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Sample records for subsequent adhd symptoms

  1. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  2. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  3. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  4. Cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adulthood. A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult cannabis use and ADHD symptoms at age 25, measures of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability, and adolescent and young adult other drug use. Cannabis use by age 25 was significantly (pADHD symptoms at age 25. Adjustment of the association for potentially confounding factors from childhood and early adolescence reduced the magnitude of the association, but it remained statistically significant (pcannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms to statistical non-significance (p>.20). The current study suggested that the association between cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms was mediated by other substance use that was associated with cannabis use. The results suggest that cannabis use leads to other drug use, which in turn leads to increased ADHD symptoms. However, it should be noted that the potential influence of such factors as genetic predispositions may still be unaccounted for.

  5. Assessing ADHD Symptoms in Preschool Children: Use of the ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Penny L.; Greenson, Jessica N.; Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric and normative properties of the ADHD-Symptoms Rating Scale with preschool children. Results shed light on normative levels of ADHD behaviors and preschool children and suggested that preschoolers may present with a somewhat different symptom pattern than school-age children. Parents were more likely to endorse…

  6. Impact of ADHD symptoms on autism spectrum disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood Epilepsy, Febrile Seizures, and Subsequent Risk of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Elin Næs; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Christensen, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy, febrile seizures, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are disorders of the central nervous system and share common risk factors. Our goal was to examine the association in a nationwide cohort study with prospective follow-up and adjustment for selected confounders. We hypothesized that epilepsy and febrile seizures were associated with subsequent ADHD. A population-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1990 through 2007 was followed up until 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ADHD were estimated by using Cox regression analysis, comparing children with epilepsy and febrile seizure with those without these disorders, adjusted for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, as well as family history of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. A total of 906 379 individuals were followed up for 22 years (∼10 million person-years of observation); 21 079 individuals developed ADHD. Children with epilepsy had a fully adjusted IRR of ADHD of 2.72 (95% CI, 2.53-2.91) compared with children without epilepsy. Similarly, in children with febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20-1.35). In individuals with both epilepsy and febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 3.22 (95% CI, 2.72-3.83). Our findings indicate a strong association between epilepsy in childhood and, to a lesser extent, febrile seizure and subsequent development of ADHD, even after adjusting for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, and family history of epilepsy, febrile seizures, or psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. PDD Symptoms in ADHD, an Independent Familial Trait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J. S.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Minderaa, R. B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Altink, M. E.; Buschgens, C. J. M.; Fliers, E. A.; Rommelse, N. N. J.; Sergeant, J. A.; Hartman, C. A.

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether subtle PDD symptoms in the context of ADHD are transmitted in families independent of ADHD, and whether PDD symptom familiality is influenced by gender and age. The sample consisted of 256 sibling pairs with at least one child with ADHD and 147

  9. PDD Symptoms in ADHD, an Independent Familial Trait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, J. S.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Minderaa, R. B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Altink, M. E.; Buschgens, C. J. M.; Fliers, E. A.; Rommelse, N. N. J.; Sergeant, J. A.; Hartman, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether subtle PDD symptoms in the context of ADHD are transmitted in families independent of ADHD, and whether PDD symptom familiality is influenced by gender and age. The sample consisted of 256 sibling pairs with at least one child with ADHD and 147 healthy controls, aged 5-19 years. Children who…

  10. PDD symptoms in ADHD, an independent familial trait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Altink, M.E.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Fliers, E.A.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Hartman, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether subtle PDD symptoms in the context of ADHD are transmitted in families independent of ADHD, and whether PDD symptom familiality is influenced by gender and age. The sample consisted of 256 sibling pairs with at least one child with ADHD and 147

  11. Anxiety Symptoms and Disorders in College Students With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Sarah R; Bray, Allison C; Anastopoulos, Arthur D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined anxiety symptoms and disorders in college students with ADHD. Forty-six college students with ADHD and a matched group of students without ADHD participated. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety symptoms and associated features, including worry, maladaptive beliefs about worry, panic symptoms, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and self-efficacy. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview to assess lifetime and current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD endorsed more maladaptive beliefs about worry, more obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and poorer self-efficacy compared with comparison participants. There were no group differences in rates of current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD were over 2 times more likely than comparison participants to endorse this lifetime history. College students with ADHD are more likely to have a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder and are at greater risk for some anxiety symptoms and associated features.

  12. PDD symptoms in ADHD, an independent familial trait?

    OpenAIRE

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Altink, M.E.; Buschgens, C.J.; Fliers, E.A.; Rommelse, N.N.; Sergeant, J.A.; Hartman, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether subtle PDD symptoms in the context of ADHD are transmitted in families independent of ADHD, and whether PDD symptom familiality is influenced by gender and age. The sample consisted of 256 sibling pairs with at least one child with ADHD and 147 healthy controls, aged 5-19 years. Children who fulfilled criteria for autistic disorder were excluded. The Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) was used to assess PDD symptoms. Probands, si...

  13. ADHD symptoms and benefit from extended time testing accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Benjamin J; Leja, Ashley M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms, executive functioning problems, and benefit from extended time testing accommodations. College students completed a battery of measures assessing processing speed and reading fluency, reading comprehension (under two different time limits), symptoms of ADHD, executive functioning deficits, and perceptions of need for extended time. Students reporting more symptoms of ADHD and executive functioning deficits actually benefited less from extended time, and students' perceptions of their timing needs did not predict benefit. Students with more ADHD symptoms are less likely to use extended time effectively, possibly because of their associated executive functioning problems. These results suggest there may be little justification for examining a student's ADHD symptoms when making extended time accommodation decisions. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  14. Symptom Dimensions and Neurocognitive Functioning in Adult ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Andrew Timothy

    2000-01-01

    Ongoing controversies regarding the clinical and nosological status of ADHD in adults emphasize the need for studies examining whether DSM-IV ADHD symptom dimensions and subtypes identified in research with children are valid for adults. Firm symptom criteria validated by data from adult samples have not been developed. Moreover, many clinic-referred adults present with attentional complaints and exhibit symptoms, neurocognitive weaknesses, and secondary problems similar to those seen in A...

  15. Childhood and persistent ADHD symptoms associated with educational failure and long-term occupational disability in adult ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A.; Martinsen, Egil W.; Klungsoyr, Ole; Faraone, Stephen V.; Peleikis, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high sc...

  16. The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this…

  17. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  18. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  19. Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Martel, Michelle M

    2018-02-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows (ADHD) male predominance, females are significantly impaired and exhibit additional comorbid disorders during adolescence. However, no empirical work has examined the influence of cyclical fluctuating steroids on ADHD symptoms in women. The present study examined estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) associations with ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle in regularly-cycling young women (N=32), examining trait impulsivity as a moderator. Women completed a baseline measure of trait impulsivity, provided saliva samples each morning, and completed an ADHD symptom checklist every evening for 35days. Results indicated decreased levels of E2 in the context of increased levels of either P4 or T was associated with higher ADHD symptoms on the following day, particularly for those with high trait impulsivity. Phase analyses suggested both an early follicular and early luteal, or post-ovulatory, increase in ADHD symptoms. Therefore, ADHD symptoms may change across the menstrual cycle in response to endogenous steroid changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Symptom variations in ADHD: importance of context, development and comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Wohl, M; Michel, G; Mouren, M C; Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children and is associated with significant impairment in social and academic functioning. Its recognition is based on congruent information from different sources, because most ADHD children and adolescents are not completely aware of impairments caused by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fluctuations in symptom expression may complicate the diagnosis: during clinical examination or tests sessions, ADHD symptoms may be less severe than usual or completely absent. This review examines variations in ADHD symptoms due to environmental context, internal state, circadian factors, development, psychiatric comorbidity and discusses their clinical relevance. Generally, ADHD symptoms are pervasive and identified in different areas of functioning. Despite their chronicity, they show a relative context-dependency. An unfamiliar environment or situation may lessen symptoms. The same happens in dual relations or in calm settings, when the child receives attention and positive reinforcement from the adult. On the contrary, the classroom situation with its high stimulation level (noise, visual distractors, large class size) is likely to reveal or accentuate instability, impulsivity and inattention. Independently from objective symptom fluctuations, the impact of ADHD symptoms, and their consequences on self-esteem may also vary with the degree of environmental mismatch. Recent research in experimental psychology also draws attention to the motivational state of ADHD children: preference for immediate gratification and delay aversion may explain why most of them show satisfactory attentional capacities in certain activities (for instance video games or TV), while showing impairment in school work or in other effortful tasks. The diagnosis of the full ADHD syndrome requires significant impact on functioning in at least two areas. Some children with "situational" ADHD are impaired either in

  1. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  2. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Epilepsy and Primary ADHD: Differences in Symptom Dimensions and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Okuyaz, Çetin; Erdoğan, Semra; Gunes, Serkan; Ekinci, Nuran; Kalınlı, Merve; Teke, Halenur; Direk, Meltem Çobanoğulları

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to (1) compare quality of life (QOL) among children with epilepsy, epilepsy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and primary ADHD and (2) compare ADHD symptom dimensions and subtypes between children with epilepsy-ADHD and primary ADHD. A total of 140 children; 53 with epilepsy, 35 with epilepsy-ADHD, and 52 with primary ADHD were included. KINDL-R (quality of life measure), Turgay DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), and Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were completed. Neurology clinic charts were reviewed for epilepsy-related variables. Children with epilepsy-ADHD had the lowest (poorest) KINDL-R total scores. Epilepsy-ADHD group had more inattentiveness symptoms, whereas primary ADHD group had more hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. The frequencies of ADHD combined and inattentiveness subtypes were 60% and 40% in children with epilepsy-ADHD and 80.7% and 19.3% in children with primary ADHD, respectively ( P = .034). ADHD in epilepsy is associated with a significantly poor quality of life and predominantly inattentiveness symptoms.

  3. Prediction of childhood ADHD symptoms to quality of life in young adults: adult ADHD and anxiety/depression as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Nien; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-10-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may persist, co-occur with anxiety and depression (ANX/DEP), and influence quality of life (QoL) in later life. However, the information about whether these persistent ADHD and ANX/DEP mediate the influence of childhood ADHD on adverse QoL in adulthood is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether adult ADHD symptoms and/or ANX/DEP mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL. We assessed 1382 young men aged 19-30 years in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires for retrospective recall of ADHD symptoms at ages 6-12, and assessment of current ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms, and QoL. We conducted mediation analyses and compared the values of mediation ratio (PM) by adding mediators (adult ADHD and ANX/DEP), individually and simultaneously into a regression model with childhood ADHD as an independent variable and QoL as a dependent variable. Our results showed that both adult ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms significantly mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL (PM=0.71 for ANX/DEP, PM=0.78 for adult ADHD symptoms, and PM=0.91 for both). The significance of negative correlations between childhood ADHD and four domains of adult QoL disappeared after adding these two mediators in the model. Our findings suggested that the strong relationship between childhood ADHD and adult life quality can be explained by the presence of persistent ADHD symptoms and co-occurring ANX/DEP. These two mediators are recommended to be included in the assessment and intervention for ADHD to offset the potential adverse life quality outcome in ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms: differential symptom functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-08-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N=571) and Chinese (N=254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation modeling procedure. Although DSF was found for a single inattention (IA) symptom and three hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms, all these differences had low effect sizes. Controlling for these DSF, Chinese children had higher IA and HI latent factor scores. However the effect sizes were small. Together, these findings suggest adequate support for invariance of the ADHD symptoms across these ethno-cultural groups. The implications of the findings for cross-cultural invariance of the ADHD symptoms are discussed.

  5. Childhood and persistent ADHD symptoms associated with educational failure and long-term occupational disability in adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A; Martinsen, Egil W; Klungsoyr, Ole; Faraone, Stephen V; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high school dropout and being out of the work last year. Childhood ADHD symptoms, sex differences, comorbidities of other mental disorders, and adult ADHD symptoms were examined by historical data, clinician interviews, and questionnaires. High levels of ADHD symptom severity in childhood were related to dropping out of high school [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0], as were higher numbers of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in childhood. Significantly, more women than men were long-term work disabled (OR = 2.0). After adjusting for age and gender, persisting high levels of ADHD inattention symptoms in adulthood (OR = 2.5), number of comorbid disorders, and particularly anxiety disorders were significantly related to long-term work disability. Childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and overall severity of childhood ADHD symptoms were associated with high school dropout rates; however, persisting ADHD inattention symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in adulthood were more correlated to occupational impairment. These findings underline proposals for studies on early recognition and interventions for ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity. They further suggest that inattentive symptoms be a focus of adult ADHD treatment and that workplace interventions be considered to prevent long-term work disability.

  6. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2017-08-01

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  7. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cognitive skills of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidis, L; Choleva, A; Janikian, M; Bertou, G; Tsitsika, A; Giannakopoulos, G; Anagnostopoulos, D C

    2017-01-01

    particularly among boys, while organizational skills were the most affected domain in both sexes, and possibly more among girls. Concluding, the present study confirms that even during preschool years, children with ADHD symptoms are more likely to present with concomitant cognitive difficulties. Thus, screening for the presence of ADHD, as well as cognitive and affective screenings among preschool aged children may facilitate the early detection and determent of the development of cognitive difficulties, and subsequently the early intervention for fostering skills that are amenable to change, such as organizational skills and planning. As a result, the study findings reveal the necessity for the evaluation of pre-academic skills among preschool children with ADHD symptoms in order to mitigate unfavorable academic functioning.

  8. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  9. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  10. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diagnosis of ADHD depends on manifestation of symptoms in at least two different settings. This therefore emphasizes the importance of multiple informants, parents and teachers. However perception could differ because of differences and inconsistencies across different settings. This is particularly important ...

  11. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  12. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...

  13. Activation of Brain Attention Systems in Individuals with Symptoms of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dennis Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research investigating attention and impulse control in individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD has largely ignored the symptomatic differences among the three subtypes of ADHD: ADHD-Inattentive Type, ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive Type, and ADHD-Combined Type. The present study examined attention and impulse control by focusing on these subtypes. Based on their self-reported symptoms of ADHD, participants belonged to one of four groups: ADHD-Inattentive, ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive, ADHD-Combined, and control. Cortical activity was recorded from participants during performance of a Go/NoGo task. The event-related potentials (ERP measured at frontal and posterior sites discriminated between the control group and participants with symptoms of ADHD. The control group consistently exhibited a higher P3 amplitude than all the ADHD groups. The main difference occurred at the frontal site, indicating that individuals with ADHD symptoms have deficits in the anterior attentional system, which mediates signal detection. Behavioral measures of signal sensitivity revealed that the ADHD-Inattentive and the ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive groups had more difficulty with the attention-demanding Go/NoGo respond-to-target task, while behavioral measures of response bias indicated that the ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive and the ADHD-Combined groups responded more liberally in the inhibition-demanding Go/NoGo suppress-to-target task.

  14. The Relationship Between Life Satisfaction and ADHD Symptoms in Middle School Students: Using a Bifactor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Julia A; Bateman, Lisa; Dedrick, Robert F; Suldo, Shannon M

    2016-05-01

    ADHD is associated with increased academic and social difficulties and comorbid psychopathology which may lead to decreased life satisfaction (LS). The current study utilized a bifactor model of ADHD consisting of a general factor and two specific factors (inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity) to determine if ADHD symptoms place middle school students (n= 183) at risk for diminished LS and if this relationship differed depending on whether teachers versus students reported ADHD symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the bifactor model provided very good fit to the ADHD symptoms reported by students (comparative fit index [CFI] = .995; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .028) and teachers (CFI = .997; RMSEA = .043). Results also demonstrated that when students rated ADHD symptoms, the general ADHD factor and inattention were negatively related to LS; however, when teachers rated ADHD symptoms, only inattention was negatively related to LS. Implications and future directions related to these results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  16. Living with symptoms of Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people...

  17. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  18. The Reciprocal Relationship of ASD, ADHD, Depressive Symptoms and Stress in Parents of Children with ASD and/or ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parental Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depressive symptoms on parenting stress in 174 families with children with ASD and/or ADHD, using generalized linear models and structural equation models. Fathers and mothers reported more stress when parenting with…

  19. The reciprocal relationship of ASD, ADHD, depressive symptoms and stress in parents of children with ASD and/or ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Oerlemans, A.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parental Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depressive symptoms on parenting stress in 174 families with children with ASD and/or ADHD, using generalized linear models and structural equation models. Fathers and

  20. The Reciprocal Relationship of ASD, ADHD, Depressive Symptoms and Stress in Parents of Children with ASD and/or ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    This study investigated the role of parental Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depressive symptoms on parenting stress in 174 families with children with ASD and/or ADHD, using generalized linear models and structural equation models. Fathers and

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability and Validity of Self- and Other-Ratings of Symptoms of ADHD in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined concordance between raters of ADHD symptoms in adults; there is less information on how well rating scales function in distinguishing adult ADHD from other disorders. This study examined these variables using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Method: The sample included 349 adults evaluated for…

  4. Reaction Time Variability in Children With ADHD Symptoms and/or Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) variability on a Stop Signal task was examined among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and/or dyslexia in comparison to typically developing (TD) controls. Children’s go-trial RTs were analyzed using a novel ex-Gaussian method. Children with ADHD symptoms had increased variability in the fast but not the slow portions of their RT distributions compared to those without ADHD symptoms. The RT distributions of children with d...

  5. Exploring help-seeking for ADHD symptoms: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka E; Gary, Faye; Mason, Dana M; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2005-01-01

    Gender and race differences in treatment rates for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented but poorly understood. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examines parental help-seeking steps for elementary school students at high risk for ADHD. Parents of 259 students (male/female, African American/Caucasian) identified as being at high risk for ADHD completed diagnostic interviews and provided detailed accounts of help-seeking activities since they first became concerned about their child. Help-seeking steps (n=1,590) were analyzed using two methods: inductive analysis based on grounded theory, and deductive quantitative analysis of coded data derived from application of the network-episode model, merged subsequently with demographic and other characteristics. The inductive analysis revealed unique parental perceptions of their children's sick role and of the agents of identification and intervention for each of the four groups. Deductive analysis showed significant variations by race and gender in consultation experiences, in the person or entity being consulted and in the transactions occurring in the consultation, and in illness careers. ADHD symptoms are interpreted as having different implications for the sick role and the intervention, dependent on a child's gender and race. Educational interventions need to address cultural stereotypes contributing to inequitable access to treatment.

  6. DSM-5 changes enhance parent identification of symptoms in adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B

    2016-08-30

    This study evaluates the impact of the DSM-5 ADHD symptom wording changes on symptom endorsement among adolescents with ADHD. Parents of adolescents with systematically diagnosed DSM-IV-TR ADHD (N=78) completed counterbalanced DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 ADHD symptom checklists in a single sitting. General linear models were conducted to evaluate whether the new DSM-5 symptom descriptors influenced the total number of ADHD symptoms and overall ADHD symptom severity endorsed by parents, how demographic factors were associated with noted changes in symptom endorsement when moving to the DSM-5, and which DSM ADHD items displayed notable changes in endorsement rates under the new wording. On average, parents identified 1.15 additional symptoms of ADHD in adolescents when moving from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-5. Increased symptom identification was not specific to age, sex, ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic status. Over half of the sample experienced increased symptom endorsement when changing texts (59.0%). Under the new DSM-5 wording, four symptoms had statistically significant endorsement increases (range: 11.2-16.7%): difficulty sustaining attention, easily distracted, difficulty organizing tasks and activities, and does not seem to listen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  8. Atypical sensory profiles as core features of adult ADHD, irrespective of autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, D; Tjon-Ka-Jie, J Y M; Schuijers, F; Kooij, J J S

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal sensory sensitivity is a feature of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but is also reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In many cases, ADHD and ASD are comorbid. This study investigated the prevalence of sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity among adults with ADHD, controlling for autistic symptoms. One hundred and sixteen adults diagnosed with ADHD completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile-NL (AASP-NL) and the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaires. Prevalences of hyper- and hyposensitivity and autism-spectrum symptoms were compared to norm values. Multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to determine the association of autistic symptoms, age, gender, ADHD subtype, self-reported severity of ADHD symptoms, comorbid disorders, and use of medication on the sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity in adults with ADHD. Adults with ADHD had more autistic symptoms, and they had both more hyper- and hyposensitivity compared to norm groups. This was especially apparent in the Activity level and Auditory sensory modalities. Sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity were both related to an increased ADHD score, even showing a dose-response relationship, but not to any autistic symptom or comorbid disorder. As much as 43% of the females with ADHD reported sensory hypo- and/or hypersensitivity, compared to 22% of the men. Sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity may be viewed as key features of adult ADHD, especially in females, regardless of any autistic symptoms. Future research should be directed at the implications of this sensory dysregulation for the understanding of the pathophysiology of (female) ADHD, and on the usefulness of assessment of atypical sensory profiles in the diagnostic procedure of ADHD in adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  10. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Rommel

    Full Text Available While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms in Children Attending School in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba

    2016-09-02

    To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

    2013-06-01

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Paternal ADHD Symptoms and Child Conduct Problems: Is Father Involvement Always Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romirowsky, Abigail Mintz; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Results Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. Conclusions The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems. PMID:25250402

  14. Paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems: is father involvement always beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romirowsky, A M; Chronis-Tuscano, A

    2014-09-01

    Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems.

  15. Language Delay in 3-Year-Old Children With ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Zeiner, Pål; Eadie, Patricia; Egeland, Jens; Gustavson, Kristin; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about cognition in preschoolers with ADHD and language delay (LD). The objective was to investigate cognitive functions in preschoolers with ADHD symptoms and LD compared with children with ADHD symptoms only and to estimate the frequency of children with ADHD symptoms, co-occurring language delay, and delays on cognitive measures. Participants were recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The teacher report of expressive language and the cognitive tests from 119 3-year-old children with parent reported ADHD symptoms and LD were compared with those of 258 children with ADHD symptoms only. The ADHD + LD group performed significantly worse than the ADHD group on most language-related measures. There were no differences between the groups on most nonverbal measures. Single measures had a limited potential of differentiating between the groups. ADHD symptoms and co-occurring LD in preschoolers were characterized by cognitive deficits associated with both disorders, not with global neurodevelopmental delay. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. One-year abstinence improves ADHD symptoms among patients with polysubstance use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Hagen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common comorbid disorder in patients suffering from substance use disorder (SUD. Individuals with co-occurring SUD and ADHD are more likely than SUD patients without ADHD to have developed SUD at a younger age, be polysubstance users, and need inpatient treatment more often. The present study investigates whether individuals with polysubstance use disorder who remain abstinent for a year after entering treatment have a more substantial reduction in ADHD symptoms than those who relapsed and controls. Material and methods: Subjects were SUD patients (N=115 and healthy controls (N=34. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS. Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT. Participants were defined as having relapsed if they had an AUDIT score≥8 or a DUDIT score≥2 for women and≥6 for men. Results: Patients who remained abstinent for one year reported a substantial reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to patients who relapsed and controls. Conclusions: Abstinence alleviates ADHD symptoms among patients with polysubstance use disorder. We suggest that confirmation of an ADHD diagnosis should follow a period of abstinence to avoid identification of false-positive cases. Keywords: Polysubstance, Recovery, ADHD, Substance use disorder

  17. The Association of ADHD Symptoms and Reading Acquisition during Elementary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Kerner auch Koerner, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the influence of ADHD symptoms on reading development in elementary schoolchildren. To this end, repeated assessments of ADHD symptoms (teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and reading achievement (standardized tests of decoding speed and text comprehension) were…

  18. Core ADHD Symptom Improvement with Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Dickson, Ruth; Walton, Richard J.; Granger, Renee E.; van Wyk, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies comparing atomoxetine and methylphenidate to treat ADHD symptoms have been equivocal. This noninferiority meta-analysis compared core ADHD symptom response between atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children and adolescents. Method: Selection criteria included randomized, controlled design; duration 6 weeks; and…

  19. A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, B.Y.; Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Positivity & Rules Program (PR program), a behavioral teacher program targeting ADHD symptoms in the classroom involving both student-focused and classroom-focused programs. Method: Primary school children with ADHD symptoms (N = 114) were

  20. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  1. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  2. Evaluation of the CAARS Infrequency Index for the Detection of Noncredible ADHD Symptom Report in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on self-reports in detecting noncredible symptom report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood (aADHD) has been questioned due to findings showing that symptoms can easily be feigned on self-report scales. In response, Suhr and colleagues developed an infrequency index for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CII)…

  3. The severity of ADHD and eating disorder symptoms: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stulz Niklaus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD and eating disorders (ED share several clinical features. Research on the association between ADHD and ED is still quite sparse and findings are ambiguous. Methods Correlations between the severity of ADHD key features (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Self-Rating questionnaire and the severity of specific ED symptoms (Structured Interview for Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa were examined in 32 female patients diagnosed with ED. Results Most correlations between the severity of ADHD features and the severity of ED symptoms were low (r Conclusions The findings in this small sample suggest a weak link between the severity of ADHD key features and the severity of single ED symptoms in female patients with ED. The role of ADHD features for the development, maintenance, and treatment of EDs seems to be intricate and requires further study.

  4. Does IQ influence associations between ADHD symptoms and other cognitive functions in young preschoolers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Zeiner, Pål; Egeland, Jens; Gustavson, Kristin; Skogan, Annette Holth; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi

    2014-05-01

    Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low.

  5. Distinct effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward anticipation in participants with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Eelco V; von Rhein, Daniel; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are continuously distributed throughout the population, and ASD symptoms are also frequently observed in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both ASD and ADHD have been linked to alterations in reward-related neural processing. However, whether both symptom domains interact and/or have distinct effects on reward processing in healthy and ADHD populations is currently unknown. We examined how variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms in individuals with ADHD and healthy participants was related to the behavioural and neural response to reward during a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Participants (mean age: 17.7 years, range: 10-28 years) from the NeuroIMAGE study with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD (n = 136), their unaffected siblings (n = 83), as well as healthy controls (n = 105) performed an MID task in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. ASD and ADHD symptom scores were used as predictors of the neural response to reward anticipation and reward receipt. Behavioural responses were modeled using linear mixed models; neural responses were analysed using FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) proprietary mixed effects analysis (FLAMEO). ASD and ADHD symptoms were associated with alterations in BOLD activity during reward anticipation, but not reward receipt. Specifically, ASD scores were related to increased insular activity during reward anticipation across the sample. No interaction was found between this effect and the presence of ADHD, suggesting that ASD symptoms had no differential effect in ADHD and healthy populations. ADHD symptom scores were associated with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activity during reward anticipation. No interactions were found between the effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward processing. Variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms separately influence neural processing during reward anticipation in both individuals with (an increased risk of) ADHD and healthy

  6. Effect of Adenotonsillectomy on ADHD Symptoms of Children with Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Dadgarnia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep disordered breathing can lead to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of adenotonsillectomy on improvement of ADHD symptoms in a quasi-experimental (before and after study. The efficacy of adenotonsillectomy on improvement of ADHD symptoms of 35 children aged 5-12 years with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and ADHD was evaluated six months after surgery. Diagnosis of ADHD was based on the DSM-IV criteria in three subtypes (predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type and combined type. Seventeen boys (49% and eighteen girls (51% with mean (± SD age of 7.4 ± 3.8 years (range: 1-10 years were evaluated. Frequency of combined type of ADHD decreased significantly six months after adenotonsillectomy (54.3% versus 22.9%, P=0.003. ADHD inattention score (2.26 ± 1.93 versus 0.96 ± 0.45, P=0.005, hyperactivity score (4.23 ±3.57 versus 3.57 ±8, P=0.03 as well as ADHD combined score (9.66 ±2.58 versus 7.2 ±3.67, P=0.0001 improved significantly after surgery. Upper air way obstruction due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy might be an important and treatable cause of ADHD and should be considered in evaluation of affected children. Adenotonsillectomy in these children is associated with improvements in ADHD symptoms.

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Cross-sectional survey. Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for ADHD symptoms in these patients warrants further evaluation in longitudinal intervention studies. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. ADHD symptoms and academic adjustment to college: the role of parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heather A; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Hubbard, Rebecca R

    2015-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine relationships among parenting style, symptoms of ADHD, and academic adjustment in college students. Specifically, we investigated whether parenting style may act as a buffer in the negative relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic adjustment. Participants were 200 undergraduate students attending a large public university. Questionnaires measuring their ADHD symptoms, parent's parenting style, and academic adjustment were completed. Results indicated small but significant moderation effects for authoritarian parenting and authoritative parenting on the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic adjustment. Although research has revealed that different parenting styles may relate to different outcomes in children with ADHD, for young adults, the effects of parenting on academic adjustment may be diluted. Future research should investigate variables that may be more salient predictors of functional outcomes for this population, such as organizational skills. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  9. Bulimia nervosa symptoms in the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Abikoff, Howard B

    2010-04-01

    We investigated body image dissatisfaction and bingeing/purging characteristics of bulimia nervosa (BN) in the ongoing prospective follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 337 boys and 95 girls with ADHD and 211 boys and 53 girls forming a local normative comparison group (LNCG), reassessed in midadolescence (mean age, 16.4), 8 years after original recruitment. Youth with childhood ADHD showed more BN symptoms in midadolescence than did LNCG youth, and girls demonstrated more BN symptoms than did boys, with effect sizes between small and medium. Childhood impulsivity, as opposed to hyperactivity or inattention, best predicted adolescent BN symptoms, particularly for girls. Among youth with ADHD, treatment received during the follow-up period was not associated with BN pathology. Both boys and girls with ADHD may be at risk for BN symptoms in adolescence because of the impulsivity central to both disorders.

  10. Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Instruments for Self-Report and Informant Report Concerning Symptoms of ADHD in Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…

  11. Reliability, validity, and utility of instruments for self-report and informant report concerning symptoms of ADHD in adult patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.J.S.; Boonstra, A.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Bekker, E.M.; Noord, I. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. METHOD: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales

  12. ADHD symptoms and maturity - a follow-up study in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, P; Holmström, E; Besjakov, J; Karlsson, M K

    2010-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is a subgroup of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who show a decline in ADHD-symptoms that is associated with signs of biological maturation, a phenomenon referred to as a 'maturation catch-up'. The parents of 147 children who were given an examination in grades one and two 1999-2000 that included assessment of ADHD-symptoms and estimation of skeletal bone-age by use of hand radiographs (which was repeated in the eighth grade), were contacted 2008-2009 and were asked to answer questions concerning ADHD-symptoms and behavioural maturity in their children. The response frequency was 67%. A complete dataset was achieved in 57 children. A reduction of Conners scores for ADHD-symptoms of eight or more between the evaluations was defined as a marked reduction in symptoms. When the children with a marked symptom reduction (n = 6) were compared with children without such a reduction (n = 51), we found a significant difference in skeletal maturation (p theory that there is a group of children with ADHD-symptoms who have a biological maturational-lag who will show a decrease in their ADHD-symptoms as they show a maturation catch-up with increasing age. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. Symptom and performance validity with veterans assessed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shura, Robert D; Denning, John H; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans. Practice standards recommend the use of both symptom and performance validity measures in any assessment, and there are salient external incentives associated with ADHD evaluation (stimulant medication access and academic accommodations). The purpose of this study was to evaluate symptom and performance validity measures in a clinical sample of veterans presenting for specialty ADHD evaluation. Patients without a history of a neurocognitive disorder and for whom data were available on all measures (n = 114) completed a clinical interview structured on DSM-5 ADHD symptoms, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 (TOMM1) as part of a standardized ADHD diagnostic evaluation. Veterans meeting criteria for ADHD were not more likely to overreport symptoms on the MMPI-2-RF nor to fail TOMM1 (score ≤ 41) compared with those who did not meet criteria. Those who overreported symptoms did not endorse significantly more ADHD symptoms; however, those who failed TOMM1 did report significantly more ADHD symptoms (g = 0.90). In the total sample, 19.3% failed TOMM1, 44.7% overreported on the MMPI-2-RF, and 8.8% produced both an overreported MMPI-2-RF and invalid TOMM1. F-r had the highest correlation to TOMM1 scores (r = -.30). These results underscore the importance of assessing both symptom and performance validity in a clinical ADHD evaluation with veterans. In contrast to certain other conditions (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury), ADHD as a diagnosis is not related to higher rates of invalid report/performance in veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD What's in this article? ... With ADHD? Print en español TDAH What Is ADHD? Everyone has trouble at times with paying attention, ...

  15. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  16. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescent...

  17. Validation of the Expanded Versions of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 Symptom Checklist and the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.

  18. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom.

  19. Gender Differences in Consequences of ADHD Symptoms in a Community-Based Organization for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulano, Michael L.; Fite, Paula J.; Wimsatt, Amber R.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Hatmaker, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been linked to disruptive behavior and disciplinary consequences; however, the variables involved in this process are largely unknown. The current study examined rule-breaking behavior as a mediator of the relation between ADHD symptoms and disciplinary actions 1 year later during after-school…

  20. Self-reported ADHD symptoms and interhemispheric interaction in adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N =112) completed Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales

  1. Parent-Child Hostility and Child ADHD Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive and Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report higher rates of conflict within the family and more negative parent-child relationships. This study aimed to test whether negative parent-child relationships have a risk effect on ADHD symptoms using two complementary designs. Method: The first sample…

  2. ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

  3. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  4. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…

  5. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  6. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  7. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  8. Factor structure of symptom dimensions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Elyse M; Mayfield, Abigail R; Barchard, Kimberly A; Thaler, Nicholas S; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    There is disagreement on whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are best characterized along two dimensions consisting of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity or three dimensions where hyperactivity and impulsivity are separate. To address this, the current study investigated the underlying symptom dimensions of ADHD by examining two- and three-factor models of ADHD symptom ratings in 400 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptom ratings for each of the 18 DSM-IV Criteria A symptoms were obtained from mothers using a standardized symptom rating scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine whether the 18 symptoms were best explained by two or three latent constructs. Results of the CFA demonstrated that a three-factor model was superior to a two-factor model. Findings support three distinct symptom dimensions that are consistent with previous research demonstrating unique clinical presentations of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Differentiating between these three domains may aid in predicting behavioral outcomes in children with ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Differentiating SCT and inattentive symptoms in ADHD using fMRI measures of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Catherine; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with different impairment profiles in the symptom domains of hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattention. An additional symptom domain of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been proposed. Although there is a degree of correlation between the SCT symptom domain and inattention, it has been proposed as a distinct disorder independent of ADHD. The objective of this study was to examine the neural substrates of cue-related preparatory processes associated with SCT symptoms versus inattentive symptoms in a group of adolescents with ADHD. We also compared cue-related effects in the entire ADHD group compared with a group of typically developing (TD) peers. A modified cued flanker paradigm and fMRI examined brain activity associated with attention preparation and motor response preparation. Between group contrasts between the ADHD and TD group revealed significant hypoactivity in the ADHD group during general attention preparation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) during response preparation. In the ADHD group, greater numbers of SCT symptoms were associated with hypoactivity in the left SPL to cues in general whereas greater numbers of inattentive symptoms were associated with greater activity in the SMA to cues that provided no information and less activity in the thalamus during response preparation. Hypoactivity in the SPL with increasing SCT symptoms may be associated with impaired reorienting or shifting of attention. Altered activity in the SMA and thalamus with increasing inattention may be associated with a general problem with response preparation, which may also reflect inefficient processing of the response preparation cue. Our results support a degree of differentiation between SCT and inattentive symptom profiles within adolescents with ADHD.

  10. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among adult eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedlund, Nils Erik; Norring, Claes; Ginsberg, Ylva; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne

    2017-01-17

    Very little is known about the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder and even less in other eating disorders. This knowledge gap is of clinical importance since stimulant treatment is proven effective in Binge Eating Disorder and discussed as a treatment possibility for Bulimia Nervosa. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and types of self-reported ADHD symptoms in an unselected group of eating disorder patients assessed in a specialized eating disorder clinic. In total 1165 adults with an eating disorder were assessed with a battery of standardized instruments, for measuring inter alia ADHD screening, demographic variables, eating disorder symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity. Chi-square tests were used for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables. Almost one third (31.3 %) of the patients scored above the screening cut off indicating a possible ADHD. The highest prevalence rates (35-37 %) were found in Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa bingeing/purging subtype, while Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified type 1-4 and Binge Eating Disorder patients reported slightly below average (26-31 %), and Anorexia Nervosa restricting subtype patients even lower (18 %). Presence of binge eating, purging, loss of control over eating and non-anorectic BMI were related to results indicating a possible ADHD. Psychiatric comorbidity correlated to ADHD symptoms without explaining the differences between eating disorder diagnoses. There is a high frequency of ADHD symptoms in patients with binge eating/purging eating disorders that motivates further studies, particularly concerning the effects of ADHD medication. The finding that the frequency of ADHD symptoms in anorexia nervosa with binge eating/purging is as high as in bulimia nervosa highlights the need also for this group.

  12. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-Ju Tsai; Shu-Tsen Liu; Chi-Mei Lee; Wang-Tso Lee; Pi-Chuan Fan; Wei-Sheng Lin; Yen-Nan Chiu; Susan Shur-Fen Gau

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...

  13. How Do Trait Dimensions Map onto ADHD Symptom Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.; von Eye, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) implicate dysfunctional regulation mechanisms that have been conceptually grouped into "top-down" control and "bottom-up" affective/reactive processes. This dual-process account can be invoked in relation to temperament or personality traits and may clarify how traits relate to ADHD. Two…

  14. [ADHD symptoms as risk factors for dysfunctional eating habits in adolescents: results from a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Paola; Prunas, Antonio; Dazzi, Sergio; Madeddu, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood and early-adolescence and the development of dysfunctional eating habits later in life. The sample under investigation is composed of 217 adolescents (males: 30.9%; mean age: 17.1 ± 0.88 ys; range: 16-19 ys) voluntarily recruited in the city of Parma (Northern Italy) in the context of a longitudinal research project focused on developmental factors of antisocial behaviour. All subjects were assessed at T1 (mean age: 12 ys) and at T2 (mean age: 14 ys) using a structured clinical interview to collect information on ADHD symptoms on a lifetime basis and, at T3 (mean age: 17 ys), they were administered an interview to assess pathological eating habits. Correlation and regression analyses were carried out between scores of the three symptom domains of ADHD and eating habits as assessed at T3. Results suggest that the association between ADHD symptoms and eating habits show differences according to gender, in that in females ADHD symptoms assessed at T2 are associated with compensatory behaviours, while in males they are predictive of overweight as assessed at T3. ADHD symptoms, although under threshold, may lead to chaotic and unorganized eating habits which might put female at risk for compensatory behaviours and males for overweight.

  15. Family Structure and Subsequent Anxiety Symptoms; Minorities’ Diminished Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return (MDR theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP may have a smaller effect on health and well-being of members of the minority than the majority groups. Aim: Built on the MDR theory, this study compared Whites and African Americans for the effects of three family SEP indicators (family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence on subsequent symptoms of anxiety 18 years later during young adulthood. Methods: Flint Adolescents Study (FAS, 1994–2012, followed 359 youth (ages 13 to 17, 295 African American and 64 Whites for 18 years. The independent variables were family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence. The dependent variable was subsequent symptoms of anxiety, measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, 18 years later. Age and gender were the covariates and race/ethnicity was the focal effect modifier (moderator. Four linear regression models were estimated to investigate the effects of the three family SEP indicators at age 15 on subsequent symptoms of anxiety at age 33 in the pooled sample and also by race/ethnicity. Results: In the pooled sample, having married parents at age 15 was inversely associated with symptoms of anxiety at age 33. We found an interaction between race/ethnicity and family type, indicating a smaller protective effect of having married parents against symptoms of anxiety for African American compared to White participants. The other two SEP indicators did not show any effect and did not interact with race/ethnicity on the outcome. Conclusion: In support of the MDR theory, marital status of parents during adolescence protects White but not African American young adults against anxiety symptoms. Diminished return of SEP is one of many underlying mechanisms involved in shaping racial and ethnic disparities in anxiety, however, that is often overlooked. Future research that examines economic and social

  16. Stress, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and tobacco smoking: The i-Share study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, C; Salla, J; Montagni, I; Hanne-Poujade, S; Salamon, R; Grondin, O; Guichard, E; Bouvard, M P; Tzourio, C; Michel, G

    2017-09-01

    The contribution of mental health to the risk of smoking is increasingly acknowledged but still insufficiently studied during the key period of student life. In particular, the simultaneous action of stress and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the risk of smoking remains poorly understood. To assess the effects of stress and ADHD symptoms on tobacco smoking. Multivariate modeling was conducted on the French i-Share study (n=8110, median age 20.3 years, 74.8% females, 32.9% regular/occasional smokers) to evaluate the associations between stress, ADHD symptoms and tobacco smoking, adjusting for potential family/socio-demographic confounders. Students with high levels of stress were more likely to smoke>10 cigarettes/day (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-1.96) than those with low levels of stress. Students with high levels of ADHD symptoms were more likely to smoke>10 cigarettes/day (aOR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.58-2.75) than those with low levels of ADHD symptoms. Stress and ADHD contribute independently to the risk of smoking. Interventions targeting each condition are likely to reduce the burden of tobacco use in students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Psychometric analysis of the new ADHD DSM-V derived symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2012-03-20

    Following the agreements on the reformulating and revising of ADHD diagnostic criteria, recently, the proposed revision for ADHD added 4 new symptoms to the hyperactivity and Impulsivity aspect in DSM-V. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the proposed ADHD diagnostic criteria. ADHD diagnosis was made according to DSM-IV. The parents completed the screening test of ADHD checklist of Child Symptom Inventory-4 and the 4 items describing the new proposed symptoms in DSM-V. The confirmatory factor analysis of the ADHD DSM-V derived items supports the loading of two factors including inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. There is a sufficient reliability for the items. However, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model is better fitted than the two-factor one. Moreover, the results of the exploratory analysis raised some concerns about the factor loading of the four new items. The current results support the two-factor model of the DSM-V ADHD diagnostic criteria including inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, the four new items can be considered as a third factor.

  18. Tic Symptoms Induced by Atomoxetine in Treatment of ADHD: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongwang; Li, Rong; Gao, Weijia; Zhao, Zhengyan

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for tic disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX) has been accepted as an alternative medication for patients with ADHD and a comorbid tic disorder. It is rarely reported that tic symptoms are induced by ATX. This present report described a boy with ADHD who developed tic symptoms during ATX initiation. We used an ABAB trial to confirm the tics were related to ATX administration. In addition, we reviewed the published literature of patients whose tic symptoms were confirmed or suspected of relating to ATX usage. This present case with an ABAB design showed on-off control of tics with or without ATX, which allowed us to make a strong conclusion that the tics were related to ATX administration. Literature review also indicated that ATX might induce tic symptoms in children with ADHD, especially in those being boys and having a history of tics. The time from starting ATX to tics symptoms appearing was approximately 19 days. The most common tic symptoms were eye blinking, vocal tics, or throat clearing, and neck movements. These tics symptoms in most cases could be resolved after discontinuing ATX without further pharmacotherapy. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists should be well aware of this potential adverse effect in children with ADHD receiving ATX.

  19. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  20. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... Early identification and early intervention for children with this condition is of ... level and the school and home versions of the ADHD .... Parents assessment of health of marriage. Very poor .... strategies & counseling tips for.

  1. Shared genetic influences between dimensional ASD and ADHD symptoms during child and adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Davey Smith, George; Martin, Joanna; Skuse, David H; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Ring, Susan M; Ronald, Angelica; Evans, David E; Fisher, Simon E; Thapar, Anita; St Pourcain, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms have been reported. Cross-trait genetic relationships are, however, subject to dynamic changes during development. We investigated the continuity of genetic overlap between ASD and ADHD symptoms in a general population sample during childhood and adolescence. We also studied uni- and cross-dimensional trait-disorder links with respect to genetic ADHD and ASD risk. Social-communication difficulties ( N  ≤ 5551, Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, SCDC) and combined hyperactive-impulsive/inattentive ADHD symptoms ( N  ≤ 5678, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ-ADHD) were repeatedly measured in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC, age 7 to 17 years). Genome-wide summary statistics on clinical ASD (5305 cases; 5305 pseudo-controls) and ADHD (4163 cases; 12,040 controls/pseudo-controls) were available from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Genetic trait variances and genetic overlap between phenotypes were estimated using genome-wide data. In the general population, genetic influences for SCDC and SDQ-ADHD scores were shared throughout development. Genetic correlations across traits reached a similar strength and magnitude (cross-trait r g  ≤ 1, p min   =  3 × 10 -4 ) as those between repeated measures of the same trait (within-trait r g  ≤ 0.94, p min   =  7 × 10 -4 ). Shared genetic influences between traits, especially during later adolescence, may implicate variants in K-RAS signalling upregulated genes ( p -meta = 6.4 × 10 -4 ). Uni-dimensionally, each population-based trait mapped to the expected behavioural continuum: risk-increasing alleles for clinical ADHD were persistently associated with SDQ-ADHD scores throughout development (marginal regression R 2  = 0.084%). An age-specific genetic overlap between clinical ASD and social-communication difficulties

  2. ADHD symptoms, breast-feeding and obesity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Serhat; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be related to overweight/obesity in children and adolescents, but it is a heterogeneous disorder, and the relationships between the dimensions of ADHD and overweight/obesity are not clear. The aim of this study was to explore which dimensions of the disorder are specifically associated with overweight/obesity. The study sample consisted of 300 treatment-naive children with ADHD and 75 healthy controls aged 7-17 years. The ADHD module of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version was used to diagnose ADHD. The severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed via Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). The weight, height, and breast-feeding duration of the study samples and controls were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized according to the national age/sex-specific reference values. The rate of overweight/obese children was higher in the ADHD group. The association between ADHD symptoms and BMI percentile scores was evaluated using structural equation modeling. In that model, it was observed that the Cognitive Problems/Inattentive and Oppositional subscores of the CPRS had a positive predictive effect on the BMI percentile scores, but breast-feeding duration had a negative predictive effect on the BMI percentile scores. Inattention, oppositionality and breast-feeding duration were associated with overweight/obesity in children and adolescents with ADHD. Longitudinal studies are needed to more fully understand this relationship and the mechanisms underlying the association between ADHD and overweight/obesity. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. ADHD symptoms in non-treatment seeking young adults: relationship with other forms of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Leppink, Eric W; Niaz, Faiza; Redden, Sarah A; Grant, Jon E

    2017-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with various manifestations of impulsivity in adults, including elevated rates of other impulsive disorders, substance use, questionnaire-based impulsivity scores, and inhibitory dysregulation on neurocognitive tests. The relationship between ADHD and all these other forms of impulsivity has yet to be explored within the context of a single comprehensive study. A total of 423 young adults, who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year, were recruited using media advertisements and undertook detailed assessment including structured psychiatric interview, questionnaires, and neurocognitive tests. Participants with ADHD symptoms were identified using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener (ASRS-V1.1) and were compared to controls using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). ADHD symptoms were found in 20.3% of the sample, but only 7.3% of these subjects had ever received a formal diagnosis. ADHD symptoms were associated with significantly lower quality of life, lower self-esteem, higher emotional dysregulation, higher impulsivity questionnaire scores, more problematic Internet use, greater occurrence of psychiatric disorders, and impaired stop-signal reaction times. Of these variables, stop-signal reaction times and Barratt attentional impulsiveness were the strongest predictors of group classification. ADHD symptoms are common and under-diagnosed in young adults who gamble, and are most strongly linked with certain other types of impulsivity (questionnaire- and cognitive-based measures) and with emotional dysregulation, suggesting that these are each important considerations in understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also potential treatment targets. It is necessary to question whether treatment for adult ADHD could be enhanced by considering self-esteem, emotional reactivity, and impaired inhibitory control as specific treatment targets, in addition to the core diagnostic

  4. Are externalizing and internalizing difficulties of young children with spelling impairment related to their ADHD symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-08-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anneke; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  6. Memory-guided force output is associated with self-reported ADHD symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Chennavasin, Amanda P; Yoder, Arie; Williams, Genevieve K R; Loken, Eric; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L

    2016-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorder in childhood and persists into adulthood in up to 65 % of cases. ADHD is associated with adverse outcomes such as the ability to gain and maintain employment and is associated with an increased risk for substance abuse obesity workplace injuries and traffic accidents A majority of diagnosed children have motor deficits; however, few studies have examined motor deficits in young adults. This study provides a novel examination of visuomotor control of grip force in young adults with and without ADHD. Participants were instructed to maintain force production over a 20-second trial with and without real-time visual feedback about their performance. The results demonstrated that when visual feedback was available, adults with ADHD produced slightly higher grip force than controls. However, when visual feedback was removed, adults with ADHD had a faster rate of decay of force, which was associated with ADHD symptom severity and trait impulsivity. These findings suggest that there may be important differences in the way that adults with ADHD integrate visual feedback during continuous motor tasks. These may account for some of the motor impairments reported in children with ADHD. These deficits could result from (1) dysfunctional sensory motor integration and/or (2) deficits in short-term visuomotor memory.

  7. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  8. Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-10-01

    Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children's ADHD symptoms, and the role of children's ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and nonbiologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5-8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for evocative rGE processes in the

  9. The Prevalence of ADHD-Like Symptoms in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy; Elliott, Julian; Holmes, Joni

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in a community sample of children in the United Kingdom. Method: There were 964 ten year olds (55% boys; M = 10.4 years; SD = 0.6) from mainstream schools in the United Kingdom in this study. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, which provides ratings on the frequency of…

  10. Alcohol and substance use history among ADHD adults: the relationship with persistent and remitting symptoms, personality, employment, and history of service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Zoe; Young, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To profile substance use, personality, service use, and employment in adults with ADHD. The sample consisted of 216 consecutive referrals to an adult ADHD service and classified with ADHD, partially or fully remitted ADHD, or no ADHD. Normal controls (n = 33) were recruited from a general practitioner's center. Participants completed measures of alcohol and illicit substance use, employment, service use, ADHD symptoms, and personality. High rates of substance use were found in participants with current ADHD diagnoses. ADHD participants showed increased rates of personality trait or disorder scores and unemployment. There was some indication that those with ADHD and substance-related impairment place higher demand on services. Individuals with partially remitted ADHD showed similar substance use to those with current ADHD, whereas those in full remission were comparable with normal controls. Although ADHD symptoms may remit with time, individuals retaining persisting or partial symptoms have substantial needs in adulthood.

  11. ADHD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of general practitioners (GPs) in South Africa with regard to ADHD in both children and adults, .... In their assessment, it is important that the ... and School of Medicine (seven items).15,17 Permission was obtained ..... psychologist in the collaborative intervention of children with ADHD. ... and treatment strategies.

  12. Masculinization in Parents of Offspring With Autism Spectrum Disorders Could Be Involved in Comorbid ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Polderman, Tinca J C; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2017-09-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have comorbid ADHD symptoms. ASD and ADHD are both associated with high intrauterine testosterone (T) levels. This study aims to investigate whether masculinization predicts inattention symptoms in parents, and in their ASD-affected offspring. The sample consisted of 32 parents with ASD-affected children (13 male, 19 female) and 32 offspring individuals (28 male, 4 female). Masculinization of parents was measured by 2D:4D finger ratio, and current T levels. Inattention in both parents and in their offspring was measured with behavior questionnaires. The results indicated that masculinized 2D:4D explains inattentive ADHD symptoms in ASD parents and in their offspring. These predictions are mediated by T and inattention symptoms of ASD parents, respectively. These findings suggest the existence of a masculinized endophenotype in ASD parents, which may be characterized by high attentional sensitivity to T effects.

  13. Interrogative suggestibility, compliance and false confessions among prisoners and their relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Sigurdsson, J F; Bragason, O O; Newton, A K; Einarsson, E

    2008-07-01

    Interrogative suggestibility and compliance are important psychological vulnerabilities during interrogation. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of suggestibility and compliance with childhood and current symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compliance has not been studied previously in relation to ADHD. A further aim was to investigate the relationship between ADHD and the reporting of having made a false confession to the police. The participants were 90 male prisoners, all of whom had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility and Compliance Scales (GSS and GCS) within 10 days of admission to the prison. Childhood ADHD symptoms were screened by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and current adult symptoms by the DSM-IV Checklist criteria for ADHD. Half of the prisoners (50%) were found on screening to meet criteria for ADHD in childhood and, of those, over half (60%) were either fully symptomatic or in partial remission of their symptoms. ADHD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with compliance, but not with suggestibility. The relationship with compliance was stronger (effect size) in relation to current than childhood symptoms. The ADHD symptomatic groups were significantly more likely to claim that they had made a false confession to the police in the past. The findings raise important questions about the potential vulnerability of adults with ADHD symptoms in terms of their ability to cope with interrogation.

  14. Symptom Profile of ADHD in Youth With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparative Study in Psychiatrically Referred Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gagan; Faraone, Stephen V; Wozniak, Janet; Tarko, Laura; Fried, Ronna; Galdo, Maribel; Furtak, Stephannie L; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    To compare the clinical presentation of ADHD between youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD and a sample of youth with ADHD only. A psychiatrically referred sample of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) youth with ADHD attending a specialized ambulatory program for ASD ( n = 107) and a sample of youth with ADHD attending a general child psychiatry ambulatory clinic ( n = 74) were compared. Seventy-six percent of youth with ASD met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. The clinical presentation of ADHD in youth with ASD was predominantly similar to its typical presentation including age at onset (3.5 ± 1.7 vs. 4.0 ± 1.9; p = .12), distribution of diagnostic subtypes, the qualitative and quantitative symptom profile, and symptom severity. Combined subtype was the most frequent presentation of ADHD in ASD youth. Despite the robust presentation of ADHD, a significant majority of ASD youth with ADHD failed to receive appropriate ADHD treatment (41% vs. 24%; p = .02). A high rate of comorbidity with ADHD was observed in psychiatrically referred youth with ASD, with a clinical presentation typical of the disorder.

  15. ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and substance use and misuse in adult Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, Duneesha; Agrawal, Arpana; Reiersen, Angela M; Constantino, John N; Henders, Anjali; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur. Several studies show increased risk of substance use disorders in ADHD, yet there is limited information related to how ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and their combined effects are associated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and use disorders in the general population. Cross-sectional interview and self-report questionnaire data from 3,080 young adult Australian twins (mean age 31.9 years) were used to assess ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance use disorders. Substance use disorders-based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria-were assessed in the full sample as well as in those who reported substance use. Logistic regression analyses were used for comparing the associations between ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance misuse after conduct disorder, sex, age, and zygosity were controlled for. Greater ADHD symptoms and autistic traits scores were associated with elevated levels of regular smoking; cannabis use; and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorders, even after conduct disorder was adjusted for. In contrast, for alcohol use, those with high autistic traits scores were less likely to report drinking to intoxication. However, upon initiation, and similar to the findings for nicotine and cannabis, they were at elevated risk for developing alcohol dependence. Increased liability to ADHD and elevated autistic traits scores were associated with substance use and misuse, with the exception of alcohol use. Given the social underpinnings of drinking, persons with autistic traits may be less likely to engage in it; however, upon engagement in drinking, their vulnerability to alcohol dependence is elevated.

  16. Reduction of bulimia nervosa symptoms after psychostimulant initiation in patients with comorbid ADHD: five case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshen, Aaron; Ivanova, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    Studies reveal a higher occurrence of bulimia nervosa (BN) in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to controls. Due to this high degree of comorbidity, some clinicians have used psychostimulants in this population. The goal of this article is to describe five patients with comorbid BN and ADHD and their responses to a course of psychostimulants. After medication initiation, all five patients experienced a decrease in binge/purging and an improvement in ADHD symptoms. Overall, the medications were well tolerated. Possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and BN, and words of caution are discussed. The need for clinical trials to further evaluate the efficacy of psychostimulants in this population is warranted.

  17. The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms and self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Ingrid; Rietdijk, Wim; Block, Joern; Franken, Ingmar; Larsson, Henrik; Thurik, Roy

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms have been associated with the decision to become self-employed. Although these symptoms are generally regarded as disadvantageous, there may also be a bright side. To our knowledge, however, there has been no systematic, epidemiological evidence to support this claim. This paper examines the association between ADHD symptoms and self-employment in a population-based sample from the STAGE cohort of the Swedish Twin Registry (N = 7208). For replication, we used a sample of Dutch students who participated in the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (N = 13,112). In the Swedish sample, we found a positive association with self-employment for both general ADHD symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.13; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.04-1.23] and hyperactivity symptoms [OR 1.19; 95 % CI 1.08-1.32], whereas no association was found for attention-deficit symptoms [OR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.89-1.10]. The positive association between hyperactivity and self-employment was replicated in the Dutch student sample [OR 1.09; 95 % CI 1.03-1.15]. Our results show that certain aspects of ADHD, in particular hyperactivity, can have a bright side, as they are positively associated with self-employment.

  18. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  19. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, Muirne; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Froydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between

  20. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  1. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  2. Long-term effects of stimulant treatment on ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweren, Lizanne; Hoekstra, Pieter; van Lieshout, Marloes; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina

    2018-03-13

    Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out. ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning and cognitive test performance were measured twice, 6 years apart, in two ADHD groups (stimulant-treated versus not stimulant-treated between baseline and follow-up). Groups were closely matched on baseline clinical and demographic variables (n = 148, 58% male, age = 11.1). A matched healthy control group was included for reference. All but two outcome measures (emotional problems and prosocial behaviour) improved between baseline and follow-up. Improvement over time in the stimulant-treated group did not differ from improvement in the not stimulant-treated group on any outcome measure. Stimulant treatment is not associated with the long-term developmental course of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning, motor control, timing or verbal working memory. Adolescence is characterised by clinical improvement regardless of stimulant treatment during that time. These findings are an important source to inform the scientific and public debate.

  3. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  4. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  5. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms : A cross-disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H.M.; van de Schoot, A.G.J.; Rijkeboer, M.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Cath, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as

  7. Subtype differences in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with regard to ADHD-symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Esther; Brüggemann, Daniel; Alm, Barbara; Kern, Sebastian; Philipsen, Alexandra; Schmalzried, Hannah; Hesslinger, Bernd; Waschkowski, H; Rietschel, Marcella

    2008-03-01

    To date, nearly all research of subtype differences in ADHD has been performed in children and only two studies, with conflicting results, have covered this subject in adults with ADHD. This study examined subtype differences in the clinical presentation of ADHD-symptoms, related psychopathological features, psychosocial functioning and comorbid psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD. One hundred and eighteen adults with ADHD, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and a population based control group underwent diagnostic evaluations with clinical interviews for ADHD, DSM-IV disorders and demographic features. Comparisons were made between ADHD combined type (n=64), predominantly inattentive type (n=30) and predominantly inattentive type, anamnestically combined type (n=24), relative to each other and to a community control group (n=70). The four groups did not differ in age and gender composition. All ADHD groups had significantly less education, were significantly more often unemployed and reported significantly more lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls. In comparison to each other, the three ADHD groups differed mainly in core symptoms and the pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders, whereas no prominent differences in associated psychopathological features and most of the assessed psychosocial functions could be found. Patients with ADHD combined type and inattentive, anamnestically combined type both presented with significantly more hyperactive symptoms and also showed more impulsive symptoms than those with the predominantly inattentive type. With a similar overall lifetime psychiatric comorbidity in the three groups, patients with ADHD combined type and inattentive, anamnestically combined type suffered significantly more from lifetime substance use disorders than patients with predominantly inattentive type. Our results clearly show impaired psychosocial adjustment and elevated risk for additional psychiatric disorders in adults with all

  8. The mediating role of aggressive behaviour, emotional and behavioural instability on the association between ADHD symptoms and best friend conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucchetti, G.; Ortega, E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Rabaglietti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the direct association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms (i.e. inattention and hyperactivity symptoms) and children’s experience of best friend conflicts, and the mediating role of aggression, emotional and behavioural instability, exploring

  9. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components.

  10. Maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders before and during pregnancy, and preschool ADHD symptoms in the NINFEA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, L; Popovic, M; Zugna, D; Vitiello, B; Trevisan, M; Pizzi, C; Rusconi, F; Gagliardi, L; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2018-04-18

    Maternal mental disorders have been associated with the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Within the context of a mother-child cohort, we examined whether maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders are associated with pre-school ADHD symptoms. The study included 3634 singletons from the Italian NINFEA (Nascita e INFanzia: gli Effetti dell'Ambiente') cohort. Maternal doctor-diagnosed anxiety, depression and sleep disorders before and during pregnancy were assessed from the questionnaires completed during pregnancy and 6 months after delivery. Mothers rated child ADHD symptoms at 4 years of age, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-H), inattentive (ADHD-I) and total ADHD scores were analysed in the models adjusted for child's gender, first-born status, maternal age, education, alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy. The total ADHD score at age 4 was associated with maternal lifetime anxiety (17.1% percentage difference in score compared with never; 95% CI 7.3-27.9%), sleep disorders (35.7%; 95% CI 10.7-66.5%) and depression (17.5%; 95% CI 3.2-33.8%). Similar positive associations were observed also for ADHD-H and ADHD-I traits, with slightly attenuated associations between maternal sleep disorders and child ADHD-I score, and maternal depression and both ADHD scores. All the estimates were enhanced when the disorders were active during pregnancy and attenuated for disorders active only during the pre-pregnancy period. Maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders are associated with a relative increase in the number of ADHD-H, ADHD-I and total ADHD symptoms in preschoolers.

  11. Does a child's language ability affect the correspondence between parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Maydew, Harriet; Sears, Claire; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-04-05

    Rating scales are often used to identify children with potential Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), yet there are frequently discrepancies between informants which may be moderated by child characteristics. The current study asked whether correspondence between parent and teacher ratings on the Strengths and Weakness of ADHD symptoms and Normal behaviour scale (SWAN) varied systematically with child language ability. Parent and teacher SWAN questionnaires were returned for 200 children (aged 61-81 months); 106 had low language ability (LL) and 94 had typically developing language (TL). After exploring informant correspondence (using Pearson correlation) and the discrepancy between raters, we report inter-class correlation coefficients, to assess inter-rater reliability, and Cohen's kappa, to assess agreement regarding possible ADHD caseness. Correlations between informant ratings on the SWAN were moderate. Children with LL were rated as having increased inattention and hyperactivity relative to children with TL; teachers, however, rated children with LL as having more inattention than parents. Inter-rater reliability of the SWAN was good and there were no systematic differences between the LL and TL groups. Case agreement between parent and teachers was fair; this varied by language group with poorer case agreement for children with LL. Children's language abilities affect the discrepancy between informant ratings of ADHD symptomatology and the agreement between parents and teachers regarding potential ADHD caseness. The assessment of children's core language ability would be a beneficial addition to the ADHD diagnostic process.

  12. Comorbidity of ADHD and subsequent bipolar disorder among adolescents and young adults with major depression: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have found that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of major depression and bipolar disorder in later life. However, the effect of ADHD comorbidity on the diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder among patients with major depression is still uncertain. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 58,023 subjects bipolar disorder during the follow-up to the end of 2011 were identified. Adolescents and young adults who had major depression with ADHD comorbidity had an increased incidence of subsequent bipolar disorder (18.9% versus 11.2%, p bipolar disorder among those with major depression, adjusting for demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities. Patients with comorbid diagnoses of major depression and ADHD had an increased risk of diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder compared to those who had major depression alone. Further studies would be required to validate this finding and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Attention impairments and ADHD symptoms in adult narcoleptic patients with and without hypocretin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardi, Marco; Pizza, Fabio; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Antelmi, Elena; Natale, Vincenzo; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Attentional complaints are common in narcolepsy patients and can overlap with daytime sleepiness features. Few studies attempted to characterize attentional domains in narcolepsy leading to controversial results. We aimed to assess the impact of hypocretin deficiency on attentional functioning by comparing performances on the attention network test (ANT) of narcoleptic patients with hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 1-NT1) versus patients without hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 2-NT2) and healthy controls. We also addressed frequency and severity of psychopathological symptoms and their influence on performances on ANT. Twenty-one NT1 patients, fifteen NT2 patients and twenty-two healthy controls underwent the ANT, which allows assessing three separate attentional processes (alerting, orienting and executive control), and a psychometric assessment including questionnaires on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression symptoms. NT1 and NT2 patients presented with slower reaction times compared to controls. NT1 patients exhibited an impairment of alerting network relative to NT2 and healthy controls, while orienting and executive control networks efficiency were comparable between groups. NT1 and NT2 displayed higher severity of ADHD inattentive domain than controls, NT1 patients also displayed higher severity of ADHD hyperactive domain and depressive symptoms. In NT1, ADHD and depressive symptoms were positively correlated. Despite a shared slowing of reaction times in both NT1 and NT2, a selective impairment of alerting network was present only in hypocretin deficient patients. Clinicians should carefully consider attentional deficits and psychopathological symptoms, including ADHD symptoms, in the clinical assessment and management of patients with narcolepsy.

  14. Attention impairments and ADHD symptoms in adult narcoleptic patients with and without hypocretin deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Filardi

    Full Text Available Attentional complaints are common in narcolepsy patients and can overlap with daytime sleepiness features. Few studies attempted to characterize attentional domains in narcolepsy leading to controversial results. We aimed to assess the impact of hypocretin deficiency on attentional functioning by comparing performances on the attention network test (ANT of narcoleptic patients with hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 1-NT1 versus patients without hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 2-NT2 and healthy controls. We also addressed frequency and severity of psychopathological symptoms and their influence on performances on ANT.Twenty-one NT1 patients, fifteen NT2 patients and twenty-two healthy controls underwent the ANT, which allows assessing three separate attentional processes (alerting, orienting and executive control, and a psychometric assessment including questionnaires on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression symptoms.NT1 and NT2 patients presented with slower reaction times compared to controls. NT1 patients exhibited an impairment of alerting network relative to NT2 and healthy controls, while orienting and executive control networks efficiency were comparable between groups. NT1 and NT2 displayed higher severity of ADHD inattentive domain than controls, NT1 patients also displayed higher severity of ADHD hyperactive domain and depressive symptoms. In NT1, ADHD and depressive symptoms were positively correlated.Despite a shared slowing of reaction times in both NT1 and NT2, a selective impairment of alerting network was present only in hypocretin deficient patients. Clinicians should carefully consider attentional deficits and psychopathological symptoms, including ADHD symptoms, in the clinical assessment and management of patients with narcolepsy.

  15. Multilevel analysis of ADHD, anxiety and depression symptoms aggregation in families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segenreich, Daniel; Paez, Marina Silva; Regalla, Maria Angélica; Fortes, Dídia; Faraone, Stephen V; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-05-01

    A strong genetic role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated by several studies using different methodologies. Shortcomings of genetic studies often include the lack of golden standard practices for diagnosis for ADHD, the use of categorical instead of a dimensional approach, and the disregard for assortative mating phenomenon in parents. The current study aimed to overcome these shortcomings and analyze data through a novel statistical approach, using multilevel analyses with Bayesian procedures and a specific mathematical model, which takes into account data with an elevated number of zero responses (expected in samples with few or no ADHD symptoms). Correlations of parental clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) to offspring psychopathology may vary according to gender and type of symptoms. We aimed to investigate how those variables interact within each other. One hundred families, comprising a proband child or adolescent with ADHD or a typically developing child or adolescent were included and all family members (both biological parents, the proband child or adolescent and their sibling) were examined through semi-structured interviews using DSM-IV criteria. Results indicated that: (a) maternal clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) were more correlated with offspring variables than paternal ones; (b) maternal inattention (but not hyperactivity) was correlated with both inattention and hyperactivity in the offspring; (c) maternal anxiety was correlated with offspring inattention; on the other hand, maternal inattention was correlated with anxiety in the offspring. Although a family study design limits the possibility of revealing causality and cannot disentangle genetic and environmental factors, our findings suggest that ADHD, anxiety and depression are variables that correlate in families and should be addressed together. Maternal variables significantly correlated with offspring

  16. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD: Primary school teachers' knowledge of symptoms, treatment and managing classroom behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Topkin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ADHD is one of the most common chronic conditions of childhood. Teachers are a valuable source of information with regard to referral and diagnosis of the disorder. They also play a major role in creating an environment that is conducive to academic, social and emotional success for children with ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine primary school teachers' knowledge of the symptoms and management of children in their classrooms who were diagnosed with ADHD. The participants were 200 South African primary school teachers (178 female, 22 male; mean age = 43 years of children enrolled in Grades One to Four. A self-administered questionnaire, the Knowledge of Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS, which measures the misperceptions and understanding of the disorder, was used to collect the data. The results indicated that overall, 45% of the teachers correctly identified the responses to the items asked in the questionnaire. The "don't know responses" accounted for 31% of responses, while 22% of the responses were incorrectly identified. Furthermore, teachers were more knowledgeable of the general associated features of ADHD than of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. A majority of teachers indicated that they had received training. These findings suggest a need to consider improving evidenced-based classroom interventions for ADHD among South African teachers.

  17. Spelling errors among children with ADHD symptoms: the role of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Anna Maria; Mirandola, Chiara; Esposito, Stefania Sara; Capodieci, Agnese

    2014-09-01

    Research has shown that children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may present a series of academic difficulties, including spelling errors. Given that correct spelling is supported by the phonological component of working memory (PWM), the present study examined whether or not the spelling difficulties of children with ADHD are emphasized when children's PWM is overloaded. A group of 19 children with ADHD symptoms (between 8 and 11 years of age), and a group of typically developing children matched for age, schooling, gender, rated intellectual abilities, and socioeconomic status, were administered two dictation texts: one under typical conditions and one under a pre-load condition that required the participants to remember a series of digits while writing. The results confirmed that children with ADHD symptoms have spelling difficulties, produce a higher percentages of errors compared to the control group children, and that these difficulties are enhanced under a higher load of PWM. An analysis of errors showed that this holds true, especially for phonological errors. The increased errors in the PWM condition was not due to a tradeoff between working memory and writing, as children with ADHD also performed more poorly in the PWM task. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Sanderud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in young adulthood. Method: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results: Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08, followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09 and sexual abuse (OR=2.07. Conclusions: The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations.

  19. ADHD Symptom Reduction in Elementary Students: A Single-Case Effectiveness Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottelkorb, April A.; Ray, Dee C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used a single-case design to examine the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and person-centered teacher consultation (PCTC) for four elementary students identified with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Two students participated in CCPT and their teachers participated in PCTC. Two students…

  20. The Role of Maternal and Child ADHD Symptoms in Shaping Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the…

  1. Examining Alternative Explanations of the Covariation of ADHD and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with a range of other disorders, including anxiety disorders. The aim was to examine different explanations for the covariation of these symptom domains in children according to the framework provided by (Lilienfeld, S. O. Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and…

  2. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  3. Reliability of DSM-IV Symptom Ratings of ADHD: Implications for DSM-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanto, Mary V.; Alvir, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the intrarater reliability of "DSM-IV" ADHD symptoms. Method: Two-hundred-two children referred for attention problems and 49 comparison children (all 7-12 years) were rated by parents and teachers on the identical "DSM-IV" items presented in two different formats, the…

  4. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Heterogeneity of ADHD Symptoms and Conduct Problems : Cognitive Inhibition, Emotion Regulation, Emotionality and Disorganized Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachm...

  6. Is the Recall of Verbal-Spatial Information from Working Memory Affected by Symptoms of ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Linda C.; Verdi, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Kulhavy model for text learning using organized spatial displays proposes that learning will be increased when participants view visual images prior to related text. In contrast to previous studies, this study also included students who exhibited symptoms of ADHD. Method: Participants were presented with either a map-text or…

  7. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  8. The Expression of Adult ADHD Symptoms in Daily Life: An Application of Experience Sampling Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.; Brown, Leslie H.; Silvia, Paul J.; Kane, Michael J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To use experience sampling method (ESM) to examine the impact of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms on emotional well-being, activities and distress, cognitive impairment, and social functioning assessed in the daily lives of young adults. The impact of subjective appraisals on their experiences is also examined.…

  9. ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pediatrician, or you can contact your local early intervention agency (for children under 3) or public school (for children 3 and older). In order to make sure your child reaches his or her full potential, it is very important to get help for ADHD as early as possible. You can contact the ...

  10. ADHD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducive to academic, social and emotional success for children with ADHD. .... a study that provides data regarding teachers' knowledge and misperceptions ... Western Cape; (b) big schools from these regions in order to reach as many ... to collect data regarding teachers' age, gender, years of teaching experience,.

  11. ADHD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADHD report higher levels of emotional, social and scholastic impairment ... It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidities and .... Generalised anxiety disorder. 8. 28.57. Post-traumatic stress disorder. 8. 28.57. Major depression. 5. 17.86. Eating disturbance. 13. 46.43. Suicide proneness. 9. 32.14.

  12. ADHD symptoms impact smoking outcomes and withdrawal in response to Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Karoly, Hollis C; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2017-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34.13(10.07), average baseline cigarettes per day=14.71(7.06)]. Given that varenicline's putative therapeutic mechanism is attenuation of withdrawal severity during abstinence, we also tested changes in withdrawal as a mediator of treatment effects in high and low ADHD groups. ADHD symptom severity in this sample was in the subclinical range. Cessation was associated with HI, but not IN, such that high HI individuals on varenicline reported the lowest smoking levels at the end of treatment across all groups (3.06cig/day for high HI vs 4.02cig/day for low HI). Individuals with high HI who received placebo had the highest smoking at the end of treatment (7.69cigs/day for high HI vs 5.56cig/day for low HI). Patterns continued at follow-up. Varenicline significantly reduced withdrawal for those with high HI, but not low HI. However, path models did not support an indirect effect of medication on reducing smoking via withdrawal in either group, suggesting that unmeasured variables are involved in varenicline's effect on reducing smoking. These data add to a gap in the smoking cessation literature regarding the impact of ADHD symptoms on the efficacy and mechanisms of frontline pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for shared genetic risk between ADHD symptoms and reduced mathematics ability: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents rated each twin's behaviour using a DSM-IV-based 18-item questionnaire of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Mathematics tests based on the UK National Curriculum were completed by each twin. The twins also completed standardised tests of reading and general cognitive ability. Multivariate twin model fitting was applied. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were highly heritable (67% and 73% respectively). Mathematics ability was moderately heritable (46%). Mathematics ability and inattentiveness showed a significantly greater phenotypic correlation (r(p) = -.26) and genetic correlation (r(A) = -.41) than mathematics ability and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r(p) = -.18; r(A) = -.22). The genetic correlation between inattentiveness and mathematics ability was largely independent from hyperactivity-impulsivity, and was only partially accounted for by genetic influences related to reading and general cognitive ability. Results revealed the novel finding that mathematics ability shows significantly stronger phenotypic and genetic associations with inattentiveness than with hyperactivity-impulsivity. Genetic associations between inattentiveness and mathematics ability could only partially be accounted for by hyperactivity-impulsivity, reading and general cognitive ability. Results suggest that mathematics ability is associated with ADHD symptoms largely because it shares genetic risk factors with inattentiveness, and provide further evidence for considering inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity separately. DNA markers for ADHD symptoms (especially inattentiveness) may also be candidate risk factors for

  14. Game-based combined cognitive and neurofeedback training using Focus Pocus reduces symptom severity in children with diagnosed AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Stuart J; Roodenrys, Steven J; Johnson, Kirsten; Bonfield, Rebecca; Bennett, Susan J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies report reductions in symptom severity after combined working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) training in children with AD/HD. Based on theoretical accounts of the role of arousal/attention modulation problems in AD/HD, the current study examined the efficacy of combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training in children with AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD. Using a randomized waitlist control design, 85 children were randomly allocated to a training or waitlist condition and completed pre- and post-training assessments of overt behavior, trained and untrained cognitive task performance, and resting and task-related EEG activity. The training group completed twenty-five sessions of training using Focus Pocus software at home over a 7 to 8-week period. Trainees improved at the trained tasks, while enjoyment and engagement declined across sessions. After training, AD/HD symptom severity was reduced in the AD/HD and subclinical groups according to parents, and in the former group only according to blinded teachers and significant-others. There were minor improvements in two of six near-transfer tasks, and evidence of far-transfer of training effects in four of five far-transfer tasks. Frontal region changes indicated normalization of atypical EEG features with reduced delta and increased alpha activity. It is concluded that technology developments provide an interesting a vehicle for delivering interventions and that, while further research is needed, combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training can reduce AD/HD symptom severity in children with AD/HD and may also be beneficial to children with subclinical AD/HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and child ADHD symptoms, executive function and cortical thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Buss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale/statement of the problem : Increasing evidence suggests exposure to adverse conditions in intrauterine life may increase the risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in childhood. High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI has been shown to predict child ADHD symptoms; however, the neurocognitive processes underlying this relationship are not known. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this association is mediated by alterations in child executive function and cortical development. Methods : A population-based cohort of 174 children (mean age = 7.3±0.9 (SD years, 55% girls was evaluated for ADHD symptoms, using the Child Behavior Checklist, and for neurocognitive function, using the Go/No-go Task. This cohort had been followed prospectively from early gestation and birth through infancy and childhood with serial measures of maternal and child prenatal and postnatal factors. In 108 children, a structural MRI scan was acquired and the association between maternal obesity and child cortical thickness was investigated using Freesurfer software. Results : Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of child ADHD symptoms (F (1,158=4.80, p = 0.03 and of child performance on the Go/No-go Task (F (1,157=8.37, p=0.004 after controlling for key potential confounding variables. A test of the mediation model revealed that the association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and child ADHD symptoms was mediated by impaired executive function (inefficient/less attentive processing; Sobel test: t=2.39 (±0.002, SEM; p=0.02. Interestingly, after controlling for key potential confounding variables pre-pregnancy obesity was furthermore associated with region-specific thinner cortices, including regions previously reported to be thinner in children with ADHD, like the prefrontal cortex. Conclusion : To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the

  16. Emotional dysregulation is a primary symptom in adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Chavanon, MiraLynn; Riechmann, Elke; Christiansen, Hanna

    2018-05-01

    Clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These seem to entail difficulties with emotionality, self-concept and emotion regulation in particular, along with the cardinal symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity for adult patients. Here, we probed a model that explicitly distinguished positive and negative affect, problems with self-concept and emotion regulation skills as distinct but correlating factors with the symptom domains of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Participants were 213 newly diagnosed adults with ADHD (62.9% male, mean age 33.5 years). Symptoms were assessed via self-report on the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales, a modified version of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Emotion Regulation Skill Questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis with the R package lavaan, using a robust Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLR) for non-normal data, was conducted to test our new non-hierarchical 7-factor model. All calculated model-fit statistics revealed good model-fit (χ 2 /df ratio = 2.03, robust RMSEA = .07). The SRMR in our model reached .089, indicating an acceptable model fit. Factor loadings on the postulated factors had salient loadings ≥ .31 except for one item on the hyperactivity factor. Latent factor associations were especially salient between emotional dysregulation and problems with self-concept, and also partially with impulsivity/emotional lability. The three models of ADHD and emotion regulation as suggested by Shaw et al. (2014) could not be disentangled in this study, though the overall results support the model with shared neurocognitive deficits. Further, we did not separately analyze ADHD with or without comorbid disorders. As our sample of clinical cases with ADHD is highly comorbid (47.9%), other disorders than ADHD might account for the emotion regulation deficits, though a sensitivity

  17. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  18. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-07-01

    To: (1) determine the association between Internet addiction and depression, self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, and hostility for adolescents; and (2) evaluate the sex differences of association between Internet addiction and the above-mentioned psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. A total of 2114 students (1204 male and 910 female) were recruited for the study. Internet addiction, symptoms of ADHD, depression, social phobia, and hostility were evaluated by the self-report questionnaire. The results demonstrated that adolescents with Internet addiction had higher ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility. Higher ADHD symptoms, depression, and hostility are associated with Internet addiction in male adolescents, and only higher ADHD symptoms and depression are associated with Internet addiction in female students. These results suggest that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders. However, hostility was associated with Internet addiction only in males. Effective evaluation of, and treatment for ADHD and depressive disorders are required for adolescents with Internet addiction. More attention should be paid to male adolescents with high hostility in intervention of Internet addiction.

  19. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  20. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Shared cognitive impairments and aetiology in ADHD symptoms and reading difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste H M Cheung

    Full Text Available Twin studies indicate that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms and reading difficulties (RD is largely due to shared genetic influences. Both disorders are associated with multiple cognitive impairments, but it remains unclear which cognitive impairments share the aetiological pathway, underlying the co-occurrence of the symptoms. We address this question using a sample of twins aged 7-10 and a range of cognitive measures previously associated with ADHD symptoms or RD.We performed multivariate structural equation modelling analyses on parent and teacher ratings on the ADHD symptom domains of inattention and hyperactivity, parent ratings on RD, and cognitive data on response inhibition (commission errors, CE, reaction time variability (RTV, verbal short-term memory (STM, working memory (WM and choice impulsivity, from a population sample of 1312 twins aged 7-10 years.Three cognitive processes showed significant phenotypic and genetic associations with both inattention symptoms and RD: RTV, verbal WM and STM. While STM captured only 11% of the shared genetic risk between inattention and RD, the estimates increased somewhat for WM (21% and RTV (28%; yet most of the genetic sharing between inattention and RD remained unaccounted for in each case.While response inhibition and choice impulsivity did not emerge as important cognitive processes underlying the co-occurrence between ADHD symptoms and RD, RTV and verbal memory processes separately showed significant phenotypic and genetic associations with both inattention symptoms and RD. Future studies employing longitudinal designs will be required to investigate the developmental pathways and direction of causality further.

  2. Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L C; Henry, E A; Willcutt, E G; Kinnear, M K; Ito, T A

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated higher risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD). However, these studies are limited in that most did not: (a) differentiate the role of hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and inattention (IN); (b) control for associated psychopathology; and (c) consider more fine-grained CUD-related measures. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to age of cannabis initiation and DSM-IV cannabis dependence, craving, and severity of problems related to cannabis use while statistically controlling for symptoms of comorbid psychopathology in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Cannabis variables, current use of cigarettes and alcohol, current and childhood ADHD, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were assessed in 376 male and female undergraduates. Results indicate that current and childhood IN were independently associated with more severe cannabis use, craving, and problem use-related outcomes in young adulthood (p'scannabis (pcannabis use. Associations with ADHD symptom dimensions and current use of alcohol and cigarettes were also present. Thus, current and childhood inattention symptoms as well as childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms emerged as significant factors in cannabis-related outcomes in young adults, even after statistically controlling for important confounding variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of Family, Child, and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms of Students with Disabilities

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    Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…

  4. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  5. Comparison of Mother, Father, and Teacher Reports of ADHD Core Symptoms in a Sample of Child Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. Method: The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M…

  6. Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults: What Is the Appropriate "DSM-5" Symptom Threshold for Hyperactivity-Impulsivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanto, Mary V.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To empirically identify the appropriate symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity for diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Method: Participants were 88 adults (M [SD] age = 41.69 [11.78] years, 66% female, 16% minority) meeting formal "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD combined or predominantly inattentive subtypes based on a structured…

  7. The Efficacy of Adapted MBCT on Core Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With ADHD: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepark, Sevket; Janssen, Lotte; de Vries, Alicia; Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Donders, Rogier; Kan, Cornelis C; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-11-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness as a treatment for adults diagnosed with ADHD. A 12-week-adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program is compared with a waiting list (WL) group. Adults with ADHD were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 55) or waitlist (n = 48). Outcome measures included investigator-rated ADHD symptoms (primary), self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, depressive and anxiety symptoms, patient functioning, and mindfulness skills. MBCT resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms, both investigator-rated and self-reported, based on per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Significant improvements in executive functioning and mindfulness skills were found. Additional analyses suggested that the efficacy of MBCT in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning is partially mediated by an increase in the mindfulness skill "Act With Awareness." No improvements were observed for depressive and anxiety symptoms, and patient functioning. This study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of MBCT for adults with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The effects of co-occurring ADHD symptoms on electrophysiological correlates of cognitive control in young people with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina M; Groom, Madeleine J

    2016-09-01

    Efficient cognitive control is implicated in tic control in young people with Tourette syndrome (TS). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is associated with impaired cognitive control. Young people with TS and ADHD (TS+ADHD) show poorer cognitive control performance than those with TS, but how co-occurring ADHD affects underlying neural activity is unknown. We investigated this issue by examining behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of cognitive control in young people with these conditions. Participants aged 9-17 with TS (n = 17), TS+ADHD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 11), and unaffected controls (n = 20) performed a visual Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Behavioural performance measures (D-prime, RT, reaction time variability, post-error slowing) and ERP measures (N2, P3, error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe)) were analysed in a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no) × 2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial analysis to investigate the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction. The results of these analyses showed that ADHD was associated with poorer performance and reduced amplitude of all ERPs, reflecting widespread cognitive control impairments. Tourette syndrome was associated with slowed RTs, which might reflect a compensatory slowing of motor output to facilitate tic control. There was no interaction between the TS and ADHD factors for any behavioural or ERP measure, indicating the impairing effects of ADHD on behaviour and electrophysiological markers of cognitive control were present in TS+ADHD and that RT slowing associated with TS was unaffected by co-occurring ADHD symptoms. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Maternal adiposity prior to pregnancy is associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring: evidence from three prospective pregnancy cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, A; Miettunen, J.; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2007-01-01

    Objectives:We examine whether pregnancy weight (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or weight gain) is related to core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-age offspring.Design:Follow-up of prospective pregnancy cohorts from Sweden, Denmark and Finland within...... in this range). Logistic regression and latent class analyses were used to examine maternal pregnancy weight in relation to children's ADHD core symptoms.Results:Teacher rated 12 556 school-aged children. Gestational weight gain outside of the Institute of Medicine guidelines was not related to ADHD symptoms...... the Nordic Network on ADHD.Methods:Maternal pregnancy and delivery data were collected prospectively. Teachers rated inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in offspring. High scores were defined as at least one core symptom rated as 'severe' and two as 'present' (approximately 10% of children scored...

  10. Associations between ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies in a non-clinical sample of daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Nicholas I; Pang, Raina D; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Smoking outcome expectancies for positive reinforcement (PR: beliefs that smoking produces desirable outcomes) and negative reinforcement (NR: beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect) are modifiable cognitive manifestations of affect-mediated smoking motivation. Based on prior data and theory, we hypothesized that NR and PR expectancies are associated with ADHD symptom levels in a non-clinical sample of cigarette smokers. (Am J Addict 2016; XX:XX -XX) METHODS: Daily cigarette smokers (N = 256) completed self-report measures of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies. Cross-sectional associations of overall ADHD symptomatology and the ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention (IN: difficulty concentrating and distractibility) and hyperactivity impulsivity (HI: poor inhibitory control and motor activity restlessness) with PR and NR smoking outcome expectancies were examined. Higher levels of overall, IN and HI ADHD symptoms were positively associated with NR smoking expectancies after statistically controlling for anxiety, depression, alcohol/drug use problems, nicotine dependence, and other smoking expectancies. Although neither HI nor IN symptom dimensions exhibited empirically unique relations to NR expectancies over and above one another, the collective variance across IN and HI was associated with NR expectancies. PR expectancies were not associated with ADHD symptoms. Although PR and NR expectancies may be important etiological influences in the overall population of smokers, NR outcome expectancies appear to be disproportionately expressed in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Cognitive manifestations of NR motivation, which may be modifiable via intervention, are prominent in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect may underlie ADHD-smoking comorbidity. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Three-year latent class trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a clinical sample not selected for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; Ganocy, Stephen J; Mount, Katherine; Youngstrom, Eric A; Frazier, Thomas; Fristad, Mary; Horwitz, Sarah M; Birmaher, Boris; Findling, Robert; Kowatch, Robert A; Demeter, Christine; Axelson, David; Gill, Mary Kay; Marsh, Linda

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to examine trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample. The LAMS study assessed 684 children aged 6 to 12 years with the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and rating scales semi-annually for 3 years. Although they were selected for elevated manic symptoms, 526 children had baseline ADHD diagnoses. With growth mixture modeling (GMM), we separately analyzed inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, covarying baseline age. Multiple standard methods determined optimal fit. The χ(2) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance compared resulting latent classes/trajectories on clinical characteristics and medication. Three latent class trajectories best described inattentive symptoms, and 4 classes best described hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Inattentive trajectories maintained their relative position over time. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had 2 consistent trajectories (least and most severe). A third trajectory (4.5%) started mild, then escalated; and a fourth (14%) started severe but improved dramatically. The improving trajectory was associated with the highest rate of ADHD and lowest rate of bipolar diagnoses. Three-fourths of the mildest inattention class were also in the mildest hyperactive/impulsive class; 72% of the severest inattentive class were in the severest hyperactive/impulsive class, but the severest inattention class also included 62% of the improving hyperactive-impulsive class. An ADHD rather than bipolar diagnosis prognosticates a better course of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive, symptoms. High overlap of relative severity between inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity confirms the link between these symptom clusters. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms wane more over time. Group means are insufficient to understand individual ADHD prognosis. A small subgroup deteriorates over time in

  12. Exploring the relationship between ADHD symptoms and prison breaches of discipline amongst youths in four Scottish prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, V; Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D

    2012-04-01

    To explore the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline in incarcerated male youths aged 18-21 years. A case-control study of 169 male youth offenders incarcerated in Scottish prisons and classified as 'symptomatic' or 'non-symptomatic' of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms were measured using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report: Long Version, and prison breaches of discipline were gathered from the Scottish Prison Service's Prisoner Records System. Youths who were symptomatic of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) ADHD total symptoms had a significantly higher number of prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. Youths who were symptomatic of DSM-IV hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had a significantly higher number of violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. However, no such significant difference was found between youths who were symptomatic and non-symptomatic of DSM-IV inattentive symptoms. Young male offenders who are symptomatic of ADHD have a higher number of prison breaches of discipline. In particular, symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity are associated with breaches of both a violent and non-violent nature. Implications of such symptoms on rehabilitation and recidivism are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms measured at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M D Thompson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. METHODS: Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. RESULTS: Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11 if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen.

  14. Associations between Acetaminophen Use during Pregnancy and ADHD Symptoms Measured at Ages 7 and 11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John M. D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Wall, Clare R.; Murphy, Rinky; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. Methods Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics) were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. Results Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11) if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised). Conclusions These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen. PMID:25251831

  15. Symptoms of ADHD are related to education and work experience among incarcerated adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arve Egil Asbjørnsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community, but little is known about how the symptoms are related to education and work experience. An ongoing study among Norwegian inmates reveals that 60 % report signs of ADHD. In the present study a sample of 600 inmates incarcerated in Norway filled out a questionnaire including the WURS-k (Wender Utah Rating Scale, short form and questions to survey completed education level and work experience. A clear relationship was found between the WURS-k score and earlier job-experience, with increased probability of ADHD with work experience from low socio-economic status jobs. The scale was also found to share variance with the inmates’ reported education history, as higher education reduces the probability of ADHD among the incarcerated adults. Thus, the WURS-k could be a useful screening instrument in education assessment among inmates. The link between the present findings and development of anti-social behaviour is discussed.

  16. Is the recall of verbal-spatial information from working memory affected by symptoms of ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Linda C; Verdi, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    OJECTIVE: The Kulhavy model for text learning using organized spatial displays proposes that learning will be increased when participants view visual images prior to related text. In contrast to previous studies, this study also included students who exhibited symptoms of ADHD. Participants were presented with either a map-text or text-map condition. The map-text condition led to a significantly higher performance than the text-map condition, overall. However, students who endorsed more symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity scored more poorly when asked to recall text facts, text features, and map features and were less able to correctly place map features on a reconstructed map than were students who endorsed fewer symptoms. The results of the study support the Kulhavy model for typical students; however, the benefit of viewing a display prior to text was not seen for students with ADHD symptoms, thus supporting previous studies that have demonstrated that ADHD appears to negatively affect operations that occur in working memory.

  17. A Pilot Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Training for ADHD in Adulthood: Impact on Core Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; McIntyre, Elizabeth M; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness meditation training is garnering increasing empirical interest as an intervention for ADHD in adulthood, although no studies of mindfulness as a standalone treatment have included a sample composed entirely of adults with ADHD or a comparison group. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of mindfulness meditation for ADHD, executive functioning (EF), and emotion dysregulation symptoms in an adult ADHD sample. Adults with ADHD were stratified by ADHD medication status and otherwise randomized into an 8-week group-based mindfulness treatment ( n = 11) or waitlist group ( n = 9). Treatment feasibility and acceptability were positive. In addition, self-reported ADHD and EF symptoms (assessed in the laboratory and ecological momentary assessment), clinician ratings of ADHD and EF symptoms, and self-reported emotion dysregulation improved for the treatment group relative to the waitlist group over time with large effect sizes. Improvement was not observed for EF tasks. Findings support preliminary treatment efficacy, though require larger trials.

  18. The importance of assessing for validity of symptom report and performance in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Introduction to the special section on noncredible presentation in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A; Berry, David T R

    2017-12-01

    Invalid self-report and invalid performance occur with high base rates in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Harrison, 2006; Musso & Gouvier, 2014). Although much research has focused on the development and validation of symptom validity tests (SVTs) and performance validity tests (PVTs) for psychiatric and neurological presentations, less attention has been given to the use of SVTs and PVTs in ADHD evaluation. This introduction to the special section describes a series of studies examining the use of SVTs and PVTs in adult ADHD evaluation. We present the series of studies in the context of prior research on noncredible presentation and call for future research using improved research methods and with a focus on assessment issues specific to ADHD evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikowska, Klaudia; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Rózańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    In most children with ADHD the cause of the disease is not exactly known, and its etiology is multifactorial. The conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioral and psychological therapy and the pharmacotherapy. The pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, but it is often associated with undesirable side effects, such as: loss of appetite and weight, growth inhibition, abdominal pain, headaches, sleeping problems and increased blood pressure. In the recent years, much attention was devoted to the issue of an appropriate diet in this disease, especially when the standard pharmacotherapy is not effective. The diet of pregnant and lactating woman, and child may have an impact on the development and deepening of the hyperkinetic syndrome. There is much evidence to indicate that it is linked to nutritional factors. Chronic deficiencies of certain minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium and iodine and insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a significant impact on the development and deepening of the symptoms of ADHD in children. A crucial role in the diet of pregnant and lactating women, and child plays also polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, mainly DHA, which are necessary for proper development and function of brain. Their chronic deficiency may contribute to increase risk of ADHD in children. The authors of several studies also demonstrated the positive impact of the elimination food products containing synthetic food additives, like artificial food dyes and preservatives on the behavior of children with ADHD. The beneficial effects brought also the elimination of food products, that are rich in salicylates. It was found that the intake of food products with a low glycemic index helps to reduce symptoms in some hyperactive children. Providing an appropriate supply of nutrients and minerals and elimination of certain food products from diet is especially important during intensive growth and

  20. Children with ADHD Symptoms Show Decreased Activity in Ventral Striatum during the Anticipation of Reward, Irrespective of ADHD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulst, Branko M.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Bos, Dienke J.; Rijks, Yvonne; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Durston, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to…

  1. Effect of Training Focused on Executive Functions (attention, inhibition and working memory in Preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Re

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving five-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. 13 children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity. Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms.

  2. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  3. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms: A cross-disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and their family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman-van Dijk, Hilde M.; van de Schoot, Rens; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Dainelle C

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which co-morbid obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We aimed to explore the phenotypic structure underlying GTS, taking tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms into account as measured by various symptom scales (YGTSS, Y-BOCS, CAARS and AQ) in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The symptom factors found in this study are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies. PMID:26826899

  5. Pathways from Birth Weight to ADHD Symptoms through Fluid Reasoning in Youth with or without Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julia E; Lee, Steve S; Loo, Sandra K; Yuhan, Joshua W; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-05-01

    Although individual differences in fluid reasoning reliably mediate predictions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from birth weight in youth with typical cognitive development (TD), it is unknown if this indirect effect operates similarly in the development of ADHD symptoms secondary to intellectual disability (ID). Thus, we evaluated mediation by fluid reasoning in a longitudinal sample of 163 youth (45% female) with (n = 52) or without (n = 111) ID who were followed prospectively from age 5 to age 13. At age 9, youth completed the Arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, a measure of fluid reasoning. At ages 9 and 13, mothers and teachers separately rated youth ADHD symptoms and mothers completed a diagnostic interview. Mediation was tested via path analysis with bootstrapped confidence intervals, and moderated mediation estimated whether indirect effects differed between ID and TD youth or based on youth IQ. Controlling for demographic factors and age 9 ADHD symptoms, age 9 Arithmetic mediated birth weight and multi-method/informant age 13 ADHD symptoms, such that birth weight positively predicted Arithmetic, which negatively predicted ADHD symptoms. Neither ID status nor IQ moderated the observed indirect effect through Arithmetic, suggesting that it was similar for ID and TD youth as well as across the range of youth IQs. These findings support previous evidence that fluid reasoning, as measured by Arithmetic, may causally mediate birth weight and ADHD symptoms, and suggest that this pathway operates similarly with respect to the development of ADHD symptoms in youth with ID.

  6. Acute Exercise Improves Mood and Motivation in Young Men with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Kathryn M; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about whether acute exercise affects signs or symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. This experiment sought to determine the effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise on measures of attention, hyperactivity, mood, and motivation to complete mental work in adult men reporting elevated ADHD symptoms. A repeated-measures crossover experiment was conducted with 32 adult men (18-33 yr) with symptoms consistent with adult ADHD assessed by the Adult Self-Report Scale V1.1. Measures of attention (continuous performance task and Bakan vigilance task), motivation to perform the mental work (visual analog scale), lower leg physical activity (accelerometry), and mood (Profile of Mood States and Addiction Research Center Inventory amphetamine scale) were measured before and twice after a 20-min seated rest control or exercise condition involving cycling at 65% V˙O2peak. Condition (exercise vs rest) × time (baseline, post 1, and post 2) ANOVA was used to test the hypothesized exercise-induced improvements in all outcomes. Statistically significant condition-time interactions were observed for vigor (P motivation (P = 0.027), and Profile of Mood States depression (P = 0.027), fatigue (P = 0.030), and confusion (P = 0.046) scales. No significant interaction effects were observed for leg hyperactivity, simple reaction time, or vigilance task performance (accuracy, errors, or reaction time). In young men reporting elevated symptoms of ADHD, a 20-min bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise transiently enhances motivation for cognitive tasks, increases feelings of energy, and reduces feelings of confusion, fatigue, and depression, but this has no effect on the behavioral measures of attention or hyperactivity used.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... amongst school children, 1.5% amongst children from the general population between 45.5% to 100.0% amongst special populations of children with possible organic brain pathology. Common associated co-morbid conditions were oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder as well as anxiety/depressive symptoms.

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    OpenAIRE

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  10. Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralten, Janita; Franke, Barbara; Waldman, Irwin; Rommelse, Nanda; Hartman, Catharina; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic studies. This study investigated whether pathway-based analysis could bring scientists closer to unraveling the biology of ADHD. The pathway was described as a predefined gene selection based on a well-established database or literature data. Common genetic variants in pathways involved in dopamine/norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmission and genes involved in neuritic outgrowth were investigated in cases from the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. Multivariable analysis was performed to combine the effects of single genetic variants within the pathway genes. Phenotypes were DSM-IV symptom counts for inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (n = 871) and symptom severity measured with the Conners Parent (n = 930) and Teacher (n = 916) Rating Scales. Summing genetic effects of common genetic variants within the pathways showed a significant association with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms ((p)empirical = .007) but not with inattentive symptoms ((p)empirical = .73). Analysis of parent-rated Conners hyperactive/impulsive symptom scores validated this result ((p)empirical = .0018). Teacher-rated Conners scores were not associated. Post hoc analyses showed a significant contribution of all pathways to the hyperactive/impulsive symptom domain (dopamine/norepinephrine, (p)empirical = .0004; serotonin, (p)empirical = .0149; neuritic outgrowth, (p)empirical = .0452). The present analysis shows an association between common variants in 3 genetic pathways and the hyperactive/impulsive component of ADHD. This study demonstrates that pathway-based association analyses, using quantitative measurements of ADHD symptom domains, can increase the power of genetic analyses to

  11. Influence of the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders on functioning in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Berenguer, Carmen; Colomer, Carla; Roselló, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    ADHD is a chronic disorder that generally has a negative effect on socio-personal adaptation. The objectives of the current study were to examine the adaptive functioning in the daily lives of adults with ADHD compared to adults without the disorder and to test the influence of ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems on different areas of adaptive functioning. Seventy-seven adults between 17 and 24 years old, 40 with a clinical diagnosis of combined-subtype ADHD in childhood and 37 controls, filled out the Weiss Functional Impairment Scale, the Weiss Symptom Record and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale. Significant differences were found between adults with and without ADHD in family and academic functioning. Moreover, the ADHD symptomatology as a whole predicted significant deficiencies in the family environment and self-concept, whereas inattention specifically predicted worse academic performance and life skills. The comorbidities mainly affected the family and risky activity domains (dangerous driving, illegal behaviors, substance misuse and sexually inappropriate behaviors). The results illustrate the importance of developing a multimodal approach to helping ADHD adults cope with associated comorbid disorders, offering them supportive coaching in organizing daily activities, and incorporating the family and/or partner in the treatment plan.

  12. Parent- and Teacher-Reported Symptoms of ADHD in School-Aged Children With Active Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F M; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2017-09-01

    Provide data on the distribution of parent- and teacher-reported symptoms of ADHD in childhood epilepsy and describe coexisting cognitive and behavioral disorders in children with both epilepsy and ADHD. Eighty-five (74% of those eligible) children (5-15 years) in a population-based sample with active epilepsy underwent psychological assessment. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) scale was completed by parents ( n = 69) and teachers ( n = 67) of participating children with an IQ > 34. ADHD was diagnosed with respect to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Parents reported significantly more symptoms of ADHD than teachers ( p epilepsy and ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD are very common in childhood epilepsy but prevalence is influenced by informant.

  13. Cognitive responses to stress, depression, and anxiety and their relationship to ADHD symptoms in first year psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sandra J; Harrison, Allyson G

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship between levels of reported depression, anxiety, and stress with scores on the Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Information was obtained from 84 1st-year psychology students using the CAARS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES). Approximately 23%, 18%, and 12% of students scored above critical values on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Inattention Symptoms, the DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total, and the Inattention/Restlessness subscales, respectively. CAARS scores were positively related to reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, which accounted for significant variance among the three subscales. Only 5% of participants scored above recommended critical values on the ADHD index; however, a significant amount of the variance on this measure was also attributable to the DASS. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress may obscure correct attribution of cause in those being evaluated for ADHD.

  14. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms: A cross- disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman-van Dijk, Hilde M; Schoot, Rens van de; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Daniëlle C

    2016-03-30

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as measured by the YGTSS,Y-BOCS,CAARS and AQ, in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/ numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The results are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of mother, father, and teacher reports of ADHD core symptoms in a sample of child psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-11-01

    To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M = 10.1) years. Correspondence between father and teacher reports on ADHD-specific symptoms (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .38) exceeded that between mothers and teachers (ICC = .23). Fathers rated their children as having fewer problems than did mothers and teachers on Total scale scores and the Inattention subscale of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Mother ratings were more sensitive to an ADHD diagnosis, whereas father ratings better predicted an ADHD diagnosis requiring the two-setting criterion. The choice of parent informant and informant combination had a considerable impact on parent-teacher concordance and estimates of ADHD symptoms and subtypes in the child.

  16. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  17. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Relation Between ADHD Symptoms and Alcohol Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Glenn R

    2015-08-01

    Although there is evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and alcohol use in college students, results are inconclusive primarily because studies have failed to control for related variables. Thus, this study was designed to systematically compare the relative contributions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a sample of college students while controlling for effects of antisocial behaviors. A total of 192 undergraduate college students from a rural Midwestern university received class credit for participating in the study. They completed measures of alcohol use, ADHD symptoms, and antisocial behavior. Hierarchical regressions revealed inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, was related to alcohol-related problems even when controlling for antisocial behavior. However, neither inattention nor hyperactivity/impulsivity was related to alcohol use regardless of whether current antisocial behavior was controlled. Inattention may be an important factor related to alcohol-related problems in college students. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  19. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My

    2015-01-01

    ,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: Mid-gestational maternal......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. METHOD: Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1...... distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative...

  20. Depressive symptoms and the role of affective temperament in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A comparison with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Fernando; López, Pablo; Lischinsky, Alicia; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Manes, Facundo

    2017-10-15

    To investigate the characteristics of depressive symptoms and the influence of affective temperament in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in comparison with bipolar disorder (BD) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Sixty patients with ADHD, 50 patients with BD, and 30 HCs were assessed with instruments for measuring depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and affective temperaments (Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego, self-administered version; TEMPS-A). In addition, participants were evaluated with scales for measuring ADHD symptoms, impulsiveness, anxiety, executive dysfunction, and quality of life. ADHD patients showed levels of depressive symptoms similar to BD patients and higher than HCs. Only neurovegetative symptoms of depression differentiated ADHD and BD groups (BD > ADHD). Depressive symptoms in ADHD patients correlated positively with core ADHD, impulsivity, anxiety, and dysexecutive symptoms and negatively with quality of life. Thirty-eight percent of patients with ADHD scored above the cutoff for at least one affective temperament. Cyclothymic was the more common affective temperament (25%). ADHD patients with affective temperamental traits were more depressed and impulsive than patients without those traits and showed a symptomatic profile analogous to BD patients. The small size of resultant samples when ADHD group was stratified by the presence of affective temperament. In addition, results may not generalize to less severe ADHD patients from the community. Concomitant depressive symptoms constitute a common occurrence in adults with ADHD that carries significant psychopathological and functional consequences. The concept of affective temperaments may be an interesting link for explaining depressive symptomatology and emotional impulsivity in a subgroup of patients with ADHD, beyond the classic idea of comorbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McCann, Donna; Grimshaw, Kate; Parker, Karen M; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J; Holloway, John W; Warner, John O

    2010-09-01

    Food additives can exacerbate ADHD symptoms and cause non-immunoglobulin E-dependent histamine release from circulating basophils. However, children vary in the extent to which their ADHD symptoms are exacerbated by the ingestion of food additives. The authors hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms affecting histamine degradation would explain the diversity of responses to additives. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, challenges involving two food color additive and sodium benzoate (preservative) mixtures in a fruit drink were administered to a general community sample of 3-year-old children (N = 153) and 8/9-year-old children (N = 144). An aggregate ADHD symptom measure (based on teacher and parent blind ratings of behavior, blind direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and--for 8/9-year-old children only--a computerized measure of attention) was the main outcome variable. The adverse effect of food additives on ADHD symptoms was moderated by histamine degradation gene polymorphisms HNMT T939C and HNMT Thr105Ile in 3- and 8/9-year-old children and by a DAT1 polymorphism (short versus long) in 8/9-year-old children only. There was no evidence that polymorphisms in catecholamine genes COMT Val108Met, ADRA2A C1291G, and DRD4-rs7403703 moderated the effect on ADHD symptoms. Histamine may mediate the effects of food additives on ADHD symptoms, and variations in genes influencing the action of histamine may explain the inconsistency between previous studies. Genes influencing a range of neurotransmitter systems and their interplay with environmental factors, such as diet, need to be examined to understand genetic influences on ADHD symptoms.

  2. Attention-induced deactivations in very low frequency EEG oscillations: differential localisation according to ADHD symptom status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Broyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The default-mode network (DMN is characterised by coherent very low frequency (VLF brain oscillations. The cognitive significance of this VLF profile remains unclear, partly because of the temporally constrained nature of the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal. Previously we have identified a VLF EEG network of scalp locations that shares many features of the DMN. Here we explore the intracranial sources of VLF EEG and examine their overlap with the DMN in adults with high and low ADHD ratings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DC-EEG was recorded using an equidistant 66 channel electrode montage in 25 adult participants with high- and 25 participants with low-ratings of ADHD symptoms during a rest condition and an attention demanding Eriksen task. VLF EEG power was calculated in the VLF band (0.02 to 0.2 Hz for the rest and task condition and compared for high and low ADHD participants. sLORETA was used to identify brain sources associated with the attention-induced deactivation of VLF EEG power, and to examine these sources in relation to ADHD symptoms. There was significant deactivation of VLF EEG power between the rest and task condition for the whole sample. Using s-LORETA the sources of this deactivation were localised to medial prefrontal regions, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and temporal regions. However, deactivation sources were different for high and low ADHD groups: In the low ADHD group attention-induced VLF EEG deactivation was most significant in medial prefrontal regions while for the high ADHD group this deactivation was predominantly localised to the temporal lobes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attention-induced VLF EEG deactivations have intracranial sources that appear to overlap with those of the DMN. Furthermore, these seem to be related to ADHD symptom status, with high ADHD adults failing to significantly deactivate medial prefrontal regions while at the same time showing significant attenuation of

  3. The Impact of Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Symptoms, and Executive Functions on Learning Behaviors of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Carla; Berenguer, Carmen; Roselló, Belén; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Miranda, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. The second objective was to analyze the relationships among learning behaviors, executive functioning, and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in both groups. Participants were 35 children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 with TD (7-11 years old), matched on age and IQ. The teachers filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Learning Behaviors Scale, which evaluates Competence/motivation, Attitude toward learning, Attention/persistence, and Strategy/flexibility. In addition, parents and teachers filled out the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. ANOVAs showed significant differences between children with ADHD and TD children on all the learning behaviors. Moreover, in both the ADHD and TD groups, the behavioral regulation index of the BRIEF predicted the search for strategies, and the metacognition index was a good predictor of motivation. However, attitude toward learning was predicted by metacognition only in the group with ADHD. Therefore, the executive functions had greater power than the typical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in predicting learning behaviors of children with ADHD. The findings are in line with other studies that support the influence of the executive functions on performance, highlighting the importance of including their development as a top priority from early ages in the

  4. Children with ADHD symptoms show decreased activity in ventral striatum during the anticipation of reward, irrespective of ADHD diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Branko M.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Bos, Dienke J.; Rijks, Yvonne; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Durston, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of

  5. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeyers Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT and 1446 'unselected' siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities. A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data. Methods Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping. Results Age and proband/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive

  6. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muller, Ueli C

    2011-04-07

    Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT) and 1446 \\'unselected\\' siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres) and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities). A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data. Methods Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS) interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners\\' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands) were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping. Results Age and proband\\/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms ... Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should continue ...

  8. ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures

    OpenAIRE

    Skogli, Erik Winther; Teicher, Martin H; Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Background: ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. One aim of the present study was to assess in a clinical sample of medication naïve boys and girls with ADHD, whether there were significant gender x diagnosis interactions in co-existing symptom severity and executive function (EF) ...

  9. A smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of parental behavioral consistency: Associations with parental stress and child ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2018-04-02

    Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with specific creative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Nevicka, B.; Baas, M.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Although ADHD generally associates with a range of cognitive impairments, evidence suggests that people with ADHD may be more creative than people

  11. Basic numerical processing, calculation, and working memory in children with dyscalculia and/or ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Ise, Elena; Raddatz, Julia; Schwenk, Christin; Dobel, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in basic numerical skills, calculation, and working memory have been found in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) as well as children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This paper investigates cognitive profiles of children with DD and/or ADHD symptoms (AS) in a double dissociation design to obtain a better understanding of the comorbidity of DD and ADHD. Children with DD-only (N = 33), AS-only (N = 16), comorbid DD+AS (N = 20), and typically developing controls (TD, N = 40) were assessed on measures of basic numerical processing, calculation, working memory, processing speed, and neurocognitive measures of attention. Children with DD (DD, DD+AS) showed deficits in all basic numerical skills, calculation, working memory, and sustained attention. Children with AS (AS, DD+AS) displayed more selective difficulties in dot enumeration, subtraction, verbal working memory, and processing speed. Also, they generally performed more poorly in neurocognitive measures of attention, especially alertness. Children with DD+AS mostly showed an additive combination of the deficits associated with DD-only and A_Sonly, except for subtraction tasks, in which they were less impaired than expected. DD and AS appear to be related to largely distinct patterns of cognitive deficits, which are present in combination in children with DD+AS.

  12. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  13. Further Insight into the Effectiveness of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms Using Actigraphy, Classroom Observations and Peer Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenman, Betty; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Positivity and Rules program (PR program), a low-level behavioral teacher program targeting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has shown positive effects on teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and social functioning. This study aimed to assess whether program effects could be confirmed by instruments assessing classroom behavior other than teacher-ratings, given teachers' involvement with the training. Methods: Participants were 114 primary school children (age = 6-13) displaying ADHD symptoms in the classroom, who were randomly assigned to the treatment ( n = 58) or control group ( n = 65). ADHD symptoms were measured using classroom observations and actigraphy, and peer acceptance was measured using peer ratings. Intention-to-treat multilevel analyses were conducted to assess program effects. Results: No beneficial program effects were found for any of the measures. Conclusion: The earlier beneficial program effects on both ADHD symptoms and social functioning reported by teachers, may be explained by a change in the perception of teachers rather than changes in the child's behavior. Other methodological explanations are also discussed, such as differences between instruments in the sensitivity to program-related changes. The current study underlines the importance of using different measures of classroom behavior to study program effects. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711.

  14. Adult ADHD Symptoms and Satisfaction With Life: Does Age and Sex Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ørbeck, Beate; Øvergaard, Kristin Romvig; Pripp, Are Hugo; Aase, Heidi; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Zeiner, Pål

    2015-01-01

    - Objective:To investigate adult ADHD symptoms and satisfaction with life, with a focus on age and sex differences. Method: This study is based on parents in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The Adult Self- Report Scale (ASRS-6) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores were analyzed from 33,210 men and 41,983 women from young to middle adulthood. Results: Mean ASRS total score was significantly higher in men, where 5.1% scored above cutoff, compared wit...

  15. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using...

  16. Relationship between subtypes and symptoms of ADHD, insomnia, and nightmares in connection with quality of life in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Julia Grünwald,1 Angelika Anita Schlarb2 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, 2Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Psychology and Sports Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany Objectives: This study examined the links between sleep disorders and subtypes of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-inattention, ADHD-combined, ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive in childhood. We set up a hypothetical model linking different symptoms of both disorders to construct the underlying and shared pathways. By examining a sample of children with ADHD we firstly tested parts of the model.Methods: A total of 72 children with symptoms of ADHD (aged 6–13 years; 79.2% boys were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition in regards to ADHD and sleep disorders via standardized parent-rated questionnaires. Additionally, quality of life (QoL was assessed. Overall, 46 children fulfilled the criteria of ADHD and were medication-naive.Results: On average, the whole sample had clinically elevated total scores of the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire in the validated German version (CSHQ-DE, indicating an increased prevalence of sleep disorders in children with ADHD. In accordance to our hypothetical model, children with primarily hyperactive–impulsive ADHD showed the highest CSHQ-DE scores. Moreover, we found a high impact for insomnia in this subgroup and a high comorbid load for the mutual occurrence of insomnia and nightmares. Furthermore, QoL was reduced in our whole sample, and again intensified in children with comorbid insomnia and nightmares.Conclusion: We verified an elevated occurrence of sleep disorders in children with ADHD and were able to link them to specific subtypes of ADHD. These results were in line with our hypothetical model

  17. A Longitudinal Study on Attention Development in Primary School Children with and without Teacher-Reported Symptoms of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Suades-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prospective longitudinal studies are essential in characterizing cognitive trajectories, yet few of them have been reported on the development of attention processes in children. We aimed to explore attention development in normal children and children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in a repeated measures design using the attention network test (ANT.Methods: The population sample included 2,835 children (49.6% girls aged 7–11 years from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain who performed the ANT four times from January 2012 to March 2013. According to teacher ratings, 10.5% of the children presented ADHD symptoms. We performed multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models, adjusting for school and individual, to test the effects of age-related growth on the ANT networks: alerting, orienting and executive attention, and three measurements related to attentiveness: median of hit reaction time (HRT, hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE and variability.Results: We observed age-related growth in all the outcomes, except orienting. The curves were steeper at the younger groups, although for alertness the improvement was further at the oldest ages. Gender and ADHD symptoms interacted with age in executive attention, HRT and variability. Girls performed better in executive attention at young ages although boys reached females at around 10 years of age. For HRT, males showed faster HRT. However, girls had a more pronounced improvement and reached the levels of boys at age 11. Children with ADHD symptoms had significant differences in executive attention, HRT and variability compared to children without ADHD symptoms.Conclusions: We detected an ongoing development of some aspects of attention in primary school children, differentiating patterns by gender and ADHD symptoms. Our findings support the ANT for assessing attention processes in children in large epidemiological studies.

  18. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My; Svensson, Elisabeth; Friis, Svein; Zeiner, Pål

    2015-12-07

    The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. Mid-gestational maternal distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative risk [RR] = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.43, 3.07]), CD (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = [1.33, 2.51]), and ODD (RR = 1.30; 95% CI = [1.03, 1.64]), with minor sex differences. Maternal distress during mid-gestation was associated with ADHD, behavioral, and emotional symptoms in preschool children. Continued exposure into the postnatal period may further increase these risk associations . © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  20. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guan-Nan; Wang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Li; Niu, Wen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44) or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45). Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual), attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents' knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively). Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after intervention (33.7±5.4 vs 45.1±7.9, P=0.008). Greater improvements in parents' knowledge about ADHD and many components of the TPB model were observed in the intervention group, especially increased intention to adhere to medication, compared to the control group (P<0.001). This psychoeducation program had a positive impact on both medication adherence and clinical symptoms of ADHD children. It could be considered as a potential beneficial supplement to clinical practice.

  1. Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Martin H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have not paid a great deal of attention to comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in autistic children even though it is well known that almost half of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD suffer from hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare executive functioning (EF profiles in children with ADHD and in children with ASD with and without comorbid ADHD. Methods Children aged 6 to 18 years old with ADHD (n = 20 or ASD (High-Functioning autism or Asperger syndrome with (n = 20 and without (n = 20 comorbid ADHD and a typically developing group (n = 20 were compared on a battery of EF tasks comprising inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning tasks. A MANOVA, effect sizes as well as correlations between ADHD-symptomatology and EF performance were calculated. Age- and IQ-corrected z scores were used. Results There was a significant effect for the factor group (F = 1.55; dF = 42; p = .02. Post-hoc analysis revealed significant differences between the ADHD and the TD group on the inhibition task for false alarms (p = .01 and between the ADHD group, the ASD+ group (p = .03, the ASD- group (p = .02 and the TD group (p = .01 for omissions. Effect sizes showed clear deficits of ADHD children in inhibition and working memory tasks. Participants with ASD were impaired in planning and flexibility abilities. The ASD+ group showed compared to the ASD- group more problems in inhibitory performance but not in the working memory task. Conclusion Our findings replicate previous results reporting impairment of ADHD children in inhibition and working memory tasks and of ASD children in planning and flexibility abilities. The ASD + group showed similarities to the ADHD group with regard to inhibitory but not to working memory deficits. Nevertheless the heterogeneity of these and previous results shows that EF assessment is not useful for

  2. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6-13 years of age. We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children's ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-sectional study of Mexican children. Environ Health Perspect 124

  3. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Muirne C. S.; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Frøydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with

  4. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirne C. S. Paap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS, a prospective longitudinal total population study of children’s developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N=9430. All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases and parent (6253 complete cases report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV, and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if

  5. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7-9-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Muirne C S; Haraldsen, Ira R; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R; Hellem, Frøydis M; Stormark, Kjell M

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7-9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with

  6. Examining Parents’ Preferences for Group and Individual Parent Training For Children with ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Frances A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather M.; Deal, Ken; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training (PT) programs have been found to reduce some behavioral impairment associated with children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as improve parenting competence, but poor uptake and participation by parents are formidable barriers that affect service effectiveness. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to examine how parent preferences for treatment format (i.e. group versus individual) might influence their participation in PT. Participants were 445 parents seeking mental health services for children with elevated symptoms of ADHD in Ontario, Canada. Parents completed a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) composed of 30 choice tasks used to gauge PT format preference. Results showed that 58.7% of parents preferred individual PT; these parents were most interested in interventions that would make them feel more informed about their child’s problems and in understanding—as opposed to solving—their child’s problems. A minority of parents (19.4 %) preferred group PT; these parents were most interested in active, skill-building services that would help them solve their child’s problems. About one-fifth of parents (21.9 %) preferred the Minimal Information alternative (i.e. receiving neither individual or group PT); these parents reported the highest levels of depression and the most severe mental health problems in their child. Results highlight the importance of considering parent preferences for format, and suggest that alternative formats to standard PT should be considered for multiply stressed families. PMID:25700219

  7. Examining Parents' Preferences for Group and Individual Parent Training for Children with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Frances A; Cunningham, Charles E; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather M; Deal, Ken; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Pelham, William E

    2016-01-01

    Parent training (PT) programs have been found to reduce some behavioral impairment associated with children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as improve parenting competence, but poor uptake and participation by parents are formidable barriers that affect service effectiveness. We used a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) to examine how parent preferences for treatment format (i.e., group vs. individual) might influence their participation in PT. Participants were 445 parents seeking mental health services for children with elevated symptoms of ADHD in Ontario, Canada. Parents completed a DCE composed of 30 choice tasks used to gauge PT format preference. Results showed that 58.7% of parents preferred individual PT; these parents were most interested in interventions that would make them feel more informed about their child's problems and in understanding-as opposed to solving-their child's problems. A minority of parents (19.4%) preferred group PT; these parents were most interested in active, skill-building services that would help them solve their child's problems. About one fifth of parents (21.9%) preferred the Minimal Information alternative (i.e., receiving neither individual or group PT); these parents reported the highest levels of depression and the most severe mental health problems in their child. Results highlight the importance of considering parent preferences for format and suggest that alternative formats to standard PT should be considered for multiply stressed families.

  8. Effect of Family Oriented Early Intervention Based on Localized Play Therapy on the Clinical Symptoms of Preschool Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سعید رحیمی پردنجانی

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current study was aimed to investigate the effect of localized play therapy on reducing symptoms of attention deficiency and hyper activity/impulsivity in preschool children with ADHD. The method of this study was an applied semi-experimental study designed as pretest-posttest with control group. Twenty four mothers with ADHD children were selected through multi-stage sampling and randomly arranged in experimental or control groups. The experimental group participated in a 10 sessions Localized Play Therapy (LPT intervention program, while the control group was on the waiting list. Assessment tools were the Vanderbilt ADHD Teacher Rating Scale (Wolraich, et al., 1997 and a semiorganized clinical interview. Data were analyzed by using a repeated measure analysis of variance. The results showed that there were  significant differences between the control and experimental groups in attention deficiency and hyper activity/impulsivity scores of pre-test and post-test. In conclusion, it can be indicated that family oriented early intervention based on LPT is effective in reducing clinical symptoms of preschool children with ADHD. Therefore, this method can be considered as an effective therapeutic method for ADHD children by experts and parents

  9. Donepezil in the Treatment of ADHD-Like Symptoms in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean; Spencer, Thomas J.; Geller, Daniel; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported ADHD-like symptoms and cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD. Method: The authors describe…

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a School-Implemented School-Home Intervention for ADHD Symptoms and Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, L. J.; Rooney, M.; Haack, L.; Villodas, M.; Delucchi, K.; McBurnett, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel psychosocial intervention (Collaborative Life Skills, CLS) for primary-school students with ADHD symptoms. CLS is a 12-week program consisting of integrated school, parent, and student treatments delivered by school-based mental health providers. Using a cluster randomized design, CLS was…

  11. Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Sørensen, Lin; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2016-02-25

    Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity. ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale. The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in

  12. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of sapropterin to treat ADHD symptoms and executive function impairment in children and adults with sapropterin-responsive phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, B; Grant, M; Feigenbaum, A; Singh, R; Hendren, R; Siriwardena, K; Phillips, J; Sanchez-Valle, A; Waisbren, S; Gillis, J; Prasad, S; Merilainen, M; Lang, W; Zhang, C; Yu, S; Stahl, S

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly inattention, and impairments in executive functioning have been reported in early and continuously treated children, adolescents, and adults with phenylketonuria (PKU). In addition, higher blood phenylalanine (Phe) levels have been correlated with the presence of ADHD symptoms and executive functioning impairment. The placebo-controlled PKU ASCEND study evaluated the effects of sapropterin therapy on PKU-associated symptoms of ADHD and executive and global functioning in individuals who had a therapeutic blood Phe response to sapropterin therapy. The presence of ADHD inattentive symptoms and executive functioning deficits was confirmed in this large cohort of 206 children and adults with PKU, of whom 118 responded to sapropterin therapy. In the 38 individuals with sapropterin-responsive PKU and ADHD symptoms at baseline, sapropterin therapy resulted in a significant improvement in ADHD inattentive symptoms in the first 4 weeks of treatment, and improvements were maintained throughout the 26 weeks of treatment. Sapropterin was well-tolerated with a favorable safety profile. The improvements in ADHD inattentive symptoms and aspects of executive functioning in response to sapropterin therapy noted in a large cohort of individuals with PKU indicate that these symptoms are potentially reversible when blood Phe levels are reduced. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  14. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD in a Community Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAweeney, Mary; Rogers, Nikki L.; Huddleston, Carole; Moore, Dennis; Gentile, Julie P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a common comorbid condition with substance use disorder. This study seeks to examine the discrepancy in the prevalence rate between those previously diagnosed with ADHD and those diagnosed while in treatment. It is hypothesized that clients with ADHD would have earlier unsuccessful terminations from treatment than non-ADHD…

  15. Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia

    2012-01-01

    A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including…

  16. Long-term outcomes of brief, intensive CBT for specific phobias: The negative impact of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were twofold: (a) examine long-term treatment effects in youth receiving 1-session treatment (OST) or educational support (EST) for a specific phobia (SP) and (b) examine the differential predictive and moderation effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on immediate and long-term outcomes following the interventions. Eighty-three children (ages 6-15, 47% female, 89% White) with a SP were randomly assigned to receive OST or EST. Follow up assessments occurred at 1 week, 6 months, 1 year, and 4 years. Hierarchical linear growth modeling (HLGM) was used to explore the association of parent-reported ADHD symptoms, the 2 treatment conditions (i.e., OST vs. EST), and the trajectory of change in the severity of the SP from pretreatment to the 4-year follow-up. Age, conduct problems and learning problems were controlled for in all analyses. A greater immediate reduction in severity rating of the SP was observed in the OST compared to EST, whereas the trajectory of long-term outcomes was similar across conditions over time. Higher levels of ADHD symptoms predicted poor immediate and long-term treatment outcomes across treatment conditions. ADHD symptoms, however, did not moderate the relationship between treatment condition and immediate or long-term treatment outcomes. The results of the study need to be interpreted in light of several study limitations. However, if confirmed, the findings suggest that anxious youth with comorbid ADHD symptoms are less likely to benefit from brief, intensive psychotherapy and may require either longer, standard CBT treatment or adjunctive pharmacotherapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  18. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms & improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mörstedt

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  1. Which Better Predicts Conduct Problems? The Relationship of Trajectories of Conduct Problems with ODD and ADHD Symptoms from Childhood into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; van der Ende, Jan; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess the co-occurrence in deviant trajectories of parent-rated symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from age 4 to 18 years old in a general population sample of Dutch children. Methods: Developmental trajectories of CD, ODD, and ADHD were…

  2. Changing ASD-ADHD symptom co-occurrence across the lifespan with adolescence as crucial time window : Illustrating the need to go beyond childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Catharina A.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is strongly biased by a focus on childhood age. A review of the adolescent and adult literature was made on core and related symptoms of ADHD and ASD. In addition, an empirical

  3. Effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Jazayeri, Shima; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Djalali, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mostafa; Effatpanah, Mohammad; Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita; Karami, Elham

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that serum levels of vitamin D were lower in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children compared to healthy controls. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on symptoms of children with ADHD. Sixty-two children aged 5-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD based on DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2000IU vitamin D or placebo in addition to methylphenidate for 8 weeks. Symptoms severity was assessed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised[S] (CPRS), ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS), and Weekly Parent Ratings of Evening and Morning Behavior (WPREMB) at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. Anthropometric variables, dietary intake, physical activity, sun exposure, and side effects were assessed. Fifty-four participants completed the trial. After 8 weeks of supplementation, serum levels of 25(OH)D significantly increased in the vitamin D group. ADHD symptoms decreased significantly in both groups (P D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate improved ADHD evening symptoms. Future research is needed to clarify vitamin D effects as monotherapy in ADHD and its mechanism. The trial was registered in www.irct.ir is (IRCT201404222394N10).

  4. Invariance of Parent Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in Australian and Malaysian, and North European Australian and Malay Malaysia Children: A Mean and Covariance Structures Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study used the mean and covariance structures analysis approach to examine the equality or invariance of ratings of the 18 ADHD symptoms. Method: 783 Australian and 928 Malaysian parents provided ratings for an ADHD rating scale. Invariance was tested across these groups (Comparison 1), and North European Australian (n = 623) and…

  5. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  7. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  8. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence. PMID:28824468

  9. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai GN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guan-nan Bai,1 Yu-feng Wang,2,3 Li Yang,2,3 Wen-yi Niu1 1Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Peking University Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods: We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44 or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45. Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual, attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results: Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively. Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after

  10. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee

    2009-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  11. The role of the mother-child relationship in the route from child ADHD to adolescent symptoms of depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2017-12-01

    We attempt to explain the co-variation between ADHD and symptoms of depressed mood, focusing on the family context and testing whether the mother-child relationship mediates or moderates the link between child ADHD and youth depressed mood symptoms. In a longitudinal study, we used mother and youth reports for 596 Swedish youth, 50% boys, from a community sample at 10, 15, and 18 years of age. The results did not support the mediation hypothesis. Only one moderation effect was found. Mother-child conflicts in mid-adolescence, as rated by mothers, increased symptoms of depressed mood symptoms in late adolescent only for youth with high levels of hyperactivity symptoms. However, depressed mood symptoms at age 18 were predicted by low mother-child involvement in mid-adolescence, over and above the effects of inattention symptoms. This latter finding was consistent across mother and youth ratings of the relationship. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Association With Subsequent Risky and Problem Drinking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Kara M; Seelig, Amber D; Armenta, Richard F; Rivera, Anna C; Peterson, Arthur V; Jacobson, Isabel G; Littman, Alyson J; Maynard, Charles; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J; Rull, Rudolph P; Williams, Emily C

    2018-06-04

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and unhealthy alcohol use are commonly associated conditions. It is unknown whether specific symptoms of PTSD are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use. Data from the first 3 enrollment panels (n = 151,567) of the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study of military personnel were analyzed (2001-2012). Complementary log-log models were fit to estimate whether specific PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters were associated with subsequent initiation of 2 domains of unhealthy alcohol use: risky and problem drinking (experience of 1 or more alcohol-related consequences). Models were adjusted for other PTSD symptoms and demographic, service, and health-related characteristics. Eligible study populations included those without risky (n = 31,026) and problem drinking (n = 67,087) at baseline. In adjusted analyses, only 1 PTSD symptom-irritability/anger-was associated with subsequent increased initiation of risky drinking (relative risk [RR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.09) at least 3 years later. Two symptom clusters (dysphoric arousal [RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.23] and emotional numbing [RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22-1.40]) and 5 symptoms (restricted affect [RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.19], sense of foreshortened future [RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.18], exaggerated startle response [RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13], sleep disturbance [RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15], and irritability/anger [RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.17]) were associated with subsequent initiation of problem drinking. Findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not extend to the contributions of

  13. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor Structure and Uniform Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Three Racial/Ethnic Groups for ADHD, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Margit; Kanouse, David E.; Elliott, Marc N.; Windle, Michael; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM–IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 chi...

  14. ADHD Symptoms in Middle Adolescence Predict Exposure to Person-Related Life Stressors in Late Adolescence in 5-HTTLPR S-allele Homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea

    2017-12-19

    Literature suggests that life stressors predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and that this relationship is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). It is less clear whether, on reverse, ADHD symptoms may influence the risk of exposure to life stressors. Furthermore, the role of life stressors may vary across development depending on the type of life stressor. We used threewave longitudinal data of 1,306 adolescents from the general population and clinicreferred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. The 5-HTTLPR genotype (SS, LS, LL), parent-reported ADHD symptoms at three time points (T1: Mage = 11.2; T2: Mage = 13.5; T3: Mage = 16.2 years), and the number of personrelated ('dependent') and environment-related ('independent') life stressors occurring between measurements (T1-T2, T2-T3) were assessed. Using path analyses, we examined bidirectional relations between exposure to these life stressors and ADHD symptoms between the separate waves moderated by 5-HTTLPR status. Exposure to life stressors did not predict ADHD symptoms. Rather, we found that in 5-HTTLPR Sallele homozygotes, ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence (T2) predicted exposure to the number of person-related life stressors later in adolescence (T2-T3, p = 0.001). There was no relation with environment-related life stressors. Our study suggests that S-allele homozygotes with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence are more vulnerable to becoming exposed to person-related ('dependent') life stressors in late adolescence. Findings emphasize the need to be aware of social-emotional adversities that may occur in genetically vulnerable adolescents with ADHD symptoms in the transition into adulthood.

  15. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  16. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships. Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students.A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names. Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale.The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters.Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  17. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laura van Harmelen

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications.We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17.We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms.Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore

  18. Risk behaviours among substance use disorder treatment seekers with and without adult ADHD symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaye, Sharlene; Gilsenan, Joanne; Young, Jesse Tyler; Carruthers, Susan; Allsop, Steve; Degenhardt, Louisa; van de Glind, Geurt; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity and consequent risk-taking are features of both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD). To date there are no data on the impact of comorbid ADHD on the likelihood and frequency of risk-taking behaviour among individuals with SUD. The current

  19. The Shifting Subtypes of ADHD: Classification Depends on How Symptom Reports Are Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Skipper, Betty; Rabiner, David L.; Umbach, David M.; Stallone, Lil; Campbell, Richard A.; Hough, Richard L.; Naftel, A. J.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the correlates of ADHD subtypes has yielded inconsistent findings, perhaps because the procedures used to define subtypes vary across studies. We examined this possibility by investigating whether the ADHD subtype distribution in a community sample was sensitive to different methods for combining informant data. We conducted a study to…

  20. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of ADHD Symptoms in Persons with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, Helmut; Pittschieler, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Several studies report a possible association of celiac disease (CD) with psychiatric and psychological disturbances, such as ADHD. Method: The authors assess 132 participants from 3 to 57 years of age (M = 19.3 years) affected by CD for the possibility of an associated ADHD-like symptomatology, using the Conner Scale Hypescheme, a…

  2. Shared Genetic Influences on ADHD Symptoms and Very Low-Frequency EEG Activity: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways.…

  3. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD): Primary School Teachers' Knowledge of Symptoms, Treatment and Managing Classroom Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkin, Beryl; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa; Mwaba, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    ADHD is one of the most common chronic conditions of childhood. Teachers are a valuable source of information with regard to referral and diagnosis of the disorder. They also play a major role in creating an environment that is conducive to academic, social and emotional success for children with ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine primary…

  4. Neurobiological heterogeneity in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, P.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder clinically. Symptoms take many forms, from subtle but pervasive attention problems or dreaminess up to disruptive and unpredictable behavior. Interestingly, early neuroscientific work on ADHD assumed either a

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

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    Full Text Available ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ... and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact ...

  7. Parental Involvement in CBT for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Revisited: Family CBT Outperforms Child CBT in the Long Term for Children With Comorbid ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Marija; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CCBT) versus family CBT (FCBT) in anxiety-disordered youth with high and low comorbid ADHD symptoms. Youth with anxiety disorders ( n = 123, aged 8-18) were classified in four groups according to (a) the type of CBT received (child vs. family) and (b) their comorbid ADHD symptoms, measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Attention Problems syndrome scale level (normal vs. [sub]clinical). Severity of anxiety disorders was assessed with Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent (ADIS-C/P) version and anxiety symptoms via a 71-item anxiety symptom questionnaire, the Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-71), before and after CBT, and at 3 months and 1-year follow-ups. Based on the severity of anxiety disorders, children with high ADHD symptoms profit more from FCBT than CCBT in the long term. For children low on ADHD symptoms, and for anxiety symptoms and attention problems, no differences between CCBT and FCBT occurred. Family involvement seems a valuable addition to CBT for children with comorbid anxiety and ADHD symptoms.

  8. Comparison of Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) and Beta Training on Selective Attention and Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Trend Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Malmir, Nastaran; Khaleghi, Ali; Aminiorani, Majd

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of two neurofeedback protocols (SMR/theta and beta/theta) on ADHD symptoms, selective attention and EEG (electroencephalogram) parameters in children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 16 children (9-15 year old: 13 boys; 3 girls) with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C). All of children used methylphenidate (MPH) during the study. The neurofeedback training consisted of two phases of 15 sessions, each lasting 45 minutes. In the first phase, participants were trained to enhance sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and reduce theta activity (4-8 Hz) at C4 and in the second phase; they had to increase beta (15-18 Hz) and reduce theta activity at C3. Assessments consisted of d2 attention endurance test, ADHD rating scale (parent form) at three time periods: before, middle and the end of the training. EEG signals were recorded just before and after the training. Based on parents' reports, inattention after beta/theta training, and hyperactivity/impulsivity were improved after the end of the training. All subscales of d2 test were improved except for the difference between maximum and minimum responses. However, EEG analysis showed no significant differences. Neurofeedback in conjunction with Methylphenidate may cause further improvement in ADHD symptoms reported by parents and selective attention without long-term impact on EEG patterns. However, determining the exact relationship between EEG parameters, neurofeedback protocols and ADHD symptoms remain unclear.

  9. The co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in parents of children with ASD or ASD with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Richards, Jennifer S; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g., the tendency to choose a partner that is similar or dissimilar to oneself. Another issue is that of parent-of-origin effect which refers to the possibility of parents differing in the relative quantity of risk factors they transmit to the offspring. The current study sets out to examine (cross-)assortative mating and (cross-)parent-of-origin effects of ASD and ADHD in parents of children with either ASD or ASD with ADHD diagnosis. In total, 121 families were recruited in an ongoing autism-ADHD family genetics project. Participating families consisted of parents and at least one child aged between 2 and 20 years, with either autistic disorder, Asperger disorder or PDD-NOS, and one or more biological siblings. All children and parents were carefully screened for the presence of ASD and ADHD. No correlations were found between maternal and paternal ASD and ADHD symptoms. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were predictive for similar symptoms in the offspring, but with maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, but not paternal symptoms, predicting similar symptoms in daughters. ASD pathology in the parents was not predictive for ADHD pathology in the offspring, but mother's ADHD pathology was predictive for offspring ASD pathology even when corrected for maternal ASD pathology. Cross-assortative mating for ASD and ADHD does not form an explanation for the frequent co-occurrence of these disorders within families. Given that parental ADHD is predictive of offspring' ASD but not vice versa, risk factors underlying ASD may overlap to a larger degree with risk factors underlying ADHD than vice versa. However, future research is needed to clarify

  10. Decreased Left Caudate Volume Is Associated with Increased Severity of Autistic-Like Symptoms in a Cohort of ADHD Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Dwyer, Laurence; Tanner, Colby; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Groen, Wouter; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of ASD ratings were analysed by studying the relationship between ASD ratings and grey matter volumes using mixed effects models which controlled for ADHD symptom count and total brain volume. ASD ratings were significantly elevated in participants with ADHD relative to controls and unaffected siblings. For the entire group (participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and TD controls), mixed effect models revealed that the left caudate nucleus volume was negatively correlated with ASD ratings (t = 2.83; P = 0.005). The current findings are consistent with the role of the caudate nucleus in executive function, including the selection of goals based on the evaluation of action outcomes and the use of social reward to update reward representations. There is a specific volumetric profile associated with subclinical ASD-like symptoms in participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus being of critical importance in predicting the level of ASD-like symptoms in all three groups. PMID:27806078

  11. ADHD - Forekomst, Symptomer og Komorbiditet : Med hovedvekt på kjønnsforskjeller

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerke, Lene Katrine; Fjeldstad, Silje

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition in childhood and has a great impact on the affected children and their environment. ADHD affects 3-5 % of Norwegian children, and persist into adulthood in 2/3 of the cases. A substantial discrepancy exists in the male-to-female ratio between clinically referred (9-10: 1) and community (2-3: 1) samples of children with ADHD which suggests an underidentification of girls compared to boys. These findings also raise concern...

  12. The neurocognition of conduct disorder behaviors: specificity to physical aggression and theft after controlling for ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Tremblay, Richard E; van Lier, Pol A C; Vitaro, Frank; Nagin, Daniel S; Assaad, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that among the different conduct disorder (CD) behaviors, physical aggression, but not theft, links to low neurocognitive abilities. Specifically, physical aggression has consistently been found to be negatively related to neurocognitive abilities, whereas theft has been shown to be either positively or not related to neurocognition. The specificity of these links needs further examination because attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) links to both physical aggression and neurocognitive variation. The development of self-reported physical aggression and theft, from age 11 to 17 years, was studied in a prospective at-risk male cohort via a dual process latent growth curve model. Seven neurocognitive tests at age 20 were regressed on the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft. The links between neurocognition and the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft were adjusted for ADHD symptoms at ages 11 and 15 (parent, child and teacher reports). Results indicated that verbal abilities were negatively related to physical aggression while they were positively associated with theft. However, inductive reasoning was negatively associated with increases in theft across adolescence. Symptoms of ADHD accounted for part of the neurocognitive test links with physical aggression but did not account for the associations with theft. These differences emphasize the importance of examining specific CD behaviors to better understand their neurodevelopmental mechanisms. They also suggest that youth who engage in different levels of physical aggression or theft behaviors may require different preventive and corrective interventions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T.F.; Anastopoulos, A.D.; Garrett, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Oades, R.D.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sergeant, J.A.; Kollins, S.H.; Faraone, S.V.; Ashley-Koch, A.; Consortium, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related

  14. Essure Surgical Removal and Subsequent Symptom Resolution: Case Series and Follow-Up Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luiz Gustavo O; Cohen, Sarah L; Goggins, Emily R; Wang, Karen C; Einarsson, Jon I

    2015-01-01

    Transcervical sterilization is a minimally invasive option for permanent contraception with high reported rates of patient satisfaction. A small percentage of women subsequently choose to have the tubal inserts removed due to regret or perceived side effects. There is limited information with regard to the improvement in the symptom profile following surgical removal of the tubal inserts. We present a retrospective case series of 11 women who underwent surgical removal of Essure by hysteroscopy, salpingectomy, and/or hysterectomy. The predominant symptom at presentation was pain (n = 10; 90.91%), as well as bleeding (n = 6; 54.54%) and/or dyspareunia (n = 5; 45.45%). After surgical removal, the majority of patients (n = 8; 72.72%) reported an improvement of their symptoms. However, 3 (27.27%) patients continued to have persistent symptoms after surgery. Before surgical removal of Essure, it is important to thoroughly discuss the risk of continuing symptoms with patients. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence: the Helsinki Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to examine the joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence of various lengths while considering several covariates. Baseline surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, (N = 6535) were prospectively linked with employer's personnel register data comprising short self-certified (1-3 days), medically-certified intermediate (4-14 days) and long (15 days or more) sickness absence spells. Average follow-up time was 4.1 years. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sociodemographics, working conditions, health behaviours and health were self-reported in the surveys. Poisson regression analysis was used. Insomnia symptoms were associated with sickness absence at all levels of sleep duration. Adjusting for gender and age, U-shaped associations regarding sleep hours were found. Thus, those reporting short or long sleep and reporting insomnia symptoms had a higher risk for medically-certified intermediate and long sickness absence as compared to those reporting 7 hours of sleep without insomnia symptoms. Also, those reporting 6, 7, and 8 hours of sleep had a higher risk for such sickness absence, if they reported insomnia. Weak associations were also found for self-certified sickness absence, and for those reporting short and long sleep without insomnia. Adjustments attenuated the associations, but they mainly remained. These results suggest primacy of the effects of insomnia symptoms over sleep duration on sickness absence. Although insomnia dominated the joint association, U-shaped associations suggest that both sleep duration and insomnia symptoms need to be considered to promote work ability.

  16. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.

  17. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  18. Children with ADHD symptoms have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Czamara

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20-60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.80, p = 6.59×10⁻¹³ as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10⁻⁰⁴. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based.

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... speak. Contents What is ADHD? How Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working ... Connect ...

  20. Indicators of ADHD symptoms in virtual learning context using machine learning technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Patricia Mancera Valetts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This paper presents a user model for students performing virtual learning processes. This model is used to infer the presence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD indicators in a student. The user model is built considering three user characteristics, which can be also used as variables in different contexts. These variables are: behavioral conduct (BC, executive functions performance (EFP, and emotional state (ES. For inferring the ADHD symptomatic profile of a student and his/her emotional alterations, these features are used as input in a set of classification rules. Based on the testing of the proposed model, training examples are obtained. These examples are used to prepare a classification machine learning algorithm for performing, and improving, the task of profiling a student. The proposed user model can provide the first step to adapt learning resources in e-learning platforms to people with attention problems, specifically, young-adult students with ADHD.

  1. The danger of being inattentive - ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Stickley, A; Koposov, R; Ruchkin, V

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students' self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Redundancy Effect on Retention and Transfer for Individuals with High Symptoms of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Victoria; Lewis, David; Toussaint, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia elements of text and audio need to be carefully integrated together to maximize the impact of those elements for learning in a multimedia environment. Redundancy information presented through audio and visual channels can inhibit learning for individuals diagnosed with ADHD, who may experience challenges in the processing of…

  3. Are ADHD Symptoms Associated with Delay Aversion or Choice Impulsivity? A General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with choice impulsivity is examined. Findings were found to indicate that primary constitutional processes that underlie choice impulsivity and their potential role in behavioral inattention are important. It was also found that behavioral and brain processes that underlie choice…

  4. Gender Differences in the Effects of Oppositional Behavior on Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A.; King, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child…

  5. Linking state regulation, brain laterality, and self-reported ADHD symptoms in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Difficulties in regulating the motor activation state and atypical brain laterality have been suggested to be key factors in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). So far, the link between the two factors has not been directly tested, which is the aim of the present study. Method:

  6. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults : The effect of laterality and state regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Borger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation,

  7. Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Students: Bias or Behavioral Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, Shelley J.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2008-01-01

    Disproportionate placement of African American and Hispanic students into disability and special education categories may result from true behavioral and cognitive differences, bias in assessment and referral, or some combination of the two. Studies of commonly used ADHD rating scales suggest teacher bias may contribute to placement discrepancies.…

  8. Predictors of boys' ADHD symptoms from early to middle childhood: the role of father-child and mother-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise J

    2012-05-01

    This prospective 3 year longitudinal study investigated preschool paternal and maternal parenting predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) in a community sample of 93 school-age boys. Participants were recruited on the basis of inattention-hyperactivity at age 4 and fathers and mothers were observed interacting with their sons. Teachers, fathers, and mothers reported children's ADHD symptoms and impairment. Results from dimensional analysis showed that less observed paternal sensitivity and maternal positive regard predicted higher levels of inattentiveness in middle childhood, and that intrusive paternal behavior was predictive of hyperactive-impulsive behavior at school. In categorical analysis, less maternal warmth and sensitivity were predictive of later ADHD. These predictions held after statistical adjustment for the effects of preschool ADHD behaviors and conduct problems. At follow-up, parents of boys with ADHD reported more negative child-parent relationship perceptions than comparison parents. Findings highlight the importance of examining responsive parenting behaviors of both fathers and mothers in relation to multi-informant ratings of ADHD symptoms.

  9. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-concept in children and adolescents with epilepsy: The role of family functioning, mothers' emotional symptoms and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Isik, Uğur; Gunes, Serkan; Yildirim, Canan; Killi, Yunus; Guler, Gülen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the associated factors of poor self-concept in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Fifty-three patients with uncomplicated epilepsy (aged 7-18years) and 28 healthy controls were included. Study measures included the Piers-Harris 2 Self-Concept Scale, Family Assessment Device (FAD), Turgay DSM-IV based ADHD rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R), Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Neurology clinic charts were reviewed for the epilepsy-related variables. While the Piers-Harris 2 total score was not significantly different between the groups, patients with epilepsy had lower (poorer) scores on freedom from anxiety and popularity subscales. Linear regression analysis revealed that the problem solving, affective responsiveness, general functioning and communication scores of FAD; total and inattentiveness scores of T-DSM-IV-S and mothers' Beck scores were associated with the total score of Piers-Harris 2. Epilepsy-related factors were not found to be associated with self-concept scores. Poor self-concept in children with epilepsy is associated with negative family functioning, mothers' emotional symptoms and ADHD, especially the symptoms of inattentiveness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Child Executive Control as a Moderator of the Longitudinal Association Between Sleep Problems and Subsequent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Nelson, Timothy D

    2017-11-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations among sleep, executive control (EC), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. In this longitudinal study (N = 271), parents answered questions about sleep problems when children were 3 years old, children completed a comprehensive EC task battery at 4.5 years, and teachers completed standardized measures of child ADHD symptoms in 4th grade. Latent moderated structural equation models demonstrated that sleep problems at 3 years and EC deficits at 4.5 years were associated with ADHD symptoms in 4th grade. EC moderated the relationship between sleep problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity, such that children with both sleep problems and poor EC were particularly at risk for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Sleep problems and EC deficits early in development were associated with increased risk for ADHD symptoms in elementary school. Early assessment and intervention to promote healthy sleep and EC development may be helpful in ADHD prevention. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Comparison of Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR and Beta Training on Selective Attention and Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD: A Trend Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of two neurofeedback protocols (SMR/theta and beta/theta on ADHD symptoms, selective attention and EEG (electroencephalogram parameters in children with ADHD.  Method:The sample consisted of 16 children (9-15 year old: 13 boys; 3 girls with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C. All of children used methylphenidate (MPH during the study. The neurofeedback training consisted of two phases of 15 sessions, each lasting 45 minutes. In the first phase, participants were trained to enhance sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz and reduce theta activity (4-8 Hz at C4 and in the second phase; they had to increase beta (15-18 Hz and reduce theta activity at C3. Assessments consisted of d2 attention endurance test, ADHD rating scale (parent form at three time periods: before, middle and the end of the training. EEG signals were recorded just before and after the training . Result:Based on parents’ reports, inattention after beta/theta training, and hyperactivity/impulsivity were improved after the end of the training. All subscales of d2 test were improved except for the difference between maximum and minimum responses. However, EEG analysis showed no significant differences . Conclusion:Neurofeedback in conjunction with Methylphenidate may cause further improvement in ADHD symptoms reported by parents and selective attention without long-term impact on EEG patterns. However, determining the exact relationship between EEG parameters, neurofeedback protocols and ADHD symptoms remain unclear.

  13. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Subsequent Pregnancy, Child-Birth and Abortion: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Research on teenage pregnancy and abortion has primarily focused on socio-economic disadvantage. However, a few studies suggest that risk of unwanted pregnancy is related to conduct disorder symptoms. We examined the relationship between level of conduct disorder symptoms at age 15 and subsequent pregnancy, child-birth and abortion. A…

  14. The Influence of Parental and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Family Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge of the influence of parental and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the quality of family climate. The number of affected children may play an important moderating role. 103 Families were recruited

  15. A Common Genetic Factor Explains the Covariation among ADHD ODD and CD Symptoms in 9-10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Zheng, Mo; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common…

  16. ADHD Dimensions and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms in Relation to Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Neuropsychological Functioning in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A; Rapport, Hannah F; Rondon, Ana T; Becker, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    This study examined ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms in relation to self-report and laboratory measures of neuropsychological functioning in college students. College students ( N = 298, aged 17-25, 72% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, SCT, depression, sleep, functional impairment, and executive functioning (EF). Participants also completed a visual working memory task, a Stroop test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms were strong predictors of self-reported EF, with inattention the strongest predictor of Time Management and Motivation and SCT the strongest predictor of Self-Organization/Problem Solving. SCT (but not inattention) was associated with Emotion Regulation. No relationships were found between self-reported symptoms and laboratory task performance. Between-group analyses were largely consistent with regression analyses. Self-reported ADHD and SCT symptoms are strongly associated with college students' self-reported EF, but relationships with laboratory task measures of neuropsychological functioning are limited.

  17. The Influence of Parental and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Family Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    There is a lack of knowledge of the influence of parental and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the quality of family climate. The number of affected children may play an important moderating role. 103 Families were recruited

  18. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  19. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  20. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A.G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child

  1. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  2. Measurement and Structural Invariance of Parent Ratings of ADHD and ODD Symptoms across Gender for American and Malaysian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement (configural, metric, scalar, and residual) and structural (factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means) invariance of parent ratings of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder…

  3. Handwriting in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaid, Rebecca A; Papadopoulos, Nicole; Johnson, Beth P; Phillips, James G; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT) display fine and gross motor problems, often expressed as handwriting difficulties. This study aimed to kinematically characterize the handwriting of children with ADHD using a cursive letter l's task. In all, 28 boys (7-12 years), 14 ADHD-CT and 14 typically developing (TD), without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or comorbid autism, wrote a series of four cursive letter l's using a graphics tablet and stylus. Children with ADHD-CT had more inconsistent writing size than did TD controls. In addition, ADHD-CT symptom severity, specifically inattention, predicted poorer handwriting outcomes. In a sample of children with ADHD-CT who do not have DCD or autism, subtle handwriting differences were evident. It was concluded that handwriting might be impaired in children with ADHD in a manner dependent on symptom severity. This may reflect reports of underlying motor impairment in ADHD. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

  4. Symptoms of ADHD in children with high-functioning autism are related to impaired verbal working memory and verbal delayed recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Skogli, Erik Winther; Egeland, Jens; Oie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8-17) were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+) or without (HFA-) "attention problems" according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6-18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA- were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA- group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA-, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment.

  5. Symptoms of ADHD in children with high-functioning autism are related to impaired verbal working memory and verbal delayed recall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Normann Andersen

    Full Text Available Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC. Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8-17 were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+ or without (HFA- "attention problems" according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6-18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA- were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA- group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA-, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment.

  6. Factorial Validity of the ADHD Adult Symptom Rating Scale in a French Community Sample: Results From the ChiP-ARD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Tran, Antoine; Caci, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Recent publications reported that a bifactor model better represented the underlying structure of ADHD than classical models, at least in youth. The Adult ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (ASRS) has been translated into many languages, but a single study compared its structure in adults across Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) classifications. We investigated the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance of the ASRS among a community sample of 1,171 adults. Results support a bifactor model, including one general ADHD factor and three specific Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity factors corresponding to ICD-10, albeit the Impulsivity specific factor was weakly defined. Results also support the complete measurement invariance of this model across gender and age groups, and that men have higher scores than women on the ADHD G-factor but lower scores on all three S-factors. Results suggest that a total ASRS-ADHD score is meaningful, reliable, and valid in adults. (J. of Att. Dis. 2016; 20(6) 530-541). © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Longitudinal and concurrent links between memory span, anxiety symptoms, and subsequent executive functioning in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVisu-Petra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been conjectured that basic individual differences in attentional control influence higher-level executive functioning and subsequent academic performance in children. The current study sets out to complement the limited body of research on early precursors of executive functions. It provides both a cross-sectional, as well as a longitudinal exploration of the relationship between executive functions and more basic attentional control mechanisms, assessed via children’s performance on memory storage tasks, and influenced by individual differences in anxiety. Multiple measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM were administered to children between 3 and 6 years old, alongside a nonverbal measure of intelligence, and a parental report of anxiety symptoms. After 9 months, children were re-tested on the same STM measures, at which time we also administered multiple measures of executive functioning: verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM, inhibition, and shifting. A cross-sectional view of STM development indicated that between 3 and 6 years the trajectory of visuospatial STM and executive functions underwent a gradual linear improvement. However, between 5 and 6 years progress in verbal STM performance stagnated. Hierarchical regression models revealed that trait anxiety was negatively associated with WM and shifting, while nonverbal intelligence was positively related to WM span. When age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, and anxiety were controlled for, STM (measured at the first assessment was a very good predictor of overall executive performance. The models were most successful in predicting WM, followed by shifting, yet poorly predicted inhibition measures. Further longitudinal research is needed to directly address the contribution of attentional control mechanisms to emerging executive functioning and to the development of problematic behavior during early development.

  8. ADHD in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁČKOVÁ, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is to look at the problematics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and show the attitude towards children in the school environment. ADHD and other connected terminology is explained in the theoretical part of the thesis. Possible causes of ADHD are described in the following chapters. Because pupils in lower secondary schools are in their puberty, this stage is described from the psychological point of view. Analysis of symptoms of ADHD in various stages of life fo...

  9. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhambh, Ishani; Arun, Priti; Garg, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Cross-sectional study. A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ); Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES);and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) were administered on all participants. A total of 13 students (5.48%) fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224). The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  10. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Jhambh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ; Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS; Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES;and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were administered on all participants. Results: A total of 13 students (5.48% fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224. The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. Conclusions: ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  11. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Candidate Genetic Pathways for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Show Association to Hyperactive/Impulsive Symptoms in Children With ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bralten, Janita; Franke, Barbara; Waldman, Irwin; Rommelse, Nanda; Hartman, Catharina; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic

  13. Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Waldman, I.D.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Hartman, C.; Asherson, P.; Banaschewski, T.; Ebstein, R.P.; Gill, M.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Arias-Vasquez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic

  14. Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Waldman, I.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Hartman, C.; Asherson, P.; Banaschewski, T.; Ebstein, R.P.; Gill, M.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Arias Vasquez, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic

  15. Substance use in young adults with ADHD: Comorbidity and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los jóvenes con trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH tienen un elevado riesgo de uso de sustancias (US. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: 1 analizar el consumo de alcohol, tabaco, marihuana y otras drogas ilegales en adultos con y sin TDAH; 2 comparar a los adultos con TDAH con y sin US en oposicionismo, problemas de conducta, ansiedad, depresión, sueno˜ y personalidad antisocial; 3 determinar la capacidad de la sintomatología de TDAH y de los problemas de conducta para predecir el US. Noventa y tres jóvenes adultos, 43 sin TDAH y 50 con diagnóstico de TDAH en la infancia que participaron en el estudio Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE colaboraron en una evaluación de seguimiento 10.1 anos ˜ después. Los participantes con TDAH se dividieron en dos subgrupos según presencia o ausencia de US. Los jóvenes con y sin TDAH se diferenciaron significativamente en consumo de tabaco, marihuana y alcohol. Se constató una relación significativa entre los trastornos de conducta y US en adultos TDAH. Los problemas de conducta más que los síntomas de TDAH influyen en el US de adultos con TDAH.

  16. Homelessness among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Implications for Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…

  17. Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Technology-Based Interpersonal Behaviors: A Multi-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Miller, Adam B; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of adolescents' depressive symptoms on engagement in technology-based social comparison and feedback seeking (SCFS) behaviors. A total of 816 adolescents (54.7% girls; M age =14.1 at Time 1) participated at three times points, each one year apart. Adolescents reported technology-based SCFS, depressive symptoms, and frequencies of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram). Multiple group (by gender) latent growth curve models examined concurrent and lagged effects of depressive symptoms on SCFS, controlling for adolescent's underlying trajectories of SCFS and overall frequencies of technology use. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with greater SCFS after accounting for adolescents' typical patterns of SCFS. For boys only, higher depressive symptoms were prospectively associated with later increases in SCFS. Results highlight the importance of social media as a unique context in which depressed adolescents may be at risk for maladaptive interpersonal behavior.

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about themselves. The goal of any type of ADHD treatment is to reduce symptoms and help the child ... it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find that medication can be helpful. Therapy and Other Support A psychiatrist or other qualified ...

  19. Specific Components of Pediatricians' Medication-Related Care Predict Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N; Kelleher, Kelly J; Baum, Rebecca; Brinkman, William B; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua M

    2017-06-01

    The development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care quality measurements is a prerequisite to improving the quality of community-based pediatric care of children with ADHD. Unfortunately, the evidence base for existing ADHD care quality metrics is poor. The objective of this study was to identify which components of ADHD care best predict patient outcomes. Parents of 372 medication-naïve children in grades 1 to 5 presenting to their community-based pediatrician (N = 195) for an ADHD-related concern and who were subsequently prescribed ADHD medication were identified. Parents completed the Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale (VAPRS) at the time ADHD was raised as a concern and then approximately 12 months after starting ADHD medication. Each patient's chart was reviewed to measure 12 different components of ADHD care. Across all children, the mean decrease in VAPRS total symptom score during the first year of treatment was 11.6 (standard deviation 10.1). Of the 12 components of ADHD care, shorter times to first contact and more teacher ratings collected in the first year of treatment significantly predicted greater decreases in patient total symptom scores. Notably, it was timeliness of contacts, defined as office visits, phone calls, or email communication, that predicted more ADHD symptom decreases. Office visits alone, in terms of number or timeliness, did not predict patient outcomes. The magnitude of ADHD symptom decrease that can be achieved with the use of ADHD medications was associated with specific components of ADHD care. Future development and modifications of ADHD quality care metrics should include these ADHD care components. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  1. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Börger, N.A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for

  2. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  3. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Generalized Partial Credit Model Analysis of Differential Item Functioning across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…

  4. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  5. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  6. Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a function of childhood ADHD, random assignment to childhood treatments, and subsequent medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S G; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Eugene Arnold, L; Swanson, James M; Pelham, William E; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B; Greenhill, Laurence L; Jensen, Peter S; Wells, Karen C; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-03-01

    To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or both relate to substance use/SUD; and to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n = 261). Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8-year follow-up or earlier (mean age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than in the non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Medication for ADHD did not protect from, or contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8-year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information-Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent

  7. Trauma history characteristics and subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle accident victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Dulmen, Manfred van; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between trauma history characteristics (number and type of traumas, age at first trauma, and subjective responses to prior traumas) and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). One hundred eighty-eight adult MVA victims provided information about prior traumatization and were evaluated for PTSD symptoms 6 weeks and one year following the MVA. Results indicated that after controlling for demographics and depression, prior trauma history characteristics accounted for a small, but significant amount of the variance in PTSD symptoms. Distress from prior trauma and number of types of prior traumas were the most meaningful trauma history predictors. Results encourage further evaluation of trauma history as a multifaceted construct.

  8. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... try to help the child understand ways to change or better cope with ADHD symptoms, such as organizing schoolwork or dealing with emotional experiences. Social skills training can help children learn more rewarding ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or better cope with ADHD symptoms, such as organizing schoolwork or dealing with emotional experiences. Social skills training can help children learn more rewarding ways to play and work with other children. The therapist discusses and models ...

  11. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  12. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  13. Does the efficacy of parent-child training depend on maternal symptom improvement? Results from a randomized controlled trial on children and mothers both affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häge, Alexander; Alm, Barbara; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Katja; Colla, Michael; Freitag, Christine; Geissler, Julia; von Gontard, Alexander; Graf, Erika; Haack-Dees, Barbara; Hänig, Susann; Hennighausen, Klaus; Hohmann, Sarah; Jacob, Christian; Jaite, Charlotte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Kappel, Viola; Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Poustka, Luise; Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael; Schneider-Momm, Katja; Sobanski, Esther; Vloet, Timo D; Warnke, Andreas; Jans, Thomas

    2018-01-23

    Multimodal treatment of children with ADHD often includes parent-child training (PCT). However, due to the high heritability, parents of children with ADHD are frequently also affected by the disorder, which is likely to constitute a significant barrier to successful treatment of the child. This secondary analysis of our randomized controlled multicentre AIMAC trial (ADHD in mothers and children) investigates whether children's outcomes following parent-child training in combination with maternal ADHD treatment depend on maternal symptom improvement. In a first step focusing on treatment of maternal ADHD, 144 mothers of mother-child dyads were randomized to multimodal ADHD treatment (group psychotherapy plus methylphenidate) or clinical management (mainly supportive counselling). After 12 weeks (T2), a 12-week PCT program (T2-T3) for all mother-child dyads was added to treat children's ADHD. Maternal symptomatology (CAARS-O:L; SCL-90-R) and children's externalizing symptoms (ADHD-ODD Scale, SDQ) were repeatedly assessed (T1 = baseline, T2, T3). Effects of changes in maternal symptomatology (T1-T2) on the change in children's symptom scores (T1-T3) were analysed using a general linear model, controlling for baseline scores, study centre, and maternal treatment group. 125 mother-child dyads were analysed. Mothers showed significant improvements in ADHD symptoms and overall psychopathology [CAARS-O:L ADHD index: mean - 3.54, SE 0.74 p < 0.0001; SCL-90-R Global Severity (GS): mean - 11.03, SE 3.90, p = 0.0056]. Although children's externalizing symptoms improved significantly (ADHD-ODD Scale: mean - 4.46, SE 0.58, p < 0.0001), maternal improvement had no effect on children's outcomes after Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing. The findings do not support our hypothesis that children's outcomes following PCT for ADHD depend on maternal symptom improvements.Trial register CCT-ISRCTN73911400.

  14. On the relationship between retrospective childhood ADHD symptoms and adult BPD features: the mediating role of action-oriented personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotta, Davide; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Fossati, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have reported data suggestive of a significant association between ADHD and BPD, nevertheless, the nature of this relation has not been fully understood yet. In our study, we tried to evaluate if the relationship between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and adult BPD features could mediated by selected temperament/personality traits. Four hundred forty-seven in- and outpatients consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of the Scientific Institute H San Raffaele of Milan, Italy, were administered the Italian versions of the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, Version 2.0 (SCID-II), Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Our mediation analyses showed that the combination of impulsivity, aggression, novelty seeking, and juvenile conduct problems completely mediate the relationship between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and current BPD features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Dick, Catherine; Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with social difficulties, though the extent to which these clearly overlap with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well understood. We explored parent-reported and directly-observed ASD symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children referred to ASD-specialty clinics who received diagnoses of either ADHD (n = 48) or ASD (n = 164). Of the ADHD sample, 21 % met ASD cut-offs on the ADOS and 30 % met ASD cut-offs on all domains of the ADI-R. Four social communication ADOS items (Quality of Social Overtures, Unusual Eye Contact, Facial Expressions Directed to Examiner, and Amount of Reciprocal Social Communication) adequately differentiated the groups while none of the items on the ADI-R met the criteria for adequate discrimination. Results of this work highlight the challenges that clinicians and researchers face when distinguishing ASD from other disorders in verbally fluent, school-age children.

  16. Adult ADHD : the effects of hookah pipe smoking on attention and concentration in young adults with ADHD symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. Literature indicates that childhood ADHD has received considerable attention and recognition in today’s society and is effectively represented in the DSM. In comparison, there is still much controversy surrounding ADHD in adults (aADHD), despite the fact that almost 50 to 70% of people diagnosed with childhood ADHD continue to manifest symptoms in adulthood. Research indicates that aADHD manifests differently to childhood ADHD, in that the core symptom is inattention and not hyperacti...

  17. Investigating late-onset ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Miriam; Hammerton, Gemma; Collishaw, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    not show a profile of neurodevelopmental impairment typically seen in ADHD, instead showing similar levels of autistic symptoms, language skills, executive functioning ability and IQ to those without ADHD symptoms. The only exceptions were that this group showed reading and spelling problems at age 9 years...

  18. The pragmatic language, communication skills, parent-child relationships, and symptoms of children with ADHD and their playmates 18-months after a parent-delivered play-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Cantrill, Alycia; Parsons, Lauren; Smith, Cally; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the communication skills, pragmatic language, parent-child relationships, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of children with ADHD and their playmates 18-months after a pilot parent-delivered intervention for improving social play skills and pragmatic language. Participants were five children with ADHD, their parents, and five typically-developing playmates. Outcomes were measured immediately post and 18-months following the intervention. Parent-rated norm-based assessments and an observational measure were used. Differences within and between the ADHD and playmate groups were examined. Children maintained all skills gained 18-months following the intervention. Compared to a normative sample, children with ADHD remained below the average range on aspects of communication skills, parent-child relationships, and ADHD symptom levels 18-months following intervention. After intervention, children with ADHD still experienced pragmatic language skills below those of their peers on norm-based assessments that measure their skills across contexts. School-based interventions are needed to facilitate ongoing skill development and generalization.

  19. Does Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Modify the Effects of Atomoxetine on ADHD Symptoms as Measured by a Continuous Performance Test and a Motion Tracking Device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeier, Peter M; Kipp, Laura; Banaschewski, Tobias; Dittmann, Ralf W; Schacht, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    To compare the reduction of ADHD symptoms under atomoxetine in patients with and without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) using a computer-based continuous performance test (cb-CPT) combined with an infrared motion tracking (MT) device. Secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled study in ADHD patients (6-12 years old) treated with atomoxetine (target dose: 1.2 mg/kg per day). Cb-CPT/MT scores were analyzed using ANCOVA (last observation carried forward [LOCF]). The data (N = 125) suggested a more pronounced atomoxetine effect in the group with comorbid ODD/CD as measured by all cb-CPT/MT parameters except for "normalized variation of reaction time" (nVRT). The results showed that atomoxetine reduced ADHD severity as measured by cb-CPT and MT parameters regardless of whether comorbid ODD/CD was present. The treatment effect of atomoxetine on hyperactivity appears to be more pronounced in the subgroup of patients with comorbid ODD/CD than in the subgroup without this comorbidity. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  20. Linking state regulation, brain laterality, and self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that performance of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impaired when stimuli are presented at a slow rate compared to a medium or fast rate. According to the cognitive-energetic model, this finding may reflect difficulty in allocating sufficient effort to regulate the motor activation state. Other studies have shown that the left hemisphere is relatively responsible for keeping humans motivated, allocating sufficient effort to complete their tasks. This leads to a prediction that poor effort allocation might be associated with an affected left-hemisphere functioning in ADHD. So far, this prediction has not been directly tested, which is the aim of the present study. Seventy-seven adults with various scores on the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale performed a lateralized lexical decision task in three conditions with stimuli presented in a fast, a medium, and a slow rate. The left-hemisphere functioning was measured in terms of visual field advantage (better performance for the right than for the left visual field). All subjects showed an increased right visual field advantage for word processing in the slow presentation rate of stimuli compared to the fast and the medium rate. Higher ADHD scores were related to a reduced right visual field advantage in the slow rate only. The present findings suggest that ADHD symptomatology is associated with less involvement of the left hemisphere when extra effort allocation is needed to optimize the low motor activation state.

  1. ADHD Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD Medicines KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD Medicines What's in ... en español Medicamentos para el TDAH What Is ADHD Medicine? After someone is diagnosed with ADHD , doctors ...

  2. Association between Maternal Depression Symptoms across the First Eleven Years of Their Child's Life and Subsequent Offspring Suicidal Ideation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Hammerton

    Full Text Available Depression is common, especially in women of child-bearing age; prevalence estimates for this group range from 8% to 12%, and there is robust evidence that maternal depression is associated with mental health problems in offspring. Suicidal behaviour is a growing concern amongst young people and those exposed to maternal depression are likely to be especially at high risk. The aim of this study was to utilise a large, prospective population cohort to examine the relationship between depression symptom trajectories in mothers over the first eleven years of their child's life and subsequent adolescent suicidal ideation. An additional aim was to test if associations were explained by maternal suicide attempt and offspring depressive disorder. Data were utilised from a population-based birth cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal depression symptoms were assessed repeatedly from pregnancy to child age 11 years. Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Using multiple imputation, data for 10,559 families were analysed. Using latent class growth analysis, five distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms were identified (minimal, mild, increasing, sub-threshold, chronic-severe. The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation at age 16 years was 15% (95% CI: 14-17%. Compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms, the greatest risk of suicidal ideation was found for offspring of mothers with chronic-severe symptoms [OR 3.04 (95% CI 2.19, 4.21], with evidence for smaller increases in risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with sub-threshold, increasing and mild symptoms. These associations were not fully accounted for by maternal suicide attempt or offspring depression diagnosis. Twenty-six percent of non-depressed offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms reported suicidal ideation. Risk for suicidal ideation should be considered in young people whose mothers have a

  3. Association between Maternal Depression Symptoms across the First Eleven Years of Their Child's Life and Subsequent Offspring Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Mars, Becky; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita; Zammit, Stanley; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common, especially in women of child-bearing age; prevalence estimates for this group range from 8% to 12%, and there is robust evidence that maternal depression is associated with mental health problems in offspring. Suicidal behaviour is a growing concern amongst young people and those exposed to maternal depression are likely to be especially at high risk. The aim of this study was to utilise a large, prospective population cohort to examine the relationship between depression symptom trajectories in mothers over the first eleven years of their child's life and subsequent adolescent suicidal ideation. An additional aim was to test if associations were explained by maternal suicide attempt and offspring depressive disorder. Data were utilised from a population-based birth cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal depression symptoms were assessed repeatedly from pregnancy to child age 11 years. Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Using multiple imputation, data for 10,559 families were analysed. Using latent class growth analysis, five distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms were identified (minimal, mild, increasing, sub-threshold, chronic-severe). The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation at age 16 years was 15% (95% CI: 14-17%). Compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms, the greatest risk of suicidal ideation was found for offspring of mothers with chronic-severe symptoms [OR 3.04 (95% CI 2.19, 4.21)], with evidence for smaller increases in risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with sub-threshold, increasing and mild symptoms. These associations were not fully accounted for by maternal suicide attempt or offspring depression diagnosis. Twenty-six percent of non-depressed offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms reported suicidal ideation. Risk for suicidal ideation should be considered in young people whose mothers have a history of

  4. Experiences of ADHD in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    of being human. Within our specific culture and place in time, certain ways of being in the world and certain ways of understanding oneself are available. In this context, experiences of ADHD are intertwined with the desire of being a good parent, of wanting to navigate in society, of keeping a job...... based on neurobiological explanations of ADHD. The first position involves identifying with ADHD as a way of being human and a specific way of managing (and failing to manage) life based on certain neurological structures in the brain. The second position involves distancing from ADHD by separating...... and so has the number of prescriptions for drugs treating ADHD. We know, however, only little about the effects of diagnosing and about phenomenological aspects of ADHD. By analyzing how individuals experience symptoms of ADHD, interpret themselves through the diagnosis, and make use of the resources...

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of the 'Incredible Years parent training' to parents of young children with ADHD symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based parent training program in a real-world Scandinavian setting. Parents of 36 young children with or at risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) self-referred to participate in the Incredible Years® Parent Training Program (IYPT...

  6. Linking state regulation, brain laterality, and self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Borger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many clinical studies have shown that performance of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impaired when stimuli are presented at a slow rate compared to a medium or fast rate. According to the cognitive–energetic model, this finding may reflect difficulty in

  7. Perinatal exposure to low-dose imidacloprid causes ADHD-like symptoms: Evidences from an invertebrate model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoyoung; Lee, Hee-Seok; Park, Yooheon

    2017-12-01

    The fundamental diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism consists of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which lead to abnormal social interactions and repetitive and restricted behavior. Several food contaminants are suspected of being a possible contributing factor to the present-day increase in diseases, such as obesity and ADHD, and pesticides are also considered as a contributor to the increased prevalence of ADHD. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with lower toxicity to mammals. Based on recent reports on neurobehavioral studies using an invertebrate model system, we have assessed ADHD-related impairments to test the effects of low-dose exposure to imidacloprid in Drosophila melanogaster through behavior assays, such as abnormal social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and significant deficiency in locomotion in an open field arena, a decision-making process. Drosophila stocks were treated with imidacloprid at the level of 200 pM. Social interaction among the flies was disturbed by imidacloprid. Travelled distance and velocity was also increased by the treatment. The difference in velocity between the treatment group and the control group was significant, revealing that imidacloprid-exposed flies moved faster and longer than control flies. This study illustrated the behavioral deficiency in Drosophila due to the low-dose imidacloprid exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in non-clinical adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Borger, Norbertus; Geuze, Reint; van der Meere, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised Brain Lateralization (BL) in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the question remains whether the deficit is in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that research on patients is vulnerable to

  9. Cardiac reactivity and stimulant use in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders with comorbid ADHD versus ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+)

  10. A Randomized Trial of Comparing the Efficacy of Two Neurofeedback Protocols for Treatment of Clinical and Cognitive Symptoms of ADHD: Theta Suppression/Beta Enhancement and Theta Suppression/Alpha Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurofeedback (NF is an adjuvant or alternative therapy for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. This study intended to compare the efficacy of two different NF protocols on clinical and cognitive symptoms of ADHD. Materials and Methods. In this clinical trial, sixty children with ADHD aged 7 to 10 years old were randomly grouped to receive two different NF treatments (theta suppression/beta enhancement protocol and theta suppression/alpha enhancement protocol. Clinical and cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and following the treatment and also after an eight-week follow-up. Results. Both protocols alleviated the symptoms of ADHD in general (p<0.001, hyperactivity (p<0.001, inattention (p<0.001, and omission errors (p<0.001; however, they did not affect the oppositional and impulsive scales nor commission errors. These effects were maintained after an eight-week intervention-free period. The only significant difference between the two NF protocols was that high-frequency alpha enhancement protocol performed better in suppressing omission errors (p<0.001. Conclusion. The two NF protocols with theta suppression/beta enhancement and theta suppression/alpha enhancement have considerable and comparable effect on clinical symptoms of ADHD. Alpha enhancement protocol was more effective in suppressing omission errors.

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and glial integrity: an exploration of associations of cytokines and kynurenine metabolites with symptoms and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmelmann Benno G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to studies of depression and psychosis, the first part of this study showed no major differences in serum levels of cytokines and tryptophan metabolites between healthy children and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of the combined type (ADHD. Yet, small decreases of potentially toxic kynurenine metabolites and increases of cytokines were evident in subgroups. Therefore we examined predictions of biochemical associations with the major symptom clusters, measures of attention and response variability. Methods We explored systematically associations of 8 cytokines (indicators of pro/anti-inflammatory function and 5 tryptophan metabolites with symptom ratings (e.g. anxiety, opposition, inattention and continuous performance test (CPT measures (e.g. movement, response time (RT, variability in 35 ADHD (14 on medication and 21 control children. Predictions from linear regressions (controlled by the false discovery rate confirmed or disconfirmed partial correlations accounting for age, body mass and socio-economic status. Results (1 Total symptom ratings were associated with increases of the interleukins IL-16 and IL-13, where relations of IL-16 (along with decreased S100B with hyperactivity, and IL-13 with inattention were notable. Opposition ratings were predicted by increased IL-2 in ADHD and IL-6 in control children. (2 In the CPT, IL-16 related to motor measures and errors of commission, while IL-13 was associated with errors of omission. Increased RT variability related to lower TNF-α, but to higher IFN-γ levels. (3 Tryptophan metabolites were not significantly related to symptoms. But increased tryptophan predicted errors of omission, its breakdown predicted errors of commission and kynurenine levels related to faster RTs. Conclusions Many associations were found across diagnostic groups even though they were more marked in one group. This confirms the quantitative trait nature of these

  12. The neurobiological link between OCD and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Silvia; Grünblatt, Edna; Drechsler, Renate; Riederer, Peter; Walitza, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neuropsychiatric diseases in paediatric populations. The high comorbidity of ADHD and OCD with each other, especially of ADHD in paediatric OCD, is well described. OCD and ADHD often follow a chronic course with persistent rates of at least 40-50 %. Family studies showed high heritability in ADHD and OCD, and some genetic findings showed similar variants for both disorders of the same pathogenetic mechanisms, whereas other genetic findings may differentiate between ADHD and OCD. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest that partly similar executive functions are affected in both disorders. The deficits in the corresponding brain networks may be responsible for the perseverative, compulsive symptoms in OCD but also for the disinhibited and impulsive symptoms characterizing ADHD. This article reviews the current literature of neuroimaging, neurochemical circuitry, neuropsychological and genetic findings considering similarities as well as differences between OCD and ADHD.

  13. Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.

  14. ADHD-like behavior and entrepreneurial intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); J.H. Block (Jörn); K. Burmeister-Lamp (Katrin); A.R. Thurik (Roy); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R. Turturea (Roxana)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLittle is known about the relation between entrepreneurship and the extent of psychiatric symptoms. Validated psychiatric symptom scores are seldom used for non-clinical reasons. One prevalent symptom that deserves our interest is Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD

  15. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  16. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  17. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  18. Glutamatergic and GABAergic gene sets in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: association to overlapping traits in ADHD and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaijen, J; Bralten, J; Poelmans, G; Glennon, J C; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J K

    2017-01-10

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often co-occur. Both are highly heritable; however, it has been difficult to discover genetic risk variants. Glutamate and GABA are main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain; their balance is essential for proper brain development and functioning. In this study we investigated the role of glutamate and GABA genetics in ADHD severity, autism symptom severity and inhibitory performance, based on gene set analysis, an approach to investigate multiple genetic variants simultaneously. Common variants within glutamatergic and GABAergic genes were investigated using the MAGMA software in an ADHD case-only sample (n=931), in which we assessed ASD symptoms and response inhibition on a Stop task. Gene set analysis for ADHD symptom severity, divided into inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, autism symptom severity and inhibition were performed using principal component regression analyses. Subsequently, gene-wide association analyses were performed. The glutamate gene set showed an association with severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity (P=0.009), which was robust to correcting for genome-wide association levels. The GABA gene set showed nominally significant association with inhibition (P=0.04), but this did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. None of single gene or single variant associations was significant on their own. By analyzing multiple genetic variants within candidate gene sets together, we were able to find genetic associations supporting the involvement of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems in ADHD and ASD symptom severity in ADHD.

  19. The impact of ADHD symptoms and global impairment in childhood on working disability in mid-adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study using official disability pension records in a high-risk in-patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordre Marianne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with ADHD have been associated with more employment difficulties in early adulthood than healthy community controls. To examine whether this association is attributable specifically to disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD or to psychopathology in general, we wanted to extend existing research by comparing the rate of mid-adulthood working disabilities for individuals diagnosed with ADHD as children with the rate for clinical controls diagnosed with either conduct disorder, emotional disorder or mixed disorder of conduct and emotions. Methods Former Norwegian child-psychiatric in-patients (n = 257 were followed up 17–39 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the Norwegian national registry of disability pension (DP awards. Based on the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. Associations between the diagnoses, other baseline factors and subsequent DP were investigated using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and logrank testing. Results At follow-up, 19% of the participants had received a DP award. In the logrank testing, ADHD was the only disorder associated with a subsequent DP, with 30% being disabled at follow-up (p = 0.01. Low psychosocial functioning (assessed by the Children’s Global Assessment Scale at admission uniquely predicted future DP (p = 0.04. Conclusions ADHD in childhood was highly associated with later receiving a DP. Our finding of worse prognosis in ADHD compared with other internalizing and externalizing disorders in mid-adulthood supports the assumption of ADHD being specifically linked to working disability. Assessment of psychosocial functioning in addition to diagnostic features could enhance prediction of children who are most at risk of future disability.

  20. Does early improvement in depressive symptoms predict subsequent remission in patients with depression who are treated with duloxetine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueki A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Akitsugu Sueki, Eriko Suzuki, Hitoshi Takahashi, Jun Ishigooka Department of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: In this prospective study, we examined whether early reduction in depressive symptoms predicts later remission to duloxetine in the treatment of depression, as monitored using the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Patients and methods: Among the 106 patients who were enrolled in this study, 67 were included in the statistical analysis. A clinical evaluation using the MADRS was performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 after commencing treatment. For each time point, the MADRS total score was separated into three components: dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative scores. Results: Remission was defined as an MADRS total score of ≤10 at end point. From our univariate logistic regression analysis, we found that improvements in both the MADRS total score and the dysphoria score at week 4 had a significant interaction with subsequent remission. Furthermore, age and sex were significant predictors of remission. There was an increase of approximately 4% in the odds of remission for each unit increase in age, and female sex had an odds of remission of 0.318 times that of male sex (remission rate for men was 73.1% [19/26] and for women 46.3% [19/41]. However, in the multivariate model using the change from baseline in the total MADRS, dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative scores at week 4, in which age and sex were included as covariates, only sex retained significance, except for an improvement in the dysphoria score. Conclusion: No significant interaction was found between early response to duloxetine and eventual remission in this study. Sex difference was found to be a predictor of subsequent remission in patients with depression who were treated with duloxetine, with the male sex having greater odds of remission. Keywords: antidepressant, early response, sex difference, serotonin

  1. Sleep and Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential relationships between objectively measured sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral function in a community cohort of 5- to 7-year old children with parentally reported symptoms of ADHD were investigated at the University of Louisville, KY.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Rating the severity of psychopathology and symptom load is essential in daily clinical practice and in research. The parent and teacher ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) includes...

  3. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  4. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skills, such as waiting for a turn, sharing toys, or asking for help. A child might also practice skills such as perceiving another ... has trouble completing tasks, parents may learn to help the child divide a large task into ... Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us info@advsol.com My Profile Donate About AACAP Copyright © Advanced Solutions International . {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  7. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) moderate suicidal behaviors in college students with depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Davidson, Collin; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2013-09-01

    College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related hyperactive/impulsive (HI) and/or inattentive (IA) symptoms may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior due to core and secondary symptoms that increase their potential to engage in behaviors that put them at risk for suicidal behavior. Consequently, the current study examined the moderating effect of combined HI/IA symptoms, in addition to independent HI and IA symptoms on the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and behavior. A sample of 1,056 undergraduate students (61.5% female, 96.4% aged 18-24 years) provided self-report ratings of mood, suicidal behavior (thoughts, self-harm, attempts, and need for medical attention), and current HI/IA symptoms. Significant moderation effects were detected, such that greater HI/IA symptoms were associated with a stronger relationship between depressed mood and suicidal ideation and attempts, but not self-harm. Current HI and IA symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, but did not moderate the relationship between depressed mood and self-harm and need for medical attention. The current findings suggest that the presence of combined HI/IA symptoms conveys increased suicide risk for depressed college students. Additionally, results suggest a complex relationship between independent HI and IA symptoms and severe suicidal outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A diagnostic tool on time perception of children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gongsook, P.; Peijnenborgh, J.; Sallustro, C.; Spek, van der E.D.; Hu, J.; Bellotti, F.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Hendriksen, J.G.M.; De Gloria, A.

    2014-01-01

    ADHD is among the most common childhood developmental disorder which may affect the school achievements. Children with ADHD may show symptoms of time perception problems. Although ADHD is a clinical diagnosis with several approaches, no diagnostic tool has been designed to detect the symptoms of

  9. Prevalence of sleep disorders and their relationship with core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Galarraga, Rosario; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in a control population. To examine the relationship between sleep disorders and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness and executive dysfunction. We studied 126 children with ADHD and 1036 control children aged between 5 and 18 years old. Caregivers completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Children with ADHD were subsequently assessed for executive function with the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) or with AULA Nesplora. Children with ADHD slept less at night and were more likely to display sleep-related rhythmic movements. Children in the ADHD group who were under 12 years old and who had total ADHD-RS scores over the 90th percentile had more difficulty falling asleep than other children; there was also a relationship between total ADHD-RS scores over the 90th percentile and certain parasomnias in the control population. There was a correlation between shorter duration of night-time sleep and omission errors in children who were 12 or older and who were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD. Bedtime resistance and difficulty falling sleep were more frequent in children with ADHD whose symptoms were not treated pharmacologically, than in children receiving treatment. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are correlated with impaired sleep duration and quality; specifically, there is an association between ADHD symptoms and problems falling asleep and parasomnias, however, the current study does not address the nature and direction of causality. Children with ADHD and receiving methylphenidate had fewer sleep disorders, suggesting that, at least in some children, stimulant treatment is associated with improvement of some aspects of sleep. Shorter sleep duration in adolescents under pharmacological treatment for ADHD tended to result in more errors of omission, suggesting that it is

  10. SPECIFIC MOOD SYMPTOMS CONFER RISK FOR SUBSEQUENT SUICIDAL IDEATION IN BIPOLAR DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT SUICIDE ATTEMPT HISTORY: MULTI-WAVE DATA FROM STEP-BD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Sylvia, Louisa G; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Berk, Michael; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about specific mood symptoms that may confer risk for suicidal ideation (SI) among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We evaluated prospectively whether particular symptoms of depression and mania precede the onset or worsening of SI, among adults with or without a history of a suicide attempt. We examined prospective data from a large (N = 2,741) cohort of patients participating in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD). We evaluated history of suicide attempts at baseline, and symptoms of depression and mania at baseline and follow-up visits. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether specific mood symptoms predicted subsequent levels of SI, and whether the strength of the associations differed based on suicide attempt history, after accounting for the influence of other mood symptoms and current SI. Beyond overall current depression and mania symptom severity, baseline SI, and illness characteristics, several mood symptoms, including guilt, reduced self-esteem, psychomotor retardation and agitation, increases in appetite, and distractibility predicted more severe levels of subsequent SI. Problems with concentration, distraction, sleep loss and decreased need for sleep predicted subsequent SI more strongly among individuals with a suicide attempt history. Several specific mood symptoms may confer risk for the onset or worsening of SI among treatment-seeking patients with BD. Individuals with a previous suicide attempt may be at greater risk in part due to greater reactivity to certain mood symptoms in the form of SI. However, overall, effect sizes were small, suggesting the need to identify additional proximal predictors of SI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dealing with ADHD: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dealing with ADHD: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity) Diagnosing ADHD Studies show that the number of children being ...

  12. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  13. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood...... and they are typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  14. Measuring impairment when diagnosing adolescent ADHD: Differentiating problems due to ADHD versus other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Alejandro L; H Sibley, Margaret; Campez, Mileini

    2018-04-13

    The DSM-5 requires clinicians to link ADHD symptoms to clinically meaningful impairments in daily life functioning. Measuring impairment during ADHD assessments may be particularly challenging in adolescence, when ADHD is often not the sole source of a youth's difficulties. Existing impairment rating scales are criticized for not specifying ADHD as the source of impairment in their instructions, leading to potential problems with rating scale specificity. The current study utilized a within subjects design (N = 107) to compare parent report of impairment on two versions of a global impairment measure: one that specified ADHD as the source of impairment (Impairment Rating Scale-ADHD) and a standard version that did not (Impairment Rating Scale). On the standard family impairment item, parents endorsed greater impairment as compared to the IRS-ADHD. This finding was particularly pronounced when parents reported high levels of parenting stress. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with greater concordance between the two versions. Findings indicate that adolescent family related impairments reported during ADHD assessments may be due to sources other than ADHD symptoms, such as developmental maladjustment. To prevent false positive diagnoses, symptom-specific wording may optimize impairment measures when assessing family functioning in diagnostic assessments for adolescents with ADHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Putative therapeutic targets for symptom subtypes of adult ADHD: D4 receptor agonism and COMT inhibition improve attention and response inhibition in a novel translational animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Hayward, Andrew; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-04-01

    Prefrontal cortical dopamine plays an important role in cognitive control, specifically in attention and response inhibition; the core deficits in ADHD. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine differentially improve these deficits dependent on baseline performance. The present study extends this work to investigate the effects of putative therapeutic targets in our model. A selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) inhibitor; tolcapone, were investigated in the combined subtype of adult ADHD (ADHD-C). Adult female rats were trained to criterion in the 5C-CPT (5-Choice Continuous Performance Task) and then separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, and response disinhibition. The subgroups included: high-attentive (HA) and low-attentive with high response disinhibition (ADHD-C). The ADHD-C subgroup was selected to represent the combined subtype of adult ADHD. Effects of tolcapone (3.0, 10.0, 15.0mg/kg) and A-412997 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0µmol/kg) were tested by increasing the variable inter-trial-interval (ITI) duration in the 5C-CPT. Tolcapone (15mg/kg) significantly increased sustained attention, vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals, and impaired attention in HA animals. A-412997 (1.0µmol/kg) significantly increased vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals only, with no effect in HA animals. This is the first study to use the translational 5C-CPT to model the adult ADHD-C subtype in rats and to study new targets in this model. Both tolcapone and A-412997 increased vigilance and response inhibition in the ADHD-C subgroup. D4 and COMT are emerging as important potential therapeutic targets in adult ADHD that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Home environment: association with hyperactivity/impulsivity in children with ADHD and their non-ADHD siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard; Butler, Louise; O’Regan, Myra; Richardson, Thomas; Tulewicz, Edyta Maria; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wished to ascertain if there is an association between symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and home environment in children with ADHD and non-ADHD siblings, controlling for other environmental measures. Method 96 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) and their siblings participated in the study. Parent and teacher Conners’ rating scales were completed and home environment was assessed using the Middle Childhood and Early Adolescent Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). ADHD symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings and multiple regression analysis was used to control for gender, socio-economic status, exposure to nicotine, exposure to alcohol in utero, birth weight, gestational age, pregnancy and perinatal risk factors. The presence of oppositional disorders was assessed for association with HOME score in those with ADHD-CT. The multiple regression analysis was repeated controlling for environmental factors and for oppositional disorders in those with ADHD-CT. Oppositional symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME score in non-ADHD siblings. Results Teacher-rated hyperactive/impulsive scores correlated with HOME (r = −.27, p siblings. An association between HOME and diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder or CD was found for children with ADHD-CT and between HOME and oppositional symptoms in non-ADHD siblings. Conclusions The home environment has a small but significant association with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings. This association remained when other environmental factors were taken into account. Oppositional symptoms are associated with home environment in ADHD-CT and in non-ADHD siblings. PMID:22168816

  17. The measurement of the symptoms of ADHD in the NICHQ Vanderbilt Assessment Scale for Parent (VADPRS and for Teacher (VADTRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Kądziela-Olech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of several inattentive or hyperactive, impulsive symptoms in two or more situations (at home, school, in other activities is required for the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, orreduce the quality of, social, academic, or occupational functioning. The National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality, American Academy of Pediatrics, recommended a toolkit with standardized assessment scales: NICHQ Vanderbilt Assessment Scale – Parent Informant (VADPRS and NICHQ Vanderbilt Assessment Scale – Teacher Informant (VADTRS, each divided into two sections: symptoms and performance. The aim of the research was to determine whether there is a correlation between categorial symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and results obtained in the assessment scales: VADPRS and VADTRS, and a comparative analysis of assessments made by parents and teachers regarding the symptoms and performance of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The study group comprised 132 children (87.1% of boys, 12.9% of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, aged between 6 and 12 years (mean age: 9.29 years; SD 1.96 who had been referred for specialized psychiatric diagnosis and therapy to the Day Care Psychiatric Unit. Diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were conducted pursuant to DSM-IV criteria. Each child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was assessed by its parent and teacher using the VADPRS and VADTRS. The statistical analysis (based on Statistica, StatSoft 10 revealed high correlations between categorial DSM-IV symptoms and VADPRS/VADTRS. These tools can be helpful in diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of the effects of therapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  18. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  19. Relationship between parenting stress and informant discrepancies on symptoms of ADHD/ODD and internalizing behaviors in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Tseng, Yu-Han

    2017-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4–6 years) from the community or via clinical referrals. A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among three factors derived from the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and informant discrepancies on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and internalizing behaviors. Scores reported by parents were higher for each of the symptoms examined than those reported by teachers, and the degree of agreement between informants ranged from low to moderate. The parental distress factor of parenting stress was associated only with parent ratings, whereas other factors of parenting stress—parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parents’ stress resulted from their child’s temperament—were correlated with both parent and teacher ratings. Only parental distress factor predicted informant discrepancies for all behavioral symptoms assessed. Our findings suggest that parental distress should be considered when parent rating scores show significant discrepancies from that of teacher rating scores. PMID:29016602

  20. Pragmatic competence of children with autism spectrum disorder. Impact of theory of mind, verbal working memory, ADHD symptoms, and structural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli-Fortea, Inmaculada; Miranda Casas, Ana; Berenguer-Forner, Carmen; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén

    2017-11-21

    The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence). The second objective is to analyze whether theory of mind (ToM), verbal working memory, ADHD symptoms, and structural language can predict pragmatic competence in children with ASD without intellectual disability (ID). The results showed worse performance in the group with ASD on the majority of the pragmatic aspects evaluated. In addition, the application of ToM skills and structural language were significant predictors of the pragmatic skills of the children with ASD. These findings reinforce the importance of focusing intervention programs on mentalist abilities through experiences in real social scenarios, along with strengthening structural language components.

  1. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D. Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20 or ADHD+D (n = 36, aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA, Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C, and Life Participation Scale for ADHD-Child Version (LPS-C were assessed. Results Atomoxetine demonstrated significant improvement for both groups on the ADHDRS-IV, LPS-C, and K-TEA reading comprehension standard and composite scores. K-TEA spelling subtest improvement was significant for the ADHD group, whereas the ADHD+D group showed significant reading decoding improvements. Substantial K-TEA reading and spelling subtest age equivalence gains (in months were achieved for both groups. The WMTB-C central executive score change was significantly greater for the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD+D group showed significant phonological loop score enhancement by visit over the ADHD group. Atomoxetine was well tolerated, and commonly reported adverse events were similar to those previously reported. Conclusions Atomoxetine reduced ADHD symptoms and improved reading scores in both groups. Conversely, different patterns and magnitude of improvement in working memory component scores existed between ADHD and ADHD+D patients. Though limited by small sample size, group differences in relation to the comparable changes in improvement in ADHD symptoms could suggest that brain systems related to the therapeutic benefit of atomoxetine in reducing ADHD symptoms may be different in individuals with ADHD+D and ADHD without dyslexia. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00191048

  2. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III).

  3. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed.

  4. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N=110; Age range: 14–19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed eighteen months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  5. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  6. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a

  7. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a

  8. Evaluating Sleep Disorders amongst Children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Esmaeilpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most compromising mental disorders of childhood and adolescence. Subsequently, different studies in recent years were conducted on the relationship between sleep disturbances and ADHD in children. About 30% of children and 60% to 80% of adults with ADHD develop sleep disorders, which may result in cognitive and behavioral changes in the patients. The current study aimed at comparing sleep disorders in children with ADHD and their normal peers in Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on the target population of children within the age range of 6 to 12 years, which included 50 children with ADHD receiving medication, 55 children with ADHD symptoms without receiving any medication, and 71 normal children, all of which screened from the school students of Tabriz using the child symptom inventory-4 (CSI-4 and selected by the multi-stage cluster sampling method. The children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ was completed by their mothers and data were analyzed using the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: According to the results of the current study, a significant number of children with ADHD showed sleep disorder that can accounts for some degree of their behavioral dysregulation. There was a significant difference among the study groups regarding the subscales of sleep resistance and sleep duration, daytime sleep, parasomnia,  and sleep apnea (p 0.05. Conclusion: Since children with ADHD usually have more sleep problems, considering the sleep quality in such children is of great importance; in the treatment of such children their sleep problems should be considered particularly.

  9. Paternal Postnatal and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Child Socio-Emotional and Behavioural Problems at School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…

  10. Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Gordon, Michael

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for managing adolescent ADHD. A total of 68 adolescents with ADHD and associated psychiatric comorbidities completed a manualized CBT treatment protocol. The intervention used in the study was a downward extension of the Safren et al. program for adults with ADHD who have symptoms unresolved by medication. Outcome variables consisted of narrow band (ADHD) and broadband (e.g., mood, anxiety, conduct) symptom measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd edition and ADHD-Rating Scales) as well as functioning measures (parent/teacher ratings and several ecologically real-world measures). Treatment effects emerged on the medication dosage, parent rating of pharmacotherapy adherence, adolescent self-report of personal adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), parent and teacher ratings of inattentive symptoms, school attendance, school tardiness, parent report of peer, family and academic functioning and teacher report of adolescent relationship with teacher, academic progress, and adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents with ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting less from the CBT intervention. Adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety/depression were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting more from the CBT intervention. A downward extension of an empirically validated adult ADHD CBT protocol can benefit some adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  11. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starck M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Martina Starck,1 Julia Grünwald,1 Angelika A Schlarb1,21Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty for Psychology and Sport Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, GermanyBackground: Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated.Method: In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested.Results: ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed.Conclusion: As nearly half of the parents

  12. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children's ADHD was tested. ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent-child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child's therapy outcome. In the future, parents should be screened for ADHD

  13. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  14. Training Raters to Assess Adult ADHD: Reliability of Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Kelsey, Douglas; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The standardization of ADHD ratings in adults is important given their differing symptom presentation. The authors investigated the agreement and reliability of rater standardization in a large-scale trial of atomoxetine in adults with ADHD. Training of 91 raters for the investigator-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHDRS-IV-Inv) occurred prior to…

  15. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  16. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  17. Personalized Treatment of Mothers With ADHD and Their Young At-Risk Children: A SMART Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Wang, Christine H; Strickland, Jennifer; Almirall, Daniel; Stein, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Young children of mothers with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for ADHD by virtue of genetics and environmental factors. Moreover, parent ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting and poor child behavioral treatment response. Thus, a combined approach consisting of behavioral parent training (BPT) and maternal stimulant medication (MSM) may be needed to effectively treat ADHD within families. However, providing combined BPT+MSM initially to all families may be unnecessarily burdensome because not all families likely need combined treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for these multiplex families in order to yield benefits to both the parent and child, thereby impacting the course of child ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. This article presents our rationale for, design of, and preliminary experiences (based on 26 participants) with an ongoing pilot Sequential Multiple Assessment Randomized Trial (SMART) designed to answer questions regarding the feasibility and acceptability of study protocols and interventions. This article also describes how the subsequent full-scale SMART might change based on what is learned in the SMART pilot and illustrates how the full-scale SMART could be used to inform clinical decision making about how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for complex children and families in which a parent has ADHD.

  18. Comparative study of children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder + ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; DeVincent, Carla J; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-03-01

    Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. All three groups were highly similar in severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms; however, the ASD+ADHD group generally exhibited the most severe anxiety, although the CMTD+ADHD group had the most severe generalized anxiety. The two comorbid groups had the most involved medical histories and the greatest likelihood of a family history of psychopathology. Groups differed in clinically meaningful ways, and the apparent association between tics and anxiety may explain in part the elevated levels of anxiety in both comorbid groups. Collectively, results suggest that ADHD may be better conceptualized as a family of interrelated syndromes defined in part by comorbid conditions and that continued research is clearly warranted.

  19. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2018-04-01

    To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch older people (>65 years) diagnosed in this study with ADHD participated in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed according to techniques of thematic approach. Seven themes emerged from the analyses. Four themes correspond to ADHD symptoms: "being active," "being impulsive," "attention problems," and "mental restlessness." In addition, the themes "low self-esteem," "overstepping boundaries," and "feeling misunderstood" emerged. The impact of ADHD symptoms seems to have declined with age. ADHD has a negative impact on late life, and older adults with the disorder may benefit from treatment. Moreover, this study's findings call for early detection and treatment of ADHD in children and adults.

  20. Score of Inattention Subscale of ADHD Rating Scale-IV is Significantly Higher for AD/HD than PDD.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujibayashi, Hiromi; Kitayama, Shinji; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) must be differentiated because the respective treatments are different. However, they are difficult to distinguish because they often show similar symptoms. At our hospital, we have the rearer of a patient answer both the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and use the results as an aid for the diagnosis of AD/HD or PDD. These results were compared wit...

  1. The Development of Comorbid Conduct Problems in Children With ADHD: An Example of an Integrative Developmental Psychopathology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Jeffrey S; Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2016-03-01

    We describe interactions among factors that contribute to the development of conduct problems among children with ADHD. An integrative developmental psychopathology analysis combines various approaches and posits one model of how diverse risk factors operate together to contribute to the development of conduct problems among children with ADHD. Substantial genetic risk increases covariation between ADHD and conduct problems. Candidate genes are associated with CNS monoaminergic neurotransmission. Subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment interferes with executive function, with impaired verbal working memory playing an important role. Parent/child bi-directional influences exacerbate the risk for conduct problems when ADHD symptoms increase the likelihood of a coercive parenting style. Parent stress in reaction to child comorbid ADHD and conduct problems, and parent attribution for the child's conduct problem behavior, add to the potential for coercion and reduce constructive parent-child interaction that might otherwise enhance the development of verbal working memory. In an integrated manner, these variables increase the risk that a child with ADHD will subsequently develop conduct problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Effect of subsequent vaginal delivery on bowel symptoms and anorectal function in women who sustained a previous obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Polly A; Naidu, Madhu; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2018-03-29

    Our primary objective was to prospectively evaluate anorectal symptoms, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) in women who followed the recommended mode of subsequent delivery following index obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) using our unit's standardised protocol. Our secondary objectives were to evaluate the role of internal anal sphincter defects and also to compare outcomes in a subgroup of symptomatic women with normal anorectal physiology. This is a prospective follow-up study of pregnant women with previous OASIs who were counselled regarding subsequent mode of delivery between January 2003 and December 2014. Assessment involved the St Mark's Incontinence Score (SMIS), anal manometry and EAUS at both antepartum and 3-month postpartum visits. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests. Three hundred and fifty women attended the perineal clinic over the study period, of whom 122 met the inclusion criteria (99 vaginal delivery [VD], 23 caesarean section). No significant worsening of anorectal symptoms was observed following subsequent delivery in the VD group (p = 0.896), although a reduced squeeze pressure was observed at 3 months postpartum (p delivery. In the absence of a randomised study, use of this protocol can aid clinicians in their decision-making.

  3. Organisation of services for managing ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, D R

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable variation in practice, both between and with different countries in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst there is no one optimal model of service organisation there are general principles of care that can be introduced to reduce this variability. There are frequent debates and discussions about which professional group is best placed to manage ADHD at different points in the life cycle. Who delivers care is however less important than ensuring that training schemes provide adequate exposure, training and experience to both the core and non-core skills required to provide a comprehensive package of care. Most evidence-based guidelines recommend a multi-modal, multi-professional and multi-agency approach. Many also promote the use of both stepped care and shared care approaches for the management of ADHD. As most of those with ADHD continue to have ADHD-related problems into adulthood, it is important to consider how best to transition care into adulthood and think about who should deliver care to adults with ADHD. Young people with ADHD should generally be transferred to adult mental health services if they continue to have significant symptoms of ADHD or other coexisting conditions that require treatment. Unfortunately services for adults with ADHD remain relatively scarce across much of the world and some adult psychiatrists remain unsure of the diagnosis and uncertain about the appropriate use of ADHD medications in adults, but there is a strong case for increased services for adults. ADHD is on the one hand easy to treat; it is much more difficult to treat well. Although optimised care for ADHD requires routine measurement of outcomes, this often does not happen in routine clinical practice. Focusing on optimising symptoms and minimising adverse effects can significantly improve both short- and long-term outcomes.

  4. Gender Differences in ADHD Subtype Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From…

  5. Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Golay, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Julien; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Ardu, Stefano; Herrmann, François R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Baud, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies suggested that the presence of ADHD in children and young adolescents may affect the development of personality. Whether or not the persistence of ADHD in adult life is associated with distinct personality patterns is still matter for debate. To address this issue, we compared the profiles of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) that assesses personality dimensions in 119 adults ADHD and 403 controls. ANCOVA were used to examine group differences (controls vs. ADHD and ADHD inattentive type vs. ADHD combined + hyperactive/impulsive types) in Temperaments and Characters. Partial correlation coefficients were used to assess correlation between TCI and expression and severity of symptoms of ADHD. High novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores as well as low self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were associated with ADHD diagnosis. Low SD was the strongest personality trait associated with adult ADHD. Cases with the ADHD inattentive type showed higher HA and lower SD scores compared to the combined and hyperactive/impulsive types. High HA scores correlated with inattention symptoms whereas high NS and ST scores were related to hyperactive symptoms. Finally low SD and high NS were associated with increased ADHD severity. Distinct temperaments were associated with inattentive versus hyperactive/impulsive symptoms supporting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder.

  6. Exposure to bullying behaviors at work and subsequent symptoms of anxiety: the moderating role of individual coping style

    Science.gov (United States)

    REKNES, Iselin; EINARSEN, Ståle; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; MOEN, Bente Elisabeth; MAGERØY, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than do others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style. PMID:27151548

  7. What Is ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD KidsHealth / For Parents / ADHD What's in this article? ... Causes ADHD? Print en español TDAH What Is ADHD? ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It ...

  8. Coaching for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  9. Association between Maternal Depression Symptoms across the First Eleven Years of Their Child’s Life and Subsequent Offspring Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Mars, Becky; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita; Zammit, Stanley; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common, especially in women of child-bearing age; prevalence estimates for this group range from 8% to 12%, and there is robust evidence that maternal depression is associated with mental health problems in offspring. Suicidal behaviour is a growing concern amongst young people and those exposed to maternal depression are likely to be especially at high risk. The aim of this study was to utilise a large, prospective population cohort to examine the relationship between depression symptom trajectories in mothers over the first eleven years of their child’s life and subsequent adolescent suicidal ideation. An additional aim was to test if associations were explained by maternal suicide attempt and offspring depressive disorder. Data were utilised from a population-based birth cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal depression symptoms were assessed repeatedly from pregnancy to child age 11 years. Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Using multiple imputation, data for 10,559 families were analysed. Using latent class growth analysis, five distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms were identified (minimal, mild, increasing, sub-threshold, chronic-severe). The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation at age 16 years was 15% (95% CI: 14-17%). Compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms, the greatest risk of suicidal ideation was found for offspring of mothers with chronic-severe symptoms [OR 3.04 (95% CI 2.19, 4.21)], with evidence for smaller increases in risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with sub-threshold, increasing and mild symptoms. These associations were not fully accounted for by maternal suicide attempt or offspring depression diagnosis. Twenty-six percent of non-depressed offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms reported suicidal ideation. Risk for suicidal ideation should be considered in young people whose mothers have a history of

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  11. My ADHD and me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I illustrate how individuals diagnosed with ADHD relate to, engage with, and interpret both ADHD and explanations of the diagnosis. Based on my research on adults’ experiences of ADHD, I describe how my informants 1) identify with ADHD as a specific way of being human as well as 2......) distance themselves from ADHD by separating themselves from and disclaiming behavior connected to ADHD. Notions of ADHD as a brain disorder, I argue, form the basis of both ways of relating to ADHD. Lastly, I discuss how neurobiological explanations of ADHD produce specific choices about and hopes...... for treatment. The analysis is based on interviews with 13 adults diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood; on observations made at conferences and seminars about ADHD for professionals, patients and relatives; and lastly on observations from online blogs and forums about ADHD as part of a two-year anthropological...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ... for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication for ADHD will continue to benefit ...

  13. Factor-Analytic and Individualized Approaches to Constructing Brief Measures of ADHD Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine a factor-analytic and an individualized approach to creating short progress-monitoring measures from the longer "ADHD-Symptom Checklist-4" (ADHD-SC4). In Study 1, teacher ratings on items of the ADHD:Inattentive (IA) and ADHD:Hyperactive-Impulsive (HI) scales of the ADHD-SC4 were factor analyzed in a normative…

  14. Predictors of Boys' ADHD Symptoms from Early to Middle Childhood: The Role of Father-Child and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise J.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective 3-year longitudinal study investigated preschool paternal and maternal parenting predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) in a community sample of 93 school-age boys. Participants were recruited on the basis of inattention-hyperactivity at age 4 and fathers and mothers were observed interacting with their sons.…

  15. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  16. The Reliability and Validity of Self- and Investigator Ratings of ADHD in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Michelson, David; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Little information is available comparing self- versus investigator ratings of symptoms in adult ADHD. The authors compared the reliability, validity, and utility in a sample of adults with ADHD and also as an index of clinical improvement during treatment of self- and investigator ratings of ADHD symptoms via the Conners Adult ADHD…

  17. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome in Adult ADHD and Its Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snitselaar, M.A.; Smits, M.G.; Spijker, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this observational cross-sectional study, 49 subjects were assessed for sleep disorders and for ADHD symptoms. Thirty-six received an ADHD diagnosis (29: combined type (ADHD-C); 7: inattentive type). An RLS and RLS symptoms prevalence of 34.5% was found, with a higher prevalence rate in the

  18. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome in adult ADHD and its subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snitselaar, M.A.; Smits, M.G.; Spijker, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this observational cross-sectional study, 49 subjects were assessed for sleep disorders and for ADHD symptoms. Thirty-six received an ADHD diagnosis (29: combined type (ADHD-C); 7: inattentive type). An RLS and RLS symptoms prevalence of 34.5% was found, with a higher prevalence rate in the

  19. Mismatched: ADHD Symptomatology and the Teacher-Student Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Maria; Bélanger-Lejars, Véronique; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and their teachers, and to examine whether this relationship was associated with children's academic motivation. The sample comprised 35 children with clinically elevated levels of ADHD symptoms and 36 children…

  20. Functional brain laterality in adulthood ADHD : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to address functional brain laterality and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults, from a dimensional perspective. The dimensional perspective assumes that ADHD symptoms are normally distributed in general population and those scoring at the

  1. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  2. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Schoenfelder

    2017-06-01

    Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.

  3. Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social...

  4. Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear. Method: By using

  5. Magnesium, zinc and copper estimation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Elbaz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Children with ADHD have lower levels of zinc, copper and magnesium compared to both laboratory reference ranges and to normal controls in both hair and serum. These deficiencies are correlated with the core symptoms of ADHD.

  6. Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear. Method: By using a

  7. [Feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training in adults with ADHD: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepark, S; Kan, C C; Speckens, A

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that often continues into adulthood. Stimulant medication is the common treatment for ADHD. However, there is a need for psychosocial interventions in addition to medication. To conduct a pilot study which examines the feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training for adults with ADHD. Eleven adults with ADHD participated in a mindfulness training scheme lasting 10 weeks. ADHD symptoms, anxiety and depressive symptoms, quality of life, mindfulness skills and attentional tasks were measured before and after the period of mindfulness training. Nine participants completed the mindfulness training and were satisfied with the training. Eight of these reported improvement in their ADHD symptoms. For all participants, their quality of life, awareness of their actions and executive control had also improved. Mindfulness is a feasible treatment strategy for adults with ADHD and seems to have a positive effect on ADHD symptoms and executive control.

  8. Video game addiction, ADHD symptomatology, and video game reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Christine L; Morrell, Holly E R; Molle, Jon E

    2018-06-06

    Up to 23% of people who play video games report symptoms of addiction. Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at increased risk for video game addiction, especially when playing games with more reinforcing properties. The current study tested whether level of video game reinforcement (type of game) places individuals with greater ADHD symptom severity at higher risk for developing video game addiction. Adult video game players (N = 2,801; Mean age = 22.43, SD = 4.70; 93.30% male; 82.80% Caucasian) completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were used to test type of game, ADHD symptom severity, and the interaction between type of game and ADHD symptomatology as predictors of video game addiction severity, after controlling for age, gender, and weekly time spent playing video games. ADHD symptom severity was positively associated with increased addiction severity (b = .73 and .68, ps .05. The relationship between ADHD symptom severity and addiction severity did not depend on the type of video game played or preferred most, ps > .05. Gamers who have greater ADHD symptom severity may be at greater risk for developing symptoms of video game addiction and its negative consequences, regardless of type of video game played or preferred most. Individuals who report ADHD symptomatology and also identify as gamers may benefit from psychoeducation about the potential risk for problematic play.

  9. Anxiety and Depression among College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Cross-Informant, Sex, and Subtype Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Liebel, Spencer W.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study examined symptoms of anxiety and depression among college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2016 from 150 college students with ADHD and 150 college students without ADHD. Method: Participants with ADHD were compared to a sex- and…

  10. Specific work with manifestations ADHD by the children at the primary school

    OpenAIRE

    MUSILOVÁ, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on specific work of primary school teachers that is related to children with the symptoms of ADHD. The theoretical part describes primary school system, young school age children from the perspective of development psychology, further it deals with ADHD in terms of terminology, occurrence, origins of this disorder and description of symptoms ADHD. The practical part of this thesis contains interviews with teachers which encountered children with ADHD during their working e...

  11. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  12. Psychoterapia ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Kołakowski

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zespół nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej jest jedną z najczęstszych pediatrycznych, neurologicznych i psychiatrycznych przypadłości u dzieci. Większość wytycznych dotyczących postępowania w ADHD sugeruje zastosowanie metod niefarmakologicznych, a dopiero gdy te okażą się nieskuteczne, rozważenie dołączenia leczenia farmakologicznego. Jednak badania pokazują, że w przypadku zarówno skrajnie nasilonego obrazu klinicznego ADHD, jak i towarzyszących zaburzeń zachowania (zaburzenie opozycyjno-buntownicze i poważne zaburzenia zachowania według DSM-IV-TR leczenie farmakologiczne powinno być włączane równocześnie z innymi metodami terapeutycznymi. W ostatnich dwudziestu latach w leczeniu ADHD stosowano wiele metod niefarmakologicznych: terapię indywidualną, grupową, diety restrykcyjne lub suplementacyjne, EEG biofeedback, treningi uwagi, jednak tylko jedna z nich – samodzielnie lub w połączeniu z farmakoterapią – ma potwierdzoną krótkoterminową skuteczność w leczeniu ADHD: behawioralna modyfikacja zachowań. Podobne interwencje powinny być również przeprowadzane w środowisku szkolnym. W chwili obecnej w Polsce – tak jak i w europejskich wytycznych – zaleca się kompleksowe leczenie ADHD, w którym jednym z elementów może być leczenie farmakologiczne. W artykule omówiono kolejne metody, które powinny znaleźć się w takim programie terapeutycznym, poczynając od psychoedukacji pacjenta i rodziny (pacjent oraz rodzice powinni usłyszeć, jaka jest specyfika ADHD, w szczególności uzyskać informacje o trzech osiowych grupach objawów, etiologii, przebiegu, rokowaniu i planowanym leczeniu; wiedza rodziców, opiekunów, członków rodzin i nauczycieli na temat zaburzenia pozwala wdrażać odpowiednie elementy pomocy nadpobudliwemu dziecku, ale także bardzo często zdejmuje z niego „winę za objawy”, edukacji i motywowaniu nastolatka do leczenia, a kończąc na dołączaniu specyficznych rodzaj

  13. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian......-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current...

  14. Pharmacotherapy for parents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): impact on maternal ADHD and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Stein, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Given the high heritability of the disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among parents of children with ADHD. Parental ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting, negative parent-child interaction patterns and a diminished response to behavioural parent training. We describe our previous research demonstrating that stimulant medications for mothers with ADHD are associated with reductions in maternal ADHD symptoms. Although limited beneficial effects on self-reported parenting were also found in our study, the impact of ADHD medications on functional outcomes related to parenting and family interactions may not be sufficient for many families. Many questions remain with regard to how best to treat multiplex ADHD families in which a parent and child have ADHD. In particular, future studies are needed: (1) to evaluate how best to sequence pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment for adult ADHD and behavioural parenting interventions; (2) to determine the best approach to maintaining treatment effects over the long term for both parents and children; and (3) to identify individual predictors of treatment response.

  15. Increasing Awareness and Understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Education to Promote Better Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Chaban, Peter; McInnes, Alison; Ferguson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review three areas of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that have implications for the educational context. These areas are: (a) gender differences in ADHD, (b) inattention symptoms and academic risk, and (c) working memory and ADHD. We highlight the critical role that the school context plays in…

  16. Managing ADHD in Adulthood: A Meta-Synthesis of How Adults Diagnosed With ADHD Manage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Merete; Larsen, Palle; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    , manage to live, life impairment, social life skills, attitude, coping behaviour, academic functioning, social adjustment, interpersonal relation, family health, social support, adult 19-44 years, middle aged 45-64 years. Results Four themes emerged from the included studies: ‘Being different from others......Managing ADHD in adulthood A meta-synthesis of how adults diagnosed with ADHD manage life with the symptoms Merete Bjerrum, Associate Professor, PhD, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Denmark and Danish Centre for Systematic Review in Nursing; Palle Larsen, MScN, PhD-student, Deputy....... But how do the adult experience ADHD symptoms affect the management of daily life skills? And which factors support their ability to manage the symptoms? Aim Our aim is to synthesise the existing literature to investigate how adults experience and manage life with ADHD, and to study the protective factors...

  17. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  18. Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Pediatric ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Irwin, Lauren N; Soto, Elia F; Groves, Nicole B; Harmon, Sherelle L; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-04-28

    Neurocognitive heterogeneity is increasingly recognized as a valid phenomenon in ADHD, with most estimates suggesting that executive dysfunction is present in only about 33%-50% of these children. However, recent critiques question the veracity of these estimates because our understanding of executive functioning in ADHD is based, in large part, on data from single tasks developed to detect gross neurological impairment rather than the specific executive processes hypothesized to underlie the ADHD phenotype. The current study is the first to comprehensively assess heterogeneity in all three primary executive functions in ADHD using a criterion battery that includes multiple tests per construct (working memory, inhibitory control, set shifting). Children ages 8-13 (M = 10.37, SD = 1.39) with and without ADHD (N = 136; 64 girls; 62% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) completed a counterbalanced series of executive function tests. Accounting for task unreliability, results indicated significantly improved sensitivity and specificity relative to prior estimates, with 89% of children with ADHD demonstrating objectively-defined impairment on at least one executive function (62% impaired working memory, 27% impaired inhibitory control, 38% impaired set shifting; 54% impaired on one executive function, 35% impaired on two or all three executive functions). Children with working memory deficits showed higher parent- and teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (BF 10  = 5.23 × 10 4 ), and were slightly younger (BF 10  = 11.35) than children without working memory deficits. Children with vs. without set shifting or inhibitory control deficits did not differ on ADHD symptoms, age, gender, IQ, SES, or medication status. Taken together, these findings confirm that ADHD is characterized by neurocognitive heterogeneity, while suggesting that contemporary, cognitively-informed criteria may provide improved precision for identifying a

  19. Living SMART : an Internet course for adults with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Moell, Birger

    2013-01-01

    ADHD affects executive functions and pharmacological treatment is the most common intervention. Medication is ineffective for some and psychosocial interventions are scarcely available. CBT that teaches organizational skills for managing ADHD-symptoms has shown promising results. Smartphones can help individuals perform executive tasks such as planning and organization and they could be efficacious as a support tool for ADHD patients. The current study is a RCT that compares an online course ...

  20. Dissociable patterns in the control of emotional interference in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and in adults with alcohol dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Marx

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To effectively manage current task demands, attention must be focused on task-relevant information while task-irrelevant information is rejected. However, in everyday life, people must cope with emotions, which may interfere with actual task demands and may challenge functional attention allocation. Control of interfering emotions has been associated with the proper functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. As DLPFC dysfunction is evident in subjects with ADHD and in subjects with alcohol dependence, the current study sought to examine the bottom-up effect of emotional distraction on task performance in both disorders. METHODS: Male adults with ADHD (n = 22, male adults with alcohol dependence (n = 16, and healthy controls (n = 30 performed an emotional working memory task (n-back task. In the background of the task, we presented neutral and negative stimuli that varied in emotional saliency. RESULTS: In both clinical groups, a working memory deficit was evident. Moreover, both clinical groups displayed deficient emotional interference control. The n-back performance of the controls was not affected by the emotional distractors, whereas that of subjects with ADHD deteriorated in the presence of low salient distractors, and that of alcoholics did not deteriorate until high salient distractors were presented. Subsequent to task performance, subjects with ADHD accurately recognized more distractors than did alcoholics and controls. In alcoholics, picture recognition accuracy was negatively associated with n-back performance, suggesting a functional association between the ability to suppress emotional distractors and successful task performance. In subjects with ADHD, performance accuracy was negatively associated with ADHD inattentive symptoms, suggesting that inattention contributes to the performance deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with ADHD and alcoholics both display an emotional interference control

  1. Neuropsychological basic deficits in preschoolers at risk for ADHD: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Becker, Katja

    2011-06-01

    Widely accepted neuropsychological theories on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assume that the complex symptoms of the disease arise from developmentally preceding neuropsychological basic deficits. These deficits in executive functions and delay aversion are presumed to emerge in the preschool period. The corresponding normative developmental processes include phases of relative stability and rapid change. These non-linear developmental processes might have implications for concurrent and predictive associations between basic deficits and ADHD symptoms. To derive a description of the nature and strength of these associations, a meta-analysis was conducted. It is assumed that weighted mean effect sizes differ between basic deficits and depend on age. The meta-analysis included 25 articles (n=3005 children) in which associations between assessments of basic deficits (i.e. response inhibition, interference control, delay aversion, working memory, flexibility, and vigilance/arousal) in the preschool period and concurrent or subsequent ADHD symptoms or diagnosis of ADHD had been analyzed. For response inhibition and delay aversion, mean effect sizes were of medium to large magnitude while the mean effect size for working memory was small. Meta-regression analyses revealed that effect sizes of delay aversion tasks significantly decreased with increasing age while effect sizes of interference control tasks and Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) significantly increased. Depending on the normative maturational course of each skill, time windows might exist that allow for a more or less valid assessment of a specific deficit. In future research these time windows might help to describe early developing forms of ADHD and to identify children at risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FACTOR STRUCTURE OF DSM-IV SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: In up to 50% of clinic-referred samples of children, ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood,1-3 with the prevalence of adult ADHD currently estimated at 4.4%4. Similar to the pervasive impairments experienced by children with ADHD, adults with ADHD are less likely to com...

  3. Reduced striatal brain volumes in non-medicated adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido A.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Schmaal, Lianne; Dom, Geert; Booij, Jan; Crunelle, Cleo L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUD). Patients with ADHD and SUD comorbidity respond less well to pharmacological treatment (e.g., methylphenidate), have more severe ADHD symptoms, and are

  4. ADHD: Not Just a Childhood Disorder--A Discussion of Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, William

    2008-01-01

    While many people tend to think of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a childhood problem, at least two-thirds of children with ADHD maintain symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity into adulthood. This article presents the fifth of a 10-part series exploring ADHD. The author provides some background…

  5. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  6. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P.; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  8. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  9. Sociodemographics, Comorbidities, Healthcare Utilization and Work Productivity in Japanese Patients with Adult ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kirino

    Full Text Available This study compared the sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization, and work productivity among Japanese adults who reported being diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD to those of a non-ADHD control population.Data for this study were captured from an online survey of adults in Japan conducted by Kantar Health using consumer panels. A total of 84 survey participants reported they had received a diagnosis of ADHD from a physician. Survey responses pertaining to functional status and resource utilization from this ADHD group were compared to those from a non-ADHD control group of 100 participants. Comparisons between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups were made using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables.Participants in the ADHD group were on average slightly younger with a higher proportion of males. ADHD respondents reported significantly more comorbid depression, sleep difficulties, headaches, and anxiety than non-ADHD controls. Over the previous 6 months, the ADHD group made more visits to healthcare providers and the emergency room, and had more hospitalizations than non-ADHD controls. The ADHD group also rated their overall health status lower than the non-ADHD control group. Respondents with ADHD reported a significantly higher degree of health-related work impairment compared to non-ADHD, with greater absenteeism and decreased work productivity. The ADHD group indicated their symptoms negatively impacted relationships, self-esteem, and regular daily activities.Japanese adults with ADHD face a substantial burden of illness, including lower overall health status, increased number of comorbidities, greater healthcare utilization, and significant health-related occupational impairment compared to those without ADHD. Additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of both the consequences and treatment approaches for Japanese

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  11. Work Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Joshua G.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance. Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables…

  12. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; de Kruif, J. Th C.M.; Comijs, H. C.; van Mierlo, S.; Semeijn, E. J.; Beekman, A. T.F.; Deeg, D. J.H.; Kooij, J. J.S.

    Objective: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. Method: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  13. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  14. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric…

  15. Universal Interventions for Students with ADHD--and All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    This article describes effective classroom intervention strategies for students experiencing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), regardless of the severity and whether the student has a diagnosis of ADHD. These suggestions incorporate the universal design for learning (UDL) framework. This framework does not limit…

  16. Life Impairments in Adults with Medication-Treated ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Knouse, Laura E.; Lerner, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In developing psychosocial approaches to augment outcomes for medication-treated adults with ADHD, it is important to understand what types of life-impairments are most affected by continued ADHD symptoms that occur despite medication treatment. This may assist in delineating targets for interventions, as well as assessments of…

  17. Adult ADHD: Risk Factor for Dementia or Phenotypic Mimic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy L. Callahan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has historically been considered a disorder of childhood and adolescence. However, it is now recognized that ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood in up to 60% of individuals. Some of the cognitive symptoms that characterize ADHD (inability to provide sustained attention or mental effort, difficulty organizing or multi-tasking, forgetfulness may closely resemble symptoms of prodromal dementia, also often referred to as mild cognitive impairment (MCI, particularly in patients over age 50. In addition to the overlap in cognitive symptoms, adults with ADHD and those with MCI may also share a number of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms, including sleep disturbances, depression, and anxiety. As a result, both syndromes may be difficult to distinguish clinically in older patients, particularly those who present to memory clinics with subjective cognitive complaints and fear the onset of a neurodegenerative process: is it ADHD, MCI, or both? Currently, it is unclear whether ADHD is associated with incipient dementia or is being misdiagnosed as MCI due to symptom overlap, as there exist data supporting either possibility. Here, we aim to elucidate this issue by outlining three hypothetical ways in which ADHD and MCI might relate to each other, providing an overview of the evidence relevant to each hypothesis, and delineating areas for future research. This is a question of considerable importance, with implications for improved diagnostic specificity of early dementia, improved accuracy of disease prevalence estimates, and better identification of individuals for targeted treatment.

  18. ADHD and mental health status in Brazilian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Marco A; Querido, Cícero Nardini; Bigal, Marcelo E; Polanczyk, Guilherme V

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of ADHD, mental health status, and risk factors in a sample of Brazilian children. Target sample consisted of all children from 5 to 13 years registered in the public elementary school. Children with ADHD were compared with those without ADHD for sociodemographic, risk factors, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) symptom dimensions. Multivariate models estimated determinants of ADHD diagnosis. Of the target sample, consents and complete information were obtained from 1,830 children (91.8%). The prevalence rate of ADHD was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 6.2]). In contrast to controls, children with ADHD presented higher levels of symptoms in the CBCL dimensions. In multivariate analyses, the diagnosis of ADHD was significantly influenced by maternal educational status (p = .019), income class (p = .012), and prenatal exposure to tobacco (p = .032). Prevalence and demographic features of ADHD in Brazil are similar to what has been reported worldwide. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  19. The Influence of Feedback of Diagnosis and Executive Function Skills on Rates of False Positive and False Negative Outcomes for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stacy L.; Privitera, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive function (EF) skills and self-reported symptoms of ADHD. EF skills were measured to determine whether skills were different between groups that reported clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (clinical group) and nonclinical levels of ADHD symptoms (nonclinical group). EF skills in the nonclinical group were also…

  20. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can ... with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care ... a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A ...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Demand Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Pathways ... Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role in ADHD. Medications for ADHD are wellestablished and ... as organizing schoolwork or dealing with emotional experiences. Social skills training can help children learn more rewarding ...

  8. Frontal brain asymmetry in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): extending the motivational dysfunction hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Wiedemann, Eva; Schneidt, Alexander; Schönenberg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves motivational dysfunction, characterized by excessive behavioral approach tendencies. Frontal brain asymmetry in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) represents a neural correlate of global motivational tendencies, and abnormal asymmetry, indicating elevated approach motivation, was observed in pediatric and adult patients. To date, the relation between ADHD symptoms, depression and alpha asymmetry, its temporal metric properties and putative gender-specificity remain to be explored. Adult ADHD patients (n=52) participated in two resting-state EEG recordings, two weeks apart. Asymmetry measures were aggregated across recordings to increase trait specificity. Putative region-specific associations between asymmetry, ADHD symptoms and depression, its gender-specificity and test-retest reliability were examined. ADHD symptoms were associated with approach-related asymmetry (stronger relative right-frontal alpha power). Approach-related asymmetry was pronounced in females, and also associated with depression. The latter association was mediated by ADHD symptoms. Test-retest reliability was sufficient. The association between reliably assessable alpha asymmetry and ADHD symptoms supports the motivational dysfunction hypothesis. ADHD symptoms mediating an atypical association between asymmetry and depression may be attributed to depression arising secondary to ADHD. Gender-specific findings require replication. Frontal alpha asymmetry may represent a new reliable marker of ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of ADHD on the health and well-being of ADHD children and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasgood, Tessa; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Biggs, Katie; Brazier, John E; Coghill, David; Cooper, Cindy L; Daley, David; De Silva, Cyril; Harpin, Val; Hodgkins, Paul; Nadkarni, Amulya; Setyawan, Juliana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-11-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with reduced health and well-being of patients and their families. The authors undertook a large UK survey-based observational study of the burden associated with childhood ADHD. The impact of ADHD on both the patient (N = 476) and their siblings (N = 337) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and happiness was quantified using multiple standard measures [e.g. child health utility-9D (CHU-9D), EuroQol-5D-Youth]. In the analysis, careful statistical adjustments were made to ensure a like-for-like comparison of ADHD families with two different control groups. We controlled for carers' ADHD symptoms, their employment and relationship status and siblings' ADHD symptoms. ADHD was associated with a significant deficit in the patient's HRQoL (with a CHU-9D score of around 6 % lower). Children with ADHD also have less sleep and were less happy with their family and their lives overall. No consistent decrement to the HRQoL of the siblings was identified across the models, except that related to their own conduct problems. The siblings do, however, report lower happiness with life overall and with their family, even when controlling for the siblings own ADHD symptoms. We also find evidence of elevated bullying between siblings in families with a child with ADHD. Overall, the current results suggest that the reduction in quality of life caused by ADHD is experienced both by the child with ADHD and their siblings.

  10. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-03-03

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD - the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental - on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  11. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsi Jonna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  12. Comparison of Neuropsychological Functioning Between Adults With Early- and Late-Onset DSM-5 ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing adult ADHD are not too lax regarding neuropsychological functioning.

  13. ADHD: Tips to Try

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD: Tips to Try Print en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , short for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a ...

  14. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Huizenga, H.M.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive.

  15. Reduced inattention and hyperactivity and improved cognition after marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) supplementation in children and adolescents with clinical and subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, James D; Sarris, Jerome; Scholey, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8.7 years) with high hyperactivity and inattention in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome was the Conners Parent Rating Scale assessing parental reports of behavioural problems. Secondary outcomes assessed changes in cognition and mood. The results of the present study did not support the hypothesis that PCSO-524® improves parental reports of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity in children ages 6 to 14 years over placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA on post hoc subsample analysis indicated significant improvements in hyperactivity (p = 0.04), attention (p = 0.02), learning (p = 0.05) and probability of ADHD (p = 0.04) with a medium to large average effect size (d = 0.65) in those children who did not meet criteria for combined hyperactivity and inattention. Furthermore, significant improvements in the PCSO-524® group were indicated in a whole sample repeated measures ANCOVA on recognition memory between baseline and week 8 over placebo (p = 0.02, d = 0.56); this difference was not sustained at week 14. The results presented indicate that PCSO-524® may be beneficial in reducing levels of hyperactivity and inattention in a population of children with clinical and subclinical symptoms of ADHD.

  16. A twin study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Dimensions rated by the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-behavior (SWAN) Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, D.A.; Bennett, K.S.; Levy, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Swanson, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: When symptom rating scales are used in the general population, there is severe skewness, with many individuals having no symptoms. While this has major implications for genetic designs that require extremely discordant and concordant (EDAC) siblings, little is known of the genetics of

  17. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD symptomatology and psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Walker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the paucity of research on adolescent ADHD, this study aimed to establish the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in childhood. It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and adjustment difficulties in this sample. Method: Data regarding age of diagnosis, current ADHD status, current ADHD-related pharmacological management, current psychopathology and current adjustment were gathered from 64 adolescents and their guardians via self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated with regard to current ADHD status, comorbid psychopathology and adjustment difficulties, as well as current ADHD-related medication. Results: According to parent reports, 59.38% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD Inattentive subtype, while 37.50% met the criteria for ADHD Hyperactive/Impulsive subtype. Approximately sixty-four percent (64.06% of the adolescents were still using stimulant medication. Based on the adolescent self-report, 43.75% of the sample reported clinically significant symptoms of psychopathology or maladjustment. Furthermore, 39.28% of the adolescents met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion: ADHD did persist into adolescence in the current sample. A significant psychopathological and maladjustment load appears evident amongst adolescents previously diagnosed with ADHD despite continuous pharmacological management of the condition.

  18. ADHD and Sleep Quality: Longitudinal Analyses From Childhood to Early Adulthood in a Twin Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Matthews, Timothy; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor sleep quality, but there is more to learn about the longitudinal association and aetiology of this association. We investigated the following: (a) Is there an association between childhood ADHD and poor sleep quality in young adulthood? (b) Is this driven by the long-term effects of childhood ADHD or concurrent associations with ADHD in young adulthood? (c) To what extent do genetic and environmental influences explain the overlap between symptoms of ADHD and poor sleep quality? Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study of 2,232 twin children born in the United Kingdom in 1994-1995. We ascertained ADHD diagnoses at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18. We assessed sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at age 18. We used regression models to examine longitudinal associations and bivariate twin modelling to test genetic and environmental influences. Children with ADHD had poorer sleep quality in young adulthood, but only if their ADHD persisted. Adults with ADHD had more sleep problems than those without ADHD, over and above psychiatric comorbidity and maternal insomnia. ADHD and sleep problems in young adulthood were associated because of genetic (55%) and nonshared environmental influences (45%). Should ADHD remit, children with ADHD do not appear to have an increased risk of later sleep problems. Good quality sleep is important for multiple areas of functioning, and a better understanding of why adults with ADHD have poorer sleep quality will further the goal of improving treatments.

  19. Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in children and clinical ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08-1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04-0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of undiagnosed children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Ravn, Mette Holmelin; Arnfred, Jon; Olsen, Jørn; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Obel, Carsten

    2018-02-01

    There is an ongoing public debate on the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which critics have claimed that the disorder is over-diagnosed, while the potential under-diagnosis of children with ADHD has received little attention. In this study we estimate the number of children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour at age 7 and absence of recorded ADHD diagnosis through adolescence, and investigate whether socio-demographic characteristics of this group differed from the children diagnosed with ADHD during follow-up. Our study was based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, where parents of 51,527 children completed questionnaires, including the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). ADHD diagnosis was identified through Danish registers and parent-reported ADHD behaviour by the specific SDQ subscale. Socio-demographic predictors of positive parent-reported SDQ ADHD behaviour and absence of recorded ADHD diagnosis in their children were examined using logistic regression analyses. Children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour and no diagnosis (1.3%) were more likely to be girls (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.45; 2.29), more likely to have mothers with a low socioeconomic status (OR high vs. low 1.49; 95% CI 1.10; 2.02), and to live in certain regions of the country (OR: Capital vs. Southern: 2.04; 95% CI 1.51; 2.73) than children with an ADHD diagnosis. The children showed markedly impairments on all the SDQ subscales. The results demonstrate a considerable number of children with ADHD symptoms who potentially go undetected and underline the influence of socio-demographic factors in the pathway to a diagnosis of ADHD.

  1. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability: results from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Arnold, L Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychaitry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-occurring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in adults affected by heroin dependence: Patients characteristics and treatment needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugoboni, Fabio; Levin, Frances Rudnick; Pieri, Maria Chiara; Manfredini, Matteo; Zamboni, Lorenzo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Gerra, Gilberto; Gruppo InterSert Collaborazione Scientifica Gics

    2017-04-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a risk for substance use disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between adult ADHD symptoms, opioid use disorder, life dysfunction and co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. 1057 heroin dependent patients on opioid substitution treatment participated in the survey. All patients were screened for adult ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1). 19.4% of the patients screened positive for concurrent adult ADHD symptoms status and heroin dependence. Education level was lower among patients with ADHD symptoms, but not significant with respect to non-ADHD patients. Patients with greater ADHD symptoms severity were less likely to be employed. A positive association was observed between ADHD symptoms status and psychiatric symptoms. Patients with ADHD symptoms status were more likely to be smokers. Patients on methadone had a higher rate of ADHD symptoms status compared to buprenorphine. Those individuals prescribed psychoactive drugs were more likely to have ADHD symptoms. In conclusion, high rate of ADHD symptoms was found among heroin dependent patients, particularly those affected by the most severe form of addiction. These individuals had higher rates of unemployment, other co-morbid mental health conditions, heavy tobacco smoking. Additional psychopharmacological interventions targeting ADHD symptoms, other than opioid substitution, is a public health need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Peer Relationships in Undergraduates With ADHD Symptomatology: Selection and Quality of Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tara E

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationships between ADHD symptomatology and friendship formation, social skills, and the quality of specific friendships in college students. A total of 156 students, 75 of whom had high self-reported ADHD symptomatology, participated. Friends of 68 participants completed measures of friendship quality. Students had more positive first impressions of and reported being friends with others whose ADHD symptom severity matched their own. Participants with high ADHD symptoms reported greater difficulty providing emotional support and managing interpersonal conflict than their low-symptom peers. Greater ADHD symptoms in participants and friends were related to reduced quality of specific relationships, but similarity of severity of symptomatology in the dyad benefited the relationship. These findings have implications for the kind of support offered to students with high ADHD symptomatology when they transition to college. Future longitudinal research examining relationships of varying levels of closeness should be conducted.

  4. A discursive analysis concerning information on "ADHD" presented to parents by the National Institute of Mental Health (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Soly; Lundin, Linda; Punzi, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A discourse analysis was performed based on an online document under the headline: "What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD)?" published by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), USA. Three parts of the document were analysed: (1) The introductory part, as this sets the tone of the whole text. (2) Parts of the text that were specifically addressed to parents. (3) Etiology and pathology of "ADHD" with reference to a number of different symptoms and behaviors. Inattention and hyperactivity are presented in the document as a floating spectrum of symptoms caused by "ADHD." Other factors of importance for children's development, that is, early attachment, close relationships, previous experiences, culture, and contexts are ignored. Children who are perceived as inattentive and hyperactive are portrayed as having inherent difficulties with no reference to their emotions or efforts to communicate. The child is viewed as suffering from a lifelong disorder that might not be cured but controlled by a diagnosis and subsequent medication. Parents are advised to control their child's behavior and to strive for early diagnosis in order to receive treatment provided by experts. Those who are presented as experts rely on a biomedical model, and in the document, detailed descriptions of medication to correct the undesired behaviors are provided. The value of judgment in the assessment of different symptoms and behaviors that signifies "ADHD" is absent, rather taken-for-granted beliefs were identified throughout the document. A heterogeneous set of behaviors is solely described as a disorder and hereafter it is stressed that the same behaviors are caused by the disorder. In this manner, cause and effects of "ADHD" are intertwined through circular argumentation.

  5. Treating ADHD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    Traditional diagnosis procedures for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may lead to over-diagnosis and are fraught with complications because the target behavioral symptoms are found in a variety of other disorders. Traditional treatments consisting of powerful side effect laden psychostimulant drugs…

  6. Dietary Supplements for ADHD: A Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (345 mg/d) on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was determined in 63 children, ages 6 to 12 years, at the Mayo Clinic and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

  7. Cognitive behavioural therapy for ADHD in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Amdisen, Birgitte Lind; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Systematically review and analyse the efficacy of CBT versus treatment as usual in adults with ADHD. The literature was systematically searched ending the 28 March 2014. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. CBT was efficacious in reducing symptoms of A...

  8. Clock Face Drawing Test Performance in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: The utility and discriminatory pattern of the clock face drawing test in ADHD is unclear. This study therefore compared Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD and controls.   Material & methods: 95 children with ADHD and 191 school children were matched for gender ratio and age. ADHD symptoms severities were assessed using DSM-IV ADHD checklist and their intellectual functioning was assessed. The participants completed three clock-drawing tasks, and the following four functions were assessed: Contour score, Numbers score, Hands setting score, and Center score    Results: All the subscales scores of the three clock drawing tests of the ADHD group were lower than that of the control group. In ADHD children, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores were not related with free drawn clock test scores. When pre-drawn contour test was performed, inattentiveness score was statistically associated with Number score. None of the other variables of age, gender, intellectual functioning, and hand use preference were associated with Numbers score. In pre-drawn clock, no association of ADHD symptoms with any CDT subscales was significant. In addition, more errors are observed with free drawn clock and Pre-drawn contour than pre-drawn clock.    Conclusion: Putting Numbers and Hands setting are more sensitive measures to screen ADHD than Contour and Center drawing. Test performance, except Hands setting, may have already reached a developmental plateau. It is probable that Hand setting deficit in children with ADHD may not decrease from age 8 to 14 years. Performance of children with ADHD is associated with the complexity of CDT.

  9. Clock face drawing test performance in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Safavi, Salar; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The utility and discriminatory pattern of the clock face drawing test in ADHD is unclear. This study therefore compared Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD and controls. 95 school children with ADHD and 191 other children were matched for gender ratio and age. ADHD symptoms severities were assessed using DSM-IV ADHD checklist and their intellectual functioning was assessed. The participants completed three clock-drawing tasks, and the following four functions were assessed: Contour score, Numbers score, Hands setting score, and Center score. All the subscales scores of the three clock drawing tests of the ADHD group were lower than that of the control group. In ADHD children, inattention and hyperactivity/ impulsivity scores were not related to free drawn clock test scores. When pre-drawn contour test was performed, inattentiveness score was statistically associated with Number score while none of the other variables of age, gender, intellectual functioning, and hand use preference were associated with that kind of score. In pre-drawn clock, no association of ADHD symptoms with any CDT subscales found significant. In addition, more errors are observed with free drawn clock and Pre-drawn contour than pre-drawn clock. Putting Numbers and Hands setting are more sensitive measures to screen ADHD than Contour and Center drawing. Test performance, except Hands setting, may have already reached a developmental plateau. It is probable that Hand setting deficit in children with ADHD may not decrease from age 8 to 14 years. Performance of children with ADHD is associated with complexity of CDT.

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those with ADHD. Findings from the Preschoolers with ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) indicate that using low dose methylphenidate ( ... abuse, and disability. Also, while many adults with ADHD receive treatment for other mental disorders or substance abuse, a ...

  11. Lifespan persistence of ADHD: the life transition model and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Atilla; Goodman, David W; Asherson, Philip; Lasser, Robert A; Babcock, Thomas F; Pucci, Michael L; Barkley, Russell

    2012-02-01

    The understanding that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists throughout life has heightened interest of patients, families, advocates, and professionals in a longitudinal approach to management. Such an approach must recognize and address known patient- and systems-based challenges of long-term mental health treatment, shifting of clinical presentations of ADHD, and commonality of psychiatric comorbidity with ADHD. The ADHD Life Transition Model is a step toward developing criteria to optimize recognition and clinical management of ADHD (eg, response, remission) across an individual's lifespan and across diverse medical subspecialties. To support therapeutic efficiency and adaptability, our proposed model highlights periods when external resources for managing ADHD are reduced, cognitive and behavioral stressors are increased, and individuals may be reevaluating how they perceive, accept, and adhere to ADHD treatment. Such a model aims to support the clinical community by placing in context new findings, which suggest that the prevention of adult psychopathology in individuals with pediatric ADHD may be possible. The ADHD Life Transition Model seeks to improve care for individuals with ADHD by (1) underscoring that ADHD persists beyond childhood in at least two-thirds of patients, (2) raising awareness of the need to approach ADHD from a chronic illness standpoint, and (3) increasing mental health professionals' diligence in symptom recognition and management of ADHD across developmental phases from childhood through adulthood. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Telemetry-assisted early detection of STEMI in patients with atypical symptoms by paramedic-performed 12-lead ECG with subsequent cardiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo Dell' Orto, Marco; Hamm, Christian; Liebetrau, Christoph; Hempel, Dorothea; Merbs, Reinhold; Cuca, Colleen; Breitkreutz, Raoul

    2017-08-01

    ECG is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine how many patients presenting with atypical symptoms for an acute myocardial infarction show ST-segment elevations on prehospital ECG. We also aimed to study the feasibility of telemetric-assisted prehospital ECG analysis. Between April 2010 and February 2011, consecutive emergency patients presenting with atypical symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, atypical chest pain, palpitations, hypertension, syncope, or dizziness were included in the study. After basic measures were completed, a 12-lead ECG was written and telemetrically transmitted to the cardiac center, where it was analyzed by attending physicians. Any identification of an ST-elevation myocardial infarction resulted in patient admission at the closest coronary angiography facility. A total of 313 emergency patients presented with the following symptoms: dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness/collapse, or acute hypertension. Thirty-four (11%) patients of this cohort were found to show ST-segment elevations on the 12-lead ECG. These patients were directly admitted to the closest coronary catheterization facility rather than the closest hospital. The time required for transmission and analysis of the ECG was 3.6±1.2 min. Telemetry-assisted 12-lead ECG analysis in a prehospital setting may lead to earlier detection of ST-elevation myocardial infarction in patients with atypical symptoms. Thus, a 12-lead ECG should be considered in all prehospital patients both with typical and atypical symptoms.

  13. When self-reliance is not safe: associations between reduced help-seeking and subsequent mental health symptoms in suicidal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2015-04-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  14. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa D. Labouliere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time, help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  15. The Impact of "DSM-5" A-Criteria Changes on Parent Ratings of ADHD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Yeguez, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) A-criteria for ADHD were expanded to include new descriptors referencing adolescent and adult symptom manifestations. This study examines the effect of these changes on symptom endorsement in a sample of adolescents with ADHD (N = 259; age range = 10.72-16.70).…

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Policy Become a Member Clinical Practice Center Ethics Information for Patients and Their Families Integrating Mental Health Care ... Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource ...

  17. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls,…

  18. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Rommelse, Nanda; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A.; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562

  19. Does parental expressed emotion moderate genetic effects in ADHD? An exploration using a genome wide association scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonuga-Barke, E.; Lasky-Su, J.; Neale, B.; Oades, R.D.; Chen, W.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Banaschewski, T.; Ebstein, R.; Gill, M.; Anney, R.J.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Thompson, M.; Asherson, P.; Faraone, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of gene x environment (G x E) interaction in ADHD have previously focused on known risk genes for ADHD and environmentally mediated biological risk. Here we use G x E analysis in the context of a genome-wide association scan to identify novel genes whose effects on ADHD symptoms and comorbid

  20. Does parental expressed emotion moderate genetic effects in ADHD? An exploration using a genome wide association scan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Lasky-Su, J.; Neale, B.; Oades, R.D.; Chen, W.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Banaschewski, T.; Ebstein, R.P.; Gill, M.; Anney, R.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Thompson, M.; Asherson, P.; Faraone, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of gene x environment (G x E) interaction in ADHD have previously focused on known risk genes for ADHD and environmentally mediated biological risk. Here we use G x E analysis in the context of a genome-wide association scan to identify novel genes whose effects on ADHD symptoms and comorbid