance. (United States)

    Selber, Jesse C; Tong, Winnie; Koshy, John; Ibrahim, Amir; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles


    The objective of trainee recruitment is to identify candidates likely to perform well as trainees and subsequent faculty. The effectiveness of this process has not been established. The goal of this study was to identify trainee selection criteria predictive of excellent performance. Twenty-nine microsurgery fellows were enrolled from 2008 to 2012. Each candidate was interviewed and rated based on presentation, plastic surgery (PS) training experience, academic potential, personality, social skills, communication skills, and ability to be a team player. An unadjusted rank list was generated based on weighted averages, and an adjusted rank list was then generated at a faculty meeting. At the conclusion of fellowship, each fellow was rated based on the ACGME core competencies. Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were used to measure the correlations between fellow selection criteria and fellow performance. Plastic surgery training and academic potential had, by far, the strongest correlation to overall performance (r: 0.678, p competencies. When reformulated to weight PS training and academic potential more heavily than subjective criteria, the scoring system was significantly more predictive of excellent performance (r: 0.49 vs 0.70). The unadjusted rank list was more predictive of excellent performance than the adjusted rank list (r: 0.45 vs 0.65). Plastic surgery training experience and academic potential were better predictors of performance than any subjective information ascertained during the interview. Adjustments to the rank list based on faculty discussion resulted in lower performance candidates moving up in ranking. Ranking criteria and interview techniques must be refined to improve predictive power. It may be beneficial for semi-objective criteria to carry more weight than subjective criteria and raw scores to remain unadjusted by extraneous information. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism (United States)


    permission of the author 14. ABSTRACT the thesis begins with the etymology of American exceptionalism and the way in which its connotation has changed...Author. ABSTRACT The thesis begins with the etymology of American exceptionalism and the way in which its connotation has changed throughout American...impact. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION I The Etymology and History of American Exceptionalism 3 CHAPTER 2: AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM, THE EARLY YEARS 7

  1. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries. (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M


    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta


    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  3. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football (United States)

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.


    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  4. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  5. Native Americans with Diabetes (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  6. The associations between preexisting mental disorders and subsequent onset of chronic headaches: a worldwide epidemiologic perspective. (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kessler, Ronald C; Tachimori, Hisateru; Bunting, Brendan; Hu, Chiyi; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Lim, Carmen C W; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Piotrowski, Patryk; Posada-Villa, Jose; Salih Khalaf, Mohammad; ten Have, Margreet; Xavier, Miguel; Scott, Kate M


    Although there is a significant association between preexisting depression and later onset of chronic headache, the extent to which other preexisting mental disorders are associated with subsequent onset of headache in the general population is not known. Also unknown is the extent to which these associations vary by gender or by life course. We report global data from the WHO's World Mental Health surveys (n = 52,095), in which, by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0, 16 mental disorders from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were retrospectively assessed in terms of lifetime prevalence and age of onset. Frequent or severe headaches were assessed using self-reports. After adjustment for covariates, survival models showed a moderate but consistent association between preexisting mood (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.3-1.4), anxiety (ORs = 1.2-1.7), and impulse-control disorders (ORs = 1.7-1.9) and the subsequent onset of headache. We also found a dose-response relationship between the number of preexisting mental disorders and subsequent headache onset (OR ranging from 1.9 for 1 preexisting mental disorder to 3.4 for ≥5 preexisting mental disorders). Our findings suggest a consistent and pervasive relationship between a wide range of preexisting mental disorders and the subsequent onset of headaches. This highlights the importance of assessing a broad range of mental disorders, not just depression, as specific risk factors for the subsequent onset of frequent or severe headaches. This study shows that there is a temporal association between a broad range of preexisting mental disorders and the subsequent onset of severe or frequent headaches in general population samples across the world. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracking maximum ascending subsequences in sequences of partially ordered data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloks, Ton; Tan, Richard B.; van Leeuwen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068413025

    We consider scenarios in which long sequences of data are analyzed and subsequences must be traced that are monotone and maximum, according to some measure. A classical example is the online Longest Increasing Subsequence Problem for numeric and alphanumeric data. We extend the problem in two ways:

  8. Morbidity and risk of subsequent diagnosis of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Ole S; Lohse, Nicolai; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen


    Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis.......Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis....

  9. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total amounts...

  10. Recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid antibodies: prognosis of subsequent pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, D.M.; Goddijn, M.; Middeldorp, S.; Korevaar, J.C.; Dawood, F.; Farquharson, R.G.


    Background: Although women with antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) are at increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy is not clearly elucidated. Objectives: To assess the pregnancy outcome of a subsequent pregnancy in women with APLAs and compare this outcome with

  11. Students' Comprehension of the representation of African American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article was prompted by observations in tutorial lectures on African American Literature and reports on a subsequent pilot study. It explores students' responses to African American Vernacular (AAV) as used in the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. A questionnaire was used to explore students' comprehension of ...

  12. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation (United States)

    Mwachofi, Ari K.


    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  13. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas


    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  14. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders. (United States)

    Woody, Imani


    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  15. Twin birth changes DNA methylation of subsequent siblings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuai Li; Eunae Kim; Ee Ming Wong; Ji-Hoon Eric Joo; Tuong L Nguyen; Jennifer Stone; Yun-Mi Song; Louisa B Flander; Richard Saffery; Graham G Giles; Melissa C Southey; Joohon Sung; John L Hopper


    We asked if twin birth influences the DNA methylation of subsequent siblings. We measured whole blood methylation using the HumanMethylation450 array for siblings from two twin and family studies in Australia and Korea...

  16. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.


    Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension

  17. Theta and Gamma Oscillations during Encoding Predict Subsequent Recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J; Howard, Marc W; Donner, Elizabeth J; Madsen, Joseph R


    ... to 64 Hz as participants studied lists of common nouns. Significant increases in oscillatory power during encoding predicted subsequent recall, with this effect predominantly in the 4-8 Hz (theta) and 28-64 Hz (gamma) frequency bands...

  18. Learning increases human electroencephalographic coherence during subsequent slow sleep oscillations


    Mölle, Matthias; Marshall, Lisa; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan


    Learning is assumed to induce specific changes in neuronal activity during sleep that serve the consolidation of newly acquired memories. To specify such changes, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence during performance on a declarative learning task (word pair associations) and subsequent sleep. Compared with a nonlearning control condition, learning performance was accompanied with a strong increase in coherence in several EEG frequency bands. During subsequent non-rapid eye m...

  19. Cesarean Delivery and Risk for Subsequent Ectopic Pregnancy. (United States)

    Bowman, Zachary S; Smith, Ken R; Silver, Robert M


    This study aims to examine the risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in women with prior cesarean delivery. Women with a history of at least one cesarean delivery in the state of Utah during 1996 to 2011 were identified and compared with women with vaginal delivery only. The primary outcome was subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and stratified by first, second, or third live births. Model covariates included maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, gravidity, and prior ectopic pregnancy. Overall, 260,249 women with at least one live birth were identified. After exclusions, 255,082, 154,930, and 70,228 women had at least one, two, and three prior live births that lead to 531, 199, and 62 subsequent ectopic pregnancies, respectively. Women who had one prior cesarean delivery were not at increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in relation to women with no prior cesarean delivery. However, women with two of two, two of three, or three of three prior cesareans had increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.54 (1.06-2.22), 3.50 (1.49-8.24), and 1.99 (1.00-3.98), respectively. History of two or three cesarean deliveries is associated with increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Processing fluency hinders subsequent recollection: An electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing eLi


    Full Text Available Although many behavioural studies have investigated the effect of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory, little research has examined the neural mechanism of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the electrophysiological correlates of the effects of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory by using an event-related potential (ERP approach. The masked repetition priming paradigm was used to manipulate processing fluency in the study phase, and the R/K paradigm was utilised to investigate which recognition memory process (familiarity or recollection was affected by processing fluency in the test phase. Converging behavioural and ERP results indicated that increased processing fluency impaired subsequent recollection. Results from the analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that increased perceptual processing fluency of object features, reflected by the N/P 190 priming effect, can hinder encoding activities, reflected by the LPC priming effect, which leads to worse subsequent recollection based recognition memory. These results support the idea that processing fluency can influence subsequent recognition memory and provide a potential neural mechanism underlying this effect. However, further studies are needed to examine whether processing fluency can affect subsequent familiarity.

  1. Processing fluency hinders subsequent recollection: an electrophysiological study. (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Wang, Wei; Guo, Chunyan


    Although many behavioral studies have investigated the effect of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory, little research has examined the neural mechanism of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the electrophysiological correlates of the effects of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory by using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. The masked repetition priming paradigm was used to manipulate processing fluency in the study phase, and the R/K paradigm was utilized to investigate which recognition memory process (familiarity or recollection) was affected by processing fluency in the test phase. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that increased processing fluency impaired subsequent recollection. Results from the analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that increased perceptual processing fluency of object features, reflected by the N/P 190 priming effect, can hinder encoding activities, reflected by the LPC priming effect, which leads to worse subsequent recollection based recognition memory. These results support the idea that processing fluency can influence subsequent recognition memory and provide a potential neural mechanism underlying this effect. However, further studies are needed to examine whether processing fluency can affect subsequent familiarity.

  2. Caesarean section and subsequent fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Collin, S M; Marshall, T; Filippi, V


    To determine the impact of caesarean section on fertility among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of standardised cross-sectional surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys). Twenty-two countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 1993-2003. A total of 35 398 women of childbearing age (15-49 years). Time to subsequent pregnancy was compared by mode of delivery using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Natural fertility rates subsequent to delivery by caesarean section compared with natural fertility rates subsequent to vaginal delivery. The natural fertility rate subsequent to delivery by caesarean section was 17% lower than the natural fertility rate subsequent to vaginal delivery (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, P Caesarean section was also associated with prior fertility and desire for further children: among multiparous women, an interval > or =3 versus caesarean section at the index birth (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7, P= 0.005); among all women, the odds of desiring further children were lower among women who had previously delivered by caesarean section (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84, P Caesarean section did not appear to increase the risk of a subsequent pregnancy ending in miscarriage, abortion or stillbirth. Among women in sub-Saharan Africa, caesarean section is associated with lower subsequent natural fertility. Although this reflects findings from developed countries, the roles of pathological and psychological factors may be quite different because a much higher proportion of caesarean sections in sub-Saharan Africa are emergency procedures for maternal indication.

  3. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). (United States)

    Basham, Elizabeth; Stock, Laura; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Mitchell, Christopher; Gossett, Dana R


    To describe obstetric outcomes in women with a prior obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and to identify risk factors for recurrence. A retrospective chart review of women who sustained an OASIS between November 2005 and March 2010 at a tertiary care hospital was performed to identify risk factors for recurrence. One thousand six hundred twenty-nine patients had an OASIS. Of these, 758 patients (90%) subsequently delivered during the aforementioned timeframe; 685 patients had a subsequent vaginal delivery. Of the women, 3.2% had a recurrent OASIS. Recurrence was associated with larger birth weight (27% ≥4000 g vs 11.6% <4000 g; P = 0.04) and delivery mode (25.0%, 12.5%, and 2.7% for forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, and spontaneous deliveries, respectively (P = 0.0001)), whereas a history of fourth-degree laceration, prior wound complication, or episiotomy at subsequent delivery were not (P = 0.5, P = 0.5, and P = 0.4, respectively). Recurrent OASIS occurred in a small percentage of women (3.2%) who subsequently delivered vaginally. Recurrent OASIS was associated with operative vaginal delivery and birth weight 4000 g or greater. Neither episiotomy at first delivery nor at subsequent delivery conferred an increased recurrence risk.

  4. Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study. (United States)

    Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn


    Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance.

  5. Failure of fertility therapy and subsequent adverse cardiovascular events (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A.; Lu, Hong; Redelmeier, Donald A.


    BACKGROUND: Infertility may indicate an underlying predisposition toward premature cardiovascular disease, yet little is known about potential long-term cardiovascular events following fertility therapy. We investigated whether failure of fertility therapy is associated with subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort analysis of women who received gonadotropin-based fertility therapy between Apr. 1, 1993, and Mar. 31, 2011, distinguishing those who subsequently gave birth and those who did not. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, we estimated the relative rate ratio of adverse cardiovascular events associated with fertility therapy failure, accounting for age, year, baseline risk factors, health care history and number of fertility cycles. The primary outcome was subsequent treatment for nonfatal coronary ischemia, stroke, transient ischemic attack, heart failure or thromboembolism. RESULTS: Of 28 442 women who received fertility therapy, 9349 (32.9%) subsequently gave birth and 19 093 (67.1%) did not. The median number of fertility treatments was 3 (interquartile range 1–5). We identified 2686 cardiovascular events over a median 8.4 years of follow-up. The annual rate of cardiovascular events was 19% higher among women who did not give birth after fertility therapy than among those who did (1.08 v. 0.91 per 100 patient-years, p treatment cycles. INTERPRETATION: Fertility therapy failure was associated with an increased risk of long-term adverse cardiovascular events. These women merit surveillance for subsequent cardiovascular events. PMID:28385819

  6. Subsequent pregnancies in women with previous gestational syphilis. (United States)

    Hebmuller, Marjorie Garlow; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Lago, Eleonor Gastal


    This study included data on syphilis-positive pregnant women seen for delivery or miscarriage, between 1997 and 2004, in Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, RS. Their subsequent obstetric outcomes were studied, until December 2011, to see if the disease recurred. From 450 pregnant women with positive syphilis serology, seen from 1997 to 2004, 166 had at least one more obstetric attendance until December 2011, with 266 new obstetric outcomes. Congenital syphilis (CS) was demonstrated in 81.9% of the initial pregnancies and in 68.4% of the subsequent ones. The main causes of CS in subsequent pregnancies were a negative VDRL that turned positive at delivery, and undocumented treatment. VDRL titers were higher than 1:4 in 50.4% of the initial and 13.3% of the subsequent pregnancies (p syphilis in a preceding pregnancy. No or inadequate prenatal care was the main risk factor for CS, both in initial and in subsequent pregnancies. These data suggest that non-infected neonates could have been defined as CS cases because of insufficient information about the mother's history.

  7. Early American mesmeric societies: a historical study. (United States)

    Gravitz, M A


    Following an unsuccessful attempt by Mesmer to bring animal magnetism to the United States in 1784 through the Marquis de Lafayette, there was a period of little activity there for several decades. Then, concurrent with its revival in Europe and led by a few American practitioners who had been trained in France, several early societies of American magnetizers were founded beginning about 1815. These were initially organized in New York City and subsequently in New Orleans, Boston, Clinton, Cincinnati, Louisville, and Philadelphia. They played an important role in the development of hypnosis in America.

  8. Faster Algorithms for Computing Longest Common Increasing Subsequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutz, Martin; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Kaligosi, Kanela


    of the alphabet, and Sort is the time to sort each input sequence. For k⩾3 length-n sequences we present an algorithm which improves the previous best bound by more than a factor k for many inputs. In both cases, our algorithms are conceptually quite simple but rely on existing sophisticated data structures......We present algorithms for finding a longest common increasing subsequence of two or more input sequences. For two sequences of lengths n and m, where m⩾n, we present an algorithm with an output-dependent expected running time of and O(m) space, where ℓ is the length of an LCIS, σ is the size....... Finally, we introduce the problem of longest common weakly-increasing (or non-decreasing) subsequences (LCWIS), for which we present an -time algorithm for the 3-letter alphabet case. For the extensively studied longest common subsequence problem, comparable speedups have not been achieved for small...

  9. Effect of uniaxiai ratcheting on subsequent creep deformation (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsuhiko; Ishikawa, Hiromasa


    Experimental observation and numerical simulation are conducted to clarify the effect of viscosity on deformation of materials. First, creep tests after the primary uniaxial ratcheting are carded out using Type 304 stainless steel. Specimens are subjected to cyclic tension-unloading with step and triangular waves during 20000 seconds as the primary ratcheting. After the ratcheting the subsequent creep test at the maximum stress is conducted during 20000 seconds. The experimental results show that the values of the subsequent creep strain after the ratcheting depend on the wave type and the time period of the ratcheting. The shorter time period of the ratcheting leads to the larger subsequent creep strain. Numerical simulations are also carried out using the constitutive model based on dislocation density [Estrin et al.]. As a result, the equivalent value of the ratcheting strain to creep strain is found out from the simulations and experiments.

  10. A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Subsequence Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang


    Full Text Available We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc. combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed algorithm is easy to be implemented, can get good encryption effect, has a wide secret key's space, strong sensitivity to secret key, and has the abilities of resisting exhaustive attack and statistic attack.

  11. Women in American Literature (United States)

    Wells, Nancy


    Discusses the objectives and presents instructional materials for a course entitled Women in American Literature'' which attempts to introduce students to the concept of alternative life styles for American women. (RB)

  12. Changing Asian American Stereotypes (United States)

    Salvador-Burris, Juanita


    Social science literature on stereotypes is reviewed. Negative stereotypes of Asian Americans are examined and their relationship to Asian American political and economic status and self image is discussed. Specific actions to counter these stereotypes are advocated. (GC)

  13. American Behcet's Disease Association (United States)

    ... org/en/community/behcet-s-syndrome Upcoming Events American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI 48308 Contact Us | Website Policy | American Behcet's Disease Association Copyright 2014

  14. Obesity and Asian Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  15. Obesity and Hispanic Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  16. The Latin American University. (United States)

    Maier, Joseph, Ed.; Weatherhead, Richard W., Ed.

    A comparative overview is presented of the Latin American university, which is seen as an institution with a particular history and definite role. Chapters are as follows: "The Latin American University: An Introduction," by Joseph Maier and Richard W. Weatherhead; "Origin and Philosophy of the Spanish American University," by…

  17. American Humor. [Course Syllabus]. (United States)

    Sloane, David E. E.

    This syllabus describes a three-credit course entitled "American Humor," offered at the University of New Haven (Connecticut). According to the syllabus, "American Humor" will identify traits of American humor as historical phenomena with relations to national character, business attitudes, regionalism, folk humor, and health;…

  18. Relationship between egg weight, hatch weight and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) Fulani Ecotype (FE) chicken eggs collected from free ranged Fulani Ecotype chicken were used to study the effect of egg weight on hatch weight and subsequent body weight. Eggs were grouped into two according to their weight (small and medium) and incubated. Body weight of the chicks was ...

  19. A case study of high genetic loading and subsequent development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    became depressed and her school functioning declined even more. A child psychiatrist diagnosed a major depressive disorder and ADHD. She was prescribed citalopram 10 mg daily and methylphenidate. She became hyperactive on the antidepressant, which was subsequently discontinued. The methylphenidate was ...

  20. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttke, C.S.; Ekman, M.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lange, F.P. de


    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we

  1. 27 CFR 479.66 - Subsequent transfer of firearms. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent transfer of firearms. 479.66 Section 479.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  2. Risks associated with subsequent pregnancy after one caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absolute risk of failed trial of vaginal birth after a cesarean was 45% (95% CI: 38.5, 51.5). Conclusion: Women who have one previous C.section face a markedly increased risk of repeat caesarean sections and feto.maternal complications in subsequent pregnancies. There is a need for doctors in Nigeria to be mindful of ...

  3. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  4. Fast Arc-Annotated Subsequence Matching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    is deleted any arc with an endpoint in that base is also deleted. Arc-annotated strings where the arcs are "nested" are a natural model of RNA molecules that captures both the primary and secondary structure of these. The arc-preserving subsequence problem for nested arc-annotated strings is basic primitive...

  5. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Subsequent Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a rising prevalence worldwide, there is limited data on pregnancy outcome among African women with prepregnancy or early pregnancy obesity. This was a case-control study to determine the prevalence of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and compare the subsequent pregnancy outcome between 201 women ...

  6. The Differential Effect of Attentional Condition on Subsequent Vocabulary Development (United States)

    Mohammed, Halah Abdulelah; Majid, Norazman Abdul; Abdullah, Tina


    This study addressed the potential methodological issues effect of attentional condition on subsequent vocabulary development from a different perspective, which addressed several potential methodological issues of previous research that have been based on psycholinguistic notion of second language learner as a limited capacity processor. The…

  7. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health (United States)

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel


    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  8. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and subsequent child feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Mothers of young children in Ghana believe that breastfeeding exclusively for six months impairs subsequent introduction of other foods. The current study was designed to determine whether feeding adequacy among 9-23 months old children is influenced by duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Design: We ...

  9. Beliefs about Child Support Modification Following Remarriage and Subsequent Childbirth (United States)

    Hans, Jason D.


    Framed by equity theory, fairness beliefs regarding child support modification to account for the financial impact of remarriage and subsequent childbirth were assessed. Based on a random sample of 407 Kentucky residents using a multiple segment factorial vignette approach, modification was supported by 57% of respondents following remarriage, but…

  10. Sustained mental workload does not affect subsequent sleep intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, EA; Beersma, DGM; Daan, S; Bruin, Eveline A. de

    Mental activity is a neglected factor in sleep research. The few investigations on sleep that manipulate prior mental activity are inconclusive with respect to the possible effects of mental activity on recovery. In the present study, the effects of two levels of mental activity on subsequent sleep

  11. Fitness Change and Subsequent Academic Performance in Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Taun, Chih-Yang


    Background: This study examined the association between fitness change and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese schoolchildren from 7th grade to 9th grade. Methods: The 7th graders from 1 junior high school district participated in this study (N=669). Academic performance was

  12. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 5, 2010 ... This study, therefore explored the potential use of certain biocontrol agents for the reduction of growth of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production in sorghum. Among all the biocontrol agents tested, culture filtrate of Rhodococcus erythropolis completely inhibited the A.

  13. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse repair subsequent to hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent


    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair in women following radical hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry, we collected data on all radical...

  14. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal


    Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...

  15. Chronic genital ulcer disease with subsequent development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the ...

  16. Natural course of subsequent pregnancy after peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manes Albanesi Fº


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of subsequent pregnancy after peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM on maternal and fetal outcome. METHODS: Prospective study of 34 patients with the diagnosis of PPCM (mean age= 26years. At the time of first diagnosis 5 were in NYHA functional class (FC II for heart failure, one in FC III and 28 in FC IV. After clinical treatment, patients were advised to avoid new pregnancies and a follow-up was obtained. RESULTS: There were 12 (35.3% subsequent pregnancies in patients (pt aged 19 to 44 years (mean 32, divided into two groups: GI: 6 pts who had normalized their heart size and GII: 6 pts with persistent cardiomegaly. GI had initially mild clinical manifestations ( 3 were in FC II, 1 in FC II and 2 in FC IV and complete recovery of cardiac function (FC I. A new pregnancy was well-tolerated in 5 (83.3%; 1 pt presented with preeclampsia, and progressed to FC II. Presently, 5 pt are in FC I and 1 in FC II. GII pts had more severe heart failure at the onset of PPCM (1 pt in FC II and 5 in FC IV; during follow-up, 4 pt were in FC I and 2 in FC II. A new pregnancy was well tolerated in all of them, but the eldest, who had had 2 pregnancies and had a progressive worsening of clinical status, dying 8 years after the last pregnancy and 13 years after the diagnosis of PPCM. The remaining 5 pt are still alive, 3 in FC I and 2 in FC II, with worsening of FC in 1. Subsequent pregnancies occurred 3-7 years after clinical treatment of PPCM and no fetal distress was observed. CONCLUSION: Subsequent pregnancies are well-tolerated after PPCM, but not devoid of risk. No fetal distress was observed. A minimum interval of 3 years after the recovery of function seems to be safe for subsequent pregnancies.

  17. Term induction of labor and subsequent preterm birth. (United States)

    Levine, Lisa D; Bogner, Hillary R; Hirshberg, Adi; Elovitz, Michal A; Sammel, Mary D; Srinivas, Sindhu K


    Although the rate of inductions continues to rise, there is a paucity of data investigating subsequent pregnancy outcomes after induction. Our objective was to compare term inductions with term spontaneous labor and evaluate the rate of subsequent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). A retrospective cohort study of women with 2 consecutive deliveries from 2005 through 2010 was performed. Term inductions or term spontaneous labor in the index pregnancy was included, and those with a prior sPTB were excluded. Data were obtained through chart abstraction. The primary outcome was sPTB (Term inductions were less likely to have a subsequent sPTB compared with term spontaneous labor (6% vs 11%; odds ratio [OR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.81; P = .005). This remained after adjusting for confounders (adjusted OR, 0.55; P = .04). The sPTB risk depended on gestational age of index delivery. At 37-38.9 weeks, the sPTB rate after spontaneous labor was 24% vs 9% after induction (OR, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.16; P = .003). This was not significant for 39-39.9 weeks (P = .2) or 40 weeks or longer (P = .8). Induction is not a risk factor for subsequent sPTB. Spontaneous labor, however, in the early term period is associated with subsequent sPTB. Further investigation among early term deliveries is warranted to evaluate the risk of sPTB and target interventions in this cohort. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. All-American


    Wilson, Leroy Lamar


    All-American interrogates J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur’s definition of “American" in the 1782 text, Letters from an American Farmer, which inspired the Eurocentric, sexist and heterosexist ideals girding the notion of what is now called the “American Dream." Mainstream media project narratives that suggest that the ideals in Crevecoeur’s epistles have been fully extended beyond his narrow scope in the Obama era. All-American, however, offers poetry that illuminates modern and contemporary...

  19. An investigation of African American and European American students' perception of teaching behavior. (United States)

    Cauley, Bridget; Immekus, Jason C; Pössel, Patrick


    Teaching behaviors are associated with a range of student academic and mental health outcomes. Substantial academic, school disciplinary, and mental health disparities across African American and European American students suggest that diverse students may view and interpret teaching behaviors differently. The Teaching Behavior Questionnaire measures students' perceptions of teaching behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine the scale's factor structure among European American high school students using exploratory factor analysis and, subsequently, cross-validate using confirmatory factor analysis based on African American student data. Results supported reconceptualizing the scale according to a three-factor model in both groups. Implications related to the interpretation and use of scores are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone-anchored hearing aid and skin graft removal with subsequent cochlear implantation. (United States)

    Britt, Christopher J; Coughlin, Adam R; Gubbels, Samuel P


    We describe a novel technique of scalp flap rearrangement for cochlear implant (CI) candidates who have previously undergone ipsilateral bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) placement. One patient with single-sided deafness (SSD) underwent removal of a BAHA with subsequent scalp rearrangement for coverage of the implant site. After adequate healing of the scalp rotational flap, he underwent uncomplicated cochlear implantation without soft tissue complications. With increasing utilization of CIs in SSD, there will be more patients undergoing cochlear implantation who have previously had a BAHA. We present a novel method for accomplishing this goal while minimizing the risk of soft tissue complications. Laryngoscope, 126:2601-2604, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn


    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  2. Association Between Psychotic Experiences and Subsequent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Nock, Matthew K; Saha, Sukanta


    Importance: Community-based studies have linked psychotic experiences (PEs) with increased risks of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is not known if these associations vary across the life course or if mental disorders contribute to these associations. Objective: To examine...... the temporal association between PEs and subsequent STBs across the life span as well as the influence of mental disorders (antecedent to the STBs) on these associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 33 370 adult respondents across 19 countries from the World Health Organization World Mental...... Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, STBs (ie, ideation, plans, and attempts), and 21 DSM-IV mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations of PEs with subsequent onset of STBs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and frequency of STBs with PEs, and odds...

  3. Personal commentary: monitoring subsequent pregnancy in recovered peripartum cardiomyopathy mothers. (United States)

    Fett, James D


    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is defined as the first appearance of systolic heart failure in a previously healthy woman during the last month of pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. Both planned and unplanned pregnancies may occur in recovered and non-recovered PPCM mothers, requiring careful counseling and management strategies. Previous studies indicate that relapse of heart failure in post-PPCM pregnancies is always a possibility, even in recovered PPCM mothers. The risk of relapse is high when the left ventricular ejection fraction is less than 0.50, and should be considered a relative contraindication to subsequent pregnancy. There are not yet established protocols for monitoring subsequent pregnancies in those who once had PPCM, and few medical articles with guidelines. This personal commentary contains parameters that have been found useful to contribute to safer monitoring with improved outcomes.

  4. Learning increases human electroencephalographic coherence during subsequent slow sleep oscillations. (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Marshall, Lisa; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan


    Learning is assumed to induce specific changes in neuronal activity during sleep that serve the consolidation of newly acquired memories. To specify such changes, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence during performance on a declarative learning task (word pair associations) and subsequent sleep. Compared with a nonlearning control condition, learning performance was accompanied with a strong increase in coherence in several EEG frequency bands. During subsequent non-rapid eye movement sleep, coherence only marginally increased in a global analysis of EEG recordings. However, a striking and robust increase in learning-dependent coherence was found when analyses were performed time-locked to the occurrence of slow oscillations (learning in the slow-oscillatory, delta, slow-spindle, and gamma bands. The findings identify the depolarizing phase of the slow oscillations in humans as a time period particularly relevant for a reprocessing of memories in sleep.

  5. Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma. (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Borges, Guilherme; Ciutan, Marius; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fiestas, Fabian; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Scott, Kate M


    Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain after mental comorbidity adjustments. During face-to-face household surveys in community-dwelling adults (n = 52,095) of 19 countries, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Asthma was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis together with age of onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma, without and with comorbidity adjustment. 1860 adult onset (21 years+) asthma cases were identified, representing a total of 2,096,486 person-years of follow up. After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders several mental disorders were associated with subsequent adult asthma onset: bipolar (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.5), panic (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-2.0), generalized anxiety (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.7), specific phobia (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.6); post-traumatic stress (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-1.9); binge eating (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.9) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-2.0). Mental comorbidity linearly increased the association with adult asthma. The association with subsequent asthma was stronger for mental disorders with an early onset (before age 21). A wide range of temporally prior mental disorders are significantly associated with subsequent onset of asthma in adulthood. The extent to which asthma can be avoided or improved among those with early mental disorders deserves study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non Melanoma Skin Cancer and Subsequent Cancer Risk (United States)

    Rees, Judy R.; Zens, M. Scot; Gui, Jiang; Celaya, Maria O.; Riddle, Bruce L.; Karagas, Margaret R.


    Introduction Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. Methods Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. Results Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC) was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71]) than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46]) compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking). After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]). An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11) and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51) was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46). Conclusions Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors. PMID:24937304

  7. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy R Rees

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight.The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer.Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk.Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71] than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46] compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking. After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]. An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11 and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51 was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46.Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  8. Perinatal Loss: The Effect on Attachment in Subsequent Pregnancies (United States)


    association between early separation and subsequent development of failure to thrive and battered -child syndrome cases. The results of these studies may...infant bonding when intensive care nursery nurses observed and reported a trend in the number of failure to thrive and battered children; who had...had a previous perinatal loss and those who have had a positive outcome. V. Operational Definitions: 1) Multiqravida- A woman who has been pregnant

  9. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary


    To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously identified during an index pregnancy to have subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). From 2000 to 2003, thyroid analytes were measured in 17,298 women. Using their index pregnancy thyroid-analyte classification, pregnancy outcomes were compared between the returning cohorts. There were 6,985 women previously screened and subsequently delivered at our hospital though 2011 with 230 (3.3%) designated to have SCH and 6,645 (95.1%) euthyroid. Significant differences between the two cohorts included risk for diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.005), gestational diabetes (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.69, p = 0.015), and stillbirth (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.05 to 11.68, p = 0.042). After adjustment, the increased likelihood of diabetes (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40, p = 0.032) and stillbirth (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.49, p = 0.048) persisted. Women identified during a previous pregnancy with SCH are at increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes during a subsequent pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. The critical time-lapse between various restoration placements and subsequent endodontic intervention. (United States)

    Kwang, Sarah; Aminoshariae, Anita; Harding, Jarrod; Montagnese, Thomas A; Mickel, Andre


    The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) to investigate the critical time-lapse of endodontic intervention subsequent to various restorations and tooth surfaces and (2) to assess and compare the risk factors associated with the restorations, tooth surfaces, and endodontic treatment. A comprehensive computerized analysis of all dental school patients at the Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine who received restorations from 2008-2013 was obtained. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The sample size was limited to teeth with endodontic treatment completed by the endodontic postgraduate dental clinic. Data collected included restoration type, restored tooth surfaces, tooth type, and the dates of restoration and subsequent endodontic treatment. A 2-sample paired t test (95% confidence interval, P endodontic intervention was 270 days, with a mean difference of 247-294 days (P endodontic intervention. Teeth with 2 or more restorative surfaces required endodontic intervention (P endodontic treatment after restoration placement, the critical time-lapse was 9 months. Composite restorations and teeth with 2 or more restorative surfaces were significantly associated with endodontic treatment. From the results of the current study, we recommended that all dental practitioners should perform a thorough endodontic evaluation and diagnosis before, during, and after all restorative procedures. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A nationwide population-based cohort study from Korea. (United States)

    Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Jung, Han Mi; Kim, Sook Young; Kim, Miri; Kim, Gyung Moon; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok


    Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been described sporadically in case series. To investigate the incidence and risk factors of subsequent vitiligo after HSCT. A nationwide, population-based cohort study was performed using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database from 2009 to 2013. All HSCT recipients who had undergone HSCT between 2010 and 2011 and not treatment for vitiligo in 2009 (to exclude preexisting active vitiligo) were included in the HSCT recipient group, and an age- and sex-matched control group without HSCT was also established. A total of 2747 HSCT recipients and 8241 controls were enrolled. Newly acquired vitiligo occurred in 1.06% of HSCT recipients between 2010 and 2013, and there was a significant increase (OR 3.130, 95% CI 1.859-5.271) in cases of vitiligo in HSCT recipients compared with controls (0.34%). Allogeneic HSCT (OR 5.593, 95% CI 1.628-19.213) and bone marrow-sourced stem cells (as compared with peripheral blood-sourced stem cells; OR 2.492, 95% CI 1.114-5.576) were independently associated with the development of vitiligo after HSCT. Medical record review was not available. Vitiligo developed at a significantly increased rate after HSCT compared with controls. Allogeneic HSCT and bone marrow-sourced stem cells were independent risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive allergy evaluation is useful in the subsequent care of patients with drug hypersensitivity reactions during anesthesia. (United States)

    Guyer, Autumn C; Saff, Rebecca R; Conroy, Michelle; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Camargo, Carlos A; Long, Aidan A; Banerji, Aleena


    For patients with a history of drug hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) during anesthesia, strategies to minimize risk with subsequent anesthesia are unclear. Identification of the cause of HSR during anesthesia remains challenging. To determine the success of a comprehensive allergy evaluation and management plan for patients with HSR during anesthesia, including identification of the causative agent and review of outcomes during subsequent anesthesia exposure. We performed chart reviews of patients referred for the evaluation of HSR during anesthesia between 2003 and 2012. Data collection included patient characteristics, signs/symptoms of HSR during anesthesia, and subsequent outcomes. Patients underwent comprehensive allergy evaluation including skin testing for identifying potential culprit agents, and the results were used to provide recommendations for any subsequent anesthesia. Over the 10-year study period, 73 patients with HSR during anesthesia were referred for further evaluation. Thirteen patients (18%) had positive skin test results to a drug received during anesthesia. One patient with a positive skin test result was diagnosed with mastocytosis. The causative agents identified in these 13 patients included latex, β-lactam antibiotics, neuromuscular blockers, tetracaine, odansetron, and fentanyl. On follow-up, 47 of the 73 patients (64%) subsequently underwent procedures requiring anesthesia. Using our recommendations from evaluation and testing, 45 of these 47 patients (96%) successfully tolerated subsequent anesthesia. The 2 patients who developed recurrent HSR during anesthesia were later diagnosed with mast cell disorders. Our comprehensive evaluation and management plan minimizes risk with subsequent anesthesia even when the cause of HSR could not be identified. Baseline tryptase levels may be helpful in this patient population to diagnose mast cell disorders. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

  13. Adverse reactions and other factors that impact subsequent blood donation visits. (United States)

    Custer, Brian; Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen; Kakaiya, Ram M; Gottschall, Jerome L; Wright, David J


    The importance of adverse reactions in terms of donor safety recently has received significant attention, but their role in subsequent donation behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. Six REDS-II blood centers provided data for this analysis. Summary minor and major adverse reaction categories were created. The influence of adverse reactions on donation was examined in two ways: Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to determine the cumulative pattern of first return, and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for demographic and other factors positively and negatively associated with return were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Donors who had major reactions had longer times to return than donors with minor or no reactions. The AOR of returning for donors with major reactions was 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.37) and with minor reactions 0.59 (95% CI, 0.56-0.62) when compared to donors who did not have reactions. Conversely, the most important factors positively associated with return were the number of donations in the previous year and increasing age. Subsequent return, whether a major, minor, or no reaction occurred, varied by blood center. Factors that are associated with the risk of having adverse reactions were not substantial influences on the return after adverse reactions. Having an adverse reaction leads to significantly lower odds of subsequent donation irrespective of previous donation history. Factors that have been associated with a greater risk of adverse reactions were not important positive or negative predictors of return after a reaction. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Lack of association between postactivation potentiation and subsequent jump performance. (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul


    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy that has been used to acutely enhance the performance of explosive activities. Although, isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) have previously been shown to enhance subsequent explosive performance, no information currently exists regarding (1) the optimal variables (intensity/volume) of a MVC that best elicits a PAP response, and (2) the utilisation of evoked isometric twitch contractions in combination with performance measures to directly ascertain the presence of PAP following a MVC, and its relationship to performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (1) investigate the influence of isometric contraction duration on the PAP response, and (2) to determine the relationship between PAP, indicated as potentiation of muscle twitch force and subsequent jump performance following different-duration MVCs. Eight males (age: 21 ± 0.99) were assessed using performance measures [countermovement jumps] and evoked twitch contractions, before and 4 minutes after three different conditioning contractions (CCs), (1) a 3-second MVC (MVC3), (2) a 5-second MVC (MVC5) and (3) a 7-second MVC (MVC7). Following all CCs, peak twitch torque of the knee extensor muscles was found to increase (MVC3, + 3.9%; MVC5, + 9.6%; MVC7, + 5.2%), although not significantly (P > 0.05). No significant increases in jump height, jump power, rate of force development or takeoff velocity were observed following any of the CCs (P > 0.05). There was also a lack of association between the changes in PAP (twitch torque) and jump height following all CCs (MVC3, r = 0.25; MVC5, r = 0.28; MVC7, r = -0.47). These data indicate that PAP as assessed via twitch contractions is not associated with performance measures subsequent to single-set isometric CCs of varying durations.

  15. Subsequent Injury Patterns in Girls' High School Sports (United States)

    Rauh, Mitchell J; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Wiksten, Denise L


    Context: Girls' participation in high school sports has increased 79.5% since 1975–1976. The incidence of injury among boys in high school sports has been well documented, but information regarding the incidence, severity, and type of injury among girls in high school sports is limited. Objective: To examine the effects of subsequent injuries among high school girls in 5 sports. Design: Observational cohort. Setting: Existing data from the 1995–1997 National Athletic Trainers' Association High School Injury Surveillance database. Patients or Other Participants: Girl athletes (n = 25 187 player-seasons) participating in 5 varsity high school sports: basketball, field hockey, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury status, body location, injury type, time lost from injury, and number of players at risk for injury as recorded by athletic trainers and submitted to the Sports Injury Monitoring System. Results: Overall, 23.3% of the athletes had 2 or more injuries within a sport; basketball and soccer athletes were most vulnerable. Overall, the probability of an athlete sustaining 3 or more injuries was 38.6%, and the risk was highest for field hockey players (61.9%). The risk of subsequent injury at a new body location was almost 2 times higher than reinjury at the same body location (risk ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.6, 1.8) and was similar for all sports except volleyball. Only in softball was the proportion of reinjuries causing 8 or more days lost from participation greater than the proportion of new injuries causing similar time loss. Softball and volleyball had the highest proportion of reinjuries at the shoulder, especially rotator cuff strains. The proportion of knee reinjuries was significantly higher than new injuries for all sports except soccer. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was significantly higher for volleyball players only. Overall, the proportion of reinjuries was significantly higher

  16. Cephalosporin Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Subsequent Penicillin Drug Exanthem


    Amanda Lam; Inderpal Randhawa; William Klaustermeyer


    Background: Drug hypersensitivity is classically divided into IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated disease. We report a rare case of consequent IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated reactions within the beta lactam class of antibiotics. Case Summary: An 84-year-old man developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) due to ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin, involving 72% of the body surface area. The patient recovered but within weeks subsequently developed an acute IgE mediated allergic r...

  17. Risk factors for subsequent impaired driving by injured passengers. (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Chan, Herbert; Brown, Douglas; Fang, Ming; Brubacher, Jeffrey R


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of, and risk factors for, subsequent impaired driving activity (IDA) in a cohort of injured passengers who were treated for injuries in a Canadian trauma center. We studied adult passengers who were occupants in vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and either included in the British Columbia (BC) trauma registry (January 1, 1992-December 31, 2004) or treated in the emergency department (ED) of Vancouver General Hospital (VGH; January 1, 1999-December 31, 2003). Passengers were linked to their driver's license and hence to their driving record using personal health number and demographic information. Injured passengers were stratified into 3 groups based on their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of ED presentation: group 1: BAC = 0, group 2: 0 17.3 mM (0.08%). Two outcome variables were studied: involvement in a subsequent IDA and time to their first subsequent IDA. IDA was defined as a criminal code conviction for impaired driving, a 24-h or 90-day license suspension for impaired driving, and/or involvement in an MVC where police cited alcohol as a factor. Time to first IDA following the index event among passenger BAC groups was compared with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effect of various potential risk factors on time to engage in first IDA. Injured passengers with any BAC at the time of ED visit were more likely to engage in IDA and had their first IDA sooner after the index event than those with zero BAC. Among this cohort of injured passengers, 12.1 percent with BAC = 0, 29.9 percent with 0 17.3 mM (0.08%) engaged in IDA. Compared to passengers with BAC = 0, group 3 passengers and group 2 passengers were 2.06 times and 1.79 times more likely to engage in future IDA. Twenty-five percent of injured passengers engaged their first IDA by 57 and 38 months in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Previous IDA and being male were also

  18. Association Between Serum Relaxin and Subsequent Shoulder Instability. (United States)

    Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Clifton, Kari B; Svoboda, Steven J; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis


    Ligamentous laxity correlates with shoulder instability. Relaxin is a hormone that has been linked to laxity in the knee and has been shown to be a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This study prospectively evaluated the association between relaxin and acute shoulder instability. A prospective cohort study of 1050 young athletes was performed between 2006 and 2010. The authors conducted a nested case-control analysis within this cohort to evaluate the association between preinjury serum relaxin concentration and the likelihood of subsequent shoulder instability. The study compared 53 patients who had shoulder instability and 53 control subjects who were matched for sex, age, height, and weight. The serum relaxin concentration in preinjury baseline samples was tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis in duplicate. Independent t tests were performed to identify differences in mean serum relaxin concentration between patients with shoulder instability and uninjured control subjects. Logistic regression was used to evaluate whether preinjury baseline serum relaxin concentration was associated with the subsequent likelihood of shoulder instability. Of the 53 patients with instability, 13 (25%) had a detectable serum relaxin concentration compared with 9 (17%) of uninjured control subjects (P=.34). Mean serum relaxin concentration in the injury group was 3.69±1.78 pg/mL and 2.20±0.97 pg/mL in uninjured control subjects (P=.02). Increased serum relaxin concentration was associated with the subsequent likelihood of acute shoulder instability. Subjects were 2.18 times (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.76) more likely to have acute shoulder instability during the follow-up period for every 1-pg/mL increase in serum relaxin concentration at baseline. The findings suggest that serum relaxin concentration is associated with a risk of subsequent shoulder instability in young athletes. Further research on the role of relaxin

  19. Parental divorce and subsequent disadvantage: a cross-cohort comparison. (United States)

    Sigle-Rushton, Wendy; Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen


    Although many studies have examined the link between parental divorce and subsequent well-being, some theories of the effects of divorce suggest that the negative associations should have declined over time. However, few studies have examined the extent to which the associations have remained stable over time. Using data from two British cohorts, we analyzed both shorter- and longer-term outcomes of children who experienced parental divorce and the extent to which the associations have changed over time. Estimating similar models for both cohorts, we found little evidence of any change in the size of the relationship as divorce became more commonplace.

  20. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia. (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  1. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent drug use. (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Rocca, Corinne H; Foster, Diana Greene


    Some research finds that women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent drug use and drug use disorders. This literature is rife with methodological problems, particularly inappropriate comparison groups. This study used data from the Turnaway Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of women who sought abortions at 30 sites across the U.S. Participants included women presenting just prior to an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n=452), just beyond the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n=231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n=273). This study examined the relationship between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent drug use over two years. Trajectories of drug use were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Any drug use, frequency of drug use, and marijuana use did not change over time among women in any group. There were no differential changes over time in any drug use, frequency of drug use, or marijuana use between groups. However, Turnaways who ultimately gave birth increased use of drugs other than marijuana compared to women in the Near Limit Abortion Group (p=.041), who did not increase use. Women receiving abortions did not increase drug use over two years or have higher levels of drug use than women denied abortions. Assertions that abortion leads women to use drugs to cope with the stress of abortion are not supported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transported biofilms and their influence on subsequent macrofouling colonization. (United States)

    Sweat, L Holly; Swain, Geoffrey W; Hunsucker, Kelli Z; Johnson, Kevin B


    Biofilm organisms such as diatoms are potential regulators of global macrofouling dispersal because they ubiquitously colonize submerged surfaces, resist antifouling efforts and frequently alter larval recruitment. Although ships continually deliver biofilms to foreign ports, it is unclear how transport shapes biofilm microbial structure and subsequent macrofouling colonization. This study demonstrates that different ship hull coatings and transport methods change diatom assemblage composition in transported coastal marine biofilms. Assemblages carried on the hull experienced significant cell losses and changes in composition through hydrodynamic stress, whereas those that underwent sheltered transport, even through freshwater, were largely unaltered. Coatings and their associated biofilms shaped distinct macrofouling communities and affected recruitment for one third of all species, while biofilms from different transport treatments had little effect on macrofouling colonization. These results demonstrate that transport conditions can shape diatom assemblages in biofilms carried by ships, but the properties of the underlying coatings are mainly responsible for subsequent macrofouling. The methods by which organisms colonize and are transferred by ships have implications for their distribution, establishment and invasion success.

  3. The effect of abortion on outcome of subsequent pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In a historical cohort study we evaluated the effects of spontaneous abortion on subsequent pregnancy outcome. 1693 pregnant women were classifield in three groups: 1100: without any prior pregnancy, group 1; 550: with history of one spontaneous abortion (G2A1, group 2; 43: with two or more prior spontaneous abortions and no other prior pregnancies, group 3. We collected data through interview, patient's records and physical examination. We matched the patients according to their age subgroups, history of chronic disease, drug administration and radiation during current pregnancy and familial marriage. Then we compared adverse outcome of present pregnancy in group 1 and 2 with the women without prior pregnancy. We analysed the data with Chi-square and Fisher's exact methods. In this study we concluded that history of one spontaneous abortion had no effect on subsequent pregnancy except on prolonged ROM (P<0.000, but history of two or more abortions significantly affects occurrence of stillbirth (RR=29, P=0.003 and placenta previa (RR=8.5, P=0.03. These findings suggest that pregnant women with history of two or more spontaneous abortion need special prenatal care.

  4. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use. (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene


    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  5. Addition of ascorbate during cryopreservation stimulates subsequent embryo development. (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Maybach, Jeffery M; Gardner, David K


    Embryo development following cryopreservation is reduced compared with fresh embryos. One of the traumas that cryopreservation imparts on embryos is an increase in oxidative stress. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the addition of the antioxidant ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions on subsequent embryo development. Mouse embryos at the 2-cell and blastocyst stages were either slow-frozen or vitrified in solutions containing either no ascorbate or 0.1 or 0.5 mmol/l ascorbate. The effects on the levels of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent embryo development and physiology were assessed. Addition of ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions reduced the levels of hydrogen peroxide in embryos. Furthermore, addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate significantly enhanced inner cell mass development in blastocysts. Embryos cryopreserved with ascorbate had significantly lower levels of lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and increased rates of metabolism compared with those cryopreserved in the absence of ascorbate. The benefits of ascorbate were significantly greater in embryos that were slow-frozen compared with those that were vitrified. These data indicate that the addition of 0.1 mmol/l ascorbate to the cryopreservation solutions for the mammalian embryo would be of significant value.

  6. The initial and subsequent inflammatory events during calcium oxalate lithiasis. (United States)

    Yuen, John W M; Gohel, Mayur-Danny I; Poon, Ngork-Wah; Shum, Daisy K Y; Tam, Po-Chor; Au, Doris W T


    Crystallization is believed to be the initiation step of urolithiasis, even though it is unknown where inside the nephron the first crystal nucleation occurs. Direct nucleation of calcium oxalate and subsequent events including crystal retention, cellular damage, endocytosis, and hyaluronan (HA) expression, were tested in a two-compartment culture system with intact human proximal tubular HK-2 cell monolayer. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was nucleated and bound onto the apical surface of the HK-2 cells under hypercalciuric and hyperoxaluric conditions. These cells displayed mild cellular damage and internalized some of the adhered crystals within 18h post-COD-exposure, as revealed by electron microscopy. Prolonged incubation in complete medium caused significant damage to disrupt the monolayer integrity. Furthermore, hyaluronan disaccharides were detected in the harvested media, and were associated with HAS-3 mRNA expression. Human proximal cells were able to internalize COD crystals which nucleated directly onto the apical surface, subsequently triggering cellular damage and HAS-3 specific hyaluronan synthesis as an inflammatory response. The proximal tubule cells here demonstrate that it plays an important role in facilitating urolithiasis via endocytosis and creating an inflammatory environment whereby free hyaluronan in tubular fluid can act as crystal-binding molecule at the later segments of distal and collecting tubules. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsu, Chung Y; Kao, Chia-Hung


    Splenectomy may be necessary to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with thrombocytopenia; however, whether performing a splenectomy on patients without SLE increases the subsequent risk of SLE remains unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association between splenectomy and SLE. We conducted a cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database to identify 10,298 patients with received a splenectomy between 2000 and 2006 and 41,192 participants without received a splenectomy who were selected by frequency matched based on sex, age, and the index year. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of developing SLE associated with splenectomy compared with patients who did not receive a splenectomy. During the study period, the overall incidence density rate of SLE was higher in the splenectomy cohort than in the non-splenectomy cohort (adjusted HR 10.55; 95 % CI 50.55-20.05). The incidence density rates of SLE in women and men who received a splenectomy were higher than those of patients who did not receive a splenectomy. Non-traumatic splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of SLE. The risk of SLE should be considered before performing a splenectomy, particularly in women and younger patients.

  8. Subsequent Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Autoimmune Disease. (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Liu, Xiangdong; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Ji, Jianguang


    Immunological data show that type 2 diabetes (T2D) manifests autoimmune features. We wanted to test the association epidemiologically by assessing subsequent diagnosis of T2D following diagnosis of autoimmune disease (AId) and subsequent AId after T2D in the same individuals. Patients were identified from three Swedish health databases. A total of 32 different AId were included. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for T2D diagnosis in patients with previously diagnosed AId and compared to those without a previous AId. Among a total of 757,368 AId patients, 15,103 were diagnosed with T2D, giving an overall SIR for T2D of 1.66. T2D risks were increased after 27 AIds; the highest SIRs were noted for chorea minor (8.00), lupoid hepatitis (5.75), and Addison disease (2.63). T2D was increased after 27 of 32 AIds but we were unable to control for factors such as obesity and smoking. However, the clearly increased risks for T2D in most types of AId patients, and in reverse order increased risks for AId after T2D, do not support an overall confounding by life-style factors. Mechanistic links shared by T2D, AId and life-style factors such as obesity, perhaps through chronic inflammation, may drive autoimmune activation of T2D and many AIds.

  9. American Heart Association (United States)

    ... Giving for Media for American Heart Association Check out Scientific Sessions news — translated for you. ... with the Woman of Distinction Award at the American Heart Association's top science gathering. Nearly half of U.S. adults ...

  10. 16 Extraordinary African Americans. (United States)

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  11. Native American Entrepreneurship. Digest. (United States)

    Seymour, Nicole

    Although Native Americans have owned and started the fewest small businesses of all U.S. minority groups, entrepreneurship is considered to be an efficient tool for alleviating their economic problems. Barriers to Native American entrepreneurship include poverty, scarce start-up capital, poor access to business education and technical assistance,…

  12. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  13. American Independence. Fifth Grade. (United States)

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  14. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  15. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students. (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E


    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  16. Searching for a Cultural Home: Asian American Youth in the EDM Festival Scene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Judy Soojin


    ..., gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with participant observation, I argue that Asian American youth's status as "perpetual foreigners" and subsequent desire for cultural belonging...

  17. The Rise and Decline of an Educational Technology: Television in American Samoa. (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray


    The development and subsequent decline of instructional television in the public school system of American Samoa are described and evaluated. Specific decisions and their effects on educational television are examined and conclusions are drawn from the experience. (Author/BK)

  18. Acute exercise and subsequent nutritional adaptations: what about obese youths? (United States)

    Thivel, David; Blundell, John E; Duché, Pascale; Morio, Béatrice


    The imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake is the main factor accounting for the progression of obesity. For many years, physical activity has been part of weight-loss programmes to increase energy expenditure. It is now recognized that exercise can also affect appetite and energy consumption. In the context of seeking new obesity treatments, it is of major interest to clarify the impact of physical exercise on energy intake. Many reviews on this topic have been published regarding both lean and overweight adults, and this review focuses on the relationships between acute exercise and the short-term regulation of energy intake in lean and overweight or obese youths. The current literature provides very few data regarding the impact of exercise on subsequent energy intake and perceived and measured appetite in children and adolescents, mainly because of methodological difficulties in the assessment of both energy intake and expenditure. It has been long suggested that energy intake was regulated after exercise in order to compensate for the exercise-induced energy expenditure and then preserve energy balance. This overview underlines that the energy expended during exercise is not the main parameter that influences subsequent energy intake in both lean and overweight/obese children and adolescents, and that factors such as the duration or intensity of exercise may have larger impact. The effects of acute exercise on the following nutritional adaptations (energy intake and appetite feelings) remain inconclusive in lean youths, mainly due to the lack of data and the disparity of the methodologies used. Studies in overweight or obese children and adolescents are confronted with the same difficulties, and the few available data suggest that intensive exercise (>70% maximal oxygen consumption) can induce a reduction in daily energy balance, as a result of its anorexigenic effect in obese adolescents. However, further studies are needed to clarify the

  19. Effects of antibiotics on human microbiota and subsequent disease. (United States)

    Keeney, Kristie M; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Finlay, B Brett


    Although antibiotics have significantly improved human health and life expectancy, their disruption of the existing microbiota has been linked to significant side effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and increased susceptibility to subsequent disease. By using antibiotics to break colonization resistance against Clostridium, Salmonella, and Citrobacter species, researchers are now exploring mechanisms for microbiota-mediated modulation against pathogenic infection, revealing potential roles for different phyla and family members as well as microbiota-liberated sugars, hormones, and short-chain fatty acids in regulating pathogenicity. Furthermore, connections are now being made between microbiota dysbiosis and a variety of different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, atopy, and obesity. Future advances in the rapidly developing field of microbial bioinformatics will enable researchers to further characterize the mechanisms of microbiota modulation of disease and potentially identify novel therapeutics against disease.

  20. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  1. Study on subsequent neurologic complications in children with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoaki; Shimazaki, Haruyo; Hoshi, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Twenty-seven children with acute leukemia were studied in order to detect the subsequent neurologic complications due to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Twenty-four patients with ALL received central nervous system prophylaxis including cranial irradiation. The methods of evaluation consisted of electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography of the head (CT scan), soft neurological sign, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Bender Gestalt test. The patients with relapse showed severe abnormalities in various kinds of examinations. Younger children at diagnosis were associated with a higher abnormality rate of soft neurological signs and Bender Gestalt test. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included younger children at diagnosis and longer duration of remission time. These results indicate the need for caution for the dosage of cranial irradiation for younger patients in CNS prophylaxis, and improvement of a lower IQ score in long-term survivors requires further investigation as to the appropriate intellectual environment for their development after remission. (author).

  2. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.


    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  3. [Incidence of refractive errors with corrective aids subsequent selection]. (United States)

    Benes, P; Synek, S; Petrová, S; Sokolová, Sidlová J; Forýtková, L; Holoubková, Z


    This study follows the occurrence of refractive errors in population and the possible selection of the appropriate type of corrective aids. Objective measurement and subsequent determination of the subjective refraction of the eye is on essential act in opotmetric practice. The file represented by 615 patients (1230 eyes) is divided according to the refractive error of myopia, hyperopia and as a control group are listed emetropic clients. The results of objective and subjective values of refraction are compared and statistically processed. The study included 615 respondents. To determine the objective refraction the autorefraktokeratometer with Placido disc was used and the values of spherical and astigmatic correction components, including the axis were recorded. These measurements were subsequently verified and tested subjectively using the trial lenses and the projection optotype to the normal investigative distance of 5 meters. After this the appropriate corrective aids were then recommended. Group I consists of 123 men and 195 women with myopia (n = 635) of clients with an average age 39 +/- 18,9 years. Objective refraction - sphere: -2,57 +/- 2,46 D, cylinder: -1,1 +/- 1,01 D, axis of: 100 degrees +/- 53,16 degrees. Subjective results are as follows--the value of sphere: -2,28 +/- 2,33 D, cylinder -0,63 +/- 0,80 D, axis of: 99,8 degrees +/- 56,64 degrees. Group II is represented hyperopic clients and consists of 67 men and 107 women (n = 348). The average age is 58,84 +/- 16,73 years. Objective refraction has values - sphere: +2,81 +/- 2,21 D, cylinder: -1,0 +/- 0,94 D; axis 95 degree +/- 45,4 degrees. Subsequent determination of subjective refraction has the following results - sphere: +2,28 +/- 2,06 D; cylinder: -0,49 +/- 0,85 D, axis of: 95,9 degrees +/- 46,4 degrees. Group III consists from emetropes whose final minimum viasual acuity was Vmin = 1,0 (5/5) or better. Overall, this control group is represented 52 males and 71 females (n = 247). The average

  4. Laser Induced Selective Activation For Subsequent Autocatalytic Electroless Plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang

    The subject of this PhD thesis is “Laser induced selective activation for subsequent autocatalytic electroless plating.” The objective of the project is to investigate the process chains for micro structuring of polymer surfaces for selective micro metallization. Laser induced selective activation...... that chemical bonds exist. However, it is still not excluded that chemical bonding is part of the mechanism. The second hypothesis is that the laser track has a stronger attraction work to the activation solution. This is proved by a calculation using van Oss et al., theory based on contact angle measurement....... The third hypothesis is that the activation and rinsing process can be described by diffusion. This hypothesis is proved using Fick’s diffusion laws combined with the short-time-plating experiment. The influence of laser parameters on the surface structure is investigated for Nd:YAG, UV, and fiber lasers...

  5. Prolonged job strain and subsequent risk of cancer in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte K.; Høeg, Beverley L.; Johansen, Christoffer


    busyness and speed, and low control in both 1993 and 1999. Information on cancer diagnosis was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for overall cancer as well as subgroups of virus immune-related, hormone......Background: The role of psychological stress in cancer risk is continuously debated. Stress at work is the most common form of stress and previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding cancer risk. In this longitudinal study, we examined the association between prolonged job strain...... across six years and subsequent cancer risk. Methods and materials: We used data from 6571 cancer-free women from the Danish Nurse Cohort aged 45–70 years at inclusion, and self-reported questionnaires on job strain at baseline in 1993 and again in 1999. Prolonged job strain was defined as high job...

  6. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy


    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  7. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure (United States)

    Healy, Laura C.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D.; Duda, Joan L.


    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50) completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 min. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving. PMID:26191029

  8. Persistent right umbilical vein: sonographic detection and subsequent neonatal outcome. (United States)

    Hill, L M; Mills, A; Peterson, C; Boyles, D


    To review our experience with antenatal detection and subsequent neonatal outcome of fetuses with a persistent right umbilical vein. In a prospective observational study, 33 cases of persistent right umbilical vein were detected during 15,237 obstetric ultrasound examinations performed after 15 weeks' gestation. Persistent right umbilical vein was detected at a rate of one per 476 obstetric ultrasound examinations. Six of 33 (18.2%) fetuses with a persistent right umbilical vein had additional important congenital malformations. Careful second- and third-trimester ultrasound examinations can detect a persistent right umbilical vein. When this particular anomaly is detected, a thorough fetal anatomic survey, including echocardiography, should be performed to rule out more serious congenital malformations.

  9. Mifepristone-induced abortion and vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy. (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Gao, Er-sheng; Chen, Ai-min; Luo, Lin; Cheng, Yi-min; Yuan, Wei


    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of first-trimester mifepristone-induced abortion on vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy. This observational cohort study was conducted during 1998-2001 at antenatal clinics in Beijing, Chengdu, and Shanghai, China. The study enrolled 4,931 women with one previous mifepristone-induced abortion, 4,925 women with no history of induced abortion, and 4,800 women with one previous surgical abortion and followed them through pregnancy and childbirth. The rates of vaginal bleeding in pregnant women with a history of medical abortion, no abortion, and surgical abortion were 16.5%, 13.9%, and 17.3%, respectively. The women with medical abortion had a higher risk (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.29) of vaginal bleeding compared with those with no abortion but similar risk to prior surgical abortion. When the correlation between medical abortion and vaginal bleeding was examined by period, increased risk was observed only in the early period (abortion and no abortion showed that the observed risks increased particularly in those with abortion at gestational age ≤ 7 weeks (aRR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.49), those followed by a postabortion curettage (aRR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.84) or complications (aRR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.67, 2.37). There was no difference between women with medical abortion and women with surgical abortion in the occurrence of vaginal bleeding for either period. One previous mifepristone-induced abortion increased the risk of vaginal bleeding in early gestation period of subsequent pregnancy compared with no abortion, especially if abortion occurred before 7 weeks of gestation and was followed by a curettage or complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Risk (United States)

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung


    Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is considered one of the most crucial health concerns. Few studies have investigated the correlation between CO poisoning and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study in Taiwan to determine whether patients with CO poisoning are associated with higher risk of developing subsequent CVDs, including arrhythmia, coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). This retrospective study used the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients aged ≥20 years with a diagnosis of CO poisoning and hospitalized during 2000 to 2011 (N = 8381), and the comparison cohort comprised randomly selected non-CO-poisoned patients (N = 33,524) frequency-matched with the study cohort by age, sex, and the year of index date. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who develop CVD events during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to calculate the hazard ratios of CVDs after adjusting for possible confounders. The overall incidences of arrhythmia, CAD, and CHF were higher in the patients with CO poisoning than in the controls (2.57 vs 1.25/1000 person-years, 3.28 vs 2.25/1000 person-years, and 1.32 vs 1.05/1000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the patients with CO poisoning were associated with a 1.83-fold higher risk of arrhythmia compared with the comparison cohort, and nonsignificantly associated with risk of CAD and CHF. CO-poisoned patients with coexisting comorbidity or in high severity were associated with significantly and substantially increased risk of all 3 CVDs. CO poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of arrhythmia. Future studies are required to explore the long-term effects of CO poisoning on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25761191

  11. Mifepristone-induced abortion and placental complications in subsequent pregnancy. (United States)

    Zhu, Qian-Xi; Gao, Er-Sheng; Chen, Ai-Min; Luo, Lin; Cheng, Yi-Min; Yuan, Wei


    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of first-trimester mifepristone-induced abortion (MA) on placental complications in subsequent pregnancy. Two cohorts of nulliparous pregnant women were recruited in China during early pregnancy, one with a history of one MA and the other with no abortion (NA). Women were followed up until delivery. The incidence proportions of abruptio placenta, placenta previa, placenta accreta and retained placenta in the MA group (4673) and NA group (4690) were, respectively, 0.5 and 0.3, 0.8 and 0.9, 0.5 and 0.5, and 0.7 and 0.8% (all differences non-significant). After adjustment for center, age, education, occupation, residence, income, BMI and type of delivery, the incidence rates of placenta previa, accreta and retained placenta in the MA and NA groups showed no significant differences. The risk of abruptio placenta in women with a MA was nearly double that of women with no abortion, although this apparent increased risk was not statistically significant. Furthermore, this increased risk of abruptio placenta was found only in those with a gestational age >6 weeks at abortion (aOR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.00-6.04), a curettage after abortion (aOR: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.25-7.20) or a longer inter-pregnancy interval (P-value for trend: 0.022). Mifepristone-induced abortion itself is not associated with placental complications in subsequent pregnancy, but other factors related to medical abortion-such as a gestational age >6 weeks at abortion, a curettage after abortion, and a longer interpregnancy interval-may increase the risk of abruptio placenta.

  12. Abortion and subsequent mental health: Review of the literature. (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo V; Buonocore, Giuseppe


    The risk that abortion may be correlated with subsequent mental disorders needs a careful assessment, in order to offer women full information when facing a difficult pregnancy. All research papers published between 1995 and 2011, were examined, to retrieve those assessing any correlation between abortion and subsequent mental problems. A total of 36 studies were retrieved, and six of them were excluded for methodological bias. Depression, anxiety disorders (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and substance abuse disorders were the most studied outcome. Abortion versus childbirth: 13 studies showed a clear risk for at least one of the reported mental problems in the abortion group versus childbirth, five papers showed no difference, in particular if women do not consider their experience of fetal loss to be difficult, or if after a fetal reduction the desired fetus survives. Only one paper reported a worse mental outcome for childbearing. Abortion versus unplanned pregnancies ending with childbirth: four studies found a higher risk in the abortion groups and three, no difference. Abortion versus miscarriage: three studies showed a greater risk of mental disorders due to abortion, four found no difference and two found that short-term anxiety and depression were higher in the miscarriage group, while long-term anxiety and depression were present only in the abortion group. In conclusion, fetal loss seems to expose women to a higher risk for mental disorders than childbirth; some studies show that abortion can be considered a more relevant risk factor than miscarriage; more research is needed in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca


    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  14. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K27-Subsequent: Key Comparison (subsequent) for the determination of ethanol in aqueous matrix (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M.; Duewer, David L.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Archer, Marcellé; Mussell, Chris; Carter, David; Konopelko, Leonid A.; Kustikov, Yury A.; Krylov, Anatoli I.; Fatina, Olga V.


    Ethanol is important both forensically ('drunk driving' or driving while under the influence, 'DWI', regulations) and commercially (alcoholic beverages). Blood- and breath-alcohol testing can be imposed on individuals operating private vehicles such as cars, boats, or snowmobiles, or operators of commercial vehicles like trucks, planes, and ships. The various levels of blood alcohol that determine whether these operators are considered legally impaired vary depending on the circumstances and locality. Accurate calibration and validation of instrumentation is critical in areas of forensic testing where quantitative analysis directly affects the outcome of criminal prosecutions, as is the case with the determination of ethanol in blood and breath. Additionally, the accurate assessment of the alcoholic content of beverages is a commercially important commodity. In 2002, the CCQM conducted a Key Comparison (CCQM-K27) for the determination of ethanol in aqueous matrix with nine participants. A report on this project has been approved by the CCQM and can be found at the BIPM website and in this Technical Supplement. CCQM-K27 comprised three samples, one at low mass fraction of ethanol in water (nominal concentration of 0.8 mg/g), one at high level (nominal concentration of 120 mg/g), and one wine matrix (nominal concentration of 81 mg/g). Overall agreement among eight participants using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), titrimetry, isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS), and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (ID-GC-C-IRMS) was good. The ninth participant used a headspace GC-FID method that had not been validated in an earlier pilot study (CCQM-P35). A follow-on Key Comparison, CCQM-K27-Subsequent, was initiated in 2003 to accommodate laboratories that had not been ready to benchmark their methods in the original CCQM-K27 study or that wished to benchmark a different method. Four levels of

  15. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions (United States)

    Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O’Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.


    IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47 609 individuals; 2 032 942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV–identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. RESULTS Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0–1.5) to 3.6 (2.0–6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1–1.3] to 2.0 [1.4–2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly

  16. Mental Health and Asian Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  17. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  18. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women (United States)

    ... Breadcrumb Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  19. General American: An Ambiguity (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.


    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  20. American Geriatrics Society (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  1. American Rhinologic Society (United States)

    ... 6th Bulgarian-Italian Rhinology Friendship Meeting Sofia Hotel Balkan, Sofia, Bulgaria, December 1-3, 2017 9.17. ... you there! Terms of Use | Site Map © 2011 American Rhinologic Society All Rights Reserved

  2. American Society of Echocardiography (United States)

    ... Good News About Echo Marketing and Promotional Opportunities Social Media Mobile Resources About ▼ About ASE Board of Directors Committees and Councils Industry Roundtable Partners Contact Us American Society of Echocardiography 2100 Gateway Centre Boulevard, Ste. 310 ...

  3. Profile: Asian Americans (United States)

    ... and diabetes. Asian Americans also have a high prevalence of the following conditions and risk factors: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, smoking, tuberculosis, and liver ...

  4. American Pediatric Surgical Association (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  5. American Samoa Cannery Offloading (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  6. American Porphyria Foundation (United States)

    ... English Español Portuguêse Search form Search About the APF About Porphyria Testing for Porphyria Treatment Options Get ... Gary Eyster Art Sale Featured Items Support the APF The American Porphyria Foundation empowered me to understand ...

  7. American Nephrology Nurses' Association (United States)

    ... Help Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic ... Activities CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education ...

  8. American Society of Hematology (United States)

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Sickle Cell Priorities Lymphoma Roadmap Moonshot Initiative ...

  9. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  10. American Music Therapy Association (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  11. Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy and subsequent chronic disease risk. (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Mendola, Pauline; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Suvanto, Eila


    Preeclampsia, a new-onset hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is associated with lifetime cardiovascular disease risk, but less is known about risk after other pregnancy-related hypertension. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 included all expected births from 1 year (N=12 055 women). Blood pressure measurements and other prospective data were determined from prenatal care records and questionnaires for 10 314 women. Subsequent diagnoses were ascertained from Finnish registries (average follow-up, 39.4 years). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimate risks in hypertensive women compared with normotensive women. Hypertension during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease and arterial hypertension. Women with chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia/eclampsia had high risk for future diseases. Gestational hypertension was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.24-1.68]), myocardial infarcts (HR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.40-2.19]), myocardial infarct death (HR, 3.00 [95% CI, 1.98-4.55]), heart failure (HR, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.43-2.21]), ischemic stroke (HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.24-2.04]), kidney disease (HR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.18-3.09]), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.21-1.89]). Isolated systolic hypertension was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarct death (HR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.35-3.41]), heart failure (HR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.13-1.82]), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.13-1.78]), whereas isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.05-1.50]). Results were similar in nonsmoking women aged pregnancy. Elevated blood pressure during pregnancy, regardless of type and even without known risk factors, signals high risk of later cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Clinical monitoring, risk factor evaluation, and early intervention could

  12. Hypertension Risk Subsequent to Gestational Dysglycemia Is Modified by Race/Ethnicity. (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Huynh, Jennifer; Li, Sylvia; Wenger, Julia; Thadhani, Ravi


    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Additionally, gestational dysglycemia has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus but not yet associated with hypertension subsequent to pregnancy in long-term follow-up. Therefore, we set out to examine this relationship as well as the role of race/ethnicity in modifying this relationship. We analyzed a prospective observational cohort followed between 1998 and 2007. There were 17 655 women with self-reported race/ethnicity and full-term, live births. A 1-hour 50 g oral glucose-load test and a 3-hour 100 g oral glucose-tolerance test enabled third trimester stratification of women into 1 of 4 glucose-tolerance groups: (1) normal (n=15 056); (2) abnormal glucose-load test (n=1558); (3) abnormal glucose-load and -tolerance tests (n=520); and (4) gestational diabetes mellitus (n=521). Women were then followed for a mean±standard deviation of 4.1±2.9 years after delivery for the development of hypertension. Although gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after pregnancy (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.58 [1.02, 2.45]; P=0.04), dysglycemia defined by an abnormal glucose-load test predicted hypertension only among black women (4.52 [1.24, 16.52]; P=0.02). The risk of hypertension after pregnancy among dysglycemia groups not meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus varied based on the race/ethnicity of the population. Further research on the implications of the intersection of race/ethnicity and gestational dysglycemia on subsequent hypertension is warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. A standard blood bank donation alters the thermal and cardiovascular responses during subsequent exercise. (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Aguado-Jimenez, Roberto; Del Coso, Juan; Estevez, Emma


    The fear for adverse effects of blood donation on subsequent exercise may prevent physically active people from donating. We studied the impact of a standard blood bank donation (i.e., 450-mL blood withdrawal) on the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to prolonged exercise in the heat. Eight moderately trained, heat-acclimated males cycled for 1 hour at 60% in a hot environment (34.9±0.6 °C) on four occasions: 1) 2 days before blood donation (CON), 2) 2 hours after donation (DON), 3) 2 days after donation (2 DAYS), and 4) 7 days after donation (7 DAYS). Two-thirds of the blood volume withdrawn was endogenously restored before exercise in the DON trial (p<0.05). DON started with increased preexercise rectal temperature (TRE; 0.42±0.1 °C above CON; p<0.05), which resulted in high levels of hyperthermia (i.e., 39.0±0.2 °C) after 1 hour of exercise. Skin temperature (34.5±0.1 °C) and sweat rate (1.15±0.1 L/h) were not affected by DON. However, DON lowered the skin blood flow:TRE relationship and elevated heart rate (HR) above CON (12±4 beats/min; p<0.05) maintaining cardiac output. After 2 DAYS, TRE and HR were restored to CON levels while cardiac output increased above CON (6%; p<0.05) in association with reduced hemoglobin concentration (i.e., peak hemodilution). A blood bank donation increases preexercise TRE. Subsequent exercise in a hot environment results in high levels of hyperthermia and HR. These thermoregulatory and cardiovascular perturbations observed during exercise disappear 2 days after donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Peptide Bond Synthesis by a Mechanism Involving an Enzymatic Reaction and a Subsequent Chemical Reaction. (United States)

    Abe, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Zhuang, Ye; Ge, Yin; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko


    We recently reported that an amide bond is unexpectedly formed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (which catalyzes the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond) when a suitable acid and l-cysteine are used as substrates. DltA, which is homologous to the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase, belongs to the same superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes, which includes many kinds of enzymes, including the acyl-CoA synthetases. Here, we demonstrate that DltA synthesizes not only N-(d-alanyl)-l-cysteine (a dipeptide) but also various oligopeptides. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes peptide synthesis by the following unprecedented mechanism: (i) the formation of S-acyl-l-cysteine as an intermediate via its "enzymatic activity" and (ii) subsequent "chemical" S → N acyl transfer in the intermediate, resulting in peptide formation. Step ii is identical to the corresponding reaction in native chemical ligation, a method of chemical peptide synthesis, whereas step i is not. To the best of our knowledge, our discovery of this peptide synthesis mechanism involving an enzymatic reaction and a subsequent chemical reaction is the first such one to be reported. This new process yields peptides without the use of a thioesterified fragment, which is required in native chemical ligation. Together with these findings, the same mechanism-dependent formation of N-acyl compounds by other members of the above-mentioned superfamily demonstrated that all members most likely form peptide/amide compounds by using this novel mechanism. Each member enzyme acts on a specific substrate; thus, not only the corresponding peptides but also new types of amide compounds can be formed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. American Outlaws in Australia


    Bruce Tranter; Jed Donoghue


    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  16. African Anglo American

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.


    The South-African based Anglo-American Corp. dominates the mining industries of South Africa and Botswana and is very important in Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Most recently it has started prospecting in Tanzania once again. This article discusses the corporation's interests in Africa, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, nickel and coal, and its interest in South American copper and various African metal industries. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 77 FR 25536 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company (United States)


    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Endurance American Insurance Company (NAIC 10641). Business Address: 333... subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of...

  18. A Commentary on Cultural Influences Impacting the Education of Korean American Adolescents (United States)

    Jung, Adrian Woo; Stang, Kristin; Ferko, Doreen; Han, Shin-Il


    Korean American adolescents may find themselves caught between traditional Korean culture and demands for Americanization. Subsequently this population of students and parents may have very distinct needs in our schools as they are a growing population of students. This commentary discusses important considerations for teachers and administrators…

  19. Asian American Adolescents' Acculturation, Binge Drinking, and Alcohol and Tobacco-Using Peers (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk C.; Lahiff, Maureen; Guterman, Neil B.


    This study examines the association between acculturation and subsequent binge drinking among Asian American adolescents and investigates the mediating effect of friends' alcohol and tobacco use. Data from a nationally representative sample of 714 Asian American adolescents in grades 7 to 12 were analyzed. There was no gender difference in terms…

  20. 1999 vadose zone monitoring plan and guidance for subsequent years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, D.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Last, G.V.


    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive waste in the US. The majority of the liquid waste was disposed to the soil column where much of it remains today. This document provides the rationale and general framework for vadose zone monitoring at cribs, ditches, trenches and other disposal facilities to detect new sources of contamination and track the movement of existing contamination in the vadose zone for the protection of groundwater. The document provides guidance for subsequent site-specific vadose zone monitoring plans and includes a brief description of past vadose monitoring activities (Chapter 3); the results of the Data Quality Objective process used for this plan (Chapter 4); a prioritization of liquid waste disposal sites for vadose monitoring (Chapter 5 and Appendix B); a general Monitoring and Analysis Plan (Chapter 6); a general Quality Assurance Project Plan (Appendix A), and a description of vadose monitoring activities planned for FY 1999 (Appendix C).

  1. A Finnic holy word and its subsequent history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauno Koski


    Full Text Available This article concentrates on a specific ancient holy word in Finnish and its subsequent development, hiisi. In the Finnish language region hiisi appears as an element in place names in over 230 villages established by the end of the thirteenth century, and at least a majority of these must have existed since prehistoric times. In Finland as well as in Estonia it is possible to demonstrate an earlier sacral function in places which contain hiisi as a component of their name, partly with the help of archeological discoveries, and partly with the help of oral folk tradition. It is particularly among the earliest settlement areas of Southwest Finland, Satakunta and Häme that hiisi features in the names of sacrificial sites or trees, in other words in the same areas where it features in the names of burial grounds. Names in which the hiisi element precedes a word meaning a lake, pond, or other water formation, occur particularly in the eastern Finnish dialect regions, as well as in the regions of Karelian, Olonets, Lydian, and Vepsian. In addition to its factual meaning of cult place, the Finnish word hiisi has come to denote a supernatural entity both in terms of its reference to a place and in terms of its reference to a being.

  2. Undernutrition, subsequent risk of mortality and civil war in Burundi. (United States)

    Verwimp, Philip


    The paper investigates the effect of child undernutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi. Using anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007) we find that undernourished children, measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the length of exposure to civil war prior to 1998 as a source of exogenous variation in a child's nutritional status. Children exposed to civil war in their area of residence have worse nutritional status. The results indicate that one year of exposure translates into a 0.15 decrease in the HAZ, resulting in a 10% increase in the probability to die. For boys, we find a 0.34 decrease in HAZ per year of exposure, resulting in 25% increase in the probability to die. For girls, the results are statistically not significant at the usual thresholds. We show the robustness of our results and we derive policy conclusion for a nutrition intervention in times of conflict. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Is induced abortion a risk factor in subsequent pregnancy? (United States)

    Voigt, Manfred; Henrich, Wolfgang; Zygmunt, Marek; Friese, Klaus; Straube, Sebastian; Briese, Volker


    To determine whether a history of terminations of pregnancy influences subsequent pregnancies in terms of pregnancy risks, prematurity and neonatal biometrics. Based on the perinatal statistics of eight German federal states, data of 247,593 primiparous women with singleton pregnancies born between 1998 and 2000 were analyzed. The control group consisted of primiparous women without previous induced abortions. Maternal age was adjusted for. There was an overall trend towards an increased rate of preterm delivery at or=2 previous induced abortions were 7.8% and 8.5%, respectively, compared to 6.5% in the control population (P=0.015). Preceding terminations of pregnancy did not alter the rate of small-for-gestational-age newborns. Psychosocial stress and symptoms associated with prematurity such as cervical incompetence and vaginal bleeding before and after 28 weeks of gestation occurred more frequently in women with previous induced abortion compared to the control group (Pabortions. Similarly, symptoms associated with prematurity are more common. The rate of small-for-gestational-age newborns was not affected by preceding terminations of pregnancy.

  4. Primary Occipital Ewing’s Sarcoma with Subsequent Spinal Seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alqahtani


    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma is a primary bone cancer that mainly affects the long bones. This malignancy is particularly common in pediatric patients. Primary cranial involvement accounts for 1% of cases, with occipital involvement considered extremely rare. In this case study, primary occipital Ewing’s sarcoma with a posterior fossa mass and subsequent relapse resulting in spinal seeding is reported. A 3-year-old patient presented with a 1-year history of left-sided headaches, localized over the occipital bone with progressive torticollis. Computed tomography (CT imaging showed a mass in the left posterior fossa compressing the brainstem. The patient then underwent surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Two years later, the patient presented with severe lower back pain and urinary incontinence. Whole-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF seeding from the L5 to the S4 vertebrae. Primary cranial Ewing’s sarcoma is considered in the differential diagnosis of children with extra-axial posterior fossa mass associated with destructive permeative bone lesions. Although primary cranial Ewing’s sarcoma typically has good prognosis, our patient developed metastasis in the lower spine. Therefore, with CNS Ewing’s sarcoma, screening of the entire neural axis should be taken into consideration for early detection of CSF seeding metastasis in order to decrease the associated morbidity and mortality.

  5. Are Subsequences of Decimal Digits of PI Random?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kumar Sourabh


    Full Text Available A lot has been done on the randomness of the decimal expansion of Pi with extensive tests of randomness that are used to distinguish good from not-so-good random number generators when applied to the decimal digits of Pi. Pi seems to pass these tests as well as some of the best random number generator (RNG and could well serve as an RNG provided that the digits of Pi could be easily and quickly produced in the computer [Mar06]. We make an interesting study in the same context in which random substring of arbitrary length are extracted from arbitrary positions a large number of times and each sample is tested for randomness. Our results confirm the randomness of Pi and a recent claim that “Pi is less random than we thought” [TF05] stands refuted. George Marsaglia [Mar06] has also independently refuted the claim but in Marsaglia’s work, the randomness is established on the whole for the first 960 million digits of pi. Our study confirms the randomness for arbitrary subsequences also. Finally, the investigation of some functions of pi-rather than pi itself-is proposed.

  6. Expectant adolescent couples' relations and subsequent parenting behavior. (United States)

    Florsheim, Paul; Smith, Allison


    The goal of this study was to test the "spill over" hypothesis-that the quality of relations between expectant couples would predict parenting behavior-among a sample of adolescent mothers and fathers. At Time 1, self-reported and observational relationship data were collected from 36 expectant adolescent couples. At follow-up, observational data were collected from both young mothers and fathers who were asked to participate in a structured play activity with their 2-year-old children. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were run to examine the correspondence between couples' relationship quality prior to the childbirth and subsequent relationship status (i.e., paternal disengagement or coparenting) and the quality of parenting behavior. Results generally supported the spill over hypothesis. More specifically, findings indicated that the quality of the expectant mother's behavior toward her partner predicted his (paternal) behavior at follow-up. Couples who reported high positive relations at the prenatal assessment were more likely to remain involved in coparenting. Results underscore the relevance of couples' relations to the development of positive parenting practices among atypical samples of mothers and fathers. Copyright © 2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Management of subsequent pregnancy after an unexplained stillbirth. (United States)

    Robson, S J; Leader, L R


    To review the management of pregnancy after an unexplained stillbirth. Approximately 1 in 200 pregnancies will end in stillbirth, of which about one-third will remain unexplained. Unexplained stillbirth is the largest single contributor to perinatal mortality. Subsequent pregnancies do not appear to have an increased risk of stillbirth, but are characterized by increased rates of intervention (induction of labor, elective cesarean section) and iatrogenic adverse outcomes (low birth weight, prematurity, emergency cesarean section and post-partum hemorrhage). There is no level-one evidence to guide management in this situation. Pre-pregnancy counseling is very important to detect and correct potential risk factors such as obesity, smoking and maternal disease. As timely delivery is the mainstay of management, early accurate determination of gestational age is vital. There is controversy regarding the pattern of surveillance, but evidence exists only for ultrasound and not for regular non-stress testing, nor formal fetal movement charting. There is an urgent need for more studies in this important area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The use of labour force acquires new aspects in the stages subsequent to the economic and financial crisis in Romania and we would like to present them in this paper. The imbalances caused by the Romanian economy restructuring were visible in the labour market evolution, offering a new dimension to the issue of adapting the labour force to the market requirements, within the regions and their counties. Through this paper, we want to offer an overview of the Romanian labour market, integrating it in the realities of the international labour market. We will thus seek to observe if the labour market responds, and to what extend if so, to the current requirements given by the realities emerged as a consequence of the crisis’ effects. In order to analyse what we had set to, we used the most recent statistical data on the official labour market but, in order to get an even clearer image of the field, we also appealed to data offered by the National Prognosis Commission, indicating the source. Analysing the practical features when taking into consideration the emigration possibility presents a major interest for completing this study, as lately we are witnesses to massive migration, especially of the qualified youth, which leads to a decrease in labour force quality in the country. Also, an analysis of the sectors with significant imbalances between the number of job vacancies and the number of employees may contribute to identifying the current labour market trends.

  9. Effects of a selective sleep deprivation on subsequent anaerobic performance. (United States)

    Mougin, F; Bourdin, H; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Didier, J M; Toubin, G; Kantelip, J P


    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a partial sleep deprivation on a subsequent supramaximal exercise evaluated from the 30 second Wingate test, and on the following recovery. To take into account the active muscle mass, the Wingate test was performed against a constant braking force related to the data of a force-velocity test conducted on a Monark cycle ergometer (Model 814 E with weights) one week before the experimental test. Eight highly trained athletes were enrolled for this study. The changes in ventilatory and metabolic responses were analyzed during and upon completion of physical 30 second exercise, taking place after two nights, in other words, after a reference night and after a night with reduced sleep. Partial sleep deprivation was obtained by delaying bedtime until 3 a.m. The 30 second Wingate test was performed between 9 a.m. and noon the following days, using a Monark ergometer (Model 814 F). The analyses of change scores disclosed that there were no main significant effects for measures of ventilation, lactates and pH(v) levels under the two experimental conditions. The peak power, the mean power output and the peak velocity recorded after partial sleep deprivation were not modified in comparison with the values obtained after the reference night. These findings suggest that acute sleep loss did not contribute to alterations in supramaximal exercise.

  10. Effect of recovery interventions on lactate removal and subsequent performance. (United States)

    Monedero, J; Donne, B


    The recovery process in sport plays an essential role in determining subsequent athletic performance. This study investigated the effectiveness of different recovery interventions after maximal exercise. Eighteen trained male cyclists initially undertook an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen consumption. The four recovery interventions tested were: passive, active (50% maximal oxygen uptake), massage, and combined (involving active and massage components). All test sessions were separated by 2 to 3 days. During intervention trials subjects performed two simulated 5 km maximal effort cycling tests (T1 and T2) separated by a 20 min recovery. Performance time for the tests (t1, t2); blood lactate (BLa) during T1, T2, and every 3 min during recovery; and heart rate (HR) during the recovery intervention and T2 were recorded. Combined recovery was found to be better than passive (Pmassage (Pperformance time during T2. Active recovery was the most effective intervention for removing BLa at minutes 9 and 12, BLa removal during combined recovery was significantly better than passive at minute 3, and significantly better than passive, active, and massage at minute 15. In conclusion, combined recovery was the most efficient intervention for maintaining maximal performance time during T2, and active recovery was the best intervention for removing BLa.

  11. Exploring the influence of encoding format on subsequent memory. (United States)

    Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A; Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha


    Distinctive encoding is greatly influenced by gist-based processes and has been shown to suffer when highly similar items are presented in close succession. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms underlying how presentation format affects gist processing is essential in determining the factors that influence these encoding processes. The current study utilised multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis to identify encoding networks directly associated with retrieval performance in a blocked and intermixed presentation condition. Subsequent memory analysis for successfully encoded items indicated no significant differences between reaction time and retrieval performance and presentation format. Despite no significant behavioural differences, behaviour PLS revealed differences in brain-behaviour correlations and mean condition activity in brain regions associated with gist-based vs. distinctive encoding. Specifically, the intermixed format encouraged more distinctive encoding, showing increased activation of regions associated with strategy use and visual processing (e.g., frontal and visual cortices, respectively). Alternatively, the blocked format exhibited increased gist-based processes, accompanied by increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Together, results suggest that the sequence that information is presented during encoding affects the degree to which distinctive encoding is engaged. These findings extend our understanding of the Fuzzy Trace Theory and the role of presentation format on encoding processes.

  12. Task-switch costs subsequent to cue-only trials. (United States)

    Swainson, Rachel; Martin, Douglas; Prosser, Laura


    There is abundant evidence that there is a performance cost associated with switching between tasks. This "switch cost" has been postulated to be driven by task performance on the preceding trial, but recent research challenges any necessary role of previous task performance in driving the cost. Across three experiments, we investigated whether it is difficult to switch from a task that was prepared but never performed. We replicated the finding of a switch cost following cue-only trials (involving no task performance) whilst controlling for a potential cue-switching confound. This cost was larger than that following completed trials when preparation interval was short (300 ms), and it reduced significantly with a longer preparation interval (1000 ms) on the current trial. We also found that preparing only to attend to a particular visual dimension (colour or shape) was sufficient to drive a significant subsequent switch cost, which appeared to be residual in nature; we speculate that this cost may reflect the persistence of unfulfilled task intentions and/or a strategic slowing when consecutive intentions conflict.

  13. The effect of an intercalated BSc on subsequent academic performance. (United States)

    Mahesan, Nishanthan; Crichton, Siobhan; Sewell, Hannah; Howell, Simon


    The choice of whether to undertake an intercalated Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree is one of the most important decisions that students must make during their time at medical school. An effect on exam performance would improve a student's academic ranking, giving them a competitive edge when applying for foundation posts. Retrospective data analysis of anonymised student records. The effects of intercalating on final year exam results, Foundation Programme score, application form score (from white-space questions), quartile rank score, and success with securing Foundation School of choice were assessed using linear and ordered logistic regression models, adjusted for course type, year of graduation, graduate status and baseline (Year 1) performance. The study included 1158 students, with 54% choosing to do an intercalated BSc, and 9.8% opting to do so at an external institution. Doing an intercalated BSc was significantly associated with improved outcome in Year 5 exams (P = 0.004). This was irrespective of the year students chose to intercalate, with no significant difference between those that intercalated after years 2, 3 and 4 (p = 0.3096). There were also higher foundation application scores (P BSc leads to an improvement in subsequent exam results and develops the skills necessary to produce a strong foundation programme application. It also leads to greater success with securing preferred Foundation School posts in students. Differences between internally- and externally-intercalating students may be due to varying course structures or greater challenge in adjusting to a new study environment.

  14. Subsequent pregnancy and prognosis in breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Orešković, Slavko


    An increase in the incidence of breast cancer in women aged breast cancer in women of childbearing age has significantly improved, they are often concerned whether subsequent pregnancy will alter their risk of disease recurrence. In the modern era, the prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer is comparable to non-pregnancy-associated breast cancer and women can bear children after breast cancer treatment without compromising their survival. Therefore, they should not be discouraged from becoming pregnant, and currently the usual waiting time of at least 2 years after the diagnosis of breast cancer is recommended. However, a small, nonsignificant adverse effect of pregnancy on breast carcinoma prognosis among women who conceive within 12 months of breast cancer diagnosis and a higher risk of relapse in women younger than 35 up to 5 years of the diagnosis may be found. Fortunately, for women with localized disease, earlier conception up to six months after completing their treatment seems unlikely to reduce their survival. Ongoing and future prospective studies evaluating the risks associated with pregnancy in young breast cancer survivors are required.

  15. Induced abortion and the risk of subsequent ectopic pregnancy. (United States)

    Holt, V L; Daling, J R; Voigt, L F; McKnight, B; Stergachis, A; Chu, J; Weiss, N S


    This study assessed the effect of legal induced abortion on ectopic pregnancy risk by using a comparison group of reproductive-age women who were at risk of becoming pregnant during the same time period the women with ectopic pregnancy conceived. Cases were members of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound who were hospitalized for ectopic pregnancy from October 1981 through September 1986 (N = 211). Controls were randomly selected members matched to cases on age and county of residence (N = 457). All subjects in this analysis had had one or more prior pregnancies. Eighty-eight cases (41.7 per cent) and 177 controls (38.7 per cent) had a history of one or more induced abortions. The relative risk of ectopic pregnancy associated with one abortion was 0.9 (95 per cent confidence interval 0.6, 1.3), adjusted for age, county, reference date, religion, gravidity, age at first pregnancy, lifetime number of sexual partners, and miscarriage history. Among women with two or more prior pregnancies, the risk associated with two or more abortions was 1.2 (0.6, 2.4). Controlling for pelvic inflammatory disease and use of intrauterine devices did not alter these risks. We conclude that legal abortion as performed in the US since 1970 has little or no influence on a woman's risk of ectopic pregnancy in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:2764199

  16. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea. (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B


    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. The first American textbook of surgery. (United States)

    Smythe, W Roy


    The first systematic textbook of surgery written in the United States, The Elements of Surgery, was completed in 1813 by John Syng Dorsey, a University of Pennsylvania surgeon. The work thoroughly covered all major clinical areas of surgery of that time in a two-volume, 797-page text. Subsequent editions were published in 1818, 1823, and 1831. It became the standard surgical textbook in this country during that era and was the first American medical text exported abroad for use at the more established European centers of medical education. The reasons for writing the text included a desire to put into print the teachings of Philip Syng Physick (first Chair of the Department of Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, and Dorsey's uncle), the new American nationalism, and socioeconomic pressures forced on the American publishing industry by the War of 1812 and preceding trade embargoes. In addition to extensive exposure to Physick, Dorsey was also uniquely qualified to write and illustrate this text, as he exhibited an unusually succinct style and was a remarkable medical artist. The book was the forerunner to William Gibson's The Institutes and Practice of Surgery and all American surgical textbooks to follow.

  18. Narcolepsy in African Americans. (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel


    Although narcolepsy affects 0.02-0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Differential encoding mechanisms for subsequent associative recognition and free recall. (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Davachi, Lila


    Recent neuroimaging studies have successfully identified encoding mechanisms that support different forms of subsequent episodic recognition memory. In our everyday lives, however, much of our episodic memory retrieval is accomplished by means of free recall, i.e., retrieval without an external recognition cue. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the encoding mechanisms that support later free recall and their relationship to those that support different forms of later recognition memory. First, in agreement with previous work, we found that activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus correlated with later associative/relational recognition. In these regions, activation was further enhanced for items later freely recalled, pointing to shared underlying relational encoding mechanisms whose magnitude of activation differentiates later successful free recall from successful associative recognition. Critically, we also found evidence for free recall-specific encoding mechanisms that did not, in our paradigm, support later associative recognition compared with item recognition. These free recall-specific effects were observed in left mid/dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPC). We speculate that the higher-level working memory operations associated with DLPFC and attention to internal mnemonic representations perhaps mediated via PPC may serve to embed an item into a rich associative network during encoding that facilitates later access to the item. Finally, activation in the perirhinal cortex correlated with successful associative binding regardless of the form of later memory, i.e., recognition or free recall, providing novel evidence for the role of the perirhinal cortex in episodic intra-item encoding.

  20. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability.In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model.Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight.Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  1. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis can sensitize the kidney to subsequent glomerular injury. (United States)

    Lim, Beom Jin; Yang, Jae Won; Zou, Jun; Zhong, Jianyong; Matsusaka, Taiji; Pastan, Ira; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Harris, Raymond C; Yang, Hai-Chun; Fogo, Agnes B


    Chronic glomerular injury is associated with eventual development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Here we aimed to assess whether, and how, mild chronic tubulointerstitial injury affects glomeruli. For this, we generated mice expressing different toxin receptors, one on their proximal tubular epithelial cells (diphtheria toxin receptor [DTR]) and the other only on podocytes (human CD25 [IL-2R] driven by the nephrin promoter [Nep25]), allowing serial induction of tubule-specific and glomerular (podocyte)-specific injury, respectively. Six weeks after diphtheria toxin injection, mild interstitial fibrosis was found in Nep25(+)/DTR(+), but not in Nep25(+)/DTR(-) mice. However, atubular glomeruli and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, a mediator of tubuloglomerular feedback, were higher in Nep25(+)/DTR(+) than in DTR(-) mice and these atubular glomeruli had less podocyte density as assessed by WT-1 biomarker expression. Peritubular capillary density, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and -2, and cyclooxygenase 2 expression were similar at week six in the two groups. At week seven, all mice were given the immunotoxin LMB-2, which binds to CD25 to induce podocyte injury. Ten days later, proteinuria, podocyte injury, and glomerulosclerosis were more severe in Nep25(+)/DTR(+) than Nep25(+)/DTR(-) mice with more severe sclerosis in the tubule-connected glomeruli. This supports the concept that even mild preexisting tubulointerstitial injury sensitizes glomeruli to subsequent podocyte-specific injury. Thus, increased atubular glomeruli and abnormal tubuloglomerular feedback significantly contribute to the crosstalk between the tubulointerstitium and glomeruli. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of evening postexercise cold water immersion on subsequent sleep. (United States)

    Robey, Elisa; Dawson, Brian; Halson, Shona; Gregson, Warren; King, Stuart; Goodman, Carmel; Eastwood, Peter


    This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion after evening exercise on subsequent sleep quality and quantity in trained cyclists. In the evenings (~1900 h) on three separate occasions, male cyclists (n = 11) underwent either no exercise (control, CON), exercise only (EX), or exercise followed by cold water immersion (CWI). EX comprised cycling for 15 min at 75% peak power, then a 15-min maximal time trial. After each condition, a full laboratory-based sleep study (polysomnography) was performed. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, salivary melatonin, ratings of perceived fatigue, and recovery were measured in each trial. No differences were observed between conditions for any whole night sleep measures, including total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, rapid eye movement onset latency, wake after sleep onset, or proportion of the night spent in different sleep stages. Core temperature in EX and CWI trials was higher than CON, until it decreased below that of EX and CON until bedtime in CWI. After bedtime, core temperature was similar for all conditions throughout the night, except for a 90-min period where it was lower for CWI than EX and CON (3.5-4.5 h postexercise). Heart rates for EX and CWI were both significantly higher than CON postexercise until bedtime, whereas skin temperature after CWI was significantly lower than EX and CON, remaining lower than EX until 3 h postexercise. Melatonin levels and recovery ratings were similar between conditions. Fatigue ratings were significantly elevated after exercise in both CWI and EX conditions, with EX still being elevated compared with CON at bedtime. Whole night sleep architecture is not affected by evening exercise alone or when followed by CWI.

  3. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity. (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris


    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Substance Use and Subsequent DUI in Adolescents. (United States)

    Ewing, Brett A; Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; Shih, Regina A; Kulesza, Magdalena; Pedersen, Eric R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J


    Little is known about risk factors in early adolescence that lead to driving under the influence (DUI) and riding with a drinking driver (RWDD). In a diverse group of adolescents, we longitudinally explored the influence of alcohol and marijuana (AM) use, AM beliefs, and peer and family factors (including familism) on DUI/RWDD in high school. We conducted 3 surveys 2 years apart of 1189 students recruited from 16 middle schools in Southern California. We used multivariable models to evaluate the effects of AM use, AM beliefs, and peer and family factors at ages 12 and 14 on DUI/RWDD at age 16. At age 12, adolescents with more positive beliefs about marijuana (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.20) and more ability to resist marijuana offers (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.22-2.92) had significantly higher risk of DUI/RWDD 4 years later. At age 14, youth with more past month alcohol use (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.07-4.11), positive beliefs about marijuana (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.31-2.13), exposure to peer AM use (alcohol: OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02; marijuana: OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.28-4.53), and family marijuana use (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.12-2.11) had higher risk of DUI/RWDD at age 16. Findings indicate a need to target adolescents as young as sixth grade at multiple levels to help prevent DUI/RWDD in high school. Given recent changes in legislation in several states, research should begin to focus on the distinction between DUI/RWDD of AM. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Cell-Free Total and Fetal DNA in First Trimester Maternal Serum and Subsequent Development of Preeclampsia. (United States)

    Silver, Robert M; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Peaceman, Alan M; Ramin, Susan M; Samuels, Philip; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Clifton, Rebecca G; Reddy, Uma M


    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between first trimester cell-free total and fetal DNA in maternal plasma and the subsequent development of preeclampsia. Study Design Nested case-control study of patients enrolled in the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Studies prediction study of 175 women who did and 175 women who did not develop preeclampsia. The predictive values of cell-free total and fetal DNA and the subsequent development of preeclampsia were measured using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Cell-free total DNA was higher in African American (median; 25-75%; 6.15; 0.14-28.73; p = 0.02) and Hispanic (4.95; 0.20-26.82; p = 0.037) compared with white women (2.33; 0.03-13.10). Levels of cell-free total DNA were also associated with maternal body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02). Cell-free total DNA levels were similar between women who later developed preeclampsia (3.52; 0.11-25.3) and controls (3.74; 0.12-21.14, p = 0.96). Conclusion There is no significant difference in levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. Levels of cell-free total DNA in the first trimester are increased in African American and Hispanic compared with white women, and levels increase with increasing BMI. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  7. American College of Radiology (United States)

    American College of Radiology Login About Us Media Center Contact Us Follow us Shopping Cart (0) ACR Catalog Donate My ACR Join ACR ... ACR Catalog Education Center eLearning Exams & Assessments AIRP™ Radiology Leadership Institute ® Quality & Safety Accreditation Appropriateness Criteria ® Practice ...

  8. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu


    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  9. Portraits of American Gardeners. (United States)

    Eskilson, Melissa Dodd


    Examines characteristics of the modern American gardener and consumer of commercial gardening products. Looks at the gardening behavior of three primary consumer groups: (1) preschool and school-aged children; (2) middle-aged baby boomers; and (3) older gardeners (65 and over). (LZ)

  10. Native American Homeschooling Association. (United States)

    Rozon, Gina


    The Native American Home School Association helps Native parents to provide a good education free from the assimilationist tendencies of public school and to transmit Native values and culture. Discusses various home schooling styles, the effectiveness of home schooling in terms of academic achievement and socialization, and the effectiveness of…

  11. We the American Women. (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The 1970 United States census counted a female population of 104,299,734. Of all the nations in the world, only three have larger female populations: China, India, and the Soviet Union. Females made up 51.3 percent of the United States population. Over 70 million American women are of voting age--that's nearly seven million more than the number of…

  12. Asian American Health (United States)

    Every racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Asian Americans.

  13. Native American Health (United States)

    Every racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Americans.

  14. South American sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M.


    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  15. Grant Wood: "American Gothic." (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.


    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  16. The American Occupational Structure. (United States)

    Blau, Peter M.; Duncan, Otis Dudley

    The objective of this book is to present a systematic analysis of the American occupational structure, and, thus, of the major foundation of the stratification system in this society. Processes of social mobility from one generation to the next and from career beginnings to occupational destinations are considered to reflect the dynamics of the…

  17. American Dental Association (United States)

    ... ADA Twitter ADA News Twitter ADA Facebook GKAS Facebook New Dentist Blog Press Room Contact News Releases Press Kits ADA Positions Advertise Media Kit Classifieds Digital Ads ADA News The Journal of the ADA Annual Meeting Advertising ADA CareerCenter ADA Marketplace Copyright © 2017 American Dental ...

  18. Lessons in American Music (United States)

    Robinson Lindsay, Debra Kay


    "Lessons in American Music," by Debra Kay Robinson Lindsay, is a collection of lessons covering William Billings, Stephen Foster, Scott Joplin, and "The Star-Spangled Banner." This book is an all-in-one resource for teachers, offering lesson plans, activities, sheet music, and assessments. The set of lessons on William Billings will let your…

  19. Native American Nuances. (United States)

    Evensen, Helen


    Continues a series of articles on art projects incorporating the use of alphabetical or numerical symbols. Describes a project in which third-grade students incorporated Native American art motifs and symbols into large-scale paintings of letters of the alphabet. Notes discoveries made by students in the course of their projects. (DSK)

  20. Japanese American Intermarriage. (United States)

    Endo, Russell; Hirokawa, Dale

    Data for this study of Japanese American intermarriage in Denver (Colorado) from 1910-11 to 1980-81 were collected from marriage records in the Office of the Clerk and Recorder for the City and County of Denver. In order to compare intermarriage trends with available census figures (mostly on population size and sex composition), records were…

  1. Clinical and Pathologic Responses of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Fish Crows (C ossifragus) to Experimental West Nile Virus Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemeth, N. M; Thomsen, B. V; Spraker, T. R; Benson, J. M; Bosco-Lauth, A. M; Oesterle, P. T; Bright, J. M; Muth, J. P; Campbell, T. W; Gidlewski, T. L; Bowen, R. A


    .... Unlike fish crows, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, American crows succumbed to WNV infection subsequent to dehydration, electrolyte and pH imbalances, and delayed or depressed...

  2. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers. (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C


    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  3. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D


    ... and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success...

  4. Hispanic-American rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Patel, Anand D; Kridel, Russell W H


    Hispanic Americans have quickly become a major ethnic group in the United States who are interested in nasal cosmetic surgery. They are derived from a variety of ethnicities with a corresponding diversity in nasal anatomy. Rhinoplasty in Hispanic Americans has evolved from imitating neoclassical canons to preservation of ethnic characteristics. Common problems addressed in this population are narrowing and augmenting the height of the nasal dorsum; increasing projection, rotation, and definition of the nasal tip; and reducing alar flare and base width. Anatomic goals for surgery should satisfy both individual desires and ethnic features that are to be created or to be preserved. Here we describe the techniques used by the senior author (R.W.H.K.). Thieme Medical Publishers.

  5. American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) (United States)

    Simons, Theodore R.; Nol, E.; Boettcher, R.


    The American Oystercatcher is a large, conspicuous shorebird, common in coastal salt marshes and along sand beaches throughout the central part of its range. One of the few birds to specialize on bivalve mollusks living in saltwater, this species is completely restricted to marine habitats. Two races breed in North America—the eastern nominate race along the Atlantic coast from southern Maine south, and a second race along the Pacific coast from northwestern Baja California south. While the eastern race has been studied extensively across its range both during winter and the breeding season, the biology of the western race is poorly known and this population may also be at risk both from coastal development and hybridization with the American Black Oystercatcher (H. bachmani). Eastern oystercatchers regularly winter in large flocks, from Virginia south along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

  6. Candida albicans Airway Colonization Facilitates Subsequent Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia in a Rat Model. (United States)

    Tan, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ruilan; Zhu, Song; Wang, Huijun; Yan, Dongxing; Zhang, Xiangdong; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios


    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of Candida albicans respiratory tract colonization on Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Rats were colonized with C. albicans by instillation of 3 × 10(6) CFU into their airways, while sterile saline was instilled in the control group. The colonized rats were further divided into two groups: treated with amphotericin B or not. The rats were subsequently infected with A. baumannii (10(8) CFU by tracheobronchial instillation). A. baumannii lung CFU counts, cytokine lung levels, and rates of A. baumannii pneumonia were compared between groups. In vitro expression of A. baumannii virulence genes was measured by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR after 24-hour incubation with C. albicans or with Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth alone. Rats with Candida colonization developed A. baumannii pneumonia more frequently and had higher A. baumannii CFU burdens and heavier lungs than controls. After A. baumannii infection, lung interleukin 17 (IL-17) concentrations were lower and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) concentrations were higher in Candida-colonized rats than in controls. Candida-colonized rats treated with amphotericin B had a decreased rate of A. baumannii pneumonia and lower IFN-γ levels but higher IL-17 levels than untreated rats. Expression of basC, barB, bauA, ptk, plc2, and pld2 was induced while expression of ompA and abaI was suppressed in A. baumannii cultured in the presence of C. albicans C. albicans colonization facilitated the development of A. baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Among Candida-colonized rats, antifungal treatment lowered the incidence of A. baumannii pneumonia. These findings could be due to modification of the host immune response and/or expression of A. baumannii virulence genes by Candida spp. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Changes in Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Risk of Stroke in the Cardiovascular Health Study. (United States)

    Gilsanz, Paola; Kubzansky, Laura D; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Wang, Qianyi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Patton, Kristen K; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Kop, Willem J; Longstreth, W T; Glymour, M Maria


    Depression is associated with stroke, but the effects of changes in depressive symptoms on stroke risk are not well understood. This study examined whether depressive symptom changes across 2 successive annual assessments were associated with incident stroke the following year. We used visit data from 4319 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study who were stroke free at baseline to examine whether changes in depressive symptoms classified across 2 consecutive annual assessments predicted incident first stroke during the subsequent year. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (high versus low at ≥10). Survival models were inverse probability weighted to adjust for demographics, health behaviors, medical conditions, past depressive symptoms, censoring, and survival. During follow-up, 334 strokes occurred. Relative to stable low scores of depressive symptoms, improved depression symptoms were associated with almost no excess risk of stroke (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.58). New-onset symptoms were nonsignificantly associated with elevated stroke risk (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-2.14), whereas persistently high depressive symptoms were associated with elevated adjusted hazard of all-cause stroke (adjusted hazards ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.56). No evidence for effect modification by race, age, or sex was found. Persistently high symptoms of depression predicted elevated hazard of stroke. Participants with improved depressive symptoms had no elevation in stroke risk. Such findings suggest that strategies to reduce depressive symptoms may ameliorate stroke risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Asian American Adolescent Identity


    Ohm, Julie Juhye


    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  9. 29 CFR 2700.23 - Review of a subsequent citation or order. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of a subsequent citation or order. 2700.23 Section... COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.23 Review of a subsequent citation or order. (a) The contesting party shall file any subsequent citation or order that modifies or terminates...

  10. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  11. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture. (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry


    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  12. To what extent does the reporting behavior of the media regarding a celebrity suicide influence subsequent suicides in South Korea? (United States)

    Lee, JeSuk; Lee, Weon-Young; Hwang, Jang-Sun; Stack, Steven John


    This study investigated the nature of media coverage of a national entertainer's suicide and its impact on subsequent suicides. After the celebrity suicide, the number of suicide-related articles reported surged around 80 times in the week after the suicide compared with the week prior. Many articles (37.1%) violated several critical items on the World Health Organization suicide reporting guidelines, like containing a detailed suicide method. Most gender and age subgroups were at significantly higher risk of suicide during the 4 weeks after the celebrity suicide. Results imply that massive and noncompliant media coverage of a celebrity suicide can cause a large-scale copycat effect. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games. (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  14. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (United States)

    ... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...

  15. American Drama through Chinese Eyes. (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    An American instructor taught a 5-week course on the family in American drama to a group of graduate English majors on the campus of Hebei Teachers' University in the People's Republic of China. The instructor learned as much about Chinese culture as the students learned about American culture. Lecture is the standard pedagogy even in graduate…

  16. American Databanks on the Alert. (United States)

    O'Leary, Mick


    Summarizes remarks of the presidents of DIALOG, Mead Data Central, and BRS on the expansion of several European databanks into the American market. Comments focus on the competitiveness of the marketplace, the provision of international information by American systems, the expectations and prospects of the European companies, and American plans.…

  17. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.


    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  18. American Food and World Hunger. (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.


    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  19. Recipient Outcomes Following Transplantation of Allografts From Live Kidney Donors Who Subsequently Developed End-Stage Renal Disease. (United States)

    Muzaale, A D; Massie, A B; Anjum, S; Liao, C; Garg, A X; Lentine, K L; Segev, D L


    Live kidney donors have an increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with nondonors; however, it is unknown whether undetected, subclinical kidney disease exists at donation that subsequently contributes to this risk. To indirectly test this hypothesis, the authors followed the donated kidneys, by comparing the outcomes of 257 recipients whose donors subsequently developed ESRD with a matched cohort whose donors remained ESRD free. The compared recipients were matched on donor (age, sex, race/ethnicity, donor-recipient relationship), transplant (HLA mismatch, peak panel-reactive antibody, previous transplantation, year of transplantation), and recipient (age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, cause of ESRD, and time on dialysis) risk factors. Median recipient follow-up was 12.5 years (interquartile range 7.4-17.9, maximum 20 years). Recipients of allografts from donors who developed ESRD had increased death-censored graft loss (74% versus 56% at 20 years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-2.0; p < 0.001) and mortality (61% versus 46% at 20 years; aHR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8; p < 0.001) compared with matched recipients of allografts from donors who did not develop ESRD. This association was similar among related, spousal, and unrelated nonspousal donors. These findings support a novel view of the mechanisms underlying donor ESRD: that of pre-donation kidney disease. However, biopsy data may be required to confirm this hypothesis. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane


    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  1. The changing American family. (United States)

    Thornton, A; Freedman, D


    This Bulletin documents recent changes in American family patterns resulting both from longterm trends in urbanization, industrialization, and economic growth and the disruption of the Great Depression and World War 2, as well as changed attitudes toward marriage, parenthood, divorce, and the roles of women. Following a postwar boom in the 1950s and 1960s, marriage rates have now fallen to levels observed in the early 20th century. Since 1970, the number of unmarried couples living together has more than tripled to 1.9 million in 1983. The divorce rate has now stabilized after more than doubling since 1960, but at the current level, 1/2 of all recent marriages will end in divorce. Most divorced persons remarry fairly quickly, often creating complex families of "step-relatives." With 19% of households with minor children now headed by a women with no husband present, up to 1/2 of all children will live for sometime in a fatherless family before age 18. Over 1/2 of all married women, including 49% of married mothers of preschool children, now hold a paid job outside the home. Working wives boost a family's income by an average 40% but still are expected to shoulder most responsiblility for home and childcare. White women now in their 20s say they expect to have an average of 2 children, but are delaying childbearing to such an extent that 29% could end up childless. Most of the elderly live on their own but usually near children whom they see frequently. Despite changes in traditional family patterns, Americans consistently report that a happy marriage and good family are the most important aspects of life. And though most Americans now live with few or no family members, they maintain active contact with a large network of family.

  2. The american dental dream. (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan


    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  3. Central American resource studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.


    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  5. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.


    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  6. Cascading Bias of Initial Exposure to Information at the Crime Scene to the Subsequent Evaluation of Skeletal Remains. (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Morgan, Ruth M; Rando, Carolyn; Dror, Itiel E


    Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that investigated the potential cascading effects of initial exposure to extraneous context upon subsequent decision-making. Participants investigated a mock crime scene, which included the excavation of clandestine burials that had a male skeletal cast dressed either in female or gender neutral clothing. This was followed by a forensic anthropological assessment of the skeletal remains, with a control group assessing the same male skeletal cast without any clothing context. The results indicated that the sex assessment was highly dependent upon the context in which participants were exposed to prior to the analysis. This was especially noticeable in the female clothing context where only one participant determined the male skeletal cast to be male. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the role of context in forensic anthropology at an early stage of an investigation and its potential cascading effect on subsequent assessments. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Do Functional Movement Screen (FMS) composite scores predict subsequent injury? A systematic review with meta-analysis. (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Schneiders, Anthony G; Mason, Jesse; Sullivan, S John


    This paper aims to systematically review studies investigating the strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent risk of injury, taking into account both methodological quality and clinical and methodological diversity. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted for the period between their inception and 3 March 2016 using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Health Source and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria: (1) English language, (2) observational prospective cohort design, (3) original and peer-reviewed data, (4) composite FMS score, used to define exposure and non-exposure groups and (5) musculoskeletal injury, reported as the outcome. (1) data reported in conference abstracts or non-peer-reviewed literature, including theses, and (2) studies employing cross-sectional or retrospective study designs. 24 studies were appraised using the Quality of Cohort Studies assessment tool. In male military personnel, there was 'strong' evidence that the strength of association between FMS composite score (cut-point ≤14/21) and subsequent injury was 'small' (pooled risk ratio=1.47, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.77, p<0.0001, I(2)=57%). There was 'moderate' evidence to recommend against the use of FMS composite score as an injury prediction test in football (soccer). For other populations (including American football, college athletes, basketball, ice hockey, running, police and firefighters), the evidence was 'limited' or 'conflicting'. The strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent injury does not support its use as an injury prediction tool. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015025575. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  8. Notes toward a Latin American Translation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Gaspar


    resulting from the emergence of nation states, and describes its specificities through a comparison with the initial debate on modern Western translation theory carried out in Germany at the beginning of the 19th century. It then traces the subsequent diverse uses of translation as a procedure in the search for identity. Finally, it discusses the debate between Arguedas and Cortázar at the end of the 1960s, which reveals the tension underlying a Latin American theory of translation. On the basis of the debate and of history itself, the article concludes that one of the main roles of translation in Latin America has been to designate markers of foreignness as a cultural self-definition mechanism.

  9. Effect of nutritional immunomodulation and heat stress during the dry period on subsequent performance of cows. (United States)

    Fabris, Thiago F; Laporta, Jimena; Corra, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; Kirk, David J; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, J D; Dahl, Geoffrey E


    among treatments in hematocrit, total protein, and body condition score. Cows offered CLOG, CL, and HTOG treatments had greater body weight during the dry period (794.9 ± 17.9, 746.8 ± 16.7, and 762.9 ± 14.9 kg, respectively) than HT cows (720 ± 16.2 kg). Gestation length was approximately 4 d longer for CL cows compared with HT cows. Cows offered CLOG, CL, and HTOG treatments produced more milk (41.3 ± 1.6, 40.7 ± 1.6, and 40.5 ± 1.6 kg/d, respectively) than HT treatment (35.9 ± 1.6 kg/d). Body weight after parturition and DMI were evaluated up to 60 DIM and averaged 661.5 ± 15.8 and 19.4 ± 0.7 kg/d, respectively, with no differences observed among treatments. These results confirm that exposure of dry cows to heat stress negatively affects milk yield in the subsequent lactation. Active cooling of dry cows and OG supplementation can reduce the negative effects of heat stress in the dry period on subsequent performance. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of glycemic index and fructose content in lunch on substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Chen, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ya-Jun; Hsieh, Sandy Shen-Yu


    ...) and fructose content in lunch on substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking. Ten healthy young males completed 3 main trials in a counterbalanced crossover design. They completed 60...

  11. Effect of enhanced whole-milk feeding in calves on subsequent first-lactation performance. (United States)

    Kiezebrink, D J; Edwards, A M; Wright, T C; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enhanced whole-milk (WM) feeding systems in calves from birth to 8wk of age on subsequent first-lactation performance. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatment groups. At birth, 152 Holstein heifer calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (i) 4L of WM/d or (ii) 8L of WM/d. The calves were bucket fed 2 or 4L of WM twice daily at 0700 and 1600h. Each calf was housed individually in temperature-controlled nurseries and had ad libitum access to water and textured calf starter daily. Calves consumed greater volumes of textured calf starter when fed 4 versus 8L of WM/d. Water intakes mirrored starter intakes, leading to greater water consumption at weaning. Calves reared on 8L of WM/d were heavier at d 56 than calves reared on 4L of WM/d. The average daily gain of the calves offered 8L of WM/d from d 0 to 56 was greater than that of calves offered 4L of WM/d. Structural measurements were significantly greater for calves that consumed 8L of WM/d. The differences observed in withers height and live BW due to WM feeding level were not apparent by 3 and 12mo of age, respectively. Rumen pH was higher in calves that consumed 8L of WM/d than in calves that consumed 4L of WM/d. Whole-milk feeding level did not affect age at first calving or milk-production parameters. These results suggest that enhanced WM feeding improved growth performance until 3mo of age. However, first-lactation results indicated no lactation-performance benefits of increased nutrition and growth performance during the milk-fed period in dairy calves. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An American mink (Neovison vison) transcriptome. (United States)

    Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan


    HiSeq2000 Illumina pair-end sequenced transcript data originating from a pool of four different tissues of a wild-type American mink yielded approximately 90 Gb of raw data. Subsequently, unique contigs were assembled by a combined approach using velvet and phrap. Of these assembled contigs, about 136 000 match the dog genome and nearly 30 000 contigs match the human transcriptome at more than 17 000 unique gene locations. Gene annotation for these contigs was performed employing custom-made scripts run in combination with comparative sequence similarity search and alignment in the dog and human genome using blast algorithms. Transcripts representing five genes known to be associated with pigmentation were reliably aligned against large mink genomic contigs derived from BAC clones. Sequence comparison between transcript and genomic data revealed seven SNPs. In this study, we generated and annotated mink transcript sequences representing more than 16 000 known genes. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome for the American mink genome, which will facilitate further development in mink expression profiling studies and provide a good annotation basis in the perspectives of a whole genome sequencing project. The project was deposited at EMBL database with the accession number PRJEB1260. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. American foundations : roles and contributions


    Anheier, Helmut K.; Hammack, David


    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  14. American Association for Hand Surgery (United States)

    ... Grant Grant Opportunities Survey Research Tips Writing a Successful Proposal Awards HAND ... Notice Regarding Location of 2018 Annual Meeting The annual meetings of the American Association for ...

  15. American Academy of Pain Medicine (United States)

    ... 7. GET STARTED AAPM... the Voice of Pain Medicine Become part of the distinguished multimodal, interdisciplinary community of pain medicine clinicians. Join Today! Welcome The American Academy of ...

  16. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.


    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  17. I Am an American! The Thrills of American Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.


    The allure of American citizenship and the function of patriotism among naturalized foreigners bring into focus questions of American national identity and the contested belief in the “whole of America.” European immigrant perspectives on the promise of the Declaration of Independence,

  18. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge


    OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do...

  19. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent singleton pregnancy after preterm twin delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Hof, Michel H. P.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C. J.


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the recurrence risk of preterm birth ( <37 weeks' gestation) in a subsequent singleton pregnancy after a previous nulliparous preterm twin delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We included 1957 women who delivered a twin gestation and a subsequent singleton

  20. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, J. M.; Hof, M. H. P.; Mol, B. W. J.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Ravelli, A. C. J.


    Please cite this paper as: Schaaf J, Hof M, Mol B, Abu-Hanna A, Ravelli A. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery.BJOG 2012;119:16241629. Objective To determine the risk of preterm birth in a subsequent twin pregnancy after previous singleton

  1. Risk of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer among childhood cancer survivors : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepen, Jop C.; de Vroom, Suzanne L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Tissing, Wim J.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Ronckers, Cecile M.

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. We performed a systematic review to summarize all available literature on the risk of, risk factors for, and outcome after subsequent GI cancer

  2. Deep-vein thrombosis and the incidence of subsequent symptomatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prandoni, P.; Lensing, A. W.; Büller, H. R.; Cogo, A.; Prins, M. H.; Cattelan, A. M.; Cuppini, S.; Noventa, F.; ten Cate, J. W.


    In contrast to the established relation between overt cancer and subsequent venous thromboembolism, it is unclear whether symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis is associated with a risk of subsequent overt malignant disease. Two hundred sixty consecutive patients with symptomatic, venographically proved

  3. Subsequent Pregnancy after Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes before 27 Weeks' Gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, Jantien L.; van Kuijk, Sander M. J.; van der Ham, David P.; Notten, Kim J. B.; Janssen, Timothy; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Willekes, Christine; Porath, Martina; van der Post, Joris A.; Halbertsma, Feico; Pajkrt, Eva; Mol, Ben Willem J.


    Objective Midtrimester preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) has a high rate of neonatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to study outcomes of subsequent pregnancies after a pregnancy with PPROM before 27 weeks' gestation. Study Design Retrospective study of subsequent

  4. 75 FR 48336 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 39, Subsequent Events... (United States)


    ... ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 39, Subsequent Events: Codification of Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards Contained in the AICPA Statement on... Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 39, Subsequent Events: Codification of Accounting and...

  5. Premarital Sex, Premarital Cohabitation, and the Risk of Subsequent Marital Dissolution among Women. (United States)

    Teachman, Jay


    Examines association between intimate premarital relationships and subsequent marital dissolution. Results suggest neither premarital sex nor premarital cohabitation by itself indicate either preexisting characteristics or subsequent relationship environments that weaken marriages. Findings are consistent with the notion that premarital sex and…


    Bowers, Daniel C.; Nathan, Paul C.; Constine, Louis; Woodman, Catherine; Bhatia, Smita; Keller, Karen; Bashore, Lisa


    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for development of subsequent neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS). Better understanding of the rates, risk factors for and outcomes of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer may lead to the development of more informed screening guidelines. Two independent investigators independently performed a systematic search of studies from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1966 – 2012) for studies examining subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among childhood cancer survivors. Articles were selected to answer 3 questions: What is the risk of CNS tumors following radiation to the cranium for a pediatric cancer as compared with the general population? What are the outcomes in children with subsequent neoplasms of the CNS who have been treated with CNS directed radiation for a pediatric cancer? Are outcomes of subsequent neoplasms different from primary neoplasms of the same histology? Our search identified 72 reports, of which 18 publications were included in this review. These studies reported that childhood cancer survivors have an 8.1 – 52.3 times higher incidence of subsequent CNS neoplasms compared with the general population. Nearly all cancer survivors who developed a CNS neoplasm had been exposed to cranial radiation; some studies demonstrate a correlation between radiation dose and risk of subsequent CNS tumors. Five year survival rates for subsequent high-grade gliomas and meningiomas range from 0 – 19.5% and 73 – 100%, respectively, which are similar to those observed in patients with primary gliomas or meningiomas. The quality of evidence was limited by variation in study design, heterogeneity of details regarding treatment and outcomes, limited follow-up and relatively small sample sizes. We concluded that survivors of childhood cancer who were treated with cranial radiation therapy have an elevated risk for subsequent CNS neoplasms. The current literature is insufficient to comment

  7. African-American Sacred Music. (United States)

    Bailey, A. Peter


    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  8. A Slice of American Life (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle


    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  9. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  10. Family Values in American Drama. (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  11. Additional Resources on Asian Americans. (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.


    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  12. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices (United States)

    Carter, Stephaney


    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  13. Muslim American Identities and Diversity (United States)

    Kaya, Ilhan


    This article consists of two parts. The first part provides an overview of Muslim Americans and the role of Islam in their lives. The second part of the article includes a classroom exercise about how to teach Islam and Muslim Americans. The main vehicle for this exercise is a PBS documentary titled "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet." The exercise…

  14. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French


    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  15. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  16. G. N. Magliocca on Christian G. Fritz’s American Sovereigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Christian G. Fritz, American Sovereigns:  The People and America’s Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2008. Christian G. Fritz’s American Sovereigns: The People and America’s Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War is a useful resource on how the process of constitutional change was tamed during the early Republic.  The American Revolution rested on the principle that the people were sovereign, but Fritz focuses on the subsequent debat...

  17. Gothic roots: Brockden Brown's Wieland, American identity, and American literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. Mautner Wasserman


    Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.

  18. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan


    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  19. Epidemiological Patterns of Initial and Subsequent Injuries in Collegiate Football Athletes. (United States)

    Williams, Jacob Z; Singichetti, Bhavna; Li, Hongmei; Xiang, Henry; Klingele, Kevin E; Yang, Jingzhen


    A body of epidemiological studies has examined football injuries and associated risk factors among collegiate athletes. However, few existing studies specifically analyzed injury risk in terms of initial or subsequent injuries. To determine athlete-exposures (AEs) and rates of initial and subsequent injury among collegiate football athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury and exposure data collected from collegiate football players from two Division I universities (2007-2011) were analyzed. Rate of initial injury was calculated as the number of initial injuries divided by the total number of AEs for initial injuries, while the rate for subsequent injury was calculated as the number of subsequent injuries divided by the total number of AEs for subsequent injury. Poisson regression was used to determine injury rate ratio (subsequent vs initial injury), with adjustment for other covariates. The total AEs during the study period were 67,564, resulting in an overall injury rate of 35.2 per 10,000 AEs. Rates for initial and subsequent injuries were 31.7 and 45.3 per 10,000 AEs, respectively, with a rate ratio (RR) of 1.4 for rate of subsequent injury vs rate of initial injury (95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Rate of injury appeared to increase with each successive injury. RR during games was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0). The rate of subsequent injuries to the head, neck, and face was 10.9 per 10,000 AEs, nearly double the rate of initial injuries to the same sites (RR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). For wide receivers, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.2 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.3-3.8), and for defensive linemen, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.1 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.1-3.9). The method used in this study allows for a more accurate determination of injury risk among football players who have already been injured at least once. Further research is warranted to better identify which specific factors contribute to this increased risk

  20. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen


    The effects of faba bean, lupin, pea and oat crops, with and without an undersown grass-clover mixture as a nitrogen (N) catch crop, on subsequent spring wheat followed by winter triticale crops were determined by aboveground dry matter (DM) harvests, nitrate (NO3) leaching measurements and soil N...... on the subsequent spring wheat or winter triticale DM production. Nitrate leaching following grain legumes was significantly reduced with catch crops compared to without catch crops during autumn and winter before sowing subsequent spring wheat. Soil N balances were calculated from monitored N leaching from...

  1. Sex of prior children and risk of stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nygaard, Ulrikka


    BACKGROUND: Delivery of a boy has been reported to increase a woman's risk of recurrent miscarriage in subsequent pregnancies. We explored whether delivery of boys similarly increases the risk of a subsequent stillbirth. METHODS: We identified all Danish women delivering their first child...... (singleton) between 1980 and 1998 (n = 499,731) using the Danish Birth Registry. These women had subsequent singleton births through 2004 (n = 558,314). We assessed the risk of stillbirth conditional on sex of prior children. RESULTS: The risk of stillbirth was increased by 12% after deliver of boys compared...

  2. Exposure to Celebrities as a Possible Explanatory Mechanism in the Perception of American Narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtland S. Hyatt


    Full Text Available Recent studies have examined perceived levels of narcissism as rated by Americans and non-Americans and found support for early assumptions that American culture is perceived as narcissistic (Miller et al., 2015; Wolfe, 1976. However, specific reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to test if proximal, salient exposure to narcissistic exemplars (i.e., celebrities acts as one mechanism that explains this perception. Participants (N = 300 were randomly assigned to exposure to either celebrity magazines or neutral magazines conditions, and subsequently asked to provide American PNC ratings. No hypothesized differences by condition were found in terms of narcissism or FFM profile; however, American PNCs were rated as pathologically narcissistic in both conditions.

  3. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi


    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  4. Perceived Racism and Coping: Joint Predictors of Blood Pressure in Black Americans (United States)

    Singleton, Gwendolyn James; Robertson, Jermaine; Robinson, Jackie Collins; Austin, Candice; Edochie, Valencia


    Black Americans suffer disproportionate incidences of severe complications associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial factors and subsequent coping responses have been implicated in the etiology of disease. Perceived racism has been identified as a source of stress for Blacks and is related to anger, hostility, paranoia,…

  5. Acculturation, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.


    This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…

  6. Testing the Development of Linguistic Knowledge in Adult Naive Learners of American Sign Language (United States)

    Von Pein, Margreta; Altarriba, Jeanette


    The present study was designed to investigate the ways in which notions of semantics and phonology are acquired by adult naive learners of American Sign Language (ASL) when they are first exposed to a set of simple signs. First, a set of ASL signs was tested for nontransparency and a set of signs was selected for subsequent use. Next, a set of…

  7. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  8. Get Set for American Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    The transition between school and university is not an easy one. The pace of learning is much faster, the volume of written work increases and all the deadlines seem to come at once. And then there are the exams. 'Get set for American studies'assumes no prior knowledge of the subject. For students...... who have never studied American studies before, it will give an idea of what to expect. For students already studying American studies at school, itwill provide a concise but comprehensive learning aid....

  9. Intrapartum cervical lacerations: characteristics, risk factors, and effects on subsequent pregnancies. (United States)

    Melamed, Nir; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Chen, Rony; Kaplan, Boris; Yogev, Yariv


    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and effects on subsequent pregnancies of intrapartum cervical lacerations. A retrospective study of all women who were diagnosed with clinically significant cervical lacerations from 1994-2006. Data were compared with a control group. The outcome of subsequent pregnancies for women in the study and control groups was analyzed. Of 81,047 deliveries, 131 (0.16%) were complicated by cervical lacerations. With multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cervical cerclage, precipitous labor, vacuum extraction, nulliparity, and use of episiotomy were associated independently with cervical lacerations. The outcomes of subsequent pregnancies for women in the cervical-laceration (n = 42) and control (n = 518) groups were similar. There were no cases of recurrent cervical lacerations. Careful inspection of the cervix should be considered in cases of precipitous labor, operative vaginal delivery, or cervical cerclage during pregnancy. Intrapartum cervical lacerations do not appear to affect the outcome of subsequent pregnancies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez


    Full Text Available Subsequent events, called so because they are recorded after the closing date of financial year, must be recorded and taken into account in drawing up the financial statements. Some of them can fundamentally changing financial position of the entity or provide information to users absolutely necessary for their decisions. Accounting treatment in this situation is provided for by International Standard of Accounting ISA 10 “Events after the Reporting Period”, whose provisions are taken to a large extent in national accounting standards. For financial auditor, investigating how the subsequent events are presented in the financial statements shall constitute a procedural obligation. Auditor`s procedure is based on the provisions of an specific International Standard on Auditing, ISA 560 “Subsequent events”. He shall be required to satisfy itself that in the financial statements shall be presented all treatment and appropriate information concerning subsequent events.

  11. Differential interference effects of negative emotional states on subsequent semantic and perceptual processing (United States)

    Gorlick, Marissa A.; Mather, Mara


    Past studies have revealed that encountering negative events interferes with cognitive processing of subsequent stimuli. The present study investigated whether negative events affect semantic and perceptual processing differently. Presentation of negative pictures produced slower reaction times than neutral or positive pictures in tasks that require semantic processing, such as natural/man-made judgments about drawings of objects, commonness judgments about objects, and categorical judgments about pairs of words. In contrast, negative picture presentation did not slow down judgments in subsequent perceptual processing (e.g., color judgments about words, and size judgments about objects). The subjective arousal level of negative pictures did not modulate the interference effects on semantic/perceptual processing. These findings indicate that encountering negative emotional events interferes with semantic processing of subsequent stimuli more strongly than perceptual processing, and that not all types of subsequent cognitive processing are impaired by negative events. PMID:22142207

  12. The impact of resident- and self-evaluations on surgeon's subsequent teaching performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerebach, Benjamin C. M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.


    This study evaluates how residents' evaluations and self-evaluations of surgeon's teaching performance evolve after two cycles of evaluation, reporting, and feedback. Furthermore, the influence of over- and underestimating own performance on subsequent teaching performance was investigated. In a

  13. Chunking movements into sequence: the visual pre-selection of subsequent goals. (United States)

    Baldauf, Daniel


    The chunking of individual movements into sequences has been studied extensively from a motor point of view. Here we approach the planning of sequential behavior from a perceptual perspective investigating the sensorimotor transformations that accompany visually guided sequential behavior. We show that visual attention pre-selects subsequent goals only if two movements are planned to be carried out in rapid succession and therefore are integrated into one common action. This causes visual attention to select both intended goal locations in advance. In contrast, in more slowly executed motor sequences, the single movements are programmed one-by-one and subsequent movement goals are only later visually prepared ('just in time'). The visual selection of a subsequent goal location crucially depends on the speed of the planned sequence: the longer the inter-reach delay, the less visual attention is deployed to the subsequent goal initially. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid IV Versus Oral Rehydration: Responses to Subsequent Exercise Heat Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenefick, Robert W; O'Moore, Kathleen M; Mahood, Nicholas V; Castellani, John W


    This study sought to determine the effect of rapid intravenous (IV) versus oral (ORAL) rehydration immediately after dehydration, on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  15. Weight Loss Percentage Prediction of Subsequent Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Exclusively Breastfed Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jane Chang


    Conclusion: This study documented the relationship between weight loss percentage and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia incidence. Our data provide a basis for determination of an optimal weight loss percentage cut-off value that indicates supplementary feeding.

  16. Quality indicators for screening colonoscopies and colonoscopist performance and the subsequent risk of interval bowel cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Martin; Trads, Mette; Erichsen, Rune


    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this systematic review is to assess the association between quality indicators related to the individual colonoscopist's performance and subsequent interval cancers in patients participating in bowel cancer screening programs, following the JBI approach...

  17. Does Response on the PHQ-9 Depression Questionnaire Predict Subsequent Suicide Attempt or Suicide Death?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Gregory E; Rutter, Carolyn M; Peterson, Do; Oliver, Malia; Whiteside, Ursula; Operskalski, Belinda; Ludman, Evette J


    .... Patients who reported thoughts of death or self-harm “more than half the days” or “nearly every day” experienced a markedly increased risk of subsequent suicide attempt and suicide death...

  18. Subsequent tumors in retinoblastoma survivors: the role of the head and neck surgeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, R.; Moll, A.C.; Imhof, S.M.; Buter, J.; Leemans, C.R.


    Hereditary retinoblastoma patients are at an increased risk for subsequent primary tumors after successful treatment for their initial cancer. Two mechanisms may be responsible for this increased incidence of second malignancies: genetic susceptibility (RB1 gene alterations) and induction by

  19. Modeling of Microstructure Development during Hot Deformation and Subsequent Annealing of Precipitates Containing AA6016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, F.; Mohles, V.; Miroux, A.G.; Bollmann, C.


    Microstructure and microchemistry evolution during hot deformation and subsequent annealing of a commercial Al-Mg-Si alloy were experimentally investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and SEM. Meanwhile, a through-process model framework consisting of the deformation model

  20. Platelet function in patients with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage who subsequently miscarry again.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Mark Anthony


    This study was designed to evaluate platelet aggregation in pregnant women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) and to compare platelet function in such patients who go on to have either another subsequent miscarriage or a successful pregnancy.

  1. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati


    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  2. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance. (United States)

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N


    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  3. Spatiotemporal Reconstruction of the Introduction of Hepatitis C Virus into Scotland and Its Subsequent Regional Transmission. (United States)

    McNaughton, Anna L; Cameron, Iain Dugald; Wignall-Fleming, Elizabeth B; Biek, Roman; McLauchlan, John; Gunson, Rory N; Templeton, Kate; Tan, Harriet Mei-Lin; Leitch, E Carol McWilliam


    A more comprehensive understanding of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission dynamics could facilitate public health initiatives to reduce the prevalence of HCV in people who inject drugs. We aimed to determine how HCV sequences entered and spread throughout Scotland and to identify transmission hot spots. A Scottish data set with embedded demographic data was created by sequencing the NS5B of 125 genotype 1a (Gt1a) samples and 166 Gt3a samples and analyzed alongside sequences from public databases. Applying Bayesian inference methods, we reconstructed the global origin and local spatiotemporal dissemination of HCV in Scotland. Scottish sequences mainly formed discrete clusters interspersed between sequences from the rest of the world; the most recent common ancestors of these clusters dated to 1942 to 1952 (Gt1a) and 1926 to 1942 (Gt3a), coincident with global diversification and distribution. Extant Scottish sequences originated in Edinburgh (Gt1a) and Glasgow (Gt3a) in the 1970s, but both genotypes spread from Glasgow to other regions. The dominant Gt1a strain differed between Edinburgh (cluster 2 [C2]), Glasgow (C3), and Aberdeen (C4), whereas significant Gt3a strain specificity occurred only in Aberdeen. Specific clusters initially formed separate transmission zones in Glasgow that subsequently overlapped, occasioning city-wide cocirculation. Transmission hot spots were detected with 45% of samples from patients residing in just 9 of Glasgow's 57 postcode districts. HCV was introduced into Scotland in the 1940s, concomitant with its worldwide dispersal likely arising from global-scale historical events. Cluster-specific transmission hubs were identified in Glasgow, the key Scottish city implicated in HCV dissemination. This fine-scale spatiotemporal reconstruction improves understanding of HCV transmission dynamics in Scotland. HCV is a major health burden and the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Public health needle exchange and "treatment as

  4. Fatigue Induced by Physical and Mental Exertion Increases Perception of Effort and Impairs Subsequent Endurance Performance


    Pageaux, Benjamin; Lepers, Romuald


    Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to per...

  5. The impact of postpartum cervical tear on the occurrence of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. (United States)

    Zafran, Noah; Gerszman, Eden; Garmi, Gali; Zuarez-Easton, Sivan; Salim, Raed


    To examine the occurrence of subsequent preterm birth (PTB) among women who experienced a cervical tear during prior delivery. A retrospective study conducted at a single teaching hospital on data from January 1994 to March 2014. The study group included all women who had a cervical tear detected at uterine and cervical examination, performed due to early postpartum hemorrhage. The control group consisted of women who delivered vaginally, experienced an early postpartum hemorrhage, and had an intact cervix at uterine and cervical examination. The control group was matched for maternal age and ethnicity at a ratio of 1:2. Women who had a cervical tear but then did not have a subsequent delivery, or had multiple fetal gestations or cervical cerclage at subsequent pregnancies were excluded. Primary outcome was spontaneous PTB rate (<37 weeks) in the subsequent pregnancy. Secondary outcomes included any PTBs in other subsequent pregnancies. Overall, 389 women were included. Of all cases of cervical tear, 129 were identified eligible and included in the final analysis. The control group included 260 women with an intact cervix. No significant differences were found between the study and control groups in the incidence of spontaneous PTB in the immediate subsequent pregnancy [1.6% (2/129) vs. 3.8% (10/260), respectively, p = 0.35]. The incidence of any spontaneous PTBs in all subsequent pregnancies did not differ also [4.7% (6/129) vs. 7.3% (19/260), respectively, p = 0.31]. Cervical tear detected after delivery does not increase the risk of spontaneous PTB in subsequent pregnancies.

  6. Applicability of initial optimal maternal and fetal electrocardiogram combination vectors to subsequent recordings (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Lin; Zhao, Ying; Si, Jun-Feng; Liu, Tie-Bing; Liu, Hong-Xing


    A series of experiments are conducted to confirm whether the vectors calculated for an early section of a continuous non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) recording can be directly applied to subsequent sections in order to reduce the computation required for real-time monitoring. Our results suggest that it is generally feasible to apply the initial optimal maternal and fetal ECG combination vectors to extract the fECG and maternal ECG in subsequent recorded sections.

  7. Durability of class I American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guideline recommendations. (United States)

    Neuman, Mark D; Goldstein, Jennifer N; Cirullo, Michael A; Schwartz, J Sanford


    Little is known regarding the durability of clinical practice guideline recommendations over time. To characterize variations in the durability of class I ("procedure/treatment should be performed/administered") American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline recommendations. Textual analysis by 4 independent reviewers of 11 guidelines published between 1998 and 2007 and revised between 2006 and 2013. We abstracted all class I recommendations from the first of the 2 most recent versions of each guideline and identified corresponding recommendations in the subsequent version. We classified recommendations replaced by less determinate or contrary recommendations as having been downgraded or reversed; we classified recommendations for which no corresponding item could be identified as having been omitted. We tested for differences in the durability of recommendations according to guideline topic and underlying level of evidence using bivariable hypothesis tests and conditional logistic regression. Of 619 index recommendations, 495 (80.0%; 95% CI, 76.6%-83.1%) were retained in the subsequent guideline version, 57 (9.2%; 95% CI, 7.0%-11.8%) were downgraded or reversed, and 67 (10.8%; 95% CI, 8.4%-13.3%) were omitted. The percentage of recommendations retained varied across guidelines from 15.4% (95% CI, 1.9%-45.4%) to 94.1% (95% CI, 80.3%-99.3%; P cardiology guideline recommendations for procedures and treatments promulgated by the ACC/AHA varied across individual guidelines and levels of evidence. Downgrades, reversals, and omissions were most common among recommendations not supported by multiple randomized studies.

  8. General anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis: impact of allergy testing on subsequent anaesthesia. (United States)

    Trautmann, A; Seidl, C; Stoevesandt, J; Seitz, C S


    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to drugs and substances used during general anaesthesia as well as non-allergic drug hypersensitivity reactions may account for anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis. As IgE-mediated anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening reaction, identification of the culprit allergen is essential to avoid anaphylaxis recurrence during subsequent general anaesthesia. To study whether preventive recommendations derived from allergy testing after intraoperative anaphylaxis were followed in subsequent general anaesthesia. Results of standardized allergy testing after anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis and outcome of subsequent general anaesthesia were analysed retrospectively. Fifty-three of 107 patients were diagnosed with IgE-mediated allergy to a drug or substance used during general anaesthesia, and 54 patients were test negative. Twenty-eight of 29 allergy patients tolerated subsequent general anaesthesia uneventfully. One patient with cefazolin allergy suffered from anaphylaxis recurrence due to accidental reapplication of cefazolin. Twenty-two of 24 test-negative patients tolerated subsequent general anaesthesia, whereas two patients again developed anaphylaxis despite pre-medication regimens. Our results confirm the practical impact of allergy testing in general anaesthesia-induced anaphylaxis. By identification of the allergen, it is possible to avoid allergic anaphylaxis during subsequent anaesthesia. In most cases, recommended pre-medication seems to prevent the recurrence of non-allergic drug hypersensitivity reactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary. (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas


    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  10. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  11. Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans (United States)

    ... or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. According to the 2015 U.S. ... PDF | 1.1MB] Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 [PDF | 1.9MB] Health Insurance Coverage in ...

  12. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  13. American Health Information Management Association (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions Privacy Policy RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2017 by The American Health ...

  14. American Association for Clinical Chemistry (United States)

    ... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  15. American Association Of State Climatologists (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  16. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  17. American Academy of Forensic Sciences (United States)

    ... Want to Be a Forensic Scientist! Read More Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) Read More ‹ › The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is a multi-disciplinary professional organization that provides ...

  18. Medical Research for All Americans (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... information that is based on the very best medical research conducted by and for the National Institutes ...

  19. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang


    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  20. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø


    with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...... power of the AUB and its peers and discuss the transnational power of these universities. The chapter will highlight the extent and limitations of the soft power of AUB and its peers since the origins, how they failed in their proselytizing mission and how students have always rejected US Middle East......—or China—policy (creating acceptance of this policy was never a university aim). On the other hand, the universities have—despite proselytizing and later US foreign policy—been academically very successful and held great attraction to Lebanese and Middle Eastern—as Chinese—students. These students have...

  1. North American Breeding Bird Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  2. Central American and Caribbean Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  3. Robert Abbe: early American brachytherapist. (United States)

    Aronowitz, Jesse N


    To assess Robert Abbe's career and contributions to brachytherapy, in the context of the work of contemporary European and American investigators. Examination of his lectures and journal articles, as well as contemporaneous newspaper accounts, textbooks, and archival material. Although not the first American to apply radium therapeutically, Robert Abbe was among the earliest to acquire and systematically use a clinically significant quantity. He replicated early European experimental and clinical work, and published a large series of cases treated with generally favorable results. Abbe was the first American to emphasize the role of radiobiology in optimizing therapeutic ratio. His eloquence and stature helped legitimize the new therapeutic modality. Robert Abbe was probably the nation's most influential early brachytherapist. Copyright © 2012 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infant Mortality and African Americans (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > ... African Americans had over twice the sudden infant death syndrome mortality rate as non-Hispanic whites, in ...

  5. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  7. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis (United States)

    ... Council: AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  8. Genetic variation as a modifier of association between therapeutic exposure and subsequent malignant neoplasms in cancer survivors. (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita


    Subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are associated with significant morbidity and are a major cause of premature mortality among cancer survivors. Several large studies have demonstrated a strong association between the radiation and/or chemotherapy used to treat primary cancer and the risk of developing SMNs. However, for any given therapeutic exposure, the risk of developing an SMN varies between individuals. Genomic variation can potentially modify the association between therapeutic exposures and SMN risk and may explain the observed interindividual variability. In this review, the author provides a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the role of genomic variation in the development of therapy-related SMNs and discusses the methodological challenges in undertaking an endeavor to develop a deeper understanding of the molecular underpinnings of therapy-related SMNs, such as an appropriate study design, the identification of an adequately sized study population together with a reliable plan for collecting and maintaining high-quality DNA, clinical validation of the phenotype, and the selection of an appropriate approach or platform for genotyping. Understanding the factors that can modify the risk of treatment-related SMNs is critical to developing targeted intervention strategies and optimizing risk-based health care for cancer survivors. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  9. A Single Bout of High-Intensity Interval Training Reduces Awareness of Subsequent Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M; Wiegers, Evita C; van der Graaf, Marinette; Thijssen, Dick H; Kessels, Roy P C; Tack, Cees J; de Galan, Bastiaan E


    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has gained increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since the administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation while preserving cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that, in the short term, HIIT reduces awareness of hypoglycemia and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. In a randomized crossover trial, patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia (NAH), patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), and healthy participants ( n = 10 per group) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic (2.6 mmol/L) clamp, either after a HIIT session or after seated rest. Compared with rest, HIIT reduced symptoms of hypoglycemia in patients with NAH but not in healthy participants or patients with IAH. HIIT attenuated hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction, which was mainly driven by changes in the NAH subgroup. HIIT suppressed cortisol and growth hormone responses, but not catecholamine responses to hypoglycemia. The present findings demonstrate that a single HIIT session rapidly reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and NAH, but does not in patients with IAH, and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. The role of exercise-induced lactate in mediating these effects, potentially serving as an alternative fuel for the brain, should be further explored. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Higher weight, lower education: a longitudinal association between adolescents' body mass index and their subsequent educational achievement level? (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Hermans, Roel C J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch adolescents (49% girls; mean age = 13.7 years) at schools providing different educational levels was used to determine adolescents who moved and did not move to a lower educational level in the first year, or in the second year, and to examine whether this movement could be predicted by BMI z-scores (zBMI), after controlling for a large range of potential confounding factors. A total of 1164 Dutch adolescents continued in the same level of education, whereas 84 adolescents moved to a lower educational level (43 moved in the first and 41 in the second year). A higher zBMI significantly increased the risk of a general transition to a lower educational level, and of a transition in the first year, but not in the second year, after controlling for potential demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounds. Findings suggest that a higher zBMI during adolescence immediately lowers educational achievement level during general secondary education. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  11. Reverse ego-depletion: Acts of self-control can improve subsequent performance in Indian cultural contexts. (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Job, Veronika


    The strength model of self-control has been predominantly tested with people from Western cultures. The present research asks whether the phenomenon of ego-depletion generalizes to a culture emphasizing the virtues of exerting mental self-control in everyday life. A pilot study found that whereas Americans tended to believe that exerting willpower on mental tasks is depleting, Indians tended to believe that exerting willpower is energizing. Using dual task ego-depletion paradigms, Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c found reverse ego-depletion among Indian participants, such that participants exhibited better mental self-control on a subsequent task after initially working on strenuous rather than nonstrenuous cognitive tasks. Studies 2 and 3 found that Westerners exhibited the ego-depletion effect whereas Indians exhibited the reverse ego-depletion effect on the same set of tasks. Study 4 documented the causal effect of lay beliefs about whether exerting willpower is depleting versus energizing on reverse ego-depletion with both Indian and Western participants. Together, these studies reveal the underlying basis of the ego-depletion phenomenon in culturally shaped lay theories about willpower. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Patterns of presentation for attempted suicide: analysis of a cohort of individuals who subsequently died by suicide. (United States)

    Mallon, Sharon; Rosato, Michael; Galway, Karen; Hughes, Lynette; Rondon-Sulbaran, Janeet; McConkey, Sam; Leavey, Gerard


    All suicides and related prior attempts occurring in Northern Ireland over two years were analyzed, focusing on number and timing of attempts, method, and mental health diagnoses. Cases were derived from coroner's records, with 90% subsequently linked to associated general practice records. Of those included, 45% recorded at least one prior attempt (with 59% switching from less to more lethal methods between attempt and suicide). Compared with those recording one attempt, those with 2+ attempts were more likely to have used less lethal methods at the suicide (OR = 2.77: 95% CI = 1.06, 7.23); and those using less lethal methods at the attempts were more likely to persist with these into the suicide (OR = 3.21: 0.79, 13.07). Finally, those with preexisting mental problems were more likely to use less lethal methods in the suicide: severe mental illness (OR = 7.88: 1.58, 39.43); common mental problems (OR = 3.68: 0.83, 16.30); and alcohol/drugs related (OR = 2.02: 0.41, 9.95). This analysis uses readily available data to highlight the persisting use of less lethal methods by visible and vulnerable attempters who eventually complete their suicide. Further analysis of such conditions could allow more effective prevention strategies to be developed. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. American animation VS. Japanese Animation


    Olsen, Stian; Johnsen, Frank


    This bachelor thesis is a comparative study between American animation and Japanese animation. We take a look into differences, taking into account the culture, history, production- and the animation techniques employed. The main theoretical questions that are answered in this study are: - How has each side of animation influenced the culture surrounding it, and vice versa? -Why can Japanese animation studios presumably produce more than twice the amount that an American animation studio p...

  14. American acceptance of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, W.

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature. (DCK)

  15. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  16. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to discourage subsequent pregnancy but the risks may be overestimated. (United States)

    Seeho, Sean K; Algert, Charles S; Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B


    Early-onset preeclampsia is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. For women who consider another pregnancy after one complicated by early-onset preeclampsia, the likelihood of recurrence and the subsequent pregnancy outcome for themselves and their babies are pertinent considerations. The purpose of this study was to determine the subsequent pregnancy rate after a nulliparous pregnancy that was complicated by early-onset preeclampsia and among those who have a subsequent pregnancy, the risk of recurrence by gestational week, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This was a population-based record linkage cohort study. The study population included nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy and early-onset preeclampsia (Early-onset in the index birth was further categorized as pregnancy outcomes that were assessed included the pregnancy rate, preeclampsia recurrence, and maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. The risk of preeclampsia necessitating delivery at each gestational week for women who were at risk was plotted, and the net gain or loss of gestational age when comparing the index with the subsequent pregnancy was calculated. Among 361,031 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, 1473 (0.4%) had early-onset preeclampsia. Women with early-onset preeclampsia in their first pregnancy had a lower subsequent pregnancy rate (59.7%) than women without preeclampsia (67.7%). Of the 758 women with a subsequent singleton birth, 256 (33.8%) experienced preeclampsia in the next pregnancy; 57 women (7.5%) with recurrent early-onset preeclampsia were included. Cumulative rates of preeclampsia in the subsequent pregnancy were higher at every gestation from 23 weeks gestation when the index birth was age in their subsequent pregnancy. The median overall increase in gestational age at delivery was 6 weeks (interquartile range, 4-8); among women with recurrent preeclampsia, the median increase was 5 weeks (interquartile range, 2-7). Women with

  17. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology. (United States)

    Gossel, P P


    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  18. Transfusion medicine on American television. (United States)

    Karp, J K


    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (United States)

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Home About AAPOS Patient Info Resources Allied Health News & Events Meetings J AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology ...

  20. How genes have illuminated the history of early Americans and Latino Americans. (United States)

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés


    The American continent currently accounts for ∼15% of the world population. Although first settled thousands of years ago and fitting its label as "the New World," the European colonial expansion initiated in the late 15th century resulted in people from virtually every corner of the globe subsequently settling in the Americas. The arrival of large numbers of immigrants led to a dramatic decline of the Native American population and extensive population mixing. A salient feature of the current human population of the Americas is, thus, its great diversity. The genetic variation of the Native peoples that recent immigrants encountered had been shaped by demographic events acting since the initial peopling of the continent. Similarly, but on a compressed timescale, the colonial history of the Americas has had a major impact on the genetic makeup of the current population of the continent. A range of genetic analyses has been used to study both the ancient settlement of the continent and more recent history of population mixing. Here, I show how these two strands of research overlap and make use of results from other scientific disciplines to produce a fuller picture of the settlement of the continent at different time periods. The biological diversity of the Americas also provides prominent examples of the complex interaction between biological and social factors in constructing human identities and of the difficulties in defining human populations. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Diseases of American lobsters (Homarus americanus): a review. (United States)

    Cawthorn, Richard J


    The American lobster fishery is a significant economic driver in coastal communities of North America. Increasingly, the impacts of infectious disease are recognized as important components and factors in the population ecology and subsequent management of the lobster fishery. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors impact marine diseases. The review herein highlights aspects of several important bacterial, fungal and protistan diseases, including gaffkemia, shell disease, vibriosis, disease caused by species of Lagenidium, Haliphthoros and Fusarium, paramoebiasis and Bumper Car disease. As the global environment continues to change, these diseases could more severely affect both wild caught and impounded lobsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mescher bones playing tradition : syncopations on the American landscape


    Mercier, Mel


    non-peer-reviewed This dissertation explores the creation and transmission of the Mescher two-handed bones playing style which was first developed by the German-American farmer, Albert Mescher, in the 1920s, in Iowa, and subsequently passed on to his son, Jerry. Jerry has since passed on the style to his sister, Bernie, and the siblings are now the principal exponents of the style. The style is marked by a pervasive rhythmic syncopation derived from the ragtime music that Albert pumped ...

  3. Brain Activation during Associative Short-Term Memory Maintenance is Not Predictive for Subsequent Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eBergmann


    Full Text Available Performance on working memory (WM tasks may partially be supported by long-term memory (LTM processing. Hence, brain activation recently being implicated in WM may actually have been driven by (incidental LTM formation. We examined which brain regions actually support successful WM processing, rather than being confounded by LTM processes, during the maintenance and probe phase of a WM task. We administered a four-pair (faces and houses associative delayed-match-to-sample (WM task using event-related fMRI and a subsequent associative recognition LTM task, using the same stimuli. This enabled us to analyze subsequent memory effects for both the WM and the LTM test by contrasting correctly recognized pairs with incorrect pairs for either task. Critically, with respect to the subsequent WM effect, we computed this analysis exclusively for trials that were forgotten in the subsequent LTM recognition task. Hence, brain activity associated with successful WM processing was less likely to be confounded by incidental LTM formation. The subsequent LTM effect, in contrast, was analyzed exclusively for pairs that previously had been correctly recognized in the WM task, disclosing brain regions involved in successful LTM formation after successful WM processing. Results for the subsequent WM effect showed no significantly activated brain areas for WM maintenance, possibly due to an insensitivity of fMRI to mechanisms underlying active WM maintenance. In contrast, a correct decision at WM probe was linked to activation in the retrieval success network (anterior and posterior midline brain structures. The subsequent LTM analyses revealed greater activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the early phase of the maintenance stage. No supra-threshold activation was found during the WM probe. Together, we obtained clearer insights in which brain regions support successful WM and LTM without the potential confound of the

  4. Brain activation during associative short-term memory maintenance is not predictive for subsequent retrieval. (United States)

    Bergmann, Heiko C; Daselaar, Sander M; Beul, Sarah F; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C


    Performance on working memory (WM) tasks may partially be supported by long-term memory (LTM) processing. Hence, brain activation recently being implicated in WM may actually have been driven by (incidental) LTM formation. We examined which brain regions actually support successful WM processing, rather than being confounded by LTM processes, during the maintenance and probe phase of a WM task. We administered a four-pair (faces and houses) associative delayed-match-to-sample (WM) task using event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and a subsequent associative recognition LTM task, using the same stimuli. This enabled us to analyze subsequent memory effects for both the WM and the LTM test by contrasting correctly recognized pairs with incorrect pairs for either task. Critically, with respect to the subsequent WM effect, we computed this analysis exclusively for trials that were forgotten in the subsequent LTM recognition task. Hence, brain activity associated with successful WM processing was less likely to be confounded by incidental LTM formation. The subsequent LTM effect, in contrast, was analyzed exclusively for pairs that previously had been correctly recognized in the WM task, disclosing brain regions involved in successful LTM formation after successful WM processing. Results for the subsequent WM effect showed no significantly activated brain areas for WM maintenance, possibly due to an insensitivity of fMRI to mechanisms underlying active WM maintenance. In contrast, a correct decision at WM probe was linked to activation in the "retrieval success network" (anterior and posterior midline brain structures). The subsequent LTM analyses revealed greater activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the early phase of the maintenance stage. No supra-threshold activation was found during the WM probe. Together, we obtained clearer insights in which brain regions support successful WM and LTM without the potential confound of

  5. Mode of delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following previous instrumental delivery. (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel; Steinberg, Netanel; Tannus, Samer; Golan, Abraham; Sadan, Oscar


    To assess mode of subsequent delivery in women with previous instrumental vaginal delivery. In this retrospective longitudinal study we followed women who underwent instrumental delivery. The study group included all consecutive parturient women who underwent an instrumental vaginal delivery during a 24-month period (1996-1999). We then identified women who had a subsequent delivery in our center until the end of the year 2010. The control group included women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery from the same time. During the index period we had 349 consecutive successful instrumental vaginal deliveries. Of those, 125 women had a subsequent delivery in our center (35.8%). In subsequent pregnancies, the spontaneous vaginal delivery rate was 76.8% and 90.4%; the instrumental delivery rate was 8.8% and 1.6%; and the cesarean rate was 14.4% and 8.0%, in the instrumental delivery, and spontaneous vaginal delivery groups, respectively (Pinstrumental delivery or a cesarean after having an instrumental delivery in a previous pregnancy was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4-5.9, Pinstrumental delivery are at an increased risk of requiring either an instrumental delivery or a cesarean section in a subsequent pregnancy compared with women with a previous spontaneous vaginal delivery.

  6. Satisfaction in motion: Subsequent search misses are more likely in moving search displays. (United States)

    Stothart, Cary; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R


    People often conduct visual searches in which multiple targets are possible (e.g., medical X-rays can contain multiple abnormalities). In this type of search, observers are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). Recent evidence has suggested that this effect may be due to a depletion of cognitive resources from tracking the identities and locations of found targets. Given that tracking moving objects is resource-demanding, would finding a moving target further increase the chances of missing a subsequent one? To address this question, we had participants search for one or more targets hidden among distractors. Subsequent search misses were more likely when the targets and distractors moved throughout the display than when they remained stationary. However, when the found targets were highlighted in a unique color, subsequent search misses were no more likely in moving displays. Together, these results suggest that the effect of movement is likely due to the increased cognitive demands of tracking moving targets. Overall, our findings reveal that activities that involve searching for moving targets (e.g., driving) are more susceptible to subsequent search misses than are those that involve searching for stationary targets (e.g., baggage screening).

  7. Mesenteric panniculitis: systematic review of cross-sectional imaging findings and risk of subsequent malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Steve; Plumb, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart [University College London UCL, Centre for Medical Imaging, 3rd Floor East, London (United Kingdom)


    Systematic review to determine any association between imaging features of idiopathic mesenteric panniculitis (MP) and subsequent malignancy. Two researchers searched primary literature independently for imaging studies of MP. They extracted data focusing on methodology for unbiased patient accrual and capability to determine a link between MP and subsequent malignancy. They noted imaging features of MP. Data were accrued and meta-analysis intended. Fourteen of 675 articles were eligible; 1,226 patients. Only three (21 %) accrued patients prospectively. Twelve (86 %) studies described CT features. Follow-up varied widely; 1 month to 8 years. Prevalence of MP was influenced by accrual: 0.2 % for keyword search versus 1.7 % for consecutive series. Accrual bias affected nine (64 %) studies. 458 (38 %) of 1,209 patients had malignancy at accrual but varied widely (8-89 %), preventing meta-analysis. Sixty (6.4 %) of 933 patients developed new malignancy subsequently, also varying widely (0-11 %). Of just four studies that determined the proportion of unselected, consecutive patients with MP developing subsequent malignancy, three were retrospective and the fourth excluded patients with lymphadenopathy, likely excluding patients with MP. Studies were heterogeneous, with biased accrual. No available study can determine an association between MP and subsequent malignancy with certainty. (orig.)

  8. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sibai, Baha M


    for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The end points were subsequent hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, thromboembolic event, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of subsequent hypertension was increased 5.31-fold (range: 4.90 to 5.75) after gestational hypertension......Minimal data exist concerning the relationship between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and various subsequent cardiovascular events and the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on these. In a registry-based cohort study, we identified women delivering in Denmark from 1978 to 2007 with a first...... singleton (n=782 287) and 2 first consecutive singleton deliveries (n=536 419). The exposures were gestational hypertension and mild and severe preeclampsia. We adjusted for preterm delivery, small for gestational age, placental abruption, and stillbirth and, in a second model, we also adjusted...

  9. Firms’ Negative Perceptions on Patents, Technology Management Strategies, and Subsequent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Han


    Full Text Available While patents do have many advantages, their disadvantages include requiring disclosure of technical information and imposing the burden of patenting and litigation costs. In this study, we investigate the relationship between a firm’s negative perception on patents, technology management strategies, and subsequent performance. For this purpose, we use a categorical canonical correlation analysis of the top 200, large, R&D-intensive firms in Korea. We find that negative perceptions such as burdensome transaction costs, non-patenting culture, and uncertainty of the outcome of patent litigation are associated with firms’ technology management strategies, such as purchase of licenses, and subsequent performance, such as an increase in the number of inventions from the cross-fertilization of different technologies. The results of this study are expected to contribute to a better understanding of firms’ negative attitudes toward the effects of patents, their subsequent technology management strategies, and resulting performance.

  10. Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and subsequent weight gain: a systematic review. (United States)

    Magee, Lorrie; Hale, Lauren


    To systematically examine the relationship between sleep duration and subsequent weight gain in observational longitudinal human studies. Systematic review of twenty longitudinal studies published from 2004-October 31, 2010. While adult studies (n = 13) reported inconsistent results on the relationship between sleep duration and subsequent weight gain, studies with children (n = 7) more consistently reported a positive relationship between short sleep duration and weight gain. While shorter sleep duration consistently predicts subsequent weight gain in children, the relationship is not clear in adults. We discuss possible limitations of the current studies: 1) the diminishing association between short sleep duration on weight gain over time after transition to short sleep, 2) lack of inclusion of appropriate confounding, mediating, and moderating variables (i.e., sleep complaints and sedentary behavior), and 3) measurement issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation. (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D


    Expectations about an upcoming emotional event have the power to shape one's subsequent affective response for better or worse. Here, we used mediation analyses to examine the relationship between brain activity when anticipating the need to cognitively reappraise aversive images, amygdala responses to those images and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success. In contrast, anticipatory ventral anterior insula activity was associated with reduced amygdala responses and greater reappraisal success. In both cases, left amygdala responses mediated the relationship between anticipatory activity and reappraisal success. These results suggest that anticipation facilitates successful reappraisal via reduced anticipatory prefrontal 'cognitive' elaboration and better integration of affective information in paralimbic and subcortical systems.

  12. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation (United States)

    Ochsner, Kevin N.; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D.


    Expectations about an upcoming emotional event have the power to shape one’s subsequent affective response for better or worse. Here, we used mediation analyses to examine the relationship between brain activity when anticipating the need to cognitively reappraise aversive images, amygdala responses to those images and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success. In contrast, anticipatory ventral anterior insula activity was associated with reduced amygdala responses and greater reappraisal success. In both cases, left amygdala responses mediated the relationship between anticipatory activity and reappraisal success. These results suggest that anticipation facilitates successful reappraisal via reduced anticipatory prefrontal ‘cognitive’ elaboration and better integration of affective information in paralimbic and subcortical systems. PMID:23202664

  13. Diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans. (United States)

    Debnath, Subrata; Thameem, Farook; Alves, Tahira; Nolen, Jacqueline; Al-Shahrouri, Hania; Bansal, Shweta; Abboud, Hanna E; Fanti, Paolo


    The incidence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is growing rapidly worldwide as a consequence of the rising prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Among U.S. ethnic groups, Mexican Americans have a disproportionately high incidence and prevalence of DN and associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In communities bordering Mexico, as many as 90% of Mexican American patients with ESRD also suffer from T2DM compared to only 50% of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Both socio-economic factors and genetic predisposition appear to have a strong influence on this association. In addition, certain pathogenetic and clinical features of T2DM and DN are different in Mexican Americans compared to NHW, raising questions as to whether the diagnostic and treatment strategies that are standard practice in the NHW patient population may not be applicable in Mexican Americans. This article reviews the epidemiology of DN in Mexican Americans, describes the pathophysiology and associated risk factors, and identifies gaps in our knowledge and understanding that needs to be addressed by future investigations.

  14. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities. (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S


    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Timing and Risk Factors for a Positive Fecal Immunochemical Test in Subsequent Screening for Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Chiang

    Full Text Available Following a negative test, the performance of fecal immunochemical testing in the subsequent screening round is rarely reported. It is crucial to allocate resources to participants who are more likely to test positive subsequently following an initial negative result.To identify risk factors associated with a positive result in subsequent screening.Dataset was composed of consecutive participants who voluntarily underwent fecal tests and colonoscopy in a routine medical examination at the National Taiwan University Hospital between January 2007 and December 2011. Risk factor assessment of positive fecal test in subsequent screening was performed by using the Cox proportional hazards models.Our cohort consisted of 3783 participants during a 5-year period. In three rounds of subsequent testing, 3783, 1537, and 624 participants underwent fecal tests, respectively; 5.7%, 5.1%, and 3.9% tested positive, respectively, and the positive predictive values were 40.2%, 20.3%, and 20.8%, respectively. Age ≥60 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.93 and male gender (1.32, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69 were risk factors; however, an interaction between age and gender was noted. Men had higher risk than women when they were <60 years of age (p = 0.002, while this difference was no longer observed when ≥60 years of age (p = 0.74. The optimal interval of screening timing for participant with baseline negative fecal test was 2 years.Following a negative test, older age and male gender are risk factors for a positive result in the subsequent rounds while the gender difference diminishes with age. Biennial screening is sufficient following a negative fecal test.

  16. Repeated abortion affects subsequent pregnancy outcomes in BALB/c mice. (United States)

    Lv, Fang; Xu, Xiangbo; Zhang, Shucheng; Wang, Lili; Wang, Ning; He, Bin; Wang, Jiedong


    In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of repeated medical termination of pregnancy in order to determine subsequent outcomes. A model of mifepristone (RU 486)-induced medical abortion was established in BALB/c mice to facilitate the investigation of the impact of medical abortion on subsequent pregnancies, including litter sizes and newborn birth weights. Pregnant mice were sacrificed to examine midterm pregnancy status, investigate the frequency of fetal resorption, and measure placental function gene expression by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Offspring liver mRNA was harvested for real-time PCR to determine gene expression and assess the effects of abortion on offspring development. Mice subjected to 2 previous medical abortions experienced spontaneous abortions in subsequent pregnancies. Medical abortion caused reduced reproductive capacity and affected placental dysfunction, with reduced expression of tissue factor (TF) and genes encoding proteins involved in metabolic functions relevant to pregnancy, such as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1/2 (11β-HSD1/2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Reduced expression was also observed for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In offspring from subsequent pregnancies, genes involved in lipid metabolism, which may enhance key lipid transcription factors, such as PPARA and PPARG, as well as GR/11β-HSD1, were downregulated in the liver. In addition, the sperm motility of the F1 males reduced. Repeated medical abortion impaired the reproductive function of female mice, significantly affecting the outcomes of subsequent pregnancies. The impact of repeated abortions on the offspring of subsequent pregnancies was also noteworthy and deserves further exploration. Thus, this model provides a useful means to study the mechanisms underlying the above phenomena, which will ultimately benefit the health of women and their children.

  17. Outcome of mechanically ventilated patients initially denied admission to an intensive care unit and subsequently admitted. (United States)

    Naser, Wasim; Schwartz, Naama; Finkelstein, Richard; Bisharat, Naiel


    The outcome of mechanically ventilated patients initially denied admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and subsequently admitted is unclear. We compared outcomes of patients denied ICU admission and subsequently admitted, to those of patients admitted to the ICU and to patients refused ICU admission. The medical records of all the patients who were subjected to mechanical ventilation for at least 24h over a 4year period (2010-2014) were reviewed. Of 707 patients (757 admissions), 124 (18%) were initially denied ICU admission and subsequently admitted. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed significant association with death of: age, length of stay, nursing home residency, duration of mechanical ventilation, previous admission with mechanical ventilation, cause for mechanical ventilation, rate of failed extubations, associated morbidity (previous cerebrovascular accident, dementia, chronic renal failure), and occurrence of nosocomial bacteremia. The odds for death among patients denied ICU admission and subsequently transferred to the ICU compared to patients admitted directly to the ICU was 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9-6.7) (P<0.0001). The odds for death among patients refused ICU admission compared to those who were initially denied and subsequently admitted were not statistically significant (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.8-3.8). In conclusion, patients denied ICU admission and subsequently admitted face a considerable risk of morbidity and mortality. Their odds of death are nearly three times those admitted directly to the ICU. Late admission to the ICU does not appear to provide benefit compared to patients who remain in general medicine wards. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after first pregnancy with severe preeclampsia and delivery before 34 weeks of gestation]. (United States)

    Lemonnier, M; Beucher, G; Morello, R; Herlicoviez, M; Dreyfus, M; Benoist, G


    Women who had severe preeclampsia are at high risk of gestational vascular complications (preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, fetal death, small for gestational age, placenta abruptio) in subsequent pregnancies. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after severe preeclampsia with delivery before 34 weeks of gestation during the first pregnancy. One hundred and thirty-four primiparous women delivered before 34 weeks of gestation resulting in severe preeclampsia between January 2002 and December 2009. The data of the index pregnancy were identified from the medical record of our maternity, those of the subsequent pregnancy from paper or computerized medical records of the hospitals where deliveries took place. Our study ended on December 31 2011 for a decrease of at least 2 years after the index pregnancy. Of the 75 subsequent pregnancies, 59 have been studied. Twenty patients (34%) had gestational vascular complications, in type of gestational hypertension alone (10%), preeclampsia (65%), isolated small for gestational age (20%) or fetal death (5%). Thirty-nine patients (66%) showed no recurrence of gestational vascular complications but only 33 patients (56%) had a pregnancy of course totally physiological. The only risk factor for recurrent gestational vascular complications in subsequent pregnancy was a long time interval between two pregnancies, with an increased risk in case of delay beyond 26 months. Women with a history of severe preeclampsia with delivery before 34 weeks of gestation during first pregnancy are at increased risk for gestational vascular complications during the next pregnancy. A close obstetrical monitoring is recommended during a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease. The DARC birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    Kjaer HF, Eller E, Andersen KE, Høst A, Bindslev-Jensen C. The association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease. The DARC birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SPrevention of allergic......, and sensitization at 6 yr, were sensitized to food allergens to a large extent (53%, 42%, and 47%, respectively) already at 6 months. Early inhalant sensitization (S-IgE) did not increase the risk of later allergic disease. Early atopic dermatitis (0-18 months) was also highly associated with subsequent allergic...

  20. Evolution of microstructure and texture in copper during repetitive extrusion-upsetting and subsequent annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.; Shu, D. Y.; Lin, J.


    The evolution of the microstructure and texture in copper has been studied during repetitive extrusion-upsetting (REU) to a total von Mises strain of 4.7 and during subsequent annealing at different temperatures. It is found that the texture is significantly altered by each deformation pass...... developing predominantly in high misorientation regions. At 350 ºC the microstructure is fully recrystallized with an average grain size of only 2.3 μm and a very weak crystallographic texture. This REU-processed and subsequently annealed material is considered to be potentially suitable for using...

  1. Subsequent Neoplasms in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (United States)

    Whitton, John; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C.; Hammond, Sue; Stovall, Marilyn; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meadows, Anna T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.


    Background The occurrence of subsequent neoplasms has direct impact on the quantity and quality of life in cancer survivors. We have expanded our analysis of these events in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) to better understand the occurrence of these events as the survivor population ages. Methods The incidence of and risk for subsequent neoplasms occurring 5 years or more after the childhood cancer diagnosis were determined among 14 359 5-year survivors in the CCSS who were treated from 1970 through 1986 and who were at a median age of 30 years (range = 5–56 years) for this analysis. At 30 years after childhood cancer diagnosis, we calculated cumulative incidence at 30 years of subsequent neoplasms and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), excess absolute risks (EARs) for invasive second malignant neoplasms, and relative risks for subsequent neoplasms by use of multivariable Poisson regression. Results Among 14 359 5-year survivors, 1402 subsequently developed 2703 neoplasms. Cumulative incidence at 30 years after the childhood cancer diagnosis was 20.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.1% to 21.8%) for all subsequent neoplasms, 7.9% (95% CI = 7.2% to 8.5%) for second malignant neoplasms (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer), 9.1% (95% CI = 8.1% to 10.1%) for nonmelanoma skin cancer, and 3.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 3.8%) for meningioma. Excess risk was evident for all primary diagnoses (EAR = 2.6 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI = 2.4 to 2.9 per 1000 person-years; SIR = 6.0, 95% CI = 5.5 to 6.4), with the highest being for Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 8.7, 95% CI = 7.7 to 9.8) and Ewing sarcoma (SIR = 8.5, 95% CI = 6.2 to 11.7). In the Poisson multivariable analysis, female sex, older age at diagnosis, earlier treatment era, diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma, and treatment with radiation therapy were associated with increased risk of subsequent neoplasm. Conclusions As childhood cancer survivors progress through adulthood, risk of subsequent neoplasms

  2. Grief and its impact on prenatal attachment in the subsequent pregnancy. (United States)

    O'Leary, J


    This article suggests there is a need to reframe the phenomenon of unresolved grief in parents who are in a subsequent pregnancy after a previous loss using a prenatal attachment model. An argument is made for helping parents give meaning to their parenting role for the baby who has died so they can move forward in attaching to the baby in the next pregnancy. It is suggested that a new layer of grief surfaces when parents get pregnant again which can lead to pathology if not recognized by others. Interventions to support the parenting relationship to the baby in the subsequent pregnancy are provided.

  3. Preterm delivery and risk of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type-II diabetes in the mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J A; Paidas, M J; Damm, P


    Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated.......Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated....

  4. Soccer, American Isolationism and Paradoxes of Globalization


    Melosik, Zbyszko


    The article is devoted to analyzing the North American attitude towards soccer. American arguments against soccer are presented against the background of prevailing tendencies of world globalization. Also, the essence of soccer is confronted with the American version of masculinity, symbolized by aggressive American football. 41 93 106 6 Studia Edukacyjne

  5. Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, 1876-1938: "Americanize the First American." (United States)

    Johnson, David L.; Wilson, Raymond


    Examines the life of Gertrude Bonnin (Zitkala-Sa), Sioux activist, educator, orator, and lobbyist. Describes her early insistence on a "white" education, her association with Carlisle Indian School and Carlos Montezuma, and her advocacy of American Indian education and self-determination, peyote suppression, and the BIA's abolition.…

  6. Awakening Minorities: American Indians, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans. (United States)

    Howard, John R.; And Others

    As noted in the Preface, social scientists are entering a period of shared realization that the United States is in a crucial period of transition. "Trans-action" magazine, a pioneer in social programs for changing the society, has dedicated itself for 7 years to the task of reporting the strains and conflicts within the American system and has…

  7. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.


    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  8. An Un-American Childhood


    Edwards, Flor Christine


    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  9. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina


    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... her narrative performance within the histories of American orientalism, the emerging Cold War, and ethnic beauty pageants to provide a better understanding of the specific intersection in these 1950s hegemonic discourses that framed and enabled her public agency. Her analysis then looks at how Hakim...

  10. A reappraisal of American psychiatry. (United States)

    Murray, R M


    Remarkable changes have taken place in American psychiatry over the past twenty years. The era of psychoanalytical supremacy has passed, and realism is replacing the exaggerated claims which were made of psychiatry's ability to produce personal, social, and even political change. The importance of phenomenology and accurate diagnosis is increasingly recognised, and American researchers have made many impressive contributions to psychiatric genetics and to psychopharmacology. Despite these advances, office practice generally continues to function on an outmoded model and psychiatric resources remain inequitably distributed.

  11. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on lactation curve characteristics over 2 subsequent lactations. (United States)

    Chen, J; Kok, A; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M


    This study evaluated the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on lactation curve characteristics over 2 subsequent lactations. It also evaluated the relationships of energy balance or metabolic status in early lactation with lactation curve characteristics in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0-, 30-, or 60-d) and 1 of 2 early-lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 subsequent lactations. In the second lactation following DP length treatments, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were assigned to a 0→67-d DP group (actual days dry: 67±8d). Cows were allocated to this new group when they had a milk yield of lactations. Blood samples were taken weekly from calving to wk 4 after calving. A Wilmink lactation curve for each lactation was modeled based on FPCM yield records from calving through 305 DIM. During the first lactation following DP length treatments, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP had lower peak yield, later time of peak yield, and lower FPCM305 than cows with a 60-d DP. In the second lactation following DP length treatments, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP had lower peak yield than cows with a 60-d DP. In both lactations, lactation persistency was not affected by DP length and none of the lactation curve characteristics were affected by diet. In parity >2 cows, total FPCM yield and average daily FPCM yield throughout 2 lactations did not differ among DP lengths. In addition, average energy balance in the first 4wk after calving had a negative relationship with peak yield and FPCM305, and a positive relationship with lactation persistency. Average plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate had a positive relationship with peak yield and FPCM305, and a negative relationship with lactation persistency. Shortening or omitting the DP affected lactation curve characteristics in both lactations after implementation of DP length treatments but did not compromise FPCM yield

  12. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans (United States)

    Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M.; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R.; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J.; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Song, Yun S.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske


    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we find that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (KYA), and after no more than 8,000-year isolation period in Beringia. Following their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 KYA, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other is restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative ‘Paleoamerican’ relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  13. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinruecken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley


    Howand when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand...... years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America....... Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericues and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly...

  14. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.


    for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different ‘roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH......In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers...... of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink....

  15. Induced abortion and prematurity in a subsequent pregnancy: a study from Shanghai

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Yan; Zhou, Wei Jin; Gao, Ersheng


    To evaluate the impact of a first trimester induced abortion on the risks of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy we conducted a pregnancy-based cohort study in Shanghai, China with recruitment from 15 general hospitals (or maternity and infant health institutes) fro...

  16. Closing the Loop: The Impact of Student Feedback on Students' Subsequent Learning. Research Report Series. (United States)

    Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) use a variety of ways to collect views from students about the quality of their educational experiences and suggestions for improvements. A small-scale study, funded by Higher Education Quality Council (QAA), explored how this feedback contributes to enhancing subsequent performance. Drawing…

  17. The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jen Yang


    Full Text Available Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI carbohydrate (CHO before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g solution either fructose (F or glucose (G before running on the treadmill at 60% VO2max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033 and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004. The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.

  18. Changes in dimensions and weight of human dentine after different drying procedures and during subsequent rehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaf, E R; Ten Bosch, J J

    Shrinkage of dentine and the decrease in its weight after drying were measured. Three drying procedures were used, freeze-drying and drying in nitrogen at 60 and 100 degrees C. The dentine was subsequently rehydrated while measuring its dimensions. Rehydrated dentine was weighed. Dentine weight


    Al-Maharma, Dua' Yousef; Abujaradeh, Hiba; Mahmoud, Khadejah Fahmi; Jarrad, Reem Ahmad


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal grieving for perinatal loss (PL) and the perception of and attachment to children born subsequent to a recent PL among mothers in Jordan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 190 mothers of full-term, healthy newborns born subsequent to a recent PL was recruited from seven Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Jordan. These mothers were assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale (L.J. Toedter, J.N. Lasker, & J.M. Alhadeff), 1988, the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (J.T. Condon & C.J. Corkindale, 1998), and the Neonatal Perception Inventory II (E. Broussard, 1979). Results showed a significant negative relationship between grief intensity and the attachment level, r = -.37, p = .000, and a significant positive relationship between the attachment level and neonatal perception, r = .28, p = .000. Mothers' grief intensity was significantly affected by their demographic characteristics; however, there was no significant relationship between grief intensity and neonatal perception, r = .23, p = .23. Perinatal grief was negatively related to maternal attachment to the subsequent child. Nurses should address bereaved mothers and their children who might be at risk for developing attachment disturbances to facilitate positive adaptation to the subsequent pregnancy and parenthood. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent onset of arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Loera, Gustavo; Geraghty, Estella M.; Ton, Hendry; Lim, Carmen C. W.; de Jonge, Peter; Kessler, Ronald C.; Posada-Villa, Jose; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hu, Chiyi; Fiestas, Fabian; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamoi, Giovanni; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Have, Margreet ten; O'Neill, Siobhan; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Scott, Kate M.

    Objective: We investigated the associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent arthritis onset, with and without mental disorder comorbidity adjustment. We aimed to determine whether specific types of mental disorders and increasing numbers of mental disorders were associated with the

  1. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent non-fatal, self-reported stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, Nicola R.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Levinson, Daphna; Fiestas, Fabian; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Posada-Villa, Jose; Maria Haro, Josep; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Xavier, Miguel; Lwata, Noboru; de Jonge, Peter; Bruffaerts, Ronny; O'Neill, Siobhan; Kessler, Ron C.; Scott, Kate M.

    Objectives: To examine the associations between a wide range of mental disorders and subsequent onset of stroke. Lifecourse timing of stroke was examined using retrospectively reconstructed data from cross-sectional surveys. Methods: Data from the World Mental Health Surveys were accessed. This data

  2. Caesarean section and subsequent ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Neill, S.M.; Khashan, A.S.; Kenny, L.C.; Greene, R.A.; Henriksen, T.B.; Lutomski, J.E.; Kearney, P.M.


    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section rates are increasing worldwide, and the long-term effects are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of subsequent ectopic pregnancy in women with a previous caesarean section, compared with vaginal delivery. SEARCH STRATEGY: Systematic review of the literature using

  3. Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Phil Kersten; J.Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin


    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase from the archaeon Pyrococcus honkoshii (ph-GH5) and a commercial endoglucanase FR were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) through subsequent microfluidization Enzymatic treatments facilitated CNF production due to the reduced degree of polymerization (DP)...

  4. Does School Connectedness Buffer the Impact of Peer Victimization on Early Adolescents' Subsequent Adjustment Problems? (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Pasch, Keryn E.


    The current study examined the role of school connectedness as a moderator of the associations between overt and relational forms of peer victimization and early adolescents' subsequent adjustment problems. Data were collected from 490 adolescents when they were initially in the sixth and seventh grades and again 1 year later. Regression analyses…

  5. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of non-reassuring cardiotocography analysis and subsequent clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhose, S.; Heinis, A.M.; Vandenbussche, F.P.; Drongelen, J. van; Dillen, J. van


    OBJECTIVE: To quantify inter- and intra-observer agreement of non-reassuring intrapartum cardiotocography (CTG) patterns and subsequent clinical management. DESIGN: Methodological study. SETTING: University Medical Center. POPULATION: CTG patterns of 79 women beyond 37 weeks of gestation with a

  6. 37 CFR 1.145 - Subsequent presentation of claims for different invention. (United States)


    ... claims for different invention. 1.145 Section 1.145 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Joinder of Inventions in One Application; Restriction § 1.145 Subsequent presentation of claims for different invention. If, after an Office action on an application, the applicant...

  7. Impact of Nursing Students' Free-Clinic Experiences on Subsequent Professional Nursing Practice (United States)

    Bell, Christina Lynn


    Bachelors of Science Nursing students at a small liberal arts college in the upper Midwest volunteer with an instructor at a free clinic as part of their curriculum. This study's purpose was to identify the impact of nursing students' free-clinic experiences on their subsequent professional nursing practice and their ability to attend to: (a)…

  8. On the Transfer of Prior Tests or Study Events to Subsequent Study (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C.; Friedman, Michael C.; Murayama, Kou; Bjork, Robert A.


    Tests, as learning events, are often more effective than are additional study opportunities, especially when recall is tested after a long retention interval. To what degree, though, do prior test or study events support subsequent study activities? We set out to test an implication of Bjork and Bjork's (1992) new theory of disuse--that, under…

  9. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee


    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  10. Low somatic cell count : a risk factor for subsequent clinical mastitis in a dairy herd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriyasathaporn, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Nielen, M.; Brand, A.


    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate factors measured at the udder inflammation-free state as risk factors for subsequent clinical mastitis. The factors including somatic cell count (SCC), body condition score, milk yield, percentages of milk fat and milk protein, and diseases were

  11. The Use of Computer-Mediated Communication To Enhance Subsequent Face-to-Face Discussions. (United States)

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Bishop-Clark, Cathy


    Describes a study of undergraduate students that assessed the effects of synchronous (Internet chat) and asynchronous (Internet discussion board) computer-mediated communication on subsequent face-to-face discussions. Results showed that face-to-face discussions preceded by computer-mediated communication were perceived to be more enjoyable.…

  12. 40 CFR 35.6570 - Use of the same engineer during subsequent phases of response. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of the same engineer during... Agreement § 35.6570 Use of the same engineer during subsequent phases of response. (a) If the public notice... CERCLA remedial response Cooperative Agreement may use the engineer procured to conduct any or all of the...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    This study reinvestigates the effects of primary imprinting of chicks with either a naturalistic stimulus or an artificial object on subsequent imprinting with artificial objects. Initial experience with a live chick (group C) or a yellow cylinder (group Y) had differential effects on the

  14. 7 CFR 1219.33 - Subsequent nomination and appointment of Board members and alternates. (United States)


    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent nomination and appointment of Board members and alternates. 1219.33 Section 1219.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  15. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil


    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  16. Method of freezing living cells and tissues with improved subsequent survival (United States)

    Senkan, Selim M.; Hirsch, Gerald P.


    This invention relates to an improved method for freezing red blood cells, ther living cells, or tissues with improved subsequent survival, wherein constant-volume freezing is utilized that results in significantly improved survival compared with constant-pressure freezing; optimization is attainable through the use of different vessel geometries, cooling baths and warming baths, and sample concentrations.

  17. Do Academically Deficient Scholarship Athletes Earn Higher Wages Subsequent to Graduation? (United States)

    Olbrecht, Alexandre


    In this paper, data from the Baccalaureate & Beyond 93/97/03 survey is used to estimate the effects on the earnings of scholarship athletics participants subsequent to graduation. Former college athletes are found to have higher wages on average. Upon first glance, colleges and universities could use these results to argue on behalf of investments…

  18. The Impact of Participating in a Peer Assessment Activity on Subsequent Academic Performance (United States)

    Jhangiani, Rajiv S.


    The present study investigates the impact of participation in a peer assessment activity on subsequent academic performance. Students in two sections of an introductory psychology course completed a practice quiz 1 week prior to each of three course exams. Students in the experimental group participated in a five-step double-blind peer assessment…

  19. Does "Compulsory Volunteering" Affect Subsequent Behavior? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Canada (United States)

    Yang, Wei


    This paper estimates the impact of "compulsory volunteerism" for adolescents on subsequent volunteer behavior exploiting the introduction of a mandatory community service program for high school (HS) students in Ontario, Canada. We use difference-in-differences approach with a large longitudinal dataset. Our estimates show that the…

  20. Prevalence and Cost of Subsequent Fractures Among U.S. Patients with an Incident Fracture. (United States)

    Weaver, Jessica; Sajjan, Shiva; Lewiecki, E Michael; Harris, Steven T; Marvos, Panagiotis


    The prevalence and cost of subsequent fractures among patients with an incident fracture are not well defined. To assess the prevalence of, and costs associated with, subsequent fractures in the year after an incident fracture. This was a retrospective claims database analysis using data from Humana Medicare Advantage claims (Medicare group) and Optum Insight Clinformatics Data Mart commercial claims (commercial group). Patients included in the study had a claim for a qualifying fracture occurring between January 2008 and December 2013 (index fracture), were continuously enrolled in the health plan for ≥ 1 year before and after the index fracture, and were aged ≥ 65 years in the Medicare group or ≥ 50 years in the commercial group at the time of the index fracture. Subsequent fractures were identified by ICD-9-CM codes and were defined as the second fracture occurring ≥ 3 to ≤ 12 months after the index fracture (≥ 6 to ≤ 12 months for fractures at the same site as the index fracture). Rates of subsequent fractures were calculated as the number of patients who had a subsequent fracture divided by the total sample size. After propensity matching of demographic and clinical variables, we determined the total medical and pharmacy costs accrued within 1 year of the index fracture by patients with and without a subsequent fracture. Health care costs were compared between patients with and without a subsequent fracture using McNemar's test. A total of 45,603 patients were included in the Medicare group, and 54,145 patients were included in the commercial group. In the Medicare group, 7,604 (16.7%) patients experienced a subsequent fracture. The proportion of patients with a subsequent fracture was highest among patients with multiple index fractures (26.2%, n = 905), followed by those with hip (25.5%, n = 1,280) and vertebral (20.2%, n = 1,908) index fractures. In the commercial group, 6,256 (11.6%) patients experienced a subsequent fracture. The proportion

  1. Treatment failure with a tricyclic antidepressant followed by lithium addition and response to subsequent electroconvulsive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Heijnen (Willemijn); W.W. van den Broek (Walter); T.K. Birkenhäger (Tom)


    textabstractObjective: To examine the predictive value of resistance to a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and lithium with respect to the efficacy of subsequent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Method: This open prospective study was conducted in the inpatient depression unit of a university hospital

  2. Subsequent fracture rates in a nationwide population-based cohort study with a 10-year perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.; Petersen, K D; Eriksen, S A


    Fractures after the age of 50 are frequently observed in Denmark, and many of these may be osteoporotic. This study examined the incidence of all and subsequent fractures in a 10-year period from 2001 to 2011. The incidence of subsequent fractures was high, especially following hip fracture....... INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of subsequent fractures and mortality rates over a 10-year period in patients already suffering from fracture. METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide, register-based follow-up study. Patients were included if diagnosed with an index...... fracture (ICD-10 codes: S22.x, S32.x, S42.x, S52.x, S62.x, S72.x, S82.x, S92.x, T02.x, T08.x, T10.x and T12.x) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2001 and if older than 50 years at time of fracture. The patients were investigated for future subsequent fractures from January 1st, 2002 to December...

  3. Age at hysterectomy as a predictor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent


    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patient age at the time of hysterectomy and subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery. METHODS: We gathered data on all benign hysterectomies and POP surgeries performed in Denmark on Danish women...

  4. The indication for hysterectomy as a risk factor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent


    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the indication for hysterectomy was itself a risk factor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Danish women who underwent hysterectomy from 1977 to 2009. METHODS: Data from 154,882 women who underwent hysterectomy...

  5. Emotion regulation during the encoding of emotional stimuli: Effects on subsequent memory. (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Bauer, Patricia J


    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Furthermore, we implemented a reappraisal instruction to manipulate (down-regulate) emotional arousal at encoding to examine the relation between emotional arousal and subsequent memory. Participants (8-year-old girls) viewed emotional scenes as electrophysiological (EEG) data were recorded and participated in a memory task 1 to 5days later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. The reappraisal instruction successfully reduced emotional arousal responses to negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. Similarly, recognition performance in both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavior was impaired for reappraised negative stimuli but not positive stimuli. The findings indicate that ERPs are sensitive to the reappraisal of negative stimuli in children as young as 8years. Furthermore, the findings suggest an interaction of emotion and memory during the school years, implicating the explanatory role of emotional arousal at encoding on subsequent memory performance in female children as young as 8years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. fimH gene cloning, of Escherichia coli uropathogen and examination of its subsequence diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ostad Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Background: Escherichia coli uropathogen is the most prevalent pathogen separated from urinary tract that often is originated from intestinal flora of the own person. Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in Human. Whereas binding stage has an important role in bacteria colonization and then the infection is created, one of the most important strategies for inhibiting the infection is inhibiting the bacterial binding. As fimH protein is acting as adhesion it could be an appropriate candidate for producingvaccine. Material and Methods: First, genomic DNA of Escherichia coli bacteria extracted from strain 35218 ATCC. Upon designing primer for fimH gene, the PCR reaction has been applied with Taq DNA Polymerase and then pfu DNA polymerase enzymes. pBluescript (SK- plasmid has been applied for cloning the product of PCR. Using ClustalW and MEGA4 software, the subsequence was alignmented with the gene subsequence existing in gene bank and its gene diversity was examined. Results: After sequencing the cloned fimH gene using ClustalW and MEGA4 software, the result of this subsequence were alignmented with the subsequence of Escherichia coli containing fimH gene existing in gene bank and based on this alignment, N terminal on the protein surface and DNA are protected. Conclusion: N terminal domain of fimH gene is a conserved sequence among clinical isolates and it could be used for designing a vaccine against urinary tract infection.

  7. DRESS Syndrome Caused by Cross-reactivity Between Vancomycin and Subsequent Teicoplanin Administration: A Case Report. (United States)

    Miyazu, Daisuke; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Yamashita, Daiki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Inoue, Sachiko; Imakyure, Osamu; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Shuto, Hideki; Kataoka, Yasufumi


    BACKGROUND Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening syndrome comprising severe skin eruption, fever, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy, and involvement of internal organs. Here, we describe a case of DRESS syndrome caused by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. CASE REPORT A 79-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of injuries incurred in a traffic accident. Eosinophilia and lung dysfunction appeared after vancomycin administration. These symptoms were improved temporarily by withdrawal of vancomycin and administration of corticosteroid, but exacerbated by subsequent teicoplanin administration. These symptoms disappeared after discontinuation of teicoplanin. Based on comprehensive assessment of the overall clinical course, we judged that DRESS syndrome was induced by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. Using the European Registry of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions (RegiSCAR) scoring system, we categorized DRESS syndrome related to vancomycin and teicoplanin as "probable." We describe, for the first time, DRESS syndrome (defined using the RegiSCAR scoring system) caused by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and subsequent teicoplanin administration. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware that DRESS syndrome can be induced by cross-reactivity between vancomycin and teicoplanin.

  8. Does Reactivating a Witnessed Memory Increase Its Susceptibility to Impairment by Subsequent Misinformation? (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J.; DeFranco, Rachel M.; Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S.


    In a recent PNAS article, Chan and LaPaglia (2013) provided arguments and evidence to support the claim that reactivating a witnessed memory (by taking a test) renders the memory labile and susceptible to impairment by subsequent misinformation. In the current article, we argue that Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings are open to alternative…

  9. Changes in alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Chiuve, S.E.; Mukamal, K.J.; Hu, F.B.; Hendriks, H.F.; Rimm, E.B.


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association of 4-year changes in alcohol consumption with a subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively examined 38,031 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of diagnosed

  10. Focus on Form, Learner Uptake and Subsequent Lexical Gains in Learners' Oral Production (United States)

    Alcon-Soler, Eva


    This descriptive study reports findings on the relationship between focus on form, learner uptake and subsequent lexical gains in learners' oral production. The data for the study consisted in 17 45-minute audio-recorded teacher-led conversations, 204 learners' diaries (17 sessions x 12 learners) reporting what they had learned after each…

  11. The effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Mars, M.; Finlayson, G.; Blundell, J.E.; Graaf, de C.


    It is posed that protein intake is tightly regulated by the human body. The role of sensory qualities in the satiating effects of protein, however, requires further clarification. Our objective was to determine the effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and

  12. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.


    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects

  13. Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Finlayson, G.; Graaf, de C.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects

  14. Preferential processing of visual trauma-film reminders predicts subsequent intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, J.R.L.; Wessel, I.; De Jong, P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice


    This study used an analogue design to test the hypothesis that preferential processing of visual trauma reminders in the aftermath of a stressful or traumatic event gives rise to subsequent intrusive memories. Shortly after the presentation of a stressful film fragment, participants (n=36) were

  15. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending (United States)

    Hayes, Susan


    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  16. The impact of nutrition of the cumulus oocyte complex and embryo on subsequent development in ruminants. (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy G


    Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and early embryos rely on a histotrophic nutrition source for energy production and the synthesis of macromolecules. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that the balance of supply and demand for energy and other anabolic substrates during oocyte maturation and very early stages of development programmes subsequent developmental potential, and this may include subsequent fetal growth trajectory. One example is the role of glucose (Glc) during cumulus-oocyte complex maturation. Glucose is an essential nutrient for maturation, especially its role during cumulus expansion. Our laboratory has shown that during in vitro culture, too little glucose during cumulus-oocyte complex maturation affects meiotic competence. We have focussed on glucose (Glc) metabolism through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) during COC maturation in vitro. The HBP in somatic cells is regarded as a "fuel-sensing" pathway and its interaction with cell signalling systems and transcriptional regulation is increasingly apparent. Up-regulation of the HBP during oocyte maturation in vitro has negative consequences for subsequent development. Another example is the role of hypoxia (low O2) during peri-compaction development. My laboratory believes that ruminant embryos during compaction, blastulation and subsequent development in the uterine cavity lack a key hypoxia responsive element. Because of this, hypoxia is important for normal development in ruminants but perturbs further development in rodents. The implication of these examples to the fundamental concept of peri-conception nutritional programming of development are discussed.

  17. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  18. Stalking Victimization among College Women and Subsequent Help-Seeking Behaviors (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler


    Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…

  19. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottschalk, M.G.; Cooper, J.D.; Chan, M.K.; Bot, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bann, S.


    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Subsequent Disability and Mental Well-being: The Zutphen Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Kromhout, D.


    Objectives: It is insufficiently known whether classic cardiovascular risk factors are associated with subsequent functional disability and mental well-being in elderly men. Design: A population-based cohort study with 15 years of follow-up from 1985 onward. Setting: The Zutphen Study started as the

  1. The relationship between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking among women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kaer, Susanne K; Munk, Christian


    BACKGROUND: To examine the association between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking, and to examine whether there are differences in this association between four countries. METHODS: The data consisted of 68,539 women aged 18-47 years randomly selected from the general population i...

  2. Preterm delivery and risk of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type-II diabetes in the mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J A; Paidas, M J; Damm, P


    Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated....

  3. Changes in Alcohol Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Chiuve, S.E.; Mukamal, K.J.; Hu, F.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Rimm, E.B.


    Objective -The objective of this study was to investigate the association of four-year changes in alcohol consumption with subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods - We prospectively examined 38,031 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study free of diagnosed diabetes

  4. Differential Effects of Women's Child Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Revictimization. (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; And Others


    Examined differential effects of sexual revictimization in community sample of 248 African-American and white women, ages 18 to 36. Findings suggest that unintended pregnancies and abortions were significantly associated with sexual revictimization. Women who reported more than one incident in both childhood and adulthood were also likely to have…

  5. Glove material, reservoir formation, and dose affect glove permeation and subsequent skin penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm


    Protective gloves are used to reduce dermal exposure when managing chemical exposures at the work place. Different glove materials may offer different degrees of protection. The present study combined the traditional ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) model with the Franz diffusion...

  6. Hispanic Americans and African Americans with multiple sclerosis have more severe disease course than Caucasian Americans. (United States)

    Ventura, Rachel E; Antezana, Ariel O; Bacon, Tamar; Kister, Ilya


    Whether disease course in Hispanic Americans (HA) with multiple sclerosis (MS) is different from Caucasian Americans (CA) or African Americans (AA) is unknown. We compared MS severity in the three main ethnic populations in our tertiary MS clinics using disease duration-adjusted rank score of disability: Patient-Derived Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P-MSSS). The age- and gender-adjusted P-MSSS was significantly higher in HA (3.9 ± 2.6) and AA (4.5 ± 3.0) compared to CA (3.4 ± 2.6; p < 0.0001 for both). Adjusting for insurance did not change these results. These findings suggest that HA, as AA, have more rapid disability accumulation than CA.

  7. The impact of resident- and self-evaluations on surgeon's subsequent teaching performance. (United States)

    Boerebach, Benjamin C M; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Busch, Olivier R C; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H


    This study evaluates how residents' evaluations and self-evaluations of surgeon's teaching performance evolve after two cycles of evaluation, reporting, and feedback. Furthermore, the influence of over- and underestimating own performance on subsequent teaching performance was investigated. In a multicenter cohort study, 351 surgeons evaluated themselves and were also evaluated by residents during annual evaluation periods for three subsequent years. At the end of each evaluation period, surgeons received a personal report summarizing the residents' feedback. Changes in each surgeon's teaching performance evaluated on a five-point scale were studied using growth models. The effect of surgeons over- or underestimating their own performance on the improvement of teaching performance was studied using adjusted multivariable regressions. Compared with the first (median score: 3.83, 20th to 80th percentile score: 3.46-4.16) and second (median: 3.82, 20th to 80th: 3.46-4.14) evaluation period, residents evaluated surgeon's teaching performance higher during the third evaluation period (median: 3.91, 20th to 80th: 3.59-4.27), p evaluation scores over the three periods. Surgeons who overestimated their teaching performance received lower subsequent performance scores by residents (regression coefficient b: -0.08, 95 % confidence limits (CL): -0.18, 0.02) and self (b: -0.12, 95 % CL: -0.21, -0.02). Surgeons who underestimated their performance subsequently scored themselves higher (b: 0.10, 95 % CL: 0.03, 0.16), but were evaluated equally by residents. Residents' evaluation of surgeon's teaching performance was enhanced after two cycles of evaluation, reporting, and feedback. Overestimating own teaching performance could impede subsequent performance.

  8. Shortened nighttime sleep duration in early life and subsequent childhood obesity. (United States)

    Bell, Janice F; Zimmerman, Frederick J


    To test associations between daytime and nighttime sleep duration and subsequent obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective cohort. Panel Survey of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplements (1997 and 2002) from US children. Subjects aged 0 to 13 years (n = 1930) at baseline (1997). Binary indicators of short daytime and nighttime sleep duration (sleep scores) at baseline. Body mass index at follow-up (2002) was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores and trichotomized (normal weight, overweight, obese) using established cut points. Ordered logistic regression was used to model body mass index classification as a function of short daytime and nighttime sleep at baseline and follow-up, and important covariates included socioeconomic status, parents' body mass index, and, for children older than 4 years, body mass index at baseline. For younger children (aged 0-4 years at baseline), short duration of nighttime sleep at baseline was strongly associated with increased risk of subsequent overweight or obesity (odds ratio = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.80). For older children (aged 5-13 years), baseline sleep was not associated with subsequent weight status; however, contemporaneous sleep was inversely associated. Daytime sleep had little effect on subsequent obesity in either group. Shortened sleep duration in early life is a modifiable risk factor with important implications for obesity prevention and treatment. Insufficient nighttime sleep among infants and preschool-aged children may be a lasting risk factor for subsequent obesity. Napping does not appear to be a substitute for nighttime sleep in terms of obesity prevention.

  9. Subtotal Colectomy for Colon Cancer Reduces the Need for Subsequent Surgery in Lynch Syndrome. (United States)

    Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Seppälä, Toni T; Järvinen, Heikki J; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka


    The risk of metachronous colorectal cancer is high after surgical resection for first colon cancer in Lynch syndrome. This study aimed to examine whether extended surgery decreases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer and improves long-term survival. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from a nationwide registry. Two hundred forty-two Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers who underwent surgery for a first colon cancer from 1984 to 2009 were included. Patients underwent standard segmental colectomy (n = 144) or extended colectomy (n = 98) for colon cancer. Patients were followed a median of 14.6 up to 25 years. Risk of subsequent colorectal cancer in either group, overall and disease-specific survival, and operative mortality were the primary outcomes measured. Subtotal colectomy decreased the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.52; p = 0.001), compared with segmental resection. Subsequent colorectal cancer decreased in MLH1 carriers. The MSH2 carriers showed no statistical difference, possibly because of their small number. Disease-specific and overall survival within 25 years did not differ between the standard and extended surgeries (82.7% vs 87.2%, p = 0.76 and 47.2% vs 41.4%, p = 0.83). The cumulative risk of subsequent colorectal cancer was 20% in 10 years and 47% within 25 years after standard resection and 4% and 9% after extended surgery. The cumulative risk of metachronous colorectal cancer was 7% within 25 years after subtotal colectomy with ileosigmoidal anastomosis. One patient died of postoperative septicemia within 30 days after segmental colectomy. Data on surgical procedures were primarily collected retrospectively. Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers may undergo subtotal colectomy to manage first colon cancer and avoid repetitive abdominal surgery and to reduce the remaining bowel to facilitate easier endoscopic surveillance. It provides no survival benefit, compared with segmental colon

  10. Is Clostridium difficile infection a risk factor for subsequent bloodstream infection? (United States)

    Ulrich, Robert J; Santhosh, Kavitha; Mogle, Jill A; Young, Vincent B; Rao, Krishna


    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common nosocomial diarrheal illness increasingly associated with mortality in United States. The underlying factors and mechanisms behind the recent increases in morbidity from CDI have not been fully elucidated. Murine models suggest a mucosal barrier breakdown leads to bacterial translocation and subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI). This study tests the hypothesis that CDI is associated with subsequent BSI in humans. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 1132 inpatients hospitalized >72 h with available stool test results for toxigenic C. difficile. The primary outcome was BSI following CDI. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality, colectomy, readmission, and ICU admission. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were developed. CDI occurred in 570 of 1132 patients (50.4%). BSI occurred in 86 (7.6%) patients. Enterococcus (14%) and Klebsiella (14%) species were the most common organisms. Patients with BSI had higher comorbidity scores and were more likely to be male, on immunosuppression, critically ill, and have a central venous catheter in place. Of the patients with BSI, 36 (42%) had CDI. CDI was not associated with subsequent BSI (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.44-1.08; P = 0.103) in unadjusted analysis. In multivariable modeling, CDI appeared protective against subsequent BSI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.34-0.96; P = 0.036). Interaction modeling suggests a complicated relationship among CDI, BSI, antibiotic exposure, and central venous catheter use. In this cohort of inpatients that underwent testing for CDI, CDI was not a risk factor for developing subsequent BSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Syrian Americans meet in Anaheim

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Twair, Samir


    ... Protection Act of 2016, which was subsequently passed as H.R. 5732, to halt the wholesale slaughter of the Syrian people, encourage a negotiated political settlement, and hold Syrian human rights abusers accountable for their crimes. Also, SAC will sponsor a 15-state tour of the documentary "Little Gandhi," about famed Syrian peace activist Ghi...

  12. Communication; A Scientific American Book. (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  13. Indigenous agroforestry in American Samoa (United States)

    Malala (Mike) Misa; Agnes M. Vargo


    Agroforestry exists in American Samoa as a system where indigenous trees and natural vegetation used for food, fuelwood, crafts and medicine are incorporated with traditional staple crops and livestock on a set piece of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While nutritional, cultural, social,...

  14. Social Studies: Americanism vs. Communism. (United States)

    Cantera, Bonnie

    A twelfth grade quinmester course designed to give the student an objective overview of the development of Communism vis-a-vis Americanism (Democracy) is outlined in this guide. The course focuses on what each way of life represents and their respective positions in world politics. Included are case studies in communist expansion, the communist…

  15. American Elements in Czech Parody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemelíková, Blanka


    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-113 ISSN 0022-3840 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech interwar literature * parody * Brdečka, Jiří * Kuděj, Zdeněk Matěj * americanism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision Impact factor: 0.070, year: 2015

  16. Latin American Folk Art Prints (United States)

    Navah, Jan


    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  17. Grammaticalization in American Sign Language. (United States)

    Sexton, A. L.


    A study examined the process of grammaticalization in American Sign Language, examining basic principles and patterns and drawing parallels with oral language. More advanced stages of grammaticalization (involving fusion and affecting syntax) are examined in depth, leading to proposal of a temporal-ordering analysis to explain sequencing of verbal…

  18. Alcohol Education via American Literature. (United States)

    Celluci, Tony; Larsen, Richard


    Describes two courses utilizing modern American fiction, poetry, and drama in which vivid depictions of the disasters wrought by excessive drinking are found. Posits these as examples of how literature that addresses problems related to drinking and alcoholism can be used in a focused way in alcohol education. (LKS)

  19. Pedagogics in Mexican American Studies. (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    A pedagogy appropriate to college level courses and comprised of interdisciplinary content, multidisciplinary faculty, and students from diverse academic backgrounds and with varying levels of skills merits development. A taxonomy of some of the difficulties in the construction of such a course in Mexican American studies, for example, focuses on…




  1. North American Grasslands & Biogeographic Regions (United States)

    North American grasslands are the product of a long interaction among land, people, and animals. Covering over one billion hectares across Canada, the United States, and Mexico, a defining trait of the realm is its vast surface area. From subtropical grasslands interspersed with wetlands in the sout...

  2. Women's Participation in American Sport. (United States)

    Holbrook, Leona

    Women's participation in sport is emphasized in this historical, philosophical, and sociological sketch of sport and physical recreation activities. Various sports are traced from the time of George Washington up through the present noting cultural influences that affected their development. Under the heading "Past Events," American Indian women,…

  3. Learning Styles and Native Americans. (United States)

    Browne, Dauna Bell


    Reviews 5 models of learning or cognitive styles and the concept of brain hemispheric functions. Discusses the right hemisphere dominant learning style of many Native American children. Presents points to consider when modifying curricula or designing a reading program aimed at all learners. Contains 19 references. (SV)

  4. Immigration Law & the American Dream. (United States)

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.


    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin)…

  5. Technology and the American Dream. (United States)

    Agresto, John


    Examines the relationship between technology and American ideals and liberal values, considering the positive and negative consequences of technological advancements. Argues that the proper role of the humanities is to review and rethink values so that technological choices made will be more attractive. (DMM)

  6. Women in Latin American History. (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion


    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  7. Mexican Americans: Labeling and Mislabeling. (United States)

    Lampe, Philip E.

    Although the study of self-selected ethnic labels may aid scientists in their understanding of an ethnic group, the uncoordinated use of ethnic labels applied by social scientists and others can result in confusion and misinformation. A literature review yields a plethora of terms used to refer to Mexican Americans. Terms currently popular are…

  8. Marketing to Older American Consumers. (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy


    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  9. The American Eider in Maine (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American eider, Maine's only breeding sea duck, is known to have nested on 215 coastal islands of the State in 1976. In Maine, eiders seem to prefer to nest on...

  10. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.


    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. North American Natural Gas Vision (United States)


    Pemex Comercio Internacional (Pemex International), responsible for international trade. 30 North American Natural Gas Vision In 1995, the...important, running for 710 km from Ciudad Pemex to Mérida in the Yucatan Peninsula. It was built to provide natural gas to the Mérida III combined cycle

  12. Eisenhower and the American Sublime (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ned


    This essay presents Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential rhetoric as an iteration of an American synecdochal sublime. Eisenhower's rhetoric sought to re-aim civic sight beyond corporeal objects to the nation's transcendental essence. This rhetoric is intimately connected to prevailing political anxieties and exigencies, especially the problem of…

  13. Subsequent Malignant Neoplasms in a Population-Based Cohort of Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Focus on the First 5 Years. (United States)

    Pole, Jason D; Gu, Lan Ying; Kirsh, Victoria; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C


    The purpose was to describe the development of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) among a population-based cohort of pediatric cancer patients, with a focus on SMNs that occurred within the first 5 years from diagnosis. The cohort was identified from POGONIS, an active provincial registry. Cohort members were Ontario residents ages 0 to 14.9 years at primary diagnosis between January 1985 and December 2008. SMNs that developed <18 years were captured by POGONIS, whereas SMNs diagnosed later were identified through linkage. Cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated, and proportional hazards models were estimated to examine factors associated with SMN development. A total of 7,920 patients were eligible. 2.4% (188/7,920) developed 197 SMNs. Mean follow-up time was 10.7 years (SD = 7.6 years; range, 0.0-26.4 years) with mean time to SMN of 8.5 years (SD = 6.3 years; range, 0.0-24.9 years). The SIR for the development of a SMN was 9.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.6-11.4]. 40.6% of SMNs (80/197) developed within 5 years. Early SMNs were more likely to be leukemia and lymphoma. Factors associated with early SMN were primary diagnosis of a bone tumor (OR, 4.88; 95% CI, 1.52-15.60), exposure to radiotherapy (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.22), and the highest dose of epipodophyllotoxin (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.88-7.42). Over 40% of SMNs diagnosed in childhood cancer patients occurred in the first 5 years after diagnosis, suggesting a need for early and ongoing surveillance. The early development of certain SMNs reinforces the need for early and continued surveillance at all stages for pediatric cancer patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Previous fractures at multiple sites increase the risk for subsequent fractures: the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women. (United States)

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hooven, Fred H; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Compston, Juliet E; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Lindsay, Robert


    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women aged ≥55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures, respectively, since age 45 years. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no previous fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.3) and hip (HR = 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, and previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture. Women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

  15. The Impact of Prostate Cancer Zonal Origin on Pathological Parameters at Radical Prostatectomy and Subsequent Biochemical Failure. (United States)

    Teloken, Patrick E; Li, Jian; Woods, Clifton G; Cohen, Ronald J


    We assessed the impact of prostatic zone tumor origin on pathological prognostic features and subsequent biochemical outcomes after radical prostatectomy. A total of 7,051 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between September 1998 and December 2016 in Western Australia were divided into a high grade group, defined as Gleason sum 4 + 3, 8 and 9 or greater and ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology) groups 3, 4 and 5, and a low grade group, defined as Gleason sum 6 or less and 3 + 4, and ISUP groups 1 and 2. The t-test and the Pearson chi-square test were used to evaluate differences between transition zone and peripheral/central zone cancer. The Kaplan-Meier method with the log rank test was used to determine differences in biochemical recurrence-free survival at 5 years in patients with high grade disease. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed. Model calibration was determined by the internal validation method. High grade transition zone cancer was associated with significantly increased prostate specific antigen, tumor volume and incidence of positive surgical margins but a lower incidence of intraductal carcinoma, extraprostatic spread, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement and biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Patients with low grade prostate cancer had excellent biochemical recurrence-free survival regardless of tumor origin. The high grade multivariable model had a c-index of 0.78 and improved predictive accuracy, particularly for high grade transition zone disease. Transition zone tumor origin independently and positively impacts biochemical outcomes of high grade prostate cancer. A high grade postoperative prognostic model including transition zone tumor origin as an independent predictor was developed and predictive accuracy was significantly improved in patients with high grade, transition zone disease. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association

  16. The Association Between Serum Biomarkers of Collagen Turnover and Subsequent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture. (United States)

    Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Harvey, Travis M; Tarwater, Patrick M; Brechue, William F; Cameron, Kenneth L


    No study has attempted to associate the levels of preinjury serum biomarkers of collagen turnover with the subsequent risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Preinjury serum biomarkers of collagen turnover would be associated with the subsequent risk of ACL injury. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. We conducted a case-control study with 45 ACL-injured cases and 45 controls matched for sex, age, height, and weight. In addition to the matching criteria, controls had no history of major joint injury. Baseline preinjury serum samples were obtained from the Department of Defense Serum Repository for all subjects. Samples were assessed for 2 serum biomarkers of collagen synthesis (CPII and CS846) and 2 markers of collagen degradation (C1,2C and C2C) through commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. All ELISAs were performed in triplicate. Conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Univariate results suggested that both biomarkers for collagen degradation (C1,2C and C2C) were significantly associated with the subsequent likelihood of ACL injury. Serum C2C and C1,2C concentration at baseline were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 2.05 (95% CI, 1.30-3.23; P = .001) and 3.02 (95% CI, 1.60-5.71; P = .002), respectively. Baseline serum CPII concentrations were also associated with subsequent ACL injury. Serum CPII concentration at baseline was associated with an OR of 4.41 (95% CI, 1.87-10.38; P = .001). Baseline serum CS846 levels approached significance (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57-1.03; P = .080). Multivariable models suggested that preinjury CPII and C2C concentrations at baseline are important indicators of subsequent ACL injury risk. Preinjury differences in serum biomarker levels of collagen turnover suggest that collagen metabolism in individuals who go on to tear an ACL may be different when compared with a matched control group with no history of major joint injury. These differences may be

  17. American Akicita: Indigenous American warriors and military service. (United States)

    McDonald, J Douglas


    Indigenous Americans (i.e., Native/American Indians, AK natives, Pacific Islanders) have consistently volunteered for military service at greater rates than any other ethnic group, including the majority culture, since the early days of the country. This article is an introduction to the special section which includes a number of outstanding papers that provide an innovative and compelling effort to overcome the challenges of casualties from war and render effective and culturally informed care. These manuscripts describe culturally appropriate considerations of suicide (O'Keefe), family involvement and access to care (Whealin), and telehealth for treatment of rural Native veterans (Goss). Challenging and complex treatment needs call for equally mindful and competent approaches. These authors and providers present compelling examples of addressing these needs in working with our Wounded Warriors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Central American Regional Payment System: Reasons for its Failure and Reconversion (1989-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Juan Peñalosa


    Full Text Available This article, entitled “The Central American regional payment system: focusses and its reconversion”, is placed in the context of the recent strengthening of those mechanisms responsible for the reactivation of the Central American process of regional economic integration. With the aim of starting up a Central American regional payment system within the framework of the evolution and development of the regional integration of the Central American isthmus, the member countries of the Central American Common Market asked the European Community for technical assistance regarding its creationand application. After careful study by the EC this petition met with a positive response fitting as it did within the context of the policy of cooperation between the European Union and the countries of the Central American region. This in turn led to the signing of the Central American Payment System Financing Treaty in the Irish capital, Dublin, coinciding as it did with the San Jose VI Conference (9/10 March, 1990 which subsequently enjoyed diplomatic as well as financial and technical support as well as an intense development throughout the latter years of the Nineties.

  19. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understanding Teen Pregnancy with American Indian Communities. (United States)

    Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B


    Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.

  20. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies. (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne


    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.