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  1. Does Response on the PHQ-9 Depression Questionnaire Predict Subsequent Suicide Attempt or Suicide Death?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Gregory E; Rutter, Carolyn M; Peterson, Do; Oliver, Malia; Whiteside, Ursula; Operskalski, Belinda; Ludman, Evette J

    2013-01-01

    .... Patients who reported thoughts of death or self-harm “more than half the days” or “nearly every day” experienced a markedly increased risk of subsequent suicide attempt and suicide death...

  2. The influence of media coverage of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T A; Hawton, Keith; Chen, Tony H H; Yen, Amy M F; Chen, Chung-Ying; Chen, Lin-Chen; Teng, Po-Ren

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the impact of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts. A Poisson time series autoregression analysis was conducted to examine whether there was a significant increase in suicide attempts during the 3-week period after the start of extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. The reporting began on May 2, 2005, and lasted about 17 days. To investigate the influence of media reporting on suicide attempts, a structured interview was conducted with 124 suicide attempters identified from 2 counties in Mid Taiwan who had exposure to the media reporting. After controlling for seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, and humidity, there was a marked increase in the number of suicide attempts during the 3-week period after media reporting began (adjusted relative risk = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.91). Among 124 suicide attempters exposed to the media reports, 23.4% reported an influence from them. There was no relationship between the attempters' ages and the age of the celebrity or the method, but male attempters had a significantly higher risk for such influence. A considerably higher risk for such influence was found among subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s) in the previous year (odds ratio = 52.3, 95% CI = 5.96 to 459.1). The extensive media reporting of the suicide of a celebrity was followed by an increase in suicide attempts. The effect was particularly marked in individuals with a recent history of a suicide attempt. The results provide further support for the need for more restrained reporting of suicides as part of suicide prevention strategies and for special vigilance for contagious effects of such reporting on people who have carried out recent suicidal acts.

  3. Period effects in the risk of subsequent labour market marginalisation in young suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, T; Helgesson, M; Rahman, S; Wang, M; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E

    2017-09-23

    Suicide attempt in young age is associated with subsequent labour market marginalisation, but little is known about how marginalisation is affected by changes in suicide attempt rates and social insurance legislation and by age differences. Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of > 2.4 million Swedish residents per birth cohort, aged 19-40 years in 1999; 2004 and 2009, respectively, and followed up for 4 years. Suicide attempters treated in inpatient care in the three years preceding study entry (n > 7000 per cohort) were compared with the general population of the same age without attempt (1987 to end of follow-up). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days) and disability pension were calculated with Cox regression, adjusted for several risk markers. Additional analyses were stratified by age (below/above 30 years). Across all cohorts, suicide attempt was associated with subsequent labour market marginalisation. Estimates were generally highest for disability pension [e.g. 2009 cohort: adjusted (a) HR = 2.7], followed by sickness absence (2009 cohort: aHR = 2.3) and unemployment (2009 cohort: aHR = 1.5). aHRs were higher in the 2004 and 2009 cohorts compared with the 1999 cohort. For disability pension, for example, aHRs were 2.39, 3.90 and 2.68 for the 1999, 2004 and 2009 cohorts, respectively. Stratification revealed marginal age differences. It seems to have become more difficult for suicide attempters to establish themselves on the labour market in later cohorts, which might result from changes in social insurance regulations. There were no considerable age differences.

  4. Longitudinal Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation and Subsequent Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, E.K.; King, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A period of particularly high risk for suicide attempts among adolescent inpatients is within 12 months after discharge. However, little is known about longitudinal trajectories of suicidal ideation in this high-risk group and how these relate to post-hospitalization suicide attempts and rehospitalizations. Our objectives were to identify these trajectories and examine their relationships with post-hospitalization psychiatric crises. We also examined predictors of trajectory group membership. Method Participants (N=376; ages 13-17; 72% females) were assessed at hospitalization and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Trajectory groups, and their predictors, were identified with latent class growth modeling. We used logistic regression to examine associations between trajectory groups and likelihood of suicide attempts and rehospitalization, controlling for attempt history. Results Three trajectory groups were identified: (1) subclinical ideators (31.6%); (2) elevated ideators with rapidly declining ideation (57.4%); and (3) chronically elevated ideators (10.9%). Adolescents in the chronically elevated ideation group had 2.29[(CI=1.08,4.85), p=0.03] and 4.15[(CI=1.65,10.44), psuicide and 3.23[(CI=1.37,7.69), p=0.01] and 11.20[(CI=4.33,29.01), psuicidal ideation. Conclusions Results suggest that suicidal ideation severity at hospitalization may not be an adequate marker for subsequent suicidal crises. It is important to identify adolescents vulnerable to persisting suicidal ideation, as they are at highest risk of psychiatric crises. Addressing hopelessness may facilitate faster declines in ideation after hospitalization. Results also highlight a need for consistent monitoring of these adolescents' suicidal ideation after discharge. PMID:24079705

  5. Medical and Social Determinants of Subsequent Labour Market Marginalization in Young Hospitalized Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Tinghög, Petter; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Wilcox, Holly C; Gould, Madelyn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization. Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16-30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992-1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days), or disability pension in 1995-2010 were calculated with Cox regression. Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0), personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9), repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8) and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7), and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9). As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account.

  6. Medical and Social Determinants of Subsequent Labour Market Marginalization in Young Hospitalized Suicide Attempters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Niederkrotenthaler

    Full Text Available Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization.Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16-30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992-1994. Hazard ratios (HRs for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days, sickness absence (>90 days, or disability pension in 1995-2010 were calculated with Cox regression.Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0, personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9, repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9 were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8 and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8. Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7, and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9.As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account.

  7. Methods of suicide predict the risks and method-switching of subsequent suicide attempts: a community cohort study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang YC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chi Huang,1 Ya-Wen Wu,2 Chih-Ken Chen,3 Liang-Jen Wang41Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: Suicide is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the predictors of repeated suicide attempts, focusing on whether lethality level of the suicidal method predicts the risk of subsequent suicide attempts.Methods: All consecutive individuals (N=2,070 with an episode of nonfatal self-harm registered in a surveillance database provided by the Department of Health of Keelung City Government in Taiwan from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 were enrolled and followed up until the end of 2011. The earliest attempt recorded in the database was defined as the index attempt. Subjects were classified according to suicide method into low-lethal and high-lethal groups. Data on time of and methods chosen for subsequent suicide attempts during the follow-up period were analyzed.Results: Of the total people screened for the study, 18.1% made a repeated suicide attempt. Subjects in the high-lethal group were more likely to be male; aged 35–64 years; and single, divorced, or widowed. Compared to other time intervals, most subsequent suicide attempts occurred within 6 months from the index attempt. The independent predictors for repeated suicide attempts were the use of low-lethal methods in the index attempt and being 35–49 years old. Using high-lethal methods and being older than 50 years were associated with changing suicide method for the second attempt.Conclusion: Lethality level of

  8. Patterns of presentation for attempted suicide: analysis of a cohort of individuals who subsequently died by suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Sharon; Rosato, Michael; Galway, Karen; Hughes, Lynette; Rondon-Sulbaran, Janeet; McConkey, Sam; Leavey, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    All suicides and related prior attempts occurring in Northern Ireland over two years were analyzed, focusing on number and timing of attempts, method, and mental health diagnoses. Cases were derived from coroner's records, with 90% subsequently linked to associated general practice records. Of those included, 45% recorded at least one prior attempt (with 59% switching from less to more lethal methods between attempt and suicide). Compared with those recording one attempt, those with 2+ attempts were more likely to have used less lethal methods at the suicide (OR = 2.77: 95% CI = 1.06, 7.23); and those using less lethal methods at the attempts were more likely to persist with these into the suicide (OR = 3.21: 0.79, 13.07). Finally, those with preexisting mental problems were more likely to use less lethal methods in the suicide: severe mental illness (OR = 7.88: 1.58, 39.43); common mental problems (OR = 3.68: 0.83, 16.30); and alcohol/drugs related (OR = 2.02: 0.41, 9.95). This analysis uses readily available data to highlight the persisting use of less lethal methods by visible and vulnerable attempters who eventually complete their suicide. Further analysis of such conditions could allow more effective prevention strategies to be developed. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  9. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  10. Intervention recommendations and subsequent access to services following clinical assessment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jacqueline; Baugh, Lauren; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) experience multiple difficulties requiring various interventions. Researchers have called for investigation into service use with respect to clinically recommended interventions. To examine intervention recommendations for children with FASD/PAE and subsequent access to these recommended interventions. Intervention recommendations following FASD assessment were examined for children (1-17 years). Recommendations were compared according to diagnostic status and demographic and environmental variables. Subsequent access to several interventions was examined for 45 participants. A variety of recommendations were given. Children with FASD received more recommendations overall and received more education, anticipatory guidance, family support, and safety recommendations than undiagnosed children with PAE. Undiagnosed children received more mental health and reassessment recommendations. Older children received fewer family support and developmental therapy recommendations but more mental health recommendations than younger age groups. Many families accessed modified school programming, developmental therapy, psychiatry, child counseling, and parent support as recommended. Children with FASD and PAE have extensive needs and should receive individualized recommendations. An assessment is valuable even without an FASD diagnosis. Areas of high/low service access may provide insight into accessibility and perceived importance of interventions. This study responds to important research questions regarding the intervention needs of individuals with FASD. It is novel in its exploration of intervention recommendations given to children prenatally exposed to alcohol without an FASD diagnosis (rather than only children with FASD) and in its examination of post-assessment service use patterns specifically in relation to clinical recommendations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  11. Perinatal conditions and parental age at birth as risk markers for subsequent suicide attempt and suicide: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Rasmussen, Finn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2012-09-01

    Restricted fetal growth and young maternal age have been associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour later in life. Research investigating the independent and interacting effects of these risk factors with parental mental health and socio-economic status is scarce. A case-control study was effected through record linkage between Swedish registers. Individuals born 1973-1983 who were hospitalized due to a suicide attempt (n = 17,159) or committed suicide (n = 1,407) were matched to ≤10 controls by sex, month and county of birth. Controlling for parental conditions, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) for suicide attempt were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.25), short birth length (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.08-1.22), short and light for gestational age (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.38), short but not light for gestational age (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI: 1.09, 1.29), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.53-1.80), young fatherhood (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39) and multiparity (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.31-1.50). For completed suicide, increased odds ratios were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.16-2.35), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.09-1.90) and young fatherhood (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41). There was a synergy effect between teenage motherhood and parental psychiatric inpatient care with regard to suicide attempt in offspring [synergy index = 1.53 (95 % CI 1.27-1.84)]. Low birth weight and length, and short and light for gestational age may increase the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour, and more research is needed to investigate underlying mechanisms. Public health implications from this study include measures to improve pre- and perinatal parental mental health, particularly in teenage pregnancies.

  12. Frequency and Effect of Access-Related Vascular Injury and Subsequent Vascular Intervention After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Taudorf, Mikkel; Luk, N H Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Vascular access and closure remain a challenge in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This single-center study aimed to report the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of access-related vascular injury and subsequent vascular intervention. During a 30-month period, 365...... patients underwent TAVR and 333 patients (94%) were treated by true percutaneous transfemoral approach. Of this latter group, 83 patients (25%) had an access-related vascular injury that was managed by the use of a covered self-expanding stent (n = 49), balloon angioplasty (n = 33), or by surgical...... for access-related vascular intervention. In addition, a high sheath/common femoral artery ratio as measured on preoperative CTA was associated with a higher rate of post-TAVR vascular intervention. The radiation dose, iodine contrast volume, transfusion need, length of hospitalization, and 30-day mortality...

  13. Frequency and Effect of Access-Related Vascular Injury and Subsequent Vascular Intervention After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Taudorf, Mikkel; Luk, N H Vincent; Nielsen, Michael B; Kofoed, Klaus F; Schroeder, Torben V; Søndergaard, Lars; Lönn, Lars; De Backer, Ole

    2016-10-15

    Vascular access and closure remain a challenge in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This single-center study aimed to report the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of access-related vascular injury and subsequent vascular intervention. During a 30-month period, 365 patients underwent TAVR and 333 patients (94%) were treated by true percutaneous transfemoral approach. Of this latter group, 83 patients (25%) had an access-related vascular injury that was managed by the use of a covered self-expanding stent (n = 49), balloon angioplasty (n = 33), or by surgical intervention (n = 1). In 16 patients (5%), the vascular injury was classified as a major vascular complication. Absence of a preprocedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the iliofemoral arteries (OR 2.04, p = 0.007) and female gender (OR 2.18, p = 0.004) were independent predictors of the need for access-related vascular intervention. In addition, a high sheath/common femoral artery ratio as measured on preoperative CTA was associated with a higher rate of post-TAVR vascular intervention. The radiation dose, iodine contrast volume, transfusion need, length of hospitalization, and 30-day mortality were not significantly different between patients with versus without access-related vascular intervention. In conclusion, access-related vascular intervention in patients who underwent transfemoral-TAVR is not uncommon. Female gender and a high sheath/common femoral artery ratio are risk factors for access-related vascular injury, whereas preprocedural planning with CTA of the access vessels may reduce the risk of vascular injury. Importantly, most access-related vascular injuries may be treated by percutaneous techniques with similar clinical outcomes to patients without vascular injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The VeinViewer vascular imaging system worsens first-attempt cannulation rate for experienced nurses in infants and children with anticipated difficult intravenous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmuk, Peter; Steiner, Jeffrey; Pop, Radu B; Farrow-Gillespie, Alan; Mascha, Edward J; Sessler, Daniel I

    2013-05-01

    The VeinViewer (Luminetx, Memphis, TN) helps identify veins by projecting an image of subcutaneous vasculature on the skin surface. We tested the primary hypothesis that VeinViewer use improves cannulation success by skilled nurses in pediatric patients with anticipated difficult IV access. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and cannulation success. Patients aged 0 to 18 years were included. Anticipated cannulation difficulty was evaluated with the difficult IV access score. All cannulations were performed by members of the Intravenous Access Team. Patients were randomized to: (1) routine IV catheter insertion; or (2) insertion facilitated by the VeinViewer. The primary outcome was first-attempt insertion success. The proportion of successful insertions was evaluated using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) analysis to adjust for any imbalanced baseline variables. The effect of obesity on cannulation success was evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. Two hundred ninety-nine patients (49%) were randomly assigned to VeinViewer and 301 (51%) to routine cannulation. First-attempt cannulation success was 47% in patients assigned to VeinViewer vs 62% in patients assigned to routine cannulation, with an adjusted relative "risk" (95% confidence interval), of 0.76 (0.63-0.91). The Z-statistic of -3.6 crossed the "harm" boundary (Z < -2.41), with corresponding P value of 0.0003. The trial was stopped on statistical grounds since the harm boundary for the primary outcome was crossed. There was no association between first-attempt success and the 4-level categorization of obesity after adjusted for baseline variables (P = 0.94). The VeinViewer worsened first-attempt IV insertion success by skilled nurses. Surprisingly, first-attempt success for IV cannulation was not worsened by obesity.

  15. Near-death experiences and attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, B

    1981-01-01

    Attempted suicide is correlated with an increase subsequent risk of committed suicide. However, preliminary data and psychodynamic hypotheses suggest that serious suicide attempts followed by transcendental near-death experiences (NDEs) may decrease rather than increase subsequent overt suicide risk, despite the NDEs' apparent "romanticization" of death. Studies of NDEs and of their influence on suicidal ideation are proposed which may yield greater understanding of self-destructive urges and new strategies of suicide prevention.

  16. Attempted suicide in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Thanh, Huong

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide is currently a major public health problem in rapidly developing countries but there are limited studies on this field in Asian countries. These are the first studies on suicidal behavior in Vietnam. The aim of the studies was to: 1) investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts, plans, ideation and medical attention following a suicide attempt in Vietnam and in nine other countries, 2) investigate the relation between lifetime suicidal tho...

  17. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  18. Serious Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Belz, Yossi; Beautrais, Annette

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal behavior comprises a diverse set of behaviors with significant differences among several behavioral categories. One noteworthy category includes individuals who have made serious suicide attempts, epidemiologically very similar to those completing suicide. This behavioral category is important, since interviewing survivors of a potentially lethal incident of self-harm enables a detailed investigation of the psychological process leading to the suicidal act. To achieve a consensus definition and operational criteria of serious suicide attempts. We reviewed studies that included the term serious suicide attempt or related terms (e.g., highly lethal), with a focus on the variety of operational criteria employed across studies. More than 60 papers addressing various types of serious suicide attempt were explored. We found a large variety of operational definitions, reflecting the lack of consensus regarding terminology and criteria related to the term. We undertook the challenge of developing an integrative and comprehensive set of criteria of serious suicide attempt and suggest a definition comprising three key dimensions: medical lethality, potential lethality of the method used, and severity of the objective circumstances of the suicide intent. Clinicians and researchers are strongly encouraged to consider using the term serious suicide attempt with its attendant components.

  19. Register for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-11-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify high-risk groups. Data collection for the RSA started in 1989. The RSA is a longitudinal, person-based register. It contains information about people who have been in contact with the health care system in the County of Funen as a result of a suicide. The RSA contains 11 variables, which describe the incident in detail, and a number of variables describing the person. The RSA contains data covering the period April 1989 to December 2001 and is updated annually. Data is collected from somatic and psychiatric hospitals in an administrative district (County of Funen). The data collection is done manually by going through all the records in which a contact to the health care system, i.e. a potential suicide attempt, is described. Only incidents matching the WHO definition of an attempted suicide are registered. Data from the RSA has been used in national and international studies. The RSA is the most suitable register in Denmark for analyses of suicide attempts.

  20. Risk of Suicide Attempt Among Soldiers in Army Units With a History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Herberman Mash, Holly; Fullerton, Carol S; Bliese, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B

    2017-09-01

    Mental health of soldiers is adversely affected by the death and injury of other unit members, but whether risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in a soldier's unit is unknown. To examine whether a soldier's risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in that soldier's unit. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS), this study identified person-month records for all active-duty, regular US Army, enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 (n = 9650), and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153 528). Data analysis was performed from August 8, 2016, to April 10, 2017. Logistic regression analyses examined the number of past-year suicide attempts in a soldier's unit as a predictor of subsequent suicide attempt, controlling for sociodemographic features, service-related characteristics, prior mental health diagnosis, and other unit variables, including suicide-, combat-, and unintentional injury-related unit deaths. The study also examined whether the influence of previous unit suicide attempts varied by military occupational specialty (MOS) and unit size. Of the final analytic sample of 9512 enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide and 151 526 control person-months, most were male (86.4%), 29 years or younger (68.4%), younger than 21 years when entering the army (62.2%), white (59.8%), high school educated (76.6%), and currently married (54.8%). In adjusted models, soldiers were more likely to attempt suicide if 1 or more suicide attempts occurred in their unit during the past year (odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-2.3; P attempts increased. The odds of suicide attempt among soldiers in a unit with 5 or more past-year attempts was more than twice that of soldiers in a unit with no previous attempts (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2.6). The association of previous unit suicide attempts with subsequent

  1. Characteristics of suicide attempters with family history of suicide attempt: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Makiko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history of suicide attempt is one of the risks of suicide. We aimed at exploring the characteristics of Japanese suicide attempters with and without a family history of suicide attempt. Methods Suicide attempters admitted to an urban emergency department from 2003 to 2008 were interviewed by two attending psychiatrists on items concerning family history of suicide attempt and other sociodemographic and clinical information. Subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of a family history of suicide attempt, and differences between the two groups were subsequently analyzed. Results Out of the 469 suicide attempters, 70 (14.9% had a family history of suicide attempt. A significantly higher rate of suicide motive connected with family relations (odds ratio 2.21, confidence interval 1.18–4.17, p p Conclusion The present study has revealed the characteristics of suicide attempters with a family history of suicide attempt. Further understanding of the situation of such individuals is expected to lead to better treatment provision and outcomes, and family function might be a suitable focus in their treatment.

  2. Suicide attempts among adolescent drug users.

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    Berman, A L; Schwartz, R H

    1990-03-01

    Substance use has been identified as a significant risk factor in nonfatal and fatal suicides during adolescence. A comprehensive questionnaire on patterns of alcohol and other drug use, early childhood and nuclear family psychological and behavioral history, and previous suicidal attempts was completed by 298 (88%) of 340 outpatient adolescent substance abusers in three geographic regions east of the Mississippi River. An abbreviated Beck Depression Inventory was included to ascertain current symptoms of depressed mood. Adolescents admitting to a previous suicide attempt (30%) were compared with two age- and sex-matched samples. Substance abusers were three times as likely as a normative population of non-drug-using age- and sex-matched peers to make a suicide attempt. Thirty-three percent of attempts reported occurred prior to high school. Both the wish to hurt oneself and actual suicide attempts were found to increase significantly after the initiation of substance use. Forty percent used drugs within 8 hours before the suicide attempt, and 23% of attempters reported that their families continued to have a firearm with ammunition in the home following the suicide attempt. Adolescent substance abusers who had attempted suicide were significantly more likely than a matched group of nonattempters in the same drug treatment facility to: (1) complain of usually feeling "blue" or sad (depressed affect) during early childhood, (2) identify important childhood behavioral problems, (3) identify long-standing self-perceived impaired self-concept, and (4) identify serious parental problems, such as chronic depression or alcoholism. Self-perceived chronic loneliness in childhood appears to be a singularly important initiator of adolescent drug use and subsequent suicide attempts among drug abusers.

  3. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  4. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  5. An Attempt at Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sztaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Witkacy’s Pure Form expresses the metaphysical essence of art. On the one side, it symbolizes the structure of the world, the unity in plurality (which is demonstrated in the picture’s composition and, on the other, the notion deals with the processes of creating and perceiving an art work. The moment in which the self feels itself embedded in the wholeness of the world is the moment in which the metaphysical feeling arises, and in which the experience of art is fulfilled. Witkacy provides many examples for situations evoking this feeling. He describes them in his novels, he finds synonyms as suchness, curiosity of existence, mystery of being or unity of identity, he switches from scientific to poetic language. And he emphasizes that this feeling, while defying verbalization, is a real, not a supernatural one: a psychophysical phenomenon accessible to introspection, and inseparable from one's cultural and individual background.

  6. Attempts for fostering researches on information compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Mitsunori; Kato, Tsuneaki

    Information compilation is a novel research topic which aims to compile various information intelligently, and to make it easy to comprehend/access. The information compilation is emphasized by two characteristics. The first one is a cross-modalitiness achieved by cooperation between non-linguistic information and linguistic information, and the second one is a continuousness in supporting all aspects of information utilization. To foster researches related to the information compilation, we conducted three attempts: installation of a reference model on information compilation, distribution of annotated corpus and a visualization platform as boundary objects, and deployment of an evaluation workshop. The paper describes current efforts of the attempts.

  7. Mental disorders and attempted suicide in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Millions of people die from suicide globally every year. Suicide is strongly associated with mental disorders. More than 90% of those who die by suicide have at least one diagnosable mental disorder at the time of their death. Attempted suicide is also a major public health concern since it is an important predictor of subsequent completed suicide and an indicator of mental health problems. Aims: There are four aims which correspond to four papers. First, we validated the Vietn...

  8. Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…

  9. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  10. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression and attempted suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between attempted suicide, personality factors and brief recurrent depression. Over a period of 1 year, the demographic and psychiatric factors of 307 patients who had attempted suicide and subsequently been hospitalised at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital and referred to its Department of ...

  11. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between attempted suicide, personality factors and brief recurrent depression. Over a period of 1 year, the demographic and psychiatric factors of 307 patients who had attempted suicide and subsequently been hospitalised at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital and referred to its Department of ...

  12. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-08-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide.

  13. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...

  14. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...

  15. Young Adults Attempt Exchanges in Reproductively Relevant Currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults in many species exhibit exchanges in reproductively relevant currencies, where males trade resources for sexual relations with females, and females have sex with males in exchange for provisioning. These exchanges can occur outside of a long-term partnership, which itself could be considered a commitment to the accessibility of reproductive currencies provided by each partner. The current study investigated whether young adults who are not in acute need of resources intentionally attempt reproductive currency exchanges outside of dating relationships or formal committed relationships such as marriage; and whether young adults have awareness of being the target of such attempts made by others. College students (N = 475 completed a brief survey assessing their own attempts to exchange reproductively relevant currencies, as well as others' attempts to make these exchanges with them. Men were more likely to report making attempts to trade investment for sex and women were more likely to report attempted trades of sex for investment. Participants' experiences of exchange attempts initiated by other individuals mirrored these patterns. Men were more likely to report another individual trying to trade sex for their investment, and women were more likely to report another individual trying to trade investment for sex with them. The vast majority of these attempted exchanges took place outside of existing relationships, although a small portion did lead to short or long-term relationships.

  16. Suicide attempts: prevention of repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Marc S; Pouliot, Louise; Chagnon, François; Greenfield, Brian; Mishara, Brian

    2011-10-01

    To present an overview of promising strategies to prevent repetition of suicidal behaviours. This literature review on tertiary preventive interventions of suicide attempts was produced using the computerized databases PubMed and PsycINFO from January 1966 to September 2010, using French- and English-language limits and the key words: suicid* or deliberate self-harm and treatment* or therapy or intervention* or management. Thirteen of the 35 included studies showed statistically significant effects of fewer repeated attempts or suicides in the experimental condition. Overall, 22 studies focused on more traditional approaches, that is, pharmacological or psychological approaches. Only 2 of the 6 pharmacological treatments proved significantly superior to a placebo- a study of lithium with depression and flupenthixol with personality disorders. Eight out of 16 psychological treatments proved superior to treatment as usual or another approach: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 4), (including dialectical behaviour therapy [n = 2]); psychodynamic therapy (n = 2); mixed (CBT plus psychodynamic therapy [n = 1]); and motivational approach and change in therapist (n = 1). Among the 8 studies using visit, postal, or telephone contact or green-token emergency card provision, 2 were significant: one involving telephone follow-up and the other telephone follow-up or visits. Hospitalization was not related to fewer attempts, and 1 of the 4 outreach approaches had significant results: a program involving individualized biweekly treatment. The rationale behind these single or multiple approaches still needs to be clarified. There were methodological flaws in many studies and some had very specific limited samples. There is a need for more research addressing the problem in definitions of outcomes and measurement of the dependent variables, gender-specific effects, and inclusion of high-risk groups. There is a need for the development and evaluation of new approaches that

  17. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  18. [Mother's filicide with suicide attempt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić-Pavkov, Gordana; Gajić, Zoran; Golubović, Boris; Bozić, Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.

  19. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    , sex, marital status, employment status, method of harm, remoteness, percentage of people in rented accommodation and percentage of unmarried people were not associated with the odds of being in a suicide attempt cluster. Early identification of and responding to suicide clusters may reduce the likelihood of subsequent clusters forming. The mechanisms, however, that underlie clusters forming is poorly understood.

  20. Cholesterol and suicide attempts: A prospective study of depressed inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Coryell, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Low cholesterol levels have commonly been associated with various suicide measures. We sought to examine suicide attempts in a prospective sample of depressed patients that on prior analysis demonstrated an association between low cholesterol and subsequent suicide completions. Seventy-four inpatients with Research Diagnostic Criteria unipolar major depression, bipolar depression or schizoaffective depression entered a prospective follow-up study from 1978 - 1981. Kaplan-Meier survival analys...

  1. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2016-01-01

    to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...... a suicide attempt has a significant preventive effect on the total of suicide attempts and significantly reduces the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. The suicide preventive effect lasts up to 265 weeks. After 3-4 years the effect on the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt...

  2. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attempt. 38.15 Section 38.15 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part. ...

  3. 31 CFR 560.203 - Evasions; attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts. 560.203 Section... Evasions; attempts. Any transaction by any United States person or within the United States that evades or avoids, or has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate, any of the prohibitions...

  4. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  5. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  6. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt; Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment.......To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment....

  7. Gambaran Pikiran Bunuh Diri Pada Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa, Ivi

    2010-01-01

    In general, human being is a rational being that can use his/her mind and logic to solve problem. The greatness of human mind is indicated by human ability to generate, weigh, and choose the appropriate one in accordance with the situation. Despite that fact, some people lose their ability to think rationally as they face stressful life events and eventually attempt suicide. Unfortunately, many attempts are completed. In addition, before a person attempts suicide, suicide ideation must have b...

  8. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, Frédéric N; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Eight hundred and sixteen adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Life expectancy after the first suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, J; Talbäck, M; Feychting, M; Ahlbom, A; Ljung, R

    2017-12-14

    To assess excess mortality among suicide attempters compared to the general population. Remaining life expectancy was calculated for a nationwide cohort of all 187 894 persons 18 years or older hospitalised for the first time attempted suicide in Sweden in 1971-2010. Life expectancy was shortened throughout the lifespan for both men and women debuting with suicide attempt. The reduction in life expectancy for men debuting with a suicide attempt at 20 years of age was 18 years while the reduction for men debuting at 50 years of age was 10 years. For women attempting suicide, the life expectancy was shortened by 11 and 8 years respectively. The gender difference in life expectancy attenuated in patients making their first suicide attempt at age 70 years or older. Suicide deaths explained about 20% of the total mortality within 10 years of the suicide attempt and 5% in those with duration of four decades since the first suicide attempt. The life expectancy is dramatically reduced in patients attempting suicide. With most excess deaths being due to physical health conditions, public efforts should be directed both towards improving physical health and to prevent suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Beck Hopelessness Scale: Psychometric Properties Among Rural Chinese Suicide Attempters and Non-Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Hu, Xia; Qiu, Hui-Min; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The authors recruited 401 suicide attempters from general hospitals and 409 matched non-attempters to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in rural China. All participants completed the BHS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Suicide attempters had higher BHS scores than non-attempters. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were satisfactory and BHS scores significantly correlated to CES-D and TAI scores. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor model for suicide attempters and a five-factor model for non-attempters. The BHS is satisfactory in assessing hopelessness among suicide attempters in rural China.

  11. First Encounters with Patients after Attempted Suicide: A Conversation and Interaction Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main risk factor for suicide is the attempt to do. It boosts the risk of further attempts and heightens the risk of subsequent suicide considerably. We know the rate of suicide attempters willing to attend even an aftercare appointment to be  low. It is also known that if attempters do seek help, from the first encounter on the quality of the therapeutic alliance plays an important role in the formation of the patient's decision to continue the therapeutic relationship. Clinically, this implies the urgency to offer these patients a helping and trustful relationship from the beginning, since we might only get this one chance to reach and engage them in a helping relationship. But what are good encounters with such patients? How are positively experienced encounters characterized and how to pursue such questions on the basis of empirical material? The aim of this investigation into clinicians’ ways of interacting with these patients is to elicit characteristics of interaction from positively and negatively experienced encounters. Conversation and interaction analysis provide valuable access to these questions, because they allow a detailed investigation into the turn-by-turn unfolding of interaction. They demonstrate how the interactants mutually present themselves and how communicative moves are productive or not. Results of such an investigation into four such first-encounters are presented. Out of a pool of 40 videotaped first-encounters, held at the Bern University Hospital, two of the best and two of the worst encounters in patients’ rating were selected, transcribed, and analyzed. It was found that the interviewers of the positively experienced encounters were attentively and empathically present throughout the entire conversation. While giving patients ample opportunity to autonomously develop the story of their suicide-attempt, clinicians where nevertheless structuring and focusing the conversation and assisting the development of

  12. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  13. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  14. Mobile multiple access study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  15. Childhood suicide attempts with acetaminophen in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete

    2013-01-01

    attempts. (3) The frequency of self-mutilation among children with suicidal behaviour. (4) The purposes and reasons for childhood suicide attempts. Methods: A retrospective case-control study based on medical records and in-hospital child psychiatric assessments at the Paediatric Department, Hillerød...

  16. A specific attentional bias in suicide attempters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Strohbach, D.; Rinck, M.

    1999-01-01

    Selective attention in patients after an attempted suicide was investigated to find out whether a specific attentional bias for suicide-related materials exists and to clarify the possible role of emotions in the bias. Thirty-one patients who had previously attempted to commit suicide and 31 control

  17. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD), non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162), and healthy controls (n = 161). The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide) in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters, with significantly high

  18. Teen experiences following a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Carrie; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2015-06-01

    Teen suicide is the third leading cause of death for 15-24year olds. A clear understanding of what the experience of being suicidal means to adolescents living the phenomenon has not been clearly addressed in the literature. The aim of this research was to generate a comprehensive interpretation of the experiences of six adolescents who visited the ED following a suicide attempt, using hermeneutic phenomenological methodology. Participants ranged in age from 15 to 19years old, and all had been hospitalized for their attempt. Two patterns emerged: attempting as communicating and attempting as transforming. Underlying themes are described in detail. The findings have implications for nursing practice including how to assess and intervene with adolescent suicide attempters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  20. Reasons for attempted suicide in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Wiktorsson, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Waern, Margda

    2015-05-01

    Using the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide as a guiding framework, we investigated older adults' causal attributions for suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that older adults who attributed their suicidal behavior to thwarted belongingness or perceived burdensomeness would be more likely to use more immediately lethal means and to re-attempt suicide during the 12-month follow-up. Prospective cohort study in western Sweden. A total of 101 older adults who presented to medical emergency rooms for suicide attempts. Participants were asked why they attempted suicide. Attributions included: a desire to escape (N = 29), reduced functioning and autonomy (N = 24), psychological problems, including depression (N = 24), somatic problems and physical pain (N = 16), perceived burdensomeness (N = 13), social problems that reflected either thwarted belongingness or family conflict (N = 13), and lack of meaning in life (N = 8); 41 participants provided more than one reason. No specific reason was given by 28 participants, 15 of whom reported not understanding or remembering why they attempted suicide and 13 reported simply wanting to die (or go to sleep and not wake up). As hypothesized, patients who attributed the attempt to thwarted belongingness were more likely to use more immediately lethal means for their index attempt and were more likely to re-attempt during follow-up. This was not the case for those reporting burdensomeness. People who attribute suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness use more lethal methods and have a poorer prognosis. Replications across diverse cultural settings are needed to determine whether attributing suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness may warrant increased monitoring. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In the period January 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991 a sample of suicide attempters admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, underwent a structured interview. In the study 52% of the patients interviewed were found to suffer from a somatic disease, and 21% were daily...... on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine...

  2. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  3. Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2012-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2012, 27 April). Visual expertise: characteristics and instructional attempts. Presentation during the ‘Symposium 4C-ID: Hoe implementer je de blauwdruk?’, Studiecentrum Open Universiteit, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  4. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  5. A follow-up study of adolescent attempted suicide in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbstein, Ilana; Dycian, Anat; Gothelf, Doron; King, Robert A; Cohen, Donald J; Kron, Shmuel; Apter, Alan

    2002-11-01

    (1) To compare the outcome of adolescent subjects who have made a suicide attempt with the outcome of matched controls, using their psychological and psychometric screening tests for military service at age 16.5 years. Their subsequent performance during military service between ages 18 and 21 was also evaluated. (2) To compare the prognosis of those attempters who received intensive psychiatric inpatient evaluation in a general hospital with the prognosis of those who received emergency room treatment only. The computerized military records of 216 adolescents, who had been treated between 1987 and 1988 for attempted suicide in a general hospital emergency room, prior to their induction into the army, were evaluated. They were rated on the following tests: cognitive/educational performance and psychosocial adaptation, psychiatric and psychological health diagnoses, and performance during their military service between 1989 and 1992. Although the female attempters had slightly more problems in the military than the controls, their overall prognosis was surprisingly good. The male suicide attempters did very poorly in their subsequent military service. There was no long-term advantage in having had a psychiatric evaluation performed in a hospital over a brief emergency room evaluation. Most differences between attempters and controls were in service performance, rather than in cognitive and psychometric tests. There may be marked differences between the sexes in the significance of attempted suicide and in the indications for intervention. The policy of mandatory general hospitalization for suicide attempters may need reevaluation.

  6. Characteristics of methods of suicide attempts in Korea: Korea National Suicide Survey (KNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Ahn, Joon-Ho; Cha, Boseok; Chung, Young-Chul; Ha, Tae Hyon; Hong Jeong, Seong; Jung, Hee Yeon; Ju, Gawon; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Min-Hyuk; Kim, Soo In; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Yu Jin; Moon, Eunsoo; Ahn, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Because the method used for a suicide attempt is an important determinant of outcome, these methods should be explored. The present study was a nationwide investigation of suicide attempts and the characteristics of suicidal behavior. To compare the suicide methods used in attempted suicides with those used in completed suicides and to examine the factors associated with each phenomenon. The present study reviewed the medical charts of subjects who had attempted suicide and subsequently visited the emergency rooms of 17 medical centers from May 1, 2013 to November 7, 2013. All subjects completed a full psychiatric interview conducted by trained psychiatric residents. Suicide-attempt methods were divided into the following six categories: drug poisoning, pesticide poisoning, gassing, cutting, hanging, and others. The associations among demographic variables, related psychiatric variables, and suicide-attempt methods were analyzed using a multinomial regression analysis. Of the 1359 suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries and the 14,160 completed suicides, drug poisoning and cutting were the most common suicidal behaviors with/without injuries, but they were the least frequent method of completed suicides. In contrast, hanging and jumping from a height were less common among failed suicide attempts but resulted in a higher percentage of fatalities. Being male, age, and area of residence were associated with pesticide poisoning, whereas previous suicide attempts were associated with cutting, pesticide poisoning, and gassing. A previous suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide; thus, assessing the characteristics of suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries is necessary to prevent these attempts. The present findings showed that the methods of suicide used by individuals who only attempted suicide differed from those used by individuals who completed. Of the suicide methods, pesticide

  7. Impulsive suicide attempts: a systematic literature review of definitions, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-15

    Extensive research on impulsive suicide attempts, but lack of agreement on the use of this term indicates the need for a systematic literature review of the area. The aim of this review was to examine definitions and likely correlates of impulsive attempts. A search of Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus, Proquest and Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. Additional articles were identified using the cross-referencing function of Google Scholar. 179 relevant papers were identified. Four different groups of research criteria used to assess suicide attempt impulsivity emerged: (a) time-related criteria, (b) absence of proximal planning/preparations, (c) presence of suicide plan in lifetime/previous year, and (d) other. Subsequent analysis used these criteria to compare results from different studies on 20 most researched hypotheses. Conclusions regarding the characteristics of impulsive attempts are more consistent than those on the risk factors specific to such attempts. No risk factors were identified that uniformly related to suicide attempt impulsivity across all criteria groups, but relationships emerged between separate criteria and specific characteristics of suicide attempters. Only published articles were included. Large inconsistencies in methods of the studies included in this review prevented comparison of effect sizes. The vast disparities in findings on risk factors for impulsive suicide attempts among different criteria groups suggest the need to address the methodological issues in defining suicide attempt impulsivity before further research into correlates of such attempts can effectively progress. Specific recommendations are offered for necessary research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Attempted eyelid closure affects intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P D; Gürses-Ozden, R; Liebmann, J M; Ritch, R

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of attempted eyelid closure on intraocular pressure measurement. Normal subjects underwent intraocular pressure measurement in both eyes using Goldmann applanation tonometry and Tono-pen XL (Mentor, Inc, Norwell, Massachusetts) by the same examiner holding the eyelids open, both with and without the subject simultaneously attempting forced eyelid closure. Subjects were seated during all measurements and waited 5 minutes between measurements with each instrument; the order of measurement was randomized. Thirty eyes of 15 subjects (six men, nine women) were enrolled. Mean age was 30.5 +/- 5.2 years (range, 24 to 40 years). With Goldmann applanation tonometry, intraocular pressure increased in both eyes with attempted eyelid closure by a mean of 1.5 +/- 2.0 mm Hg (P =.0002, paired t test; range, -2 to 8 mm Hg). With the Tono-pen XL, intraocular pressure also increased in both eyes with attempted eyelid closure by a mean of 1.9 +/- 2.7 mm Hg (P =.0002, paired t test; range, -2 to 9 mm Hg). Tono-pen XL mean intraocular pressure values in both eyes (14.4 +/- 2.3 mm Hg) consistently overestimated those of Goldmann applanation tonometry (13.0 +/- 2.2 mm Hg) by a mean of 1.4 +/- 2.3 mm Hg. Attempted forced eyelid closure is a common and statistically significant source of error in routine outpatient measurement of intraocular pressure and could influence clinical management of glaucoma.

  9. Depressed suicide attempters have smaller hippocampus than depressed patients without suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Romain; Chupin, Marie; Cury, Claire; Vandendrie, Christophe; Gressier, Florence; Hardy, Patrick; Falissard, Bruno; Colliot, Olivier; Ducreux, Denis; Corruble, Emmanuelle

    2015-02-01

    Despite known relationship between hippocampal volumes and major depressive episodes (MDE) and the increased suicidality in MDE, the links between hippocampal volumes and suicidality remain unclear in major depressive disorders (MDD). If the hippocampus could be a biomarker of suicide attempts in depression, it could be useful for prevention matters. This study assessed the association between hippocampal volumes and suicide attempts in MDD. Hippocampal volumes assessed with automatic segmentation were compared in 63 patients with MDD, with (n = 24) or without (n = 39) suicide attempts. Acute (one month) suicide attempts were studied. Although not different in terms of socio-demographic, MDD and MDE clinical features, suicide attempters had lower total hippocampus volumes than non-attempters (4.61 (± 1.15) cm(3) vs 5.22 (± 0.99) cm(3); w = 625.5; p = 0.03), especially for acute suicide attempts (4.19 (± 0.81) cm(3) vs 5.22 (± 0.99) cm(3); w = 334; p = 0.005), even after adjustment on brain volumes, sex, age, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores and MDD duration. A ROC analysis showed that a total hippocampal volume threshold of 5.00 cm(3) had a 98.2% negative predictive value for acute suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters have smaller hippocampus than depressed patients without suicide attempts, independently from socio-demographics and MDD characteristics. This difference is related to acute suicide attempts but neither to past suicide attempts nor to duration since the first suicide attempt, suggesting that hippocampal volume could be a suicidal state marker in MDE. Further studies are required to better understand this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  12. Youth, suicide attempts and low level of education: A Danish historical register-based cohort study of the outcome of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Larsen, Kim Juul; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2015-12-01

    In Denmark, it is a political goal that 95% of all young people should complete an upper secondary education. For some young people, this goal can be difficult to achieve. An association has been established between suicidal behaviour and school performance. We hypothesise that young people who have attempted suicide have a lower chance of finishing secondary education. We used Danish historical population registers to perform a longitudinal cohort design and extended Cox regression modelling to estimate crude and adjusted estimates of the effect of suicide attempt on secondary education. We used the birth cohorts 1983-1989, and all subjects were followed from birth until the end of 2011 (n = 355,725). For suicide attempters, the likelihood of completing secondary education was one-third of non-attempters (crude hazard ratio = 0.38). A part of the impact can be explained by confounding factors. Individuals with a suicide attempt at age 16-20 years or with multiple suicide attempts were most likely not to complete secondary education. Compared to mentally ill non-attempters, suicide attempters with mental illness were more likely not to finish secondary education. A suicide attempt is not necessarily causal for not finishing secondary education, but it is a marker, and it predicts an increased likelihood of not finishing secondary education. We need to identify individuals at risk for suicide attempts and subsequently provide the necessary support. Completing secondary education is important, as it provides better chances of employment, higher wages and more opportunities for individuals in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. [Experience of College Students on Suicide Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Mi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experience of Korean college students on suicide attempts. Eight students participated and data were collected through in-depth individual interviews between September, 2011 and April, 2012. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. Analysis showed that the central phenomenon of suicide attempt experience of college students was 'inextricable despair'. Causal conditions were 'sense of shame by failure to achieve perfect independence' and 'a big gap between reality and ideals'. Contextual conditions were 'extreme situation of being cornered' and 'excessive changes in emotions'. Intervening conditions were 'important others' and 'perspectives on the world'. Action/interaction strategies were 'temporary efforts' and 'gathering up one's mind'. Consequences were 'trauma as one's own hurt', 'conflict between life and death' and 'becoming mature'. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the experience of college students with attempted suicide. It is necessary to develop programs to prevent suicide attempts by college students and these results can be used as a basis for program development.

  14. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  15. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  16. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  17. Comment: Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Shirley L.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that subject of transgenerational patterns of suicide attempt calls for examination of variables extending beyond those examined in previous article (Sorenson and Rutter, 1991). Considers possible significance of such variables as respondent's income, employment status, and length of residence in the community. Contends that scales assessing…

  18. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  19. [When a Suicide Attempt is Kid's Stuff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rojas, Rafael; Quijano-Serrano, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Attempted suicide in children and adolescents is a disturbing and painful issue for patients, their families and physicians. Current medical literature provides little information about minors who attempt suicide, possibly because there is under-reporting of this condition as a diagnosis, or maybe because it is sometimes considered as a way for the child to draw attention. To present the experience of the Department of Psychiatry (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia, from 2003 to 2013. An observational retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 213 cases of children and adolescents treated for attempted suicide at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia from January 1, 2003 to October 31, 2013, and who received hospital or outpatient care in Child Psychiatry. A review was performed of the diagnosis, the number of suicide attempts, the peak months of consultation for this reason, and the methods selected, as well as a detailed description of the group of patients under 12 years old, and those managed with outpatient follow-up. The average patient is a female teenager who becomes intoxicated with drugs. Most often, patients do not return to outpatient follow-up. Those with follow-up have multiple psychopathologies and a high level of suffering. The most common methods, other than poisoning by drugs, are hanging and jumping from heights. Patients under 12 years old generally have their first attempt by drug poisoning. There is a predominance of anxiety disorder and depression, with a strong association with cognitive dysfunction, as a vulnerability factor. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Low latency memory access and synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Brewster, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY), Vranas; Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2010-10-19

    A low latency memory system access is provided in association with a weakly-ordered multiprocessor system. Bach processor in the multiprocessor shares resources, and each shared resource has an associated lock within a locking device that provides support for synchronization between the multiple processors in the multiprocessor and the orderly sharing of the resources. A processor only has permission to access a resource when it owns the lock associated with that resource, and an attempt by a processor to own a lock requires only a single load operation, rather than a traditional atomic load followed by store, such that the processor only performs a read operation and the hardware locking device performs a subsequent write operation rather than the processor. A simple prefetching for non-contiguous data structures is also disclosed. A memory line is redefined so that in addition to the normal physical memory data, every line includes a pointer that is large enough to point to any other line in the memory, wherein the pointers to determine which memory line to prefetch rather than some other predictive algorithm. This enables hardware to effectively prefetch memory access patterns that are non-contiguous, but repetitive.

  1. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  2. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...... to an emergency department after attempted suicide (index attempt) between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2011 (N = 11,802). Cox regression analysis identified predictors, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis modeled the time to repeated suicide attempts and suicide. Results: Sixteen percent of the sample...

  3. Can CCTV identify people in public transit stations who are at risk of attempting suicide? An analysis of CCTV video recordings of attempters and a comparative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Mishara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicides incur in all public transit systems which do not completely impede access to tracks. We conducted two studies to determine if we can reliably identify in stations people at risk of suicide in order to intervene in a timely manner. The first study analysed all CCTV recordings of suicide attempters in Montreal underground stations over 2 years to identify behaviours indicating suicide risk. The second study verified the potential of using those behaviours to discriminate attempters from other passengers in real time. Methods First study: Trained observers watched CCTV video recordings of 60 attempters, with 2–3 independent observers coding seven easily observable behaviours and five behaviours requiring interpretation (e.g. “strange behaviours,” “anxious behaviour”. Second study: We randomly mixed 63 five-minute CCTV recordings before an attempt with 56 recordings from the same cameras at the same time of day, and day of week, but when no suicide attempt was to occur. Thirty-three undergraduate students after only 10 min of instructions watched the recordings and indicated if they observed each of 13 behaviours identified in the First Study. Results First study: Fifty (83% of attempters had easily observable behaviours potentially indicative of an impending attempt, and 37 (61% had two or more of these behaviours. Forty-five (75% had at least one behaviours requiring interpretation. Twenty-two witnesses attempted to intervene to stop the attempt, and 75% of attempters had behaviours indicating possible ambivalence (e.g. waiting for several trains to pass; trying to get out of the path of the train. Second study: Two behaviours, leaving an object on the platform and pacing back and forth from the yellow line (just before the edge of the platform, could identify 24% of attempters with no false positives. The other target behaviours were also present in non-attempters. However, having two or more of these

  4. Can CCTV identify people in public transit stations who are at risk of attempting suicide? An analysis of CCTV video recordings of attempters and a comparative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile; Dupont, Serge

    2016-12-15

    Suicides incur in all public transit systems which do not completely impede access to tracks. We conducted two studies to determine if we can reliably identify in stations people at risk of suicide in order to intervene in a timely manner. The first study analysed all CCTV recordings of suicide attempters in Montreal underground stations over 2 years to identify behaviours indicating suicide risk. The second study verified the potential of using those behaviours to discriminate attempters from other passengers in real time. First study: Trained observers watched CCTV video recordings of 60 attempters, with 2-3 independent observers coding seven easily observable behaviours and five behaviours requiring interpretation (e.g. "strange behaviours," "anxious behaviour"). Second study: We randomly mixed 63 five-minute CCTV recordings before an attempt with 56 recordings from the same cameras at the same time of day, and day of week, but when no suicide attempt was to occur. Thirty-three undergraduate students after only 10 min of instructions watched the recordings and indicated if they observed each of 13 behaviours identified in the First Study. First study: Fifty (83%) of attempters had easily observable behaviours potentially indicative of an impending attempt, and 37 (61%) had two or more of these behaviours. Forty-five (75%) had at least one behaviours requiring interpretation. Twenty-two witnesses attempted to intervene to stop the attempt, and 75% of attempters had behaviours indicating possible ambivalence (e.g. waiting for several trains to pass; trying to get out of the path of the train). Second study: Two behaviours, leaving an object on the platform and pacing back and forth from the yellow line (just before the edge of the platform), could identify 24% of attempters with no false positives. The other target behaviours were also present in non-attempters. However, having two or more of these behaviours indicated a likelihood of being at risk of attempting

  5. Suicidal ideations and attempts in juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Koposov, Roman A; Vermeiren, Robert; King, Robert A

    2003-10-01

    Suicidality among adolescents is a common focus of clinical attention. In spite of links to disruptive behaviors and other types of psychopathology, it is not clear whether other factors commonly associated with suicide, such as personality and parenting, predict suicidality over and above psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess suicidal ideations and attempts and their relationship to psychopathology, violence exposure, personality traits and parental rearing in Russian male juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder (CD). Suicidality and psychopathology were assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview in 271 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents diagnosed with CD. Violence exposure, personality characteristics and perceived parental rearing were assessed via self-reports. Thirty-four percent of those diagnosed with CD (92 subjects) reported a lifetime history of either suicidal thoughts or attempts. Suicidal ideators and attempters did not differ significantly on any variable of interest, but both reported significantly higher rates of psychopathology and violence exposure than the non-suicidal group, as well as higher levels of harm avoidance, lower self-directedness, and higher rates of perceived negative parental rearing. Finally, even when controlling for the relationship with psychopathology, personality and perceived parental rearing factors showed significant associations with suicidality. Juvenile delinquents with CD have high rates of suicidal ideations and attempts, related to a wide spectrum of psychopathology and specific personality traits. These findings suggest that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors create vulnerability to stressors, which under the influence of situational factors (e.g., repeated traumatization) may lead to suicidal thoughts and acts. Factors potentially contributing to vulnerability for suicidality should be identified when planning prevention and rehabilitation efforts for

  6. An attempt to do a designerly leap beyond making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Olander, Sissel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is situated on the intersection of STS and design and aims to discuss a range of different sensibilities around the concept of “doing” STS. Here we are particularly interested in the potentials of exploring design not only as a making practice, but somewhere beyond. From within STS......, in this paper we attempt to engage with a more diversified and contradictory analysis of “doing” STS through designerly making. Subsequently, we ask; what happens when design tries to move beyond the aesthetic of matters-of-facts, of objects, of ‘gegenstände’, as suggested by Latour? And what other...... conceptualisations might come into being when design is not only prescribed as an agent that imposes form upon materials? The paper explores the capacities of design as alternative ways of doing and making, informed through the (in)sensibilities of caring, maintenance, mending and growing. Through a series of design...

  7. Variables associated with familial suicide attempts in a sample of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Saiz-Gonzalez, Dolores; Basurte-Villamor, Ignacio; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Leiva-Murillo, José M; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Santiago-Mozos, Ricardo; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio; de Leon, Jose

    2007-08-15

    Attempted suicide appears to be a familial behavior. This study aims to determine the variables associated with family history of attempted suicide in a large sample of suicide attempters. The sample included 539 suicide attempters 18 years or older recruited in an emergency room. The two dichotomous dependent variables were family history of suicide attempt (10%, 51/539) and of completed suicide (4%, 23/539). Independent variables were 101 clinical variables studied with two data mining techniques: Random Forest and Forward Selection. A model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed. A classificatory model for family history of attempted suicide included the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide (sensitivity, specificity, 98.7%; and accuracy, 96.6%). This is the first study that uses a powerful new statistical methodology, data mining, in the field of familial suicidal behaviors and suggests that it may be important to study familial variables associated with alcohol use to better understand the familiality of suicide attempts.

  8. Internet Access by People with Intellectual Disabilities: Inequalities and Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darren Chadwick; Caroline Wesson; Chris Fullwood

    2013-01-01

    ... issues and gaining Internet access. We will address how impairment related factors may impede access and subsequently discuss how supports may be used to obfuscate impairments and facilitate access...

  9. Suicide attempt predicted by academic performance and childhood IQ: a cohort study of 26 000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörberg Wallin, A; Zeebari, Z; Lager, A; Gunnell, D; Allebeck, P; Falkstedt, D

    2017-11-08

    Academic performance in youth, measured by grade point average (GPA), predicts suicide attempt, but the mechanisms are not known. It has been suggested that general intelligence might underlie the association. We followed 26 315 Swedish girls and boys in population-representative cohorts, up to maximum 46 years of age, for the first suicide attempt in hospital records. Associations between GPA at age 16, IQ measured in school at age 13 and suicide attempt were investigated in Cox regressions and mediation analyses. There was a clear graded association between lower GPA and subsequent suicide attempt. With control for potential confounders, those in the lowest GPA quartile had a near five-fold risk (HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.7-6.7) compared to those in the highest quartile. In a mediation analysis, the association between GPA and suicide attempt was robust, while the association between IQ and suicide attempt was fully mediated by GPA. Poor academic performance in compulsory school, at age 16, was a robust predictor of suicide attempt past young adulthood and seemed to account for the association between lower childhood IQ and suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Depressed Multiple-Suicide-Attempters - A High-Risk Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Burke, Ainsley K; Chaudhury, Sadia; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-09-15

    There is compelling evidence that suicide attempts are among the strongest predictors of suicide and future suicide attempts. This study aimed to examine psychopathology in multiple-suicide attempters. We compared the demographic and clinical features of three groups: depressed patients without a history of suicide attempts (non-attempters), depressed patients with a history of one to three suicide attempts (attempters), and depressed patients with a history of four or more suicide attempts (multiple attempters). We found that attempters and multiple attempters had higher levels of depression, hopelessness, aggression, hostility, and impulsivity and were more likely to have borderline personality disorder and family history of major depression or alcohol use disorder compared with non-attempters, but did not differ between each other on these measures. Multiple attempters had greater suicidal ideation at study entry and were more likely to have family history of suicide attempt compared with attempters. Importantly, multiple attempters had greater suicide intent at the time of the most medically serious suicide attempt and more serious medical consequences during their most medically serious suicide attempt compared with attempters. The cross-sectional design of the study. Our data suggest that multiple-suicide attempters require careful evaluation as their behavior can have serious medical consequences.

  11. How do clinicians and suicide attempters understand suicide attempt impulsivity? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistencies in the definition of impulsive suicide attempts hamper research integration. To expand the currently limited data on how this construct is used in clinical practice, researchers interviewed eight suicide attempters to create timelines of their suicide process, then had seven experienced clinicians review these timelines. Thematic analysis of the patient and clinician data revealed three themes: "thinking out," build-up, and unclear intentionality. The results imply that assessing build-up of agitation and exhaustion symptoms can contribute to understanding acuteness of suicide risk. In addition, uncertainty about one's intentions during the attempt should not be equated to low intent to die.

  12. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking-suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression-as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking-suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  15. Suicide attempt and genes : psychiatric and genetic characteristics of suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Maj-Liz

    1999-01-01

    Suicide affects an appreciable number of people in all societies. Finding genes that predispose to suicidal behavior may help to identify individuals at risk and an appropriate counseling and support can be extended to them. The studies of the present thesis focuse on suicide attempt. In order to characterize suicide attempters, DSM-III-R/DSM-IV classification, Axes I-V were used. Ninety-nine per cent of the patients had at least one Axis I diagnosis. Mood disorders ...

  16. Roman attempts to control Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nappo, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The Roman Empire showed a very distinct interest for the Red Sea area along all its history. This was due to the crucial role played by such region in both military and commercial Roman plans to expand its own influence in the East. The first echo of a military attempt to conquer the north eastern shores of Africa beyond Egypt dates back to the age of Augustus, but it is with Trajan that such project seems to reach a new level of coherence and strategic view. Under the latter, in fect, we hav...

  17. Association Between Psychotic Experiences and Subsequent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Nock, Matthew K; Saha, Sukanta

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Community-based studies have linked psychotic experiences (PEs) with increased risks of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is not known if these associations vary across the life course or if mental disorders contribute to these associations. Objective: To examine...... the temporal association between PEs and subsequent STBs across the life span as well as the influence of mental disorders (antecedent to the STBs) on these associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 33 370 adult respondents across 19 countries from the World Health Organization World Mental...... Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, STBs (ie, ideation, plans, and attempts), and 21 DSM-IV mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations of PEs with subsequent onset of STBs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and frequency of STBs with PEs, and odds...

  18. Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Sexual Minority Youths Receiving Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

    2008-01-01

    The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may…

  19. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  20. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  1. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U

    1990-01-01

    behaviour and to try to identify relevant factors for evaluation of future suicide risk. During the follow-up period 11.6% of the attempters committed suicide, the majority within the first year after the index attempt. Seventy-five percent of the suicides were committed less than 6 months after the last...... contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat......From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...

  2. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U; Nielsen, B

    1990-01-01

    From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...... behaviour and to try to identify relevant factors for evaluation of future suicide risk. During the follow-up period 11.6% of the attempters committed suicide, the majority within the first year after the index attempt. Seventy-five percent of the suicides were committed less than 6 months after the last...... contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat...

  3. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  4. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  5. VALUE OF STUDYING THE TIME OF OCCURRENCE OF SUICIDE ATTEMPT IN PEOPLE ATTENDING HOSPITAL FOLLOWING SUICIDE ATTEMPT

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether any particular time of the day is Vulnerable for suicide attempts. Suicide attempt is a known risk factor for future completed suicide. Aim To investigate the relationship between the time of suicide attempt and the sociodemograpic and illness characteristics of suicide attempters. Method Time of attempt, clinical and demographic data and illness variables of 74 patients presenting to hospital following suicide attempt were analyzed. Results Our results showed...

  6. Associations between Korean Adolescents' Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Medically Serious Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Ji-Su

    2017-04-01

    Despite growing interest in the public health of sexual minority, youth around the world due to the high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts in this population, few studies on the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents have been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents and their suicide-related behavior. Raw data from the tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 3603 adolescents who provided selected demographic variables and reported on their experience of sexual intercourse with the same or the opposite sex, along with lifestyle and suicide-related behaviors. Rates of suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts were higher in both homosexual and bisexual than heterosexual groups. Suicidal ideation (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.08), suicidal plans (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.09), and suicide attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.88) had the strongest associations with homosexuality after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, bisexuality was only significantly associated with suicidal attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.97) after multivariate adjustment. Effective suicide prevention interventions are required for homosexual and bisexual adolescents, in the form of targeted programs to improve their mental health status and ability to cope with stress.

  7. Associations between Korean Adolescents’ Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Medically Serious Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWAK, Yeunhee; KIM, Ji-Su

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the public health of sexual minority, youth around the world due to the high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts in this population, few studies on the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents have been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents and their suicide-related behavior. Methods: Raw data from the tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 3603 adolescents who provided selected demographic variables and reported on their experience of sexual intercourse with the same or the opposite sex, along with lifestyle and suicide-related behaviors. Results: Rates of suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts were higher in both homosexual and bisexual than heterosexual groups. Suicidal ideation (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.08), suicidal plans (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.09), and suicide attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.28–2.88) had the strongest associations with homosexuality after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, bisexuality was only significantly associated with suicidal attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.97) after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: Effective suicide prevention interventions are required for homosexual and bisexual adolescents, in the form of targeted programs to improve their mental health status and ability to cope with stress. PMID:28540263

  8. Filicide, attempted filicide, and psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Alexandre M; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Nascimento, Isabella; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to describe and discuss the cases of two women who faced criminal charges, one for attempting to murder her three children and the other for killing her 1-year-old boy. After a forensic psychiatric assessment of their level of criminal responsibility, these patients were considered not guilty by reason of insanity and were committed to forensic mental hospitals. These two patients received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. In both cases, psychotic symptoms were present before the manifestation of violent behavior, in the form of persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, and pathological impulsivity. The investigation into cases of filicide may contribute powerfully to expand our understanding of motivational factors underlying this phenomenon and enhance the odds for effective prevention. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  11. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Persons in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Socías, María Eugenia; Kerr, Thomas; Zalazar, Virginia; Sued, Omar; Arístegui, Inés

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the lifetime prevalence and correlates of attempted suicide among transgender persons in Argentina. Data were derived from a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. We assessed individual, social, and structural correlates of reporting a history of attempting suicide using logistic regression. Among 482 participants, the median age was 30, 91% identified as transwomen, and 32% resided in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 159 (33%), among whom the median age at first attempt was 17. In a multivariate model, internalized stigma was positively associated with a history of suicidal behavior, while participants with stable housing had reduced odds of prior suicide attempt(s). These findings suggest that reducing stigma and mitigating structural vulnerabilities (through, for example, the enactment and enforcement of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender identity to ensure equitable access to housing) could be effective targets for intervention to reduce suicide attempts among transgender individuals in Argentina.

  13. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  14. Age-Specific Characteristics of Serious Suicide Attempters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Yang, Rong; Phillips, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of four age groups of patients with medically serious suicide attempts from nine general hospitals in China (N = 617) were compared. There were no significant age-group differences by residence (rural vs. urban), method of attempt, proportion with prior attempts, or level of family functioning. Attempters [less than or equal to]20…

  15. Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Andler, Raphaël; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2017-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence that use of e-cigarettes promotes cessation in regular smokers, but contrasting findings may be due to differing definitions of vaping. The aim was to assess whether regular use of e-cigarettes while smoking is associated with subsequent smoking cessation. Baseline internet survey with outcomes measured at 6-month follow-up. All French metropolitan territory. A total of 2057 smokers aged 15-85 years were recruited through an access panel and responded to a 6-month follow-up: 1805 exclusive tobacco smokers and 252 dual users (tobacco plus regular e-cigarette users) at baseline. The three outcomes assessed at 6 months were: a minimum 50% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts of at least 7 days and smoking cessation of at least 7 days at the time of follow-up. Logistic regressions were performed to model the three outcomes according to regular e-cigarette use at baseline, adjusted for socio-economic variables and smoking behaviours. Baseline dual users were more likely than baseline exclusive tobacco smokers to have halved cigarette consumption [25.9 versus 11.2%, P difference was found for 7-day cessation rates at 6 months (12.5 versus 9.5%, P = 0.18, aOR = 1.2, CI = 0.8-1.9). Among people who smoke, those also using an e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months. It remains unclear whether regular e-cigarette users are also more likely to stop smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist pediatricians, in collaboration with other child and adolescent health care professionals, in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk for suicide. Suicide risk can only be reduced, not eliminated, and risk factors provide no more than guidance. Nonetheless, care for suicidal adolescents may be improved with the pediatrician's knowledge, skill, and comfort with the topic, as well as ready access to appropriate community resources and mental health professionals. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. VALUE OF STUDYING THE TIME OF OCCURRENCE OF SUICIDE ATTEMPT IN PEOPLE ATTENDING HOSPITAL FOLLOWING SUICIDE ATTEMPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background It is unclear whether any particular time of the day is Vulnerable for suicide attempts. Suicide attempt is a known risk factor for future completed suicide. Aim To investigate the relationship between the time of suicide attempt and the sociodemograpic and illness characteristics of suicide attempters. Method Time of attempt, clinical and demographic data and illness variables of 74 patients presenting to hospital following suicide attempt were analyzed. Results Our results showed 8.a.m. to 11.59 a.m. is the most preferred time of attempt and it is statistically significant. Suicide attempt is significantly more in the day time (between 8 a.m. to 11.59 a.m.. The above time period is significantly associated with place of attempt of the suicide attempters. This is the time period where more young males (20 – 29 years from rural back ground, married, illiterates and unemployed (significant no. of house wives also attempt suicide during this time. Depression is the common psychiatric illness and pesticide is the common mode of attempt. More number of cases attempt during the months of August, September and October. Majority of them have experienced more than 5 life events before the attempt. Therefore we conclude that forenoon (8 a.m. to 11.59 a.m. is the most vulnerable period for attempting suicide. Conclusion The assessment of patients with history of suicide attempt in relation to the time of attempt is beneficial in formulating suicide prevention strategies.

  18. Blunted HPA axis activity prior to suicide attempt and increased inflammation in attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Munroe, Sara; Marsland, Anna; Gray, Katarina; Brent, David; Porta, Giovanna; Douaihy, Antoine; Laudenslager, Mark L; DePietro, Frank; Diler, Rasim; Driscoll, Henry; Gopalan, Priya

    2017-03-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior. However, it is not clear whether such dysregulation exists prior to or is a consequence of attempt. Studies also show an activation of inflammatory responses in suicidal behavior but often combine attempters with those with ideation. The sample consisted of psychiatric inpatients, aged 15-30 years, admitted for suicide attempt (SA, n=38), inpatients admitted for suicidal ideation with no prior history of attempts (SI, n=40), and healthy controls (n=37). We compared SA, SI, and controls on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), which provides retrospective levels of cortisol and thus prior to the attempt in SA. We also compared them on the expression of genes in the HPA axis and inflammatory pathways previously implicated in suicidal behavior (GR or NR3C1, SKA2, FKBP5, IL-1β, TNF-α); plasma C-Reactive Protein (CRP); and cellular measures of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity and stimulated production of IL-6. We found lower HCC [β=-0.55, 95% CI (-0.96, -0.13), p=0.01, ES=-0.54] in first-time SA compared to SI and controls. In addition, SA showed lower GR or NR3C1 (α isoform) mRNA [β=-5.11, 95% CI (-10.9, 0.73), p=0.09, ES=-0.46], higher CRP [β=0.94, 95% CI (-0.004, 1.9), p=0.05, ES=0.60], and higher TNF-α mRNA [β=26.4, 95% CI (7.7, 45.2), p=0.006, ES=0.73]. This is the first study to differentiate youth who attempt suicide from those with suicidal ideation on HCC and to show that low HCC precedes suicide attempt. Suicide attempters also showed a distinct biological profile on several markers in both the HPA axis and inflammatory pathways. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine the ability of these biomarkers to predict suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Genetic Variability in Sorghum Accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the clustering pattern, 7 pairs of accessions were found to be 100% similar. Each similar pairs were subsequently merged together and reduced to a total of 7 accessions. However, it was also observed that the geographical location of collection of accessions did not affect the clustering pattern. The information ...

  20. Periprosthetic soft tissue recurrence of chondroblastoma after attempted en bloc excision from the proximal humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, G.W.; Tehranzadeh, J.; Hoang, B.H. [University of California, Irvine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orange (United States); Gu, M. [University of California, Irvine, Department of Pathology, Orange (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A case of soft tissue recurrence of chondroblastoma after attempted en bloc excision and endoprosthetic replacement is described. This tumor in the proximal humerus recurred after initial curettage and was subsequently treated by attempted en bloc excision with positive microscopic margins. The patient then presented with a large soft tissue recurrence surrounding the endoprosthesis. This periprosthetic recurrence necessitated re-excision and revision of the endoprosthesis. Recurrence is not uncommon following curettage of chondroblastoma. However, less is known about soft tissue recurrence after en bloc resection of this tumor with positive margins. A subset of chondroblastoma may exist with more locally aggressive behavior. (orig.)

  1. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U

    1990-01-01

    From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...... contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat...

  2. After the Attempt: Maintaining the Therapeutic Alliance Following a Patient's Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Newman, Cory F.

    2005-01-01

    The risk of a patient's suicide is a prominent occupational hazard for psychotherapists. The precise number of patients who attempt suicide while in treatment and then resume therapy with the same therapist is not known, but this situation is a relatively common occurrence in clinical practice. Such scenarios can pose significant challenges to the…

  3. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  4. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  5. [Euthanasia - an attempt to organize issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmes, Tomasz; Wilk, Mateusz; Chowaniec, Czesław

    This article is an attempt to complete and holistically discuss problem of euthanasia, especially its ethical and legal aspects, comparing to Polish law. The subject of euthanasia arouse interest of the society because it touches one of the most important aspects of life, which is the death. Even bigger emotions are aroused amongst physicians. They are forced to put on the line the life as biggest value on the one side and autonomy of human being on the other. It also touches the empathy for suffering. The euthanasia was divided into three forms: active euthanasia, passive euthanasia and assisted suicide. Any form of euthanasia is illegal in Poland according to both the Penal Code and Code of Medical Ethics. Range of possible penal consequences perpetrator is very wide from waiver of punishment to life imprisonment and it comes from different penal qualification of the euthanasia. Qualification of the euthanasia is based on terms of intent of perpetrator's act, request of patient, strong empathy for suffering if the patient and decision based on up-to-date medical knowledge. It is valuable to mention "do-not-resuscitate" DNR procedure, which in case of medical futility is legally accepted in Poland, but in other form may be qualified as passive euthanasia.

  6. History of attempts to quantify environmental mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaender, A.

    1981-01-01

    It became obvious in the early 1960's that the ready recognition of mutations produced by chemicals could have a profound influence on the refinement of methods to detect environmental mutagens. The experience derived over the previous 30 years in characterizing the effects of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation on the genetic mechanism came to serve us in good stead. Although the effects of chemicals are considerably more complicated and often require the analysis of individual substances, nonetheless, the area has developed rapidly in recent decades. The establishment and historical background of the International Association of Environmental Mutagen Societies (IAEMS) will be discussed. An attempt at the quantitation of chemical effects has been developed in comparison with radiation mutagenesis. As a first step, a definition of the Mutagen Burden or unavoidable exposure to chemicals will be discussed. A mathematical approach (Haynes/Eckhardt) will be considered and finally an outline for the comprehensive investigation of detailed interscience study will be made of less than six chemicals.

  7. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Aldemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases. After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting.

  8. Mother’s filicide with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. Case Outline. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Conclusion. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.

  9. Hydraulic fracturing - an attempt of DEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Alicja; Foltyn, Natalia; Klejment, Piotr; Dębski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique widely used in oil, gas and unconventional reservoirs exploitation in order to enable the oil/gas to flow more easily and enhance the production. It relays on pumping into a rock a special fluid under a high pressure which creates a set of microcracks which enhance porosity of the reservoir rock. In this research, attempt of simulation of such hydrofracturing process using the Discrete Element Method approach is presented. The basic assumption of this approach is that the rock can be represented as an assembly of discrete particles cemented into a rigid sample (Potyondy 2004). An existence of voids among particles simulates then a pore system which can be filled out by fracturing fluid, numerically represented by much smaller particles. Following this microscopic point of view and its numerical representation by DEM method we present primary results of numerical analysis of hydrofracturing phenomena, using the ESyS-Particle Software. In particular, we consider what is happening in distinct vicinity of the border between rock sample and fracking particles, how cracks are creating and evolving by breaking bonds between particles, how acoustic/seismic energy is releasing and so on. D.O. Potyondy, P.A. Cundall. A bonded-particle model for rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (2004), pp. 1329-1364.

  10. Violent and serious suicide attempters: one step closer to suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Lucas; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Béziat, Séverine; Guillaume, Sébastien; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    The use of violence in a suicide attempt and its medical consequences can be used to characterize specific subpopulations of suicide attempters that could be at higher risk of ever completing suicide. A population of 1,148 suicide attempters was consecutively recruited from 2001 to 2010. Violent suicide attempts were classified using Asberg's criteria. An overdose requiring hospitalization in an intensive care unit was considered a serious suicide attempt. In this exploratory study, we retrospectively compared 183 subjects who made a serious suicide attempt, 226 that made a violent suicide attempt, and 739 without any history of serious or violent suicide attempts with regard to demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics and features of the suicide attempts using univariate and multivariate analyses. In comparison with subjects whose attempts were neither violent nor serious, violent attempters and serious attempters were more likely to make repeated suicide attempts (OR = 3.27 [95% CI, 1.39-7.70] and OR = 2.66 [95% CI, 1.29-5.50], respectively), with higher medical lethality (OR = 6.66 [95% CI, 4.74-9.38] and OR = 3.91 [95% CI, 2.89-5.29], respectively). Additionally, violent attempts were associated with male gender (OR = 6.79; 95% CI, 3.59-12.82) and family history of suicidal behavior (particularly if serious or violent: OR = 6.96; 95% CI, 2.82-17.20), and serious attempters were more likely to be older (OR = 1.49, 95% CI, 1.12-1.99). One of every 3 attempters in our sample had made violent or serious suicide attempts in their lifetime. Violent attempters and serious attempters presented differential characteristics, closer to those of suicide completers, compared to the rest of the sample. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. A review of subsequence time series clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  12. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332

  13. Self-injection of household cleaning detergents into a ventriculoperitoneal shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Jason W; Osbun, Joshua W; Arias, Eric J; Reynolds, Lauren C; Chyatte, Douglas; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Self-injection of household cleaning detergents (more specifically, commercial toilet bowl cleaner) into the reservoir of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) has never been reported in the neurosurgical literature. A right-handed 41-year-old female with a past medical history significant for bipolar depression (with multiple prior hospital admissions for suicide attempts) and pseudotumor cerebri (status-post VPS placement from a right frontal approach) successfully injected ∼5 ml of toilet bowl cleaner into her ventricular shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt. She was found unresponsive by a family member 48 h after this event and presented to our hospital in moribund neurological condition (bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils with decerebrate posturing). Head computed tomography (CT) demonstrated marked ventriculomegaly. She was taken emergently to the operating room for placement of a left frontal ventriculostomy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampled intraoperatively showed numerous Gram-positive cocci (later determined to be Staphylococcus epidermidis). For this reason, her right-sided shunt system was also removed in its entirety. She was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics for her bacterial ventriculitis and her CSF was aggressively drained to treat her hydrocephalus. Once her infection had resolved, the shunt was replaced (using a right parietal approach) and she went on to make an excellent neurological recovery. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who self-injected household cleaning detergents into her VPS reservoir-and, likely, the ventricular system-during a suicide attempt and subsequently developed hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Following this infrequent clinical scenario, consideration should be given to temporary ventriculostomy placement and shunt removal. Moreover, in patients with a known history of psychiatric co-morbidities-and particularly those patients with prior suicide attempts

  14. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  15. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R.; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study is to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n=110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have: family history of completed suicide; more severe and frequent suicidal ideation; greater trait impulsivity; and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk for planned, highly lethal suicide attempts. PMID:27105457

  16. Risk and protective factors predicting multiple suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Ho; Wang, Sheng-Min; Yeon, Bora; Suh, Soo-Yeon; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2013-12-30

    This study compared demographical and clinical variables between first and multiple suicide attempters and investigated risk and protective factors predicting multiple attempts. 228 patients visiting emergency department after attempting suicide were divided into two groups: first attempter (n=148, 64.9%) and multiple attempter (n=80, 35.1%). Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related with suicide behavior, and psychiatric resources between two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors predicting multiple attempts. The results showed that multiple attempters were younger, not married, more severe in psychopathology (e.g., psychiatric disorder, personality disorder, lower function, and suicide family history) and suicidality (e.g., repetitive/severe/continuous suicide ideation), and lower in psychiatric resources (e.g., interpersonal stress/conflict, conflicting interpersonal relationship, socially isolated, lower personal achievement, and lower ability to control emotion) than first attempters. Suicide ideation severity and conflicting interpersonal relationships predicted multiple suicide attempts, whereas past year's highest global functioning score and age over 45 protected against multiple suicide attempts. This study demonstrated that multiple suicide attempters have more severe clinical profile than first suicide attempters. Moreover, decreasing severity of suicide ideation, improving interpersonal relationships, and enhancing functioning level of suicide attempters might be important in preventing them from re-attempting suicide. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Body Mass Index and Attempted Suicide: Cohort Study of 1,133,019 Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G. David; Whitley, Elise; Kivimäki, Mika; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI) and attempted (nonfatal) suicide have recently been reported. However, the few existing studies are relatively small in scale, the majority cross-sectional, and results contradictory. The authors have explored BMI–attempted suicide associations in a large cohort of 1,133,019 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1976, with BMI measured in early adulthood. During a mean follow-up of 23.9 years, a total of 18,277 (1.6%) men had at least 1 hospital admission for attempted suicide. After adjustment for confounding factors, there was a stepwise, linear decrease in attempted suicide with increasing BMI across the full BMI range (per standard deviation increase in BMI, hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.94). Analyses excluding men with depression at baseline were essentially identical to those based on the complete cohort. In men free from depression at baseline, controlling for subsequent depression slightly attenuated the raised risk of attempted suicide, particularly in lower weight men. This study suggests that lower weight men have an increased risk of attempted suicide and that associations may extend into the “normal” BMI range. PMID:20829269

  18. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  19. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    O?Connor, Rory C.; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking?suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinkin...

  20. Associations between Korean Adolescents? Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Medically Serious Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    KWAK, Yeunhee; Kim, Ji-Su

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the public health of sexual minority, youth around the world due to the high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts in this population, few studies on the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents have been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents and their suicide-related behavior. Methods: Raw data from the tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were analyzed by logis...

  1. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. Generally, elective abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...

  2. Crohn’s Disease: The Subsequent Visit

    OpenAIRE

    Manolakis, Catherine S.; Farraye, Francis A.; Di Palma, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent management of Crohn’s disease are challenging for both the patient and the gastroenterologist. After the initial assessment, subsequent visits should assess the patient’s readiness to begin therapy, monitor progress if therapy has been initiated, assess for complications of the disease or therapy, and ensure that all appropriate health maintenance measures are current. This article is intended to be a companion to our earlier paper “Crohn’s Disease: The First Visi...

  3. A Survey of Physical Principles Attempting to Define Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oas, Gary; Acacio de Barros, J.

    Quantum mechanics, one of the most successful theories in the history of science, was created to account for physical systems not describable by classical physics. Though it is consistent with all experiments conducted thus far, many of its core concepts (amplitudes, global phases, etc.) can not be directly accessed and its interpretation is still the subject of intense debate, more than 100 years since it was introduced. So, a fundamental question is why this particular mathematical model is the one that nature chooses, if indeed it is the correct model. In the past two decades there has been a renewed effort to determine what physical or informational principles define quantum mechanics. In this chapter, recent attempts at establishing reasonable physical principles are reviewed and their degree of success is tabulated. An alternative approach using joint quasi-probability distributions is shown to provide a common basis of representing most of the proposed principles. It is argued that having a common representation of the principles can provide intuition and guidance to relate current principles or advance new principles. The current state of affairs, along with some alternative views are discussed.

  4. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Sadia R.; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study is to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (

  5. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS: AN EMERGENCY ROOM STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of North-eastern China and found both similarities and differences between Chinese and Western suicide attempters. The data show that more women than men attempted suicide. Perhaps because ...

  7. Suicide prevention is possible: A perception after suicide attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Dushad; Darshan, M. S.; Rao, T. S. S; Honagodu, Abhijit R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a preventable cause of death, inspite of which its incidence is increasing worldwide. Very few studies are done to know the perception of suicide attempters regarding prevention of their suicide attempt. Such information may be helpful in implementing preventive strategies. This study was done to find out whether those who attempted suicide and recovered perceived that their suicide attempt could have been prevented or not. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive subje...

  8. The College Double Major and Subsequent Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the relationship between graduating from college with two majors rather than one and labor market earnings using the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates. Because institutions are heterogeneous both in terms of overall quality and in the availability of opportunities to double major, I attempt to control for such…

  9. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  10. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth...

  11. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and..., has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in...

  12. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate, any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is...

  13. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy formed...

  14. 31 CFR 587.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 587... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 587.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a... after the effective date that evades or avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to...

  15. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this...

  16. 31 CFR 588.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth...

  17. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536... Prohibitions § 536.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the... set forth in this part, is hereby prohibited. Any attempt to violate the prohibitions set forth in...

  18. 31 CFR 575.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 575... § 575.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... set forth in this subpart, is hereby prohibited. Any attempt to violate the prohibitions set forth in...

  19. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is...

  20. 31 CFR 585.214 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 585... Prohibitions § 585.214 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the... set forth in this subpart, is hereby prohibited. Any attempt to violate the prohibitions set forth in...

  1. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... that evades or avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the...

  2. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... the prohibitions set forth in this part, is hereby prohibited. Any attempt to violate the prohibitions...

  3. 31 CFR 586.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 586... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any... of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate, any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is...

  4. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is...

  5. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... date that evades or avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the...

  6. 31 CFR 545.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 545... Prohibitions § 545.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth...

  7. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of the...

  8. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this...

  9. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... set forth in this part, is hereby prohibited. Any attempt to violate the prohibitions set forth in...

  10. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... the prohibitions set forth in this part, is hereby prohibited. Any attempt to violate the prohibitions...

  11. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the United States that evades or avoids, or has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate...

  12. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is...

  13. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and..., has the purpose of evading or avoiding, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in...

  14. Accessing memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  15. The Falcon Launch Vehicle - An Attempt at Making Access to Space More Affordable, Reliable and Pleasant

    OpenAIRE

    Musk, Elon; Koenigsmann, Hans; Gurevich, Gwynne

    2003-01-01

    Falcon is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle being built by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) from the ground up. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon can carry over 470 kg to a 700 km sun-synchronous orbit and a heavy Falcon can deliver 1450 kg to the same orbit. To minimize failure modes, the vehicle has the minimum pragmatic...

  16. Granular fingering instability: A first attempt to access the most unstable mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Chico; Gray, Nico; Johnson, Chris

    Mixtures of grains of different sizes tend to segregate as they avalanche downslope, with large particles rising to the near surface regions which move faster. As a result, large particles tend to be preferentially transported to flow front where they can accumulate by being over-run and resegregated to the surface. If the large particles are also more frictional, the flow becomes unstable and breaks-up in a series of fingers: the so-called granular fingering instability. This instability is observed in a wide variety of systems, from geophysical mass flows, such as pyroclastic flows, to small-scale experiments relevant to industry. Key features of the fingering pattern are predicted by a particle-size segregation model, coupled with a depth-averaged avalanche model, in which a viscous term play a vitally important role in making the equations well-posed. We carry out a detailed numerical stability analysis to investigate what sets the wavelength of the fingers.

  17. Intersecting Realities: A Novice's Attempts to Use Critical Literacy to Access Her Students' Figured Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that while students in public schools in the U.S. are becoming increasingly diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, class, and culture, the pool of prospective teachers is made up largely of White, middle-class women. The demographic imperative indicates that this trend will remain stable for the foreseeable future, reinforcing the…

  18. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K; Ten Have, Thomas; Henriques, Gregg R; Xie, Sharon X; Hollander, Judd E; Beck, Aaron T

    2005-08-03

    Suicide attempts constitute a major risk factor for completed suicide, yet few interventions specifically designed to prevent suicide attempts have been evaluated. To determine the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive therapy intervention designed to prevent repeat suicide attempts in adults who recently attempted suicide. Randomized controlled trial of adults (N = 120) who attempted suicide and were evaluated at a hospital emergency department within 48 hours of the attempt. Potential participants (N = 350) were consecutively recruited from October 1999 to September 2002; 66 refused to participate and 164 were ineligible. Participants were followed up for 18 months. Cognitive therapy or enhanced usual care with tracking and referral services. Incidence of repeat suicide attempts and number of days until a repeat suicide attempt. Suicide ideation (dichotomized), hopelessness, and depression severity at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. From baseline to the 18-month assessment, 13 participants (24.1%) in the cognitive therapy group and 23 participants (41.6%) in the usual care group made at least 1 subsequent suicide attempt (asymptotic z score, 1.97; P = .049). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated 18-month reattempt-free probability in the cognitive therapy group was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.85) and in the usual care group was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.44-0.70). Participants in the cognitive therapy group had a significantly lower reattempt rate (Wald chi2(1) = 3.9; P = .049) and were 50% less likely to reattempt suicide than participants in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-0.997). The severity of self-reported depression was significantly lower for the cognitive therapy group than for the usual care group at 6 months (P= .02), 12 months (P = .009), and 18 months (P = .046). The cognitive therapy group reported significantly less hopelessness than the usual care group at 6 months (P = .045). There were no significant differences

  19. [Survey on the barriers in providing the mental health services to the suicide attempters in ED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Li, Tao; Hong, Xia; Jiang, Yinan; Xiong, Nana; Cao, Jinya; Wei, Jing

    2015-06-16

    The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers existing in medical settings behind the phenomenon that few suicide attempters were provided by mental health services when they got treatment in the general hospital ED. An anonymous and voluntary survey was administered among two groups: ED physicians and psychiatrists. Two tertiary general hospitals and one psychiatric hospital were chosen through convenience sampling. Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire and a self-made questionnaire to evaluate barriers were used. The response rate was 68.7% for ED physicians, and 87.0% for psychiatrists. ED physicians generally scored unfavorably than psychiatrists on many items in SBAQ (P suicide attempters should have access to mental health services, the median of the scores = 10 for both group (P = 0.059), meaning highly agree. Some consistent barriers could be summarized from the self-made questionnaire. The majority of ED physicians in general hospitals still hold some misunderstanding about the suicide attempters, but they fully agree that the suicide attempters should have access to mental health services. The barriers for psychiatrists are clear.The barriers for ED physicians are complicated but workable.

  20. Infant developmental milestones and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Graham K; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2007-08-01

    Developmental delay is associated with a subsequent diagnosis of learning disability. However, the relationship between the age of reaching infant developmental milestones and later intellectual function within the general population remains unresolved. We hypothesized that earlier attainment of developmental milestones would be associated with better subsequent intellectual performance throughout the range of abilities, rather than confined to extremes. Developmental data were obtained at age 2 years in the National Survey of Health and Development, a representative sample of 5,362 children born in the United Kingdom in 1946. Data on intellectual function and educational attainment at ages 8, 26, and 53 years were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of age of reaching developmental milestones on subsequent cognition and educational attainment. The age of reaching developmental milestones was associated with intellectual performance at ages 8, 26, and 53 years; for every month earlier a child learned to stand, there was, on average, a gain of one half of one intelligence quotient point at age 8. Speech development had a small but statistically significant effect on subsequent educational attainment (later developers were less likely to progress beyond basic education); this effect was not apparent for motor development. Effect sizes were reduced when the slowest developers were excluded, but many effects remained significant. The association between later development and poorer subsequent intellectual function is small, but it does have theoretical implications; we suggest it is secondary to suboptimal cortical-subcortical connectivity.

  1. A neurobiologist's attempt to understand persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodal, Per

    2017-04-01

    new neurons) in the dentate gyrus are involved in the development and maintenance of persistent pain. There is evidence that persistent pain in many instances may be understood as the result of an interpretation of the organism's state of health. Any abnormal pattern of sensory information as well as lack of expected correspondence between motor commands and sensory feedback may be interpreted as bodily threats and evoke pain. This may, for example, be an important mechanism in many cases of neuropathic pain. Accordingly, many patients with persistent pain show evidence of a distorted body image. Another approach to understanding why the "pain system" so often goes awry comes from knowledge of the dynamic and nonlinear behaviour of neuronal networks. In real life the emergence of persistent pain probably depends on the simultaneous occurrence of numerous challenges, and just one extra (however small) might put the network into a an inflexible state with heightened sensitivity to normally innocuous inputs. Finally, the importance of seeking the meaning the patient attributes to his/her pain is emphasized. Only then can we understand why a particular person suffers so much more than another with very similar pathology, and subsequently be able to help the person to alter the meaning of the situation. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An examination of suicide attempts among incarcerated sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.

  3. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. Methods Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6months, and 6–2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. Results Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%). There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6–12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. Conclusion NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China. PMID:25611854

  4. Vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Gejl, Michael; Borghammer, Per

    2016-01-01

    registration of vagotomy and/or upper gastrointestinal disease in the period 1977-2011. Controls had no subsequent diagnosis of diabetes and were matched by incidence density sampling, age and gender. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: 501,724 diabetes patients and 1,375,567 matched controls......BACKGROUND: Vagal signaling is involved in gastric emptying and the secretion and effect of a number of hormones regulating gluco-metabolic processes and, thus, crucial for metabolic homeostasis. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that vagotomy would increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes...... and examined the association between vagotomy and subsequent development of diabetes. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted with information on cases and controls from the Danish National Patient Registry. Cases included individuals with a diabetes diagnosis subsequent (>12months) to the first...

  5. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  6. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength: how many attempts are needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; McPhee, Jamie S; Narici, Marco V; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2017-06-01

    Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to obtain maximal HGS. Three cohorts (939 individuals) differing in age and health status were included. HGS was assessed three times and explored as continuous and dichotomous variable. Paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to test reproducibility of HGS. The number of individuals with misclassified dynapenia at attempts 1 and 2 with respect to attempt 3 were assessed. Results showed the same pattern in all three cohorts. Maximal HGS at attempts 1 and 2 was higher than at attempt 3 on population level (P attempts were above 0.8, indicating moderate to high reproducibility. Bland-Altman analysis showed that 41.0 to 58.9% of individuals had the highest HGS at attempt 2 and 12.4 to 37.2% at attempt 3. The percentage of individuals with a maximal HGS above the gender-specific cut-off value at attempt 3 compared with attempts 1 and 2 ranged from 0 to 50.0%, with a higher percentage of misclassification in middle-aged and older populations. Maximal HGS is dependent on the number of attempts, independent of age and health status. To assess maximal HGS, at least three attempts are needed if HGS is considered to be a continuous variable. If HGS is considered as a discrete variable to assess dynapenia, two attempts are sufficient to assess dynapenia in younger populations. Misclassification should be taken into account in middle-aged and older populations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf on the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  7. "Impulsive" suicide attempts: What do we really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2016-07-01

    Suicide attempts are often regarded as impulsive acts. However, there is little consensus regarding the definition or clinical characteristics of an "impulsive" attempt. To clarify this issue, we examined 3 indicators of the impulsivity of an attempt: (a) preparation, (b) time contemplating the attempt, and (c) self-report that impulsivity motivated the attempt. We examined relationships among the indicators and their relationship to trait impulsivity and characteristics of the suicide attempt. Adult participants (N = 205) with a history of suicide attempts were administered validated interviews and questionnaires. In general, the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators correlated only moderately with each other and not at all with trait impulsivity or with important characteristics of the attempt (e.g., lethality, preattempt communication, motivations). However, there were 2 exceptions. First, intent to die was inversely related to the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators (rs ranged from -.17 to .45) such that more impulsive attempts were associated with lower intent. Second, self-report that the attempt was motivated by impulsivity was related to 3 facets of trait impulsivity (rs ranged from .16 to .41). These findings suggest that individuals endorsing trait impulsivity are likely to describe their attempts as motivated by impulsivity, regardless of the presence of preparation or prolonged contemplation. Overall, study results suggest that the common conception of a unidimensional impulsive attempt may be inaccurate and that the emphasis on general impulsivity in prevention guidelines should be tempered. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  9. Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and subsequent hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Pouta, Anneli; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Mendola, Pauline; Miettola, Satu; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Suvanto, Eila

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) on subsequent hypothyroidism. Recent studies suggest that women with PE have increased risk for reduced thyroid function, but the association between PE and GH with overt hypothyroidism has not been examined. Study design Two prospective population-based cohort studies, the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986, followed women who had PE (N=955), GH (N=1449) or were normotensive (N=13531) during pregnancy. Finnish national registers were used to confirm subsequent hypothyroidism. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated hypothyroidism risk when comparing women with PE or GH with normotensive women. Main outcome measures Primary hypothyroidism during follow-up of 20–40 years. Results The subsequent prevalence of hypothyroidism was higher among women with PE (4.0%) and GH (4.5%) compared with normotensive women (3.5%), but the risk increase was not significant (aHR for PE 1.13, 95%CI 0.80–1.59 and aHR for GH 1.11, 95%CI 0.85–1.45). Subgroup analysis among nulliparous women revealed a significant association between late PE and subsequent hypothyroidism (aHR 1.82, 95%CI 1.04–3.19). Early or recurrent PE were not associated with hypothyroidism (aHR 0.93, 95%CI 0.46–1.81 and aHR 1.35, 95%CI 0.63–2.88, respectively). Conclusions Overall, PE or GH during pregnancy was not significantly associated with subsequent hypothyroidism in Finnish women after 20–40 years of follow-up. However, late PE in nulliparous women was associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk of subsequent hypothyroidism, a finding that merits further study in other populations. PMID:23439671

  10. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempts: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Jerrold F Rosenbaum,3 Cesare Cerri,1,4 Cesare M Cornaggia1,51Psychiatry Clinic, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Salvini Hospital, Rho, Italy; 3Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zucchi Clinical Institute, Carate Brianza, Italy; 5Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Mantua, ItalyObjectives: This review aimed to identify the evidence for predictors of repetition of suicide attempts, and more specifically for subsequent completed suicide.Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2009, and we excluded studies investigating only special populations (eg, male and female only, children and adolescents, elderly, a specific psychiatric disorder and studies with sample size fewer than 50 patients.Results: The strongest predictor of a repeated attempt is a previous attempt, followed by being a victim of sexual abuse, poor global functioning, having a psychiatric disorder, being on psychiatric treatment, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse or dependence. For other variables examined (Caucasian ethnicity, having a criminal record, having any mood disorders, bad family environment, and impulsivity there are indications for a putative correlation as well. For completed suicide, the strongest predictors are older age, suicide ideation, and history of suicide attempt. Living alone, male sex, and alcohol abuse are weakly predictive with a positive correlation (but sustained by very scarce data for poor impulsivity and a somatic diagnosis.Conclusion: It is difficult to find predictors for repetition of nonfatal suicide attempts, and even more difficult to identify predictors of completed suicide. Suicide ideation and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence, which are, along with depression, the most consistent predictors for initial nonfatal

  11. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  12. Prevalence and profile of suicide attempters with abdominal pain as the reason of attempt: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Suicide attempt is a complex human behavior with multiple determinants. Literature suggests toward abdominal pain as a risk factor for a suicide attempt, but such patients need to be characterized further. This retrospective study aimed to compare individuals with abdominal pain as the reason of suicide attempt to those reporting other reasons for such attempt. Methods: This retrospective chart review-based case-control study was conducted among individuals registered at the crisis intervention clinic of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Information was extracted from the records using a structured profroma. Characteristics of those with abdominal pain as the reason of suicide attempt were compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Results: Of 427 persons registered in the clinic in the period, abdominal pain was the stated reason for the attempt in 37 (8.7% of the sample. Suicide attempters whose stated reason for attempted suicide as abdominal pain had lower education (P = 0.042, were more likely to suffer from physical illness (P < 0.001, were more likely to have a recent visit to a health care professional (P = 0.047, were less likely to give hint prior to attempt (P = 0.010, and had lesser stressful life events compared to the controls (P = 0.024. Conclusions: There seem to be certain differences between suicide attempters who report abdominal pain versus other causes for a suicide attempt.

  13. 75 FR 82005 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Nonproliferation and International Security, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY..., Canada, to Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. in Yuson-Gu, Taejon, South Korea. The material, which is currently... Energy. Thomas P. D'Agostino, Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration. [FR Doc. 2010...

  14. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N...

  15. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.22...

  16. Pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Gatny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of young women experience pregnancy scares - thinking they might be pregnant, and later discovering that they are not. Although pregnancy scares are distressing events, little is known about who experiences them and whether they are important to our understanding of unintended pregnancy. Objective: We describe the young women who experience pregnancy scares, and examine the link between pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Methods: We used data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life Study. T-tests and regression analyses were conducted using baseline and weekly data to estimate relationships between respondent characteristics and subsequent pregnancy scares. Event history methods were used to assess pregnancy scares as a predictor of unintended pregnancy. Results: Nine percent of the young women experienced a pregnancy scare during the study. African-American race, lack of two-parent family structure, lower GPA, cohabitation, and sex without birth control prior to the study are associated with experiencing a pregnancy scare and with experiencing a greater number of pregnancy scares. Further, experiencing a pregnancy scare is strongly associated with subsequent unintended pregnancy, independent of background factors. Forty percent of the women who experienced a pregnancy scare subsequently had an unintended pregnancy during the study period, relative to only 11Š of those who did not experience a pregnancy scare. Conclusions: Young women from less advantaged backgrounds are more likely to experience a pregnancy scare, and pregnancy scares are often followed by an unintended pregnancy.

  17. Subsequent Reproductive Performance in Survivors of Complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 2 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. 103 (44%) of the subjects who still desired pregnancy were yet unable to conceive. Conclusions The subsequent reproductive performance in survivors of complicated abortion appears to be largely characterized by a high rate of sub-fertility, fetal wastage and preterm ...

  18. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.73 - Subsequent loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1940, subpart G. (f) Design requirements. All improvements, repairs, and... applicant must obtain architectural services when any of the following conditions exist: (1) Enclosed space... being proposed requires architectural services. (h) Restrictive-use requirements. Subsequent loans are...

  20. Estimating the rates of deaths by suicide among adults who attempt suicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beth; Kott, Phillip S; Hughes, Art; McKeon, Richard; Blanco, Carlos; Compton, Wilson M

    2016-06-01

    In 2012, over 1.3 million U.S. adults reported that they attempted suicide in the past year, and 39,426 adults died by suicide. This study estimated national suicide case fatality rates among adult suicide attempters (fatal and nonfatal cases) and examined how they varied by sociodemographic characteristics. We pooled data on deaths by suicide (n = 147,427, fatal cases in the U.S.) from the 2008-2011 U S. mortality files and data on suicide attempters who survived (n = 2000 nonfatal cases) from the 2008-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were applied. Among adult suicide attempters in the U.S., the overall 12-month suicide case fatality rate was 3.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9%-3.5%). It varied significantly by sociodemographic factors. For those aged 45 or older, the adjusted suicide case fatality rate was higher among men (7.6%) than among women (2.6%) (suicide case fatality rate ratio (SCFRR) = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.83-4.79), was higher among non-Hispanic whites (7.9%) than among non-white minorities (0.8-2.5%) (SCFRRs = 3.2-9.9), and was higher among those with less than high school education (16.0%) than among college graduates (1.8%) (SCFRR = 8.8, 95% CI = 3.83-20.16). Across male and female attempters, being aged 45 or older and non-Hispanic white and having less than secondary school were at a higher risk for death by suicide. Focusing on these demographic characteristics can help identify suicide attempters at higher risk for death by suicide, inform clinical assessments, and improve suicide prevention and intervention efforts by increasing high-risk suicide attempters' access to mental health treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  2. Investigating the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Stigma Among Young Adults With History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Meshan; Hilimire, Matthew R; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; DeVylder, Jordan E

    2016-07-01

    Self-esteem is a major contributor to risk for repeated suicide attempts. Prior research has shown that awareness of stigma is associated with reduced self-esteem among people with mental illness. No prior studies have examined the association between self-esteem and stereotype awareness among individuals with past suicide attempts. To understand the relationship between stereotype awareness and self-esteem among young adults who have and have not attempted suicide. Computerized surveys were administered to college students (N = 637). Linear regression analyses were used to test associations between self-esteem and stereotype awareness, attempt history, and their interaction. There was a significant stereotype awareness by attempt interaction (β = -.74, p = .006) in the regression analysis. The interaction was explained by a stronger negative association between stereotype awareness and self-esteem among individuals with past suicide attempts (β = -.50, p = .013) compared with those without attempts (β = -.09, p = .037). Stigma is associated with lower self-esteem within this high-functioning sample of young adults with histories of suicide attempts. Alleviating the impact of stigma at the individual (clinical) or community (public health) levels may improve self-esteem among this high-risk population, which could potentially influence subsequent suicide risk.

  3. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  4. Cognitive Inhibition in Elderly High-Lethality Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A.; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition – active suppression of task-irrelevant processing – is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. Methods 102 participants aged 60+ (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. Results High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared to psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, MMSE score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Conclusions Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. PMID:24816626

  5. Multidimensional profile of people who have attempted to commit suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Gómez, Nicolás Arturo; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Losada Ramirez, Ivan Daniel; Díaz Monroy, Lusi Guillermo; Rojas Vega, Homero Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a multidimensional profile of people who have attempted to commit suicide. 116 cases of people with reported suicide attempts in emergency rooms and educational institutions in the department of Huila were studied. This was a descriptive study, with a semi-structured interview, personality test, depression inventory, alcohol evaluation, ideation and suicide attempt evaluations. The multidimensional profile consisted of adolescents from rural areas, ci...

  6. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt ...

  7. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic - dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic - dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - dialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  8. Characteristics of Spirituality and Religion Among Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhouj, Olfa; Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Younes, Nadia; Huguelet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Spirituality and religiousness are associated with a lower risk of suicide. A detailed assessment of spirituality among 88 suicide attempters hospitalized after a suicide attempt was performed. Factors associated with the recurrence of suicide attempts over 18 months were looked into. Spirituality was low among most suicide attempters in comparison with the general population. Two groups were identified: those with a high score of depression who featured "low" in spirituality and those with a more heterogeneous profile, for example, involving personality disorders, characterized by a "high" spirituality. At the follow-up, the "meaning in life" score appeared to correlate with recurrence of suicide. Clinical implications are discussed herein.

  9. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses......OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...

  10. How Parental Reactions Change in Response to Adolescent Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide.

  11. Are previous suicide attempts a risk factor for completed suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Sarriés, Adriana; Blanco, Miriam; Azcárate, Leire; Peinado, Rubén; López-Goñi, José J

    2018-02-01

    A previous suicide attempt is a clinically relevant factor for completed suicide. In this paper people who committed suicide on their first attempt are compared with those who did so after previous attempts. A review of the Computerised Clinical Histories in the Navarro Health Service-Osasunbidea (2010-2013) in Spain. Of the 166 cases, 31.9% (n = 53) presented at least one prior attempt. Of these 53, 65.3% modified the method of suicide. Women presented significantly more attempts (χ2 = 14.3; df = 3; p = .002). Three sub-samples were identified according to the attempts and diagnoses. The diagnoses of personality disorders (90.9%; n = 10) and women under 51 years of age with a diagnosis of affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (82.4%; n = 14) presented the highest numbers of attempts. People without a psychiatric diagnosis and with psychotic or organic mental disorders presented the smallest proportion of attempts (13.2%; n = 10) together with people over 51 years of age diagnosed with affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (22.5%; n = 9). Prior attempts are suicide risk factors only in specific clinical sub-samples. Prevention and intervention programs should consider these results.

  12. Mental health professionals' determinations of adolescent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Barry M; Wong, Steven A; Jobes, David A

    2002-01-01

    The degree of ambiguity in the term suicide attempt was examined among 14 expert suicidologists, and 59 general mental health clinicians who either did or did not receive a standard definition of the term. The participants judged whether each of ten vignettes of actual adolescent self-harm behaviors was a suicide attempt. Low levels of agreement were found within each group, although agreement was better for the most and least serious cases. Possible explanations were examined, including how professionals weight suicidal intent and medical lethality in their suicide attempt decisions, and the use of a "fuzzy," natural language conceptualization of suicide attempts was proposed.

  13. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  14. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  15. Association of Periodontitis and Subsequent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression. We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58–1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer. Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted. PMID:26705230

  16. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2009-11-01

    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  17. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Vocht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016 were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C and attempts to reduce consumption. Results Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01. These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %, but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 % compared with other months (P < 0.001, indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support. Conclusions January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.

  18. How betrayal affects emotions and subsequent trust

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wing Shing; Selart, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    his is an open access article licensed under the terms of the (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which p ermits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited. This article investigates the impact of different emotions on trust decisions taking into account the experience of betrayal. Thus, an experiment was created that included one betrayal group and one control group. Partici...

  19. Determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: parallel cross-sectional analyses examining geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder, Kerry J; Handley, Tonelle E; Johnston, Amy; Weaver, Natasha; Coleman, Clare; Lewin, Terry J; Slade, Tim; Kelly, Brian J

    2014-07-23

    Suicide death rates in Australia are higher in rural than urban communities however the contributors to this difference remain unclear. Geographical differences in suicidal ideation and attempts were explored using two datasets encompassing urban and rural community residents to examine associations between socioeconomic, demographic and mental health factors. Differing patterns of association between psychiatric disorder and suicidal ideation and attempts as geographical remoteness increased were investigated. Parallel cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007-NSMHWB, n = 8,463), under-representative of remote and very remote residents, and selected participants from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS, n = 634), over-representative of remote and very remote residents. Uniform measures of suicidal ideation and attempts and mental disorder using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-3.0) were used in both datasets. Geographic region was classified into major cities, inner regional and other. A series of logistic regressions were undertaken for the outcomes of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts, adjusting for age, gender and psychological distress. A sub-analysis of the ARMHS sample was undertaken with additional variables not available in the 2007-NSMHWB dataset. Rates and determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts across geographical region were similar. Psychiatric disorder was the main determinant of 12-month and lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts across all geographical regions. For lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, marital status, employment status, perceived financial adversity and mental health service use were also important determinants. In the ARMHS sub-analysis, higher optimism and better perceived infrastructure and service accessibility tended to be

  20. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Wientjes, H.J.F.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Backgroud: a prospective study was done to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in suicide attempters who took benzodiazepines (BZ) and to study the correlation with sedation. Method: in 43 patients, who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory perfomrance was tested on a

  1. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  2. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  3. History of suicide attempts in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Weiss, Jonathan; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may be at higher risk for attempting suicide compared to the general population. This study examines the issue of suicidality in adults with AS. An online survey was completed by 50 adults from across Ontario. The sample was dichotomized into individuals who had attempted suicide (n = 18) and those who had not (n = 32). We examined the relationship between predictor variables and previous attempts, and compared the services that both groups are currently receiving. Over 35% of individuals with AS reported that they had attempted suicide in the past. Individuals who attempted suicide were more likely to have a history of depression and self-reported more severe autism symptomatology. Those with and without a suicidal history did not differ in terms of the services they were currently receiving. This study looks at predictors retrospectively and cannot ascertain how long ago the attempt was made. Although efforts were made to obtain a representative sample, there is the possibility that the individuals surveyed may be more or less distressed than the general population with AS. The suicide attempt rate in our sample is much higher than the 4.6% lifetime prevalence seen in the general population. These findings highlight a need for more specialized services to help prevent future attempts and to support this vulnerable group.

  4. Suicide Neurosis--A Study of Sixty Young Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; Johnson, Shelonitda

    Suicide and deviance are related because loss in social interaction is a consequence of deviance and an antecedent to suicide. This study examined the cognitive and affective experiences of suicidal individuals for evidence of neurosis. Sixty young attempted suicides with a history of a serious suicidal attempts attending the suicide prevention…

  5. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  6. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…

  7. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  8. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, and cormorbid psychiatric disorders in post-conflict areas is still limited. Aim: We explored the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, associated psychiatric disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife ...

  9. Suicidal ideation and attempt among South African medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International data reveal that medical students are at higher risk of attempting suicide than the general population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among South African medical students from three universities and identify key predisposing risk factors. Data were collected via a ...

  10. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  11. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attempts to locate debtor. 400.122 Section 400.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to a...

  12. Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide and attempted suicide are recognized neuropsychiatric complications of HIV/AIDS and one of the risk factors is recent notification of seropositivity. A case of attempted suicide in a recently diagnosed HIV positive subject without adequate counseling is reported. Subject presented at a government hospital with ...

  13. 12 CFR 268.603 - Voluntary settlement attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary settlement attempts. 268.603 Section 268.603 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... attempts. The Board shall make reasonable efforts to voluntarily settle complaints of discrimination as...

  14. The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Suicide is an increasing phenomenon worldwide. A suicide occurs every 40 seconds, and there is 1 attempt every 1 to 3 seconds. By 2020, these figures may have doubled. No accurate statistics regarding the occurrence of attempted suicide (or non-fatal suicidal behaviour) in South Africa exist, because there ...

  15. Three attempts to replicate the moral licensing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, I.; van de Ven, N.; Zeelenberg, M.; Meijers, M.H.C.

    2014-01-01

    The present work includes three attempts to replicate the moral licensing effect by Sachdeva, Iliev, and Medin (2009). The original authors found that writing about positive traits led to lower donations to charity and decreased cooperative behavior. The first two replication attempts (student

  16. Common Problems Affecting Supranational Attempts in Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ever since the colonial era, attempts have been made throughout the various regions of Africa at building supranational units chiefly for administrative and legal convenience. Examples of such attempts include the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the East African High Commission and the federations in former ...

  17. 29 CFR 1614.603 - Voluntary settlement attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary settlement attempts. 1614.603 Section 1614.603 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Matters of General Applicability § 1614.603 Voluntary settlement attempts...

  18. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  19. Temperament, Hopelessness, and Attempted Suicide: Direct and Indirect Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Bagge, Courtney L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated if hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative and positive temperament (particularly the positive temperament-positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the ...

  20. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  1. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  2. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability.In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model.Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight.Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  3. (De- criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house, has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide.

  4. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. METHOD: The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all wome...... and suicide. Adolescent women experienced the highest relative risk.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. METHOD: The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all women...... in Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period, which extended from 1996 through 2013. Nationwide registers provided individually updated information about use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt...

  5. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    During a 6 months' period, 99 persons, randomly chosen among patients admitted for attempted suicide to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, were interviewed. This paper, which is the first in a series, deals with the theoretical and methodological background of the survey...... and the validity of the sample and also with some basic social characteristics of the suicide attempters. The majority of the suicide attempters were found to be single and many of them were living alone or alone with children. The sample could also be characterized by a low level of vocational education...... and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...

  6. Prediction of Lethality in Suicide Attempts: Gender Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Carol C; Harris, Keith M; Ho, Roger C

    2017-01-01

    This study explores gender differences in lethality of suicide attempts. Three years of medical records related to suicide attempters ( N = 666) were subjected to analysis. Of the sample, 69.2% were female, 30.8% male; 63.8% Chinese, 15.8% Indian, and 15.0 % Malay. Ages ranged from 10 to 85 years old ( M = 29.7, SD = 16.1). More males than females made attempts with high perceived lethality (χ2 = 12.10, p attempts and more than 80% of high perceived lethality attempts. Suicide intent and opportunity for rescue were significant predictors for both measures of lethality. Gender differences were examined. Findings were discussed in regard to implications in suicide assessments and interventions.

  7. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  8. Risk factors for multiple suicide attempts among Roma in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Ádám, Szilvia; Zonda, Tamás; Birkás, Emma; Purebl, György

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, suicide rates in Hungary have been among the highest in the European Union. Attempted suicide rates in the Roma population are 2-3 times higher than in the non-Roma population. Since individuals making multiple attempts have a higher pro-bability of eventual death by suicide, and there are limited data on suicidal behaviour of the Roma population, the aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic and psychological background factors of multiple suicide attempts in the Hungarian Roma population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 150 individuals admitted to hospital toxicology departments, who made suicide attempts by deliberate self-poisoning, 65 of whom were multiple attempters. Detailed information regarding the current attempt and previous suicidal acts was recorded. Patients also completed the Shortened Beck Depression, the Beck Hopelessness Questionnaire, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Independent samples t-tests were used to evaluate differences in psychological variables between the Roma ( N = 90) and non-Roma ( N = 60) groups. Stepwise linear regression and odds ratios analyses were performed to identify potential background factors of multiple suicide attempts. There was a significantly higher level of previous suicidal events among the Roma in the sample population (3.53 vs. 0.84, p attempts. Current major depression, hopelessness, and diagnosed mood disorder were identified as significant risk factors of repeated attempts. Smoking (OR = 5.4), family history of suicide (OR = 4.9), and long-term unemployment (OR = 4.6) were additional risk factors among Roma patients. A thorough understanding of the ethnicity-specific risk factors for multiple suicide attempts could facilitate the development of effective intervention and postvention programmes.

  9. Accessing patient-centered care using the advanced access model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantau, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Waits and delays for healthcare are legendary. These delays are not only frustrating and potentially hazardous for patients and providers but also represent significant cost to office practices. The traditional medical model that defines urgent care versus routine care is a vain and futile attempt to sort demand. This approach is at constant odds with patients' definition of urgency. Trusting patients to determine when and how they want to access care makes sense from a customer service perspective. If approached systematically using the principles of Advanced Access, patient demand patterns can be tracked to forecast demand. These demand patterns become the template for deploying the resources necessary to meet patients' needs. Although not a simple journey, the transformation to Advanced Access provides an entree to patient-centered care where patients can say, "I get exactly the care I want and need, when I want and need it."

  10. Estimating the number of quit attempts it takes to quit smoking successfully in a longitudinal cohort of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael; Diemert, Lori; Cohen, Joanna E; Bondy, Susan J; Selby, Peter; Philipneri, Anne; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-06-09

    The number of quit attempts it takes a smoker to quit successfully is a commonly reported figure among smoking cessation programmes, but previous estimates have been based on lifetime recall in cross-sectional samples of successful quitters only. The purpose of this study is to improve the estimate of number of quit attempts prior to quitting successfully. We used data from 1277 participants who had made an attempt to quit smoking in the Ontario Tobacco Survey, a longitudinal survey of smokers followed every 6 months for up to 3 years beginning in 2005. We calculated the number of quit attempts prior to quitting successfully under four different sets of assumptions. Our expected best set of assumptions incorporated a life table approach accounting for the declining success rates for subsequent observed quit attempts in the cohort. The estimated average number of quit attempts expected before quitting successfully ranged from 6.1 under the assumptions consistent with prior research, 19.6 using a constant rate approach, 29.6 using the method with the expected lowest bias, to 142 using an approach including previous recall history. Previous estimates of number of quit attempts required to quit may be underestimating the average number of attempts as these estimates excluded smokers who have greater difficulty quitting and relied on lifetime recall of number of attempts. Understanding that for many smokers it may take 30 or more quit attempts before being successful may assist with clinical expectations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Christiansen, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk...... conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease....

  12. Pilot study of inducing smoking cessation attempts by activating a sense of looming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David; O'Brien, Jennifer; Farr, Emily; Haaga, David A F

    2010-06-01

    Despite widespread knowledge of the negative health consequences of cigarette smoking, in 2007 a majority (60%) of daily smokers in the USA did not make a quit attempt lasting at least 24 h. Drawing on Riskind's looming cognitive vulnerability model of anxiety, we developed a guided imagery induction intended to increase smokers' perceived susceptibility to the consequences of continued smoking and thereby to increase quit attempts. In a pilot study of this induction, 72 adult daily smokers were randomly assigned to the looming imagery condition or to a control condition exposed to guided imagery that did not concern smoking or its dangers. Those in the looming condition reported significantly higher state anxiety and highly accessible negative outcome expectancies for smoking immediately after the induction, and a significantly lower smoking rate in the month after the experiment. Nonsignificant trends favored the looming condition also for increasing contemplation of quitting, self-efficacy for abstaining from cigarettes, intrinsic motivation to quit as a function of health concerns, and most importantly the likelihood of making a quit attempt in the month following the experiment. Further development and testing of the looming induction as a way to motivate quit attempts is warranted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Vascular Access Procedures A vascular access procedure inserts a flexible, ... the limitations of Vascular Access Procedures? What are Vascular Access Procedures? A vascular access procedure involves the insertion ...

  14. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adequacy Eating & Nutrition for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis What is a vascular access? A vascular access ... Set Up the Vascular Access Well before Starting Hemodialysis Patients should set up a vascular access well ...

  15. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent non-fatal, self-reported stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, Nicola R.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Levinson, Daphna; Fiestas, Fabian; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Posada-Villa, Jose; Maria Haro, Josep; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Xavier, Miguel; Lwata, Noboru; de Jonge, Peter; Bruffaerts, Ronny; O'Neill, Siobhan; Kessler, Ron C.; Scott, Kate M.

    Objectives: To examine the associations between a wide range of mental disorders and subsequent onset of stroke. Lifecourse timing of stroke was examined using retrospectively reconstructed data from cross-sectional surveys. Methods: Data from the World Mental Health Surveys were accessed. This data

  16. Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Magerøy, Nils; Gjerstad, Johannes; Einarsen, Ståle

    2014-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that exposure to bullying in the workplace is positively correlated with self-reported health problems. However, these studies do not provide a basis to draw conclusions on the extent to which bullying leads to increased health problems or whether health problems increase the risk of being bullied. To provide better indications of a causal relationship, knowledge from prospective studies on the association between bullying in the workplace and health outcomes is therefore summarised. We conducted a systematic literature review of original articles from central literature databases on longitudinal associations between bullying in the workplace and health. Average associations between bullying and health outcomes are calculated using meta-analysis. A consistent finding across the studies is that exposure to bullying is significantly positively related to mental health problems (OR =1.68; 95% KI 1.35-2.09) and somatic symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% KI 1.41-2.22) over time. Mental health problems are also associated with subsequent exposure to bullying (OR = 1.74; 95% KI 1.44-2.12). Bullying is positively related to mental health problems and somatic symptoms. The association between mental health problems and subsequent bullying indicates a self-reinforcing process between mental health and bullying. The methodological quality of the studies that were conducted is relatively sound. However, based on the existing knowledge base there are no grounds for conclusions regarding an unambiguous causal relationship between bullying and health.

  17. Autoimmune disease and subsequent urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Ji, Jianguang; Forsti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2013-06-01

    We examined the subsequent risk and prognosis of urological cancer in individuals diagnosed with autoimmune disease. We systematically analyzed the risk and prognosis of prostate, kidney and bladder cancers in individuals diagnosed with any of 33 autoimmune diseases based on a national Swedish database for 1964 through 2008. The SIR and HR were calculated for subsequent urological cancers between 1964 and 2008 in individuals hospitalized for autoimmune disease. An increased SIR for urological cancer was recorded after 26 autoimmune diseases. An increased HR for cancer specific survival was noted after 4 autoimmune diseases and for overall survival after 18. The highest SIRs were seen for kidney cancer after polyarteritis nodosa (2.85) and polymyositis/dermatomyositis (2.68), and for bladder cancer after polymyositis/dermatomyositis (2.45). The highest risk of prostate cancer (1.70) was observed after polyarteritis nodosa. SIRs were lower during followup from 1990 to 2008 compared to the previous period. Individuals diagnosed with prostate and kidney cancers showed an improved cancer specific prognosis, in contrast to the poorer overall prognosis for all 3 urological cancers. The risk of urological cancer was increased after all autoimmune diseases. The most significant changes after individual autoimmune diseases were toward higher risk. Survival data were reassuring since autoimmune disease only marginally influences the prognosis of cancer specific mortality. However, overall survival was decreased for the 3 types of cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  19. Peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S; Cheng, Y; Xu, Z; Chen, D; Wang, Y

    2011-09-01

    Suicide is a global health concern. Therefore, studying suicide behaviour and identifying the early roots of suicide are critical. To address these issues, the present study examined (i) the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents; and (ii) whether such associations were moderated or mediated by feeling of loneliness. We hypothesized that problems in peer relationships were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts, and that feeling of loneliness would moderate and mediate such associations. The sample included 8778 Chinese adolescents from a large survey. Measures of peer relationships, suicide ideation and attempts, and feeling of loneliness were obtained through adolescents' self-reports. Results from multivariate logistic regressions suggested that specific problems in peer relationships, such as lack of peer association and being victimized by bullying, were significantly related to suicide ideation and attempts. In addition, the moderating effects of feeling of loneliness on the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts were found. Finally, some gender effects were also found. The present study provided strong evidence that suicide ideation and attempts were serious problems among adolescents in China, to which peer relationships played an important role. Further, feeling of loneliness acted as a moderator affecting the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts. Finally, there were some gender differences that have important implications. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Attempts in Bipolar Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Carballo, Juan J.; Moreno, Carmen; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with high rates of suicide attempt and completion. Substance use disorders (SUD) have been identified as potent risk factors for suicidal behavior in BD. However, little is known concerning differences between BD subtypes with regard to SUD as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. We studied previous suicidal behavior in adults with a major depressive episode in context of BD type I (BD-I; N=96) or BD type II (BD-II; N=42), with and without history of SUD. Logistic regressions assessed the association between SUD and suicide attempt history by BD type, and exploratory analyses examined the effects of other clinical characteristics on these relationships. SUD were associated with suicide attempt in BD-I but not BD-II, an effect not attributable to sample size differences. The higher suicide attempt rate associated with alcoholism in BD-I was mostly explained by higher aggression scores, and earlier age of BD onset increased the likelihood that alcohol use disorder would be associated with suicide attempt(s). The higher suicide attempt rate associated with other drug use disorders in BD-I was collectively explained by higher impulsivity, hostility, and aggression scores. The presence of both alcohol and drug use disorders increased odds of a history of suicide attempt in a multiplicative fashion: 97% of BD-I who had both comorbid drug and alcohol use disorders had made a suicide attempt. A critical next question is how to target SUD and aggressive traits for prevention of suicidal behavior in BD-I. PMID:18590916

  1. Cognitive Control Deficits Differentiate Adolescent Suicide Ideators From Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Glenn, Catherine R; Esposito, Erika C; Cha, Christine B; Nock, Matthew K; Auerbach, Randy P

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness and suicidal ideation are among the strongest correlates of suicidal behaviors, but few adolescents with these risk factors make a suicide attempt. Therefore, it is critical to identify factors associated with the transition from suicide ideation to attempts. The present study tested whether deficits in cognitive control in the context of suicide-relevant stimuli (ie, suicide interference) reliably differentiated adolescent ideators and attempters. Adolescents (n = 99; 71 girls) aged 13-18 years (mean = 15.53, SD = 1.34) with recent suicide ideation (n = 60) or a recent suicide attempt (n = 39) were recruited from an acute residential treatment facility between August 2012 and December 2013. We measured interference to suicide-related, negative, and positive words using the Suicide Stroop Task (SST). When stimuli were analyzed separately, suicide attempters showed greater interference for suicide (t₉₇ = 2.04, P = .044, d = 0.41) and positive (t₉₇ = 2.63, P = .010, d = 0.53) stimuli compared to suicide ideators. An additional omnibus interference (suicide, negative, positive) x group (suicide ideator, suicide attempter) analysis of variance revealed a main effect of group (F₁,₉₇ = 4.31, P = .041, ηp² = 0.04) but no interaction (P = .166), indicating that attempters showed greater interference for emotional stimuli, regardless of valence. Multiple attempters drove this effect; single attempters and ideators did not differ in SST performance (P = .608). General deficits in cognitive control in the context of emotional stimuli may be a marker of adolescent suicide risk.

  2. The patient suicide attempt – An ethical dilemma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jie

    2015-12-01

    Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Access to health care in South Africa - the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Race was the main predictor of perceived changes in access to health care, with black, coloured and Indian ... In an attempt to reduce poverty and inequities that ... coloured or white according to the Population Registration Act of 1950. Use.

  4. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  5. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean±SD age: 14.3±1.8 years). Results Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16–5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48–4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63–4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20–3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26–2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18–2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. Conclusion These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:25076490

  6. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  7. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years). Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  8. Access 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Melissa; Robards, Fiona; Sanci, Lena; Steinbeck, Katharine; Jan, Stephen; Hawke, Catherine; Kong, Marlene; Usherwood, Tim

    2017-08-07

    The integration of digital technology into everyday lives of young people has become widespread. It is not known whether and how technology influences barriers and facilitators to healthcare, and whether and how young people navigate between face-to-face and virtual healthcare. To provide new knowledge essential to policy and practice, we designed a study that would explore health system access and navigation in the digital age. The study objectives are to: (1) describe experiences of young people accessing and navigating the health system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; (2) identify barriers and facilitators to healthcare for young people and how these vary between groups; (3) describe health system inefficiencies, particularly for young people who are marginalised; (4) provide policy-relevant knowledge translation of the research data. This mixed methods study has four parts, including: (1) a cross-sectional survey of young people (12-24 years) residing in NSW, Australia; (2) a longitudinal, qualitative study of a subsample of marginalised young people (defined as young people who: identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander; are experiencing homelessness; identify as sexuality and/or gender diverse; are of refugee or vulnerable migrant background; and/or live in rural or remote NSW); (3) interviews with professionals; (4) a knowledge translation forum. Ethics approvals were sought and granted. Data collection commenced in March 2016 and will continue until June 2017. This study will gather practice and policy-relevant intelligence about contemporary experiences of young people and health services, with a unique focus on five different groups of marginalised young people, documenting their experiences over time. Access 3 will explore navigation around all levels of the health system, determine whether digital technology is integrated into this, and if so how, and will translate findings into policy-relevant recommendations. © Article author(s) (or

  9. Initial attempt to establish population reference values for blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initial attempt to establish population reference values for blood glucose and lipids in Makerere University undergraduate students. ... Recommendations: We recommend the establishment of indices for the indigenous populations, conscientiously planned diets, and regular exercise. > African Health Sciences Vol.

  10. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  11. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...... and the validity of the sample and also with some basic social characteristics of the suicide attempters. The majority of the suicide attempters were found to be single and many of them were living alone or alone with children. The sample could also be characterized by a low level of vocational education...... of suiciders, with relatively many persons from both upper and lower classes and few from the middle class....

  12. [Life Experience following Suicide Attempt among Middle-aged Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to identify the meaning of life experience following suicide attempt among middle-aged men. A qualitative research design was adopted using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The participants were six middle-aged men who had attempted suicide at least one time. Data were collected in 2013 through in-depth interviews. Individual interviews were recorded; and literary, art works and phenomenological literature were searched to identify the meaning of the experience. The five essential themes of the life experience of middle-aged men who attempted suicide were 'Bitter reality confronted again', 'Anger buried deep inside', 'Broken family, inescapable fetters', 'Blocked relationships, closed world' and 'A step towards a new life'. The meaning of lived experience found in this study provides deep insight into the experience following suicide attempt in middle-aged men and crucial information to give directions to appropriate support and nursing interventions.

  13. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic...

  14. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  15. Association of Risk of Suicide Attempts With Methylphenidate Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kenneth K C; Coghill, David; Chan, Esther W; Lau, Wallis C Y; Hollis, Chris; Liddle, Elizabeth; Banaschewski, Tobias; McCarthy, Suzanne; Neubert, Antje; Sayal, Kapil; Ip, Patrick; Schuemie, Martijn J; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Buitelaar, Jan; Carucci, Sara; Zuddas, Alessandro; Kovshoff, Hanna; Garas, Peter; Nagy, Peter; Inglis, Sarah K; Konrad, Kerstin; Häge, Alexander; Rosenthal, Eric; Wong, Ian C K

    2017-10-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk of attempting suicide. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate hydrochloride, are the most common treatment for ADHD, but the association between their therapeutic use and suicide is unclear. To investigate the association between methylphenidate and the risk of suicide attempts. A population-based, electronic medical records database from the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis & Reporting System was used to identify 25 629 individuals aged 6 to 25 years who were treated with methylphenidate between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015. Those who had attempted suicide were included in the analysis. A self-controlled case series design was used to control for time-invariant characteristics of the patients. Relative incidence of suicide attempt during periods when patients were exposed to methylphenidate compared with nonexposed periods. Among 25 629 patients with methylphenidate prescriptions, 154 had their first recorded suicide attempt within the study period; of these individuals, 111 (72.1%) were male; mean (SD) age at baseline was 7.15 (2.19) years. The overall incidence of suicide attempts during methylphenidate treatment was 9.27 per 10 000 patient-years. An increased risk of suicide attempts was detected during the 90-day period before methylphenidate was initiated, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 6.55 (95% CI, 3.37-12.72). The IRR remained elevated during the first 90 days of treatment (IRR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.62-9.42) before returning to baseline levels during ongoing treatment (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.77-2.38). When the risk during the first 90 days of treatment was compared with the 90 days preceding first treatment, the incidence of suicide attempts was not elevated (IRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.26-2.35). The incidence of suicide attempts was higher in the period immediately before the start of methylphenidate treatment. The risk remained elevated immediately after the start of

  16. (De-) criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Ranjan; Saurabh Kumar; Raman Deep Pattanayak; Anju Dhawan; Rajesh Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house), ...

  17. Reenen van Reenen's (1884-1935) attempt to change the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is twofold: first it is an attempt to show that cultural selecton of what is significant and what is not important, has a direct influence on the collection of historical data on cultural assets. It also attempts to undo some of the bias of the past and holds a warning to society in general to respect the culture and ...

  18. Conducting Research on Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Dilemmas and Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Michele; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Asarnow, Joan; Avina, Claudia; Linehan, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Research on effective treatments for adolescent suicide attempters is urgently needed. However, there has been a lack of research in this area. This is likely a result of the multiple challenges faced by investigators working with individuals at high risk of suicide. Based on our experiences conducting a large, randomized clinical trial with adolescent suicide attempters, in this article, we review ways to address these challenges in order to facilitate needed research on suicide prevention i...

  19. Online Homework Management Systems: Should We Allow Multiple Attempts?

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, M. Taylor; Sarbaum, Jeffrey K.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional pencil and paper wisdom suggests that allowing multiple attempts on homework will lead to more time spent on homework, higher homework grades, and better exam performance. For a variety of reasons, homework is increasingly being auto-administered online. This paper discusses the results of a quasi-experiment designed to evaluate student behavior under single and multiple attempt homework settings using an online homework management system. The paper explores whether multiple atte...

  20. Suicide Attempts Among Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jody L.; Haas, Ann P.; Rodgers, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    New analysis of responses to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS) shows that transgender respondents who experienced rejection by family and friends, discrimination, victimization, or violence have a higher risk of attempting suicide. 78 percent of survey respondents who suffered physical or sexual violence at school reported suicide attempts, as did 65 percent of respondents who experienced violence at work. The study suggests that several minority stressors – negat...

  1. Suicide attempts among children and adolescents: partial or total injury?

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves; Matilde Meire Miranda Cadete

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolesce...

  2. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  3. Attempted suicide in Oxford University students, 1976-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, K; Haigh, R; Simkin, S; Fagg, J

    1995-01-01

    During the 14 years between the beginning of academic year 1976-7 and the end of academic year 1989-90, 216 Oxford University students (119 females and 97 males) were referred to the general hospital in Oxford because of suicide attempts (254 in all). The rate of attempted suicide during university term-time (106/100,000) was lower than in other young people of similar age in Oxford City (164/100,000). The difference was particularly marked in females (178/100,000 v. 269/100,000). The lower rate in the students may in part reflect their generally higher socio-economic status. Very few of the attempts by the students appeared to be failed suicides. The most frequent problems faced by the students at the time of their attempts were interpersonal, especially difficulties regarding partners, followed by academic problems. The latter were usually problems with ongoing course work rather than with the Finals examinations. Approximately a quarter of the students had psychiatric problems, with personality disorders and depression being most common. At least 30% had a history of previous attempts. Suggestions are made concerning measures for improving the management and prevention of attempted suicide by students.

  4. Trends in suicide attempts at an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica M. Alves

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the profile of suicide attempts treated at an emergency department in the municipality of Arapiraca, state of Alagoas, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Methods: We analyzed all emergency department records containing a diagnosis of suicide attempt. Data were evaluated using Student’s t test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results: We identified 2,142 cases. Suicide attempts were more frequent among women and young adults, but deaths were more frequent among men. Suicide attempts were most frequent among patients aged 10 to 39 years (81.1%. Drug intoxication (65.0% and non-drug poisoning (16.2% were significantly more prevalent than other methods of suicide. The month of April (10.6% accounted for the greatest number of cases, and July had the smallest number (5.5%. Suicide attempts were most prevalent in spring (28.3%, on Sundays (18.4% and Saturdays (16.8%, and from 12:00 p.m. to 5:59 p.m. Conclusion: Suicide prevention measures should focus on young women. Further research into the care provided to suicide attempters and better monitoring of the sale and use of medicines and poisons could be useful.

  5. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh faraji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.

  6. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Swahn, Monica H; McCarty, Frances

    2010-08-01

    The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. We used data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior, as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys). Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89). Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48), dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60), forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72), and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66), forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60), huffing glue (OR=1.63), hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18), and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide-prevention strategies directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention, clinical practice, and intervention strategies to prevent suicidal behaviors

  7. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  8. Decision making under risk and under ambiguity in depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Schmid, Steffen K; Kemmler, Georg; Moser, Bernadette; Delazer, Margarete

    2018-01-15

    A number of neuropsychological alterations have been found in patients who have attempted suicide. Most studies investigating decision making (DM) abilities in suicide attempters so far have used one single DM task and included patients with a lifetime history of suicide attempts. These studies have yielded conflicting results. In this study, currently depressed in-patients who had a recent suicide attempt (within the last six months) (n = 21), depressed in-patients without a lifetime history of suicide attempts (n = 31) and a healthy control group (n = 26) were assessed with two tasks for the assessment of DM. The Game of Dice Task (GDT) measures DM under risk and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) DM under ambiguity. Further, depression severity, impulsiveness and suicidal intent of the current suicide attempt were assessed. Both depressed groups differed from controls with respect to marital and partnership status, smoking, impulsiveness and psychiatric family history. In terms of DM, IGT scores did not differ significantly between groups. However, suicide attempters made significantly more risky decisions as assessed with the GDT than both control groups (p < 0.05 for pairwise comparisons, p = 0.065 for overall comparison of the 3 groups). The available tasks assess DM under laboratory conditions which may not reflect the emotional status of suicidal individuals. No general cognitive assessment was included. Depressed suicide attempters differed with regard to DM under risk but not DM under ambiguity. When studying DM it appears crucial to take varying aspects of DM into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early postpartum discharge and subsequent breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, S; Rydberg, B

    1998-12-01

    Early postpartum discharge of babies was gradually introduced in Sweden in the 1980s on ideological grounds, based on the premise that maternity wards were unnatural settings for mothers and babies and hampered breastfeeding. From about 1990, early discharge was used as a means to reduce costs. The purpose of this study was to examine if mandated early discharge at Central Hospital of Karlstad, Sweden, influenced subsequent breastfeeding. Breastfeeding outcomes of infants up to six months of age of all births in 1993 (n = 3231) were compared with the outcome of newborns in 1990 (n = 1462). Breastfeeding at six months postpartum continued to increase during the early 1990s for both healthy and sick infants, irrespective of whether or not they were discharged early. In infants born in 1995 the breastfeeding rate at six months was 64 percent for healthy newborns and 53 percent for sick newborns. Factors other than the time of discharge, most likely a positive change of attitude in society and vigorous introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, seem to have been more important for successful breastfeeding.

  10. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  11. Reward/Punishment reversal learning in older suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Clark, Luke; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Ichikawa, Naho; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin

    2010-06-01

    Suicide rates are high in old age, and the contribution of cognitive risk factors remains poorly understood. Suicide may be viewed as an outcome of an altered decision process. The authors hypothesized that impairment in reward/punishment-based learning, a component of affective decision making, is associated with attempted suicide in late-life depression. They expected that suicide attempters would discount past reward/punishment history, focusing excessively on the most recent rewards and punishments. The authors further hypothesized that this impairment could be dissociated from executive abilities, such as forward planning. The authors assessed reward/punishment-based learning using the probabilistic reversal learning task in 65 individuals age 60 and older: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, nonsuicidal depressed elderly, and nondepressed comparison subjects. The authors used a reinforcement learning computational model to decompose reward/punishment processing over time. The Stockings of Cambridge test served as a control measure of executive function. Suicide attempters but not suicide ideators showed impaired probabilistic reversal learning compared to both nonsuicidal depressed elderly and nondepressed comparison subjects, after controlling for effects of education, global cognitive function, and substance use. Model-based analyses revealed that suicide attempters discounted previous history to a higher degree relative to comparison subjects, basing their choice largely on reward/punishment received on the last trial. Groups did not differ in their performance on the Stockings of Cambridge test. Older suicide attempters display impaired reward/punishment-based learning. The authors propose a hypothesis that older suicide attempters make overly present-focused decisions, ignoring past experiences. Modification of this "myopia for the past" may have therapeutic potential.

  12. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  13. Identifying differences between depressed adolescent suicide ideators and attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P; Millner, Alexander J; Stewart, Jeremy G; Esposito, Erika C

    2015-11-01

    Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Depressed adolescents (n=101) ages 13-19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators=55, suicide attempters=46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An fMRI investigation of the effects of attempted naming on word retrieval in aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L.; Nickels, Lyndsey A.; Angwin, Anthony; MacDonald, Anna D.; van Hees, Sophia; McKinnon, Eril; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In healthy controls, picture naming performance can be facilitated by a single prior exposure to the same picture (“priming”). This priming phenomenon is utilized in the treatment of aphasia, which often includes repeated picture naming as part of a therapeutic task. The current study sought to determine whether single and/or multiple exposures facilitate subsequent naming in aphasia and whether such facilitatory effects act through normal priming mechanisms. A functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was employed to explore the beneficial effects of attempted naming in two individuals with aphasia and a control group. The timing and number of prior exposures was manipulated, with investigation of both short-term effects (single prior exposure over a period of minutes) and long-term effects (multiple presentations over a period of days). Following attempted naming, both short-term and long-term facilitated items showed improvement for controls, while only the long-term condition showed benefits at a behavioral level for the participants with aphasia. At a neural level, effects of long-term facilitation were noted in the left precuneus for one participant with aphasia, a result also identified for the equivalent contrast in controls. It appears that multiple attempts are required to improve naming performance in the presence of anomia and that for some individuals with aphasia the source of facilitation may be similar to unimpaired mechanisms engaged outside the language network. PMID:26074801

  15. Graphology for the diagnosis of suicide attempts: a blind proof of principle controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, S; Mahé, I; Champion, K; Bertin, C; Popper, P; De Noblet, D; Bergmann, J F

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the ability of two graphologists and two practising internists not trained in graphology to differentiate letters written by subjects who have attempted to commit suicide by self-poisoning and healthy volunteers, we performed a maximal blind controlled study vs. healthy volunteers. Forty fully recovered patients who had attempted to commit suicide and 40 healthy volunteers wrote and signed a short letter or story not related to the parasuicide or their mental health status. The evaluators classified the 80 letters as 'suicide' or 'no suicide' in an intention-to-treat analysis. Letters expressing sadness were subsequently excluded for a per-protocol analysis. Correct diagnosis of suicide and of healthy controls was made in, respectively, 32 of 40 and 33 of 40 letters by the graphologists and in 27 of 40 and 34 of 40 letters by the internists. After the exclusion of 12 letters expressing sadness, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were, respectively, 73, 88, 81 and 82% for the graphologists and 53, 89, 80 and 71% for the internists. Both classified the letters with significantly more effectiveness than chance (p graphological analysis is able to differentiate letters written by patients who attempt suicide from those written by healthy controls. This technique shows an acceptable degree of accuracy and could therefore become an additional discharge or decision-making tool in Psychiatry or Internal Medicine.

  16. Accessing social rights in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    are in decreasing order Polish, German and British nationals. Debates among politicians reflected in the media have since the enlargement of the EU to 10 new Member States in 2004 focused on and off on the issue of access by migrants to social benefits and the issue of social tourism. The debate and discussions...... to the welfare State. As a result politicians, public opinion and the media all attempt to protect the national system from the ‘intruder’. This might partly be due to the fact that the Danish welfare system is quite generous and essentially financed through general taxes. Another reason could also...... be the successful attempt of the Eurosceptic right wing party, The Danish People’s Party, to draw attention to migrant Union citizens and circumvent their social rights (like it did in the case of family benefits). Finally, while the Danish system is at the outset protective of the social rights of non...

  17. Increased risk of attempted suicide among aging holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Yoram; Aizenberg, Dov; Szor, Henry; Swartz, Marnina; Maor, Rachel; Knobler, Haim Y

    2005-08-01

    Suicide rates are higher in elderly persons than in those at other phase of the life-cycle. The majority of World War II (WWII) veterans and Holocaust survivors still define their war experiences as being the "most significant stressor" of their lives. Aging of survivors is frequently associated with depression, reactivation of traumatic syndromes, physical disorders, loss, and psychological distress, possibly increasing the risk of suicide. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a large cohort of elderly Holocaust survivors, whether their WWII experiences confer an increased risk of suicidal behavior. All medical records of elderly patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Israel during a 5-year period were retrospectively evaluated. Suicidal patients were compared with patients who had not attempted suicide. Of 921 eligible patients, 374 were Holocaust survivors; 135 (14.6%) had attempted suicide in the month before admission. Ninety Holocaust survivors (24%) had attempted suicide, versus 45 of the 502 patients (8.2%) with no WWII experience. The risk of attempted suicide among Holocaust survivors was significantly increased. Although these findings are from a highly selected sample, we suggest that aging Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of attempting suicide. The growth of the elderly population, of whom many had had traumatic life experiences, emphasizes the need to implement preventive strategies so that suicidal risk may be contained.

  18. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Weight Loss Attempts on Bariatric Surgery Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sayantan; Voller, Lindsey; Palisch, Chase; Ceja, Omar; Turner, Wes; Rivas, Homero; Morton, John M

    2016-10-01

    Many payors require an additional attempt at nonsurgical weight loss before approval of bariatric procedures. This study evaluates this requirement by characterizing the prior weight loss attempts (WLAs) undergone by bariatric surgery patients and correlating those attempts to postoperative weight loss outcomes. Number and duration of WLAs were obtained from a preoperative clinic assessment. Body mass index (BMI) and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were used to assess weight loss. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman Correlation tests were performed to analyze data using GraphPad Prism 6. Mean number of WLAs before surgery was 3.5 ± 0.2 attempts, with an average duration of 15.2 ± 1.1 years. There was a significant negative correlation between duration of WLAs and preoperative BMI (r = -0.2637, P = 0.0025). No significant difference was found for preoperative BMI or mean 12-month %EWL among any WLA groups. The number and duration of dietary attempts before surgery do not significantly affect long-term weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery. Given these data, an additional preoperative WLA may not be efficacious in improving patients' chances at weight loss.

  20. Cultural concepts and themes of suicidal attempt among Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts are more common among adolescents than other age groups. Although suicide is considered a worldwide problem, but the related factors, to suicidal behavior are different in various cultures. The purpose of this study is to identify themes that explain suicide attempt process among adolescents in Iran. This is a qualitative study carried out based on grounded theory. Key informants were 16 adolescents referred to two hospitals in Shiraz after suicide attempts. Also, 4 family members, a nurse, a psychologist, and a psychiatrist participated in this study. Sampling started with purposive sampling method and continued with theoretical sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data analysis was carried out using Strauss and Corbin approach and constant comparative method until the point of data saturation. Five main categories, including personal factors and life experiences; family factors, social and educational factors, psychological-emotional problems, and stress control strategies were extracted from the data. The central concept in the data was to escape the painful psychological condition, which was in connection with other concepts describing the process of suicide attempts in adolescents. This study identified 5 categories of concepts as main themes that can be used to explain suicidal attempt process among Iranian adolescents.

  1. Maternal and paternal personality profiles of adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Kadak, Tayyib; Eliacik, Kayi; Sargin, Enis; Incekas, Secil; Gunes, Hatice

    2017-02-01

    Personality features have been correlated with suicidal behaviors in recent decades. Given its neurobiological background, Cloninger's model of personality, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), may help to identify the maternal and paternal personality dimensions associated with adolescent suicide attempts. The present study is the first that specifically compares the temperament and character profiles of both mothers and fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters with a control group, by considering the influence of demographic and clinical factors. The study group comprised 117 parents of 71 adolescent suicide attempters and 119 parents of 71 age- and gender-matched adolescents without a suicide attempt included as a control group. The TCI and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were applied to the parents in both groups. Logistic regression analysis, which was performed to adjust confounding factors, demonstrated significantly higher scores for harm avoidance among the mothers and lower scores of self-directedness among the fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters. New psychotherapeutic modalities considering the high-risk parental personality traits would be beneficial to support parent-adolescent relationships and may have a preventative effect on adolescent suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology of Suicide Attempts among Youth Transitioning to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P; Swartout, Kevin

    2017-04-18

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for older adolescents and young adults. Although empirical literature has identified important risk factors of suicidal behavior, it is less understood if changes in risk factors correspond with changes in suicide risk. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed if there were different trajectories of suicidal behavior as youth transition into young adulthood and determined what time-varying risk factors predicted these trajectories. This study used four waves of data spanning approximately 13 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample included 9027 respondents who were 12-18 years old (M = 15.26; SD = 1.76) at Wave 1, 50% male, 17% Hispanic, and 58% White. The results indicated that 93.6% of the sample had a low likelihood for suicide attempts across time, 5.1% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide in adolescence but not young adulthood, and 1.3% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide during adolescence and adulthood. The likelihood of a suicide attempt corresponded with changes on depression, impulsivity, delinquency, alcohol problems, family and friend suicide history, and experience with partner violence. Determining how suicide risk changes as youth transition into young adulthood and what factors predict these changes can help prevent suicide. Interventions targeting these risk factors could lead to reductions in suicide attempts.

  3. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  4. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  5. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  6. Factors related to Chinese older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Guided by the biopsychosocial framework and empirical evidence, this study examined protective and risk factors of older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts during the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted in 2006, which included 15,957 older adults from mainland China. Multiple penalized logistic regressions were used to conduct the analyses. During the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years, 5.1‰, 10.0‰, and 17.7‰ of older adults indicated that they thought about suicide, whereas 2.2‰, 3.5‰, and 6.3‰ reported suicidal attempts, respectively. Older adults' age, financial strain, functional limitations, depression, children's filial piety, social network, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal thoughts during the different time periods. In addition, older adults' religious affiliation, depression, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal attempts during the different time periods. Older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts need to be assessed by mental health care professionals and primary care doctors. Programs addressing these important protective and risk factors may help reduce older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts.

  7. Risk factors for adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal and violent behaviours are interlinked and share common biological underpinnings. In the present study we analysed the association between violent behaviour as a child, childhood trauma, adult psychiatric illness, and substance abuse in relation to interpersonal violence as an adult in suicide attempters with mood disorders. Methods A total of 161 suicide attempters were diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interviews and assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behaviour in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Ninety five healthy volunteers were used as a comparison group. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the two KIVS subscales, expressed violent behaviour as a child and exposure to violence in childhood together with substance abuse, personality disorder diagnoses and age as possible predictors of adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. Results Violent behaviour as a child, age and substance abuse were significant predictors of adult interpersonal violence. ROC analysis for the prediction model for adult violence with the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child gave an AUC of 0.79. Using two predictors: violent behaviour as a child and substance abuse diagnosis gave an AUC of 0.84. The optimal cut-off for the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child was higher for male suicide attempters. Conclusions Violent behaviour in childhood and substance abuse are important risk factors for adult interpersonal violent behaviour in suicide attempters. PMID:25001499

  8. Hemodialysis access -- self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemodialysis. Taking good care of your access helps make it last longer. Prevent Infection in Your Access Keep your access clean. Wash the access with soap and water every day to decrease your risk of infection. ...

  9. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chain of care for patients who have attempted suicide: a follow-up study from Bærum, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claussen Bjørgulf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who have attempted suicide are at increased risk of subsequent suicidal behavior. Since 1983, a community-based suicide prevention team has been operating in the municipality of Bærum, Norway. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the team's interventions in preventing repeated suicide attempts and suicide deaths, as part of a chain of care model for all general hospital treated suicide attempters. Methods Data has been collected consecutively since 1984 and a follow-up was conducted on all individuals admitted to the general hospital after a suicide attempt. The risk of repeated suicide attempt and suicide were comparatively examined in subjects who received assistance from the suicide prevention team in addition to treatment as usual versus those who received treatment as usual only. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyze the data. Results Between January 1984 and December 2007, 1,616 subjects were registered as having attempted suicide; 197 of them (12% made another attempt within 12 months. Compared to subjects who did not receive assistance from the suicide prevention team, individuals involved in the prevention program did not have a significantly different risk of repeated attempt within 6 months (adjusted OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.66-1.74, 12 months (adjusted OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.57-1.30, or 5 years (adjusted RR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.67-1.22 after their first recorded attempt. There was also no difference in risk of suicide (adjusted RR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.46-1.57. Previous suicide attempts, marital status, and employment status were significantly associated with a repeated suicide attempt within 6 and 12 months (p 0.05. With each year of age, the risk of suicide increased by 3% (p Conclusions The present study did not find any differences in the risk of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior between subjects who received treatment as usual combined with community assistance versus

  11. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... prescribed medicine for the parasuicide. It is concluded that the availability of psychological support and a more restrictive prescription of medicine could have a preventive effect on parasuicidal behaviour. Patients suffering from depression and pain have more often than other patients been in contact...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention....

  12. [Suicid attempts among first and second generation immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tarik A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2008-01-01

    To examine the characteristics of suicide attempters among first and second generation immigrants from Turkey living in Basel-City, Switzerland. All immigrants living in Basel City and admitted to the University Hospital of Basel-City, Switzerland, after a suicide attempt, were consecutively examined during a 7-year period (n=70). 35,7% of the suicide attempters were first generation and 64,3% second generation immigrants. Among the first generation the sex ratio female to male was 1,3 and among second generation 3,1. 36,9% of those concerned were at immigration 15 to 19 years of age. 24,1 % of females from first generation and 14,7% of females from second generation mentioned violence in family and partnership as the main problem. Female migrants of 2. generation seem to be at risk with regard to suicidal behavior. Violence seems to be a significant problem in suicidal female immigrants of both generations.

  13. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  14. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. Young people’s risk of suicide attempts in relation to parental death: A population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte

    2011-01-01

    Background:  The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10–22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods:  The study used a nested case......–control design. The full study population was obtained from the Danish longitudinal registers and included all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 (n = 403,431 individuals). The 3,465 registered suicide attempters from that group were matched with 75,300 population-based control subjects. Potentially...... confounding variables including age and gender were controlled for by conditional logistic regression analyses. Results:  The findings indicated that young people who had lost one biological parent showed a significantly increased risk of attempting suicide (relative risk = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1...

  16. Spirituality and Religion in Youth Suicide Attempters' Trajectories of Mental Health Service Utilization: The Year before a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Renaud, Johanne

    2012-08-01

    Youth suicide attempters are high-risk for suicide. Many have untreated mental disorders and are not receiving services. It is crucial to understand potential influences associated with service use. Spirituality/religion are one influence in youths' mental health service trajectories. This study explored youths' experiences of spirituality/religion as it relates to their help-seeking the year before their suicide attempt. Fifteen youth (aged 14-18) who made a suicide attempt(s) one to two years prior were consecutively recruited through the Depressive Disorders Program of a psychiatric hospital and interviewed using a mixed-methods design, including an adapted psychological autopsy method. THREE THEMES EMERGED: religious community members acted as a bridge, step, or provider to mental health services; religious/spiritual discourses were encountered within services; and many youths reported changes in spirituality/religious beliefs the year before their suicide attempt. Spirituality/religion can have a role in these youths' service trajectories. How this confers protection or challenges needs to be clarified. Our findings can inform policies supporting training religious leaders about suicide intervention to foster coordination with mental health services, and service-providers in judiciously approaching spiritual/religious themes in suicide prevention.

  17. Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Salman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The

  18. Access At-a-Distance: Purposes and Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Ellie

    1997-01-01

    Examines recent attempts by the Open University to widen access to higher education in the United Kingdom through provision of distance-taught access materials which may be studied prior to enrollment in the undergraduate program. The materials development approach taken is a discourse model which arises out of a view of learning as a…

  19. Access to knowledge in Africa The role of copyright

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite the fact that the public domain should in theory be freely accessible by any person, Egyptian law requires a licence for any commercial or professional ..... In an attempt to examine access-related difficulties that women and, in particular, people with disabilities may face, the research team interviewed a diverse group ...

  20. Negotiating Access to Health Information to Promote Students' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radis, Molly E.; Updegrove, Stephen C.; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A.

    2016-01-01

    Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result,…

  1. Public access to private land in Scotland | Miller | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to understand the radical reform of Scottish land law in its provision for a general right of public access to private land introduced in 2003 as part of land reform legislation, an important aspect of the initial agenda of the Scottish Parliament revived in 1999. The right is to recreational access for a limited ...

  2. Different roles of resilience in depressive patients with history of suicide attempt and no history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Maria C; Tosone, Adele; Stratta, Paolo; Collazzoni, Alberto; Santarelli, Valeria; Guadagni, Elisabetta; Rossi, Rodolfo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Suicidal ideation is modulated by several risk and protective factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between patients with a history of suicide attempt and those with no such history, with special attention to depression, interpersonal sensitivity, humiliation, and resilience. One hundred consecutively admitted patients with an index depressive episode were recruited. The Brief Symptom Inventory, Humiliation Inventory, and Resilience Scale for Adult were administered. Scores for humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression were higher in subjects with history of suicide attempt, while higher scores for resilience were observed in the group with no such history. Different patterns of relationships among the variables of interest were found in the two groups. Resilience dimensions such as social resources and familial cohesion were strongly and negatively correlated with humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression in subjects with a past suicide attempt. Resilience factors can modulate and reduce the impact of suicide risk. Assessing risk and protective factors could enhance the ability to intervene appropriately.

  3. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwey, B; Eling, P; Wientjes, H; Zitman, F G

    2000-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose and to study the correlation with sedation. In 43 patients who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory was tested with a 15-word memory recall task. The immediate and delayed recall on the first day after admission (day 1) and 24 hours later (day 2) were rated. Each patient and the interviewer scored the patient's degree of sedation on a visual analogue scale. Patients also had to try to recognize, from photographs, the psychiatrist with whom they had spoken the day before. The ratings of immediate and delayed recall were significantly lower on day 1 than on day 2. Subjective ratings of sedation of the patients were not significantly higher than the ratings of the observer. Less than half of the patients recognized the psychiatrists and knew that they were the ones they had spoken to the day before. Anterograde amnesia is present in suicide attempters who take overdoses of benzodiazepines. The implications of this finding for the assessment of suicide attempters during admission are discussed.

  4. Intoxication, criminal offences and suicide attempts in a group of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intoxication, criminal offences and suicide attempts in a group of South African problem drinkers. ... Research suggests a relationship between alcohol and both crime and suicide. ... The importance of population studies and the need for intervention programmes aimed at teenagers who are drinking, are emphasised.

  5. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ant that son to t r their nd to e. 15. nt. J. Arch f is by scess: l Head. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide. H. W. Pretorius, W. Bodemer, J. L. Roos,. J. Grimbeek. This study investigated the relationship ... recurrent depression and suicidal behaviour. Personality traits observed during the initial ...

  6. Attempts to transmit hepatitis B virus to chimpanzees by arthropods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. G. JUPP, R. H. PURCELL, J. M. PHILLlPS, M. SHAPIRO, J. L. GERIN. Attempts to transmit hepatitis B virus to chimpanzees by arthropods. S AIr Med J 1991; 79: 320-322. 321. SAMJ VOL 79 16 MAR 1991. Discussion feed (adult females and mature nymphs), at the second feed it fell to 32 out of 149 adult females (21%).

  7. BULGARIA'S PLACE IN WORLD TOURISM (AN ATTEMPT TO POSITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Levkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to determine the place of Bulgaria in global tourism by using the indicators included in the report of the World Economic Forum in 2015. The positions of the country are compared with those of its main competitors in the Balkan region.

  8. [A phenomenological study of suicide attempts in elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Mi Young; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and essence of suicide for elderly people who had previously attempted suicide as an older person. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenology was used for analysis. The researchers carried out in-depth interviews, recordings and memos individually with four elders. The elders were individuals who had attempted suicide sometime in the past 5 yr. They were interviewed from 5 to 10 times using open-ended questions and a semi-structural format. Demographic data were also collected. The meaning of suicide before a suicide attempt in older people had four core components: conflict with family, powerlessness and despair in their life with a drop in self-esteem, using internal and external resources to resolve their troubles and awareness of imminent crisis. These results of this study will increase understanding of suicide in older people by defining their subjective experience of suicide attempts and applying grounded data in the development of programs that provide concrete intervention strategies to prevent suicide in elderly people.

  9. Problem Solving, Stress, and Coping in Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Twenty adolescents who had made suicide attempts are compared with 20 nonpsychiatric subjects on measures of problem solving, stress, and coping. Findings support a transactional model of adolescent suicidal behavior whereby inaccuracies in the appraisal of problem solving while under high stress lead to a reduction in the use of adaptive coping…

  10. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence rate of suicide ideation and attempt indicate a major public health problem in post-conflict North- ern Uganda. Effective ... departments (including. African Health Sciences Vol 16 Issue 4, December, 2016. 1027 ..... et al., 2011; Pompili et al., 2014) that unemployment may promote the vulnerability ...

  11. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in elderly people - subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Grubits, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the subjective experiences of elderly people who show suicidal ideation and/or attempts at suicide, based on their own reports. We understand the concept of 'subjective' as referring to intra-psychic experience resulting from social, economic, relationship or biographical conditions. Although the subject is sparsely covered in the literature, it is important, because it is in the field of subjectivity that ideations of, and attempts at, suicide develop and occur until they become a concrete act. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews focusing on: social characterization, portrayal and mode of life, previous mental state, atmosphere of the attempt, effects on the health of the elderly person and family. Based on the analysis of the meanings that emerge, five empirical categories were generated: (1) subject's feeling of being in a non-place; (2) absence of acceptance of losses; (3) suffering due to ingratitude of family members; (4) feeling of uselessness of, and in, life; (5) re-signification of the situations that generate suicide-related conduct. The results point to a fundamental need to incorporate knowledge about the subjective processes into programs for prevention of suicide among the elderly who have ideation of, or attempts at, suicide.

  12. Predicting frequency of suicide attempts of adolescent outpatients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevention of suicide, particularly adolescent suicide, remains one of the biggest challenges in psychiatry. Objectives. To ascertain: (i) clinical and demographic characteristics; and (ii) possible associations between these characteristics and suicide attempt frequency in a selected patient group at Weskoppies Hospital ...

  13. Suicidal ideations, plans and attempts in primary care: cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in primary health care system. Methods: we conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among ...

  14. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Suicide is a common problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among patients who attended the Psychiatry clinic of Gondar University ...

  15. First observations of attempted nudibranch predation by sea anemones

    OpenAIRE

    Meij, van der, T.; Reijnen, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    On two separate occasions during fieldwork in Semporna (eastern Sabah, Malaysia), sea anemones of the family Edwardsiidae were observed attempting to feed on the nudibranch species Nembrotha lineolata and Phyllidia ocellata. These are the first in situ observations of nudibranch predation by sea anemones. This new record is compared with known information on sea slug predators.

  16. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubiak, J.J.; Khankhane, P.J.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As

  17. goal management as an attempt to evaluate nature conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b. to indicate that qualitative re~earch designs in general, and action research particularly, would be preferable to quantitative research designs when assessing EE campaigns, and c. to illustrate, through research presently being undertaken by the author, ho\\"J attempts to evaluate EE related campaigns can be relevantly.

  18. First observations of attempted nudibranch predation by sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Reijnen, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    On two separate occasions during fieldwork in Semporna (eastern Sabah, Malaysia), sea anemones of the family Edwardsiidae were observed attempting to feed on the nudibranch species Nembrotha lineolata and Phyllidia ocellata. These are the first in situ observations of nudibranch predation by sea

  19. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression....

  20. EFL Teachers' Attempts at Feedback Innovation in the Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icy; Mak, Pauline; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on feedback in second language (L2) writing has primarily focused on feedback per se, with little attention paid to the teachers' professional development with regard to feedback in writing. This study aims to explore the ways in which two secondary teachers in Hong Kong attempted to implement feedback innovation in their writing…

  1. Suicide attempts in a Nigerian military setting | Okulate | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide attempts in a Nigerian military setting. G. T. Okulate. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (9): 493-496). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i9.8983 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  2. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  3. Who attempts to drive less in New England?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noblet, C. L.; Thøgersen, John; Teisl, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    travel choices in New England (USA). In total, 1340 New England residents responded to a mail survey, which asked them about their use of alternative travel modes, their attempts to drive less, and a range of potential psychological and structural antecedents. Responses were analyzed with structural...

  4. Suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts in substance and gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Koh, Puay Kee; Yang, Yi; Ng, Andrew; Guo, Song; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam; Wong, Kim Eng

    2015-02-28

    Suicidality is more commonly reported among individuals with addictions relative to the general population, though data from Asian countries remain scarce. The medical records of 2187 Singaporean patients with drug (n=879), alcohol (n=754) or gambling (n=554) disorders entering an outpatient treatment service were examined to explore differences in suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts between substance and gambling addictions. The relationship between suicidality, co-morbidity and addiction severity were also examined. 25.0% reported thoughts of suicide in the past month, 11.8% had a suicide plan and 12.2% reported lifetime attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation (thoughts, and plan) but not lifetime attempts were significantly higher among gambling than substance use patients. Co-morbid (DSM-IV axis-1) disorders were found among 32.5%, 38% and 40% of those reporting thoughts, plan and lifetime attempts respectively. Addiction severity was higher and quality of life lower among those reporting suicidal behaviors. Logistic regression revealed co-morbidity, debt, gender (being female) and being a gambling patient as significant predictors of suicidal behaviors. The findings highlight the importance of screening for suicidality, even in the absence of co-morbidity, particularly among gambling disorder patients with debts. Suicide risk should be assessed periodically and referral to suicidal prevention interventions routinely offered to this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  6. Reciprocal relationships between substance use and disorders and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Tillman, Rebecca; Grucza, Richard A; Nelson, Elliot C; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Few, Lauren; Conner, Kenneth R; Lynskey, Michael T; Dick, Danielle M; Edenberg, Howard J; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Schuckit, Marc A; Porjesz, Bernice; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2017-04-15

    Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders. The prospective cohort of the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N=3277) was used. Cross-sectional and discrete time logistic regression (i.e. survival) analyses examined associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence. Survival models also examined whether individual early substance use was related to onset of ideation and attempt. Ideation was related to 0.71-0.77 odds of onset of subsequent alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use. Attempt was associated with 1.44-1.61 odds of later alcohol, nicotine and cannabis dependence, even after accounting for covariates. Evidence for early substance use being related to subsequent onset of ideation or attempt was limited. Several sex and race differences emerged. The sample was ascertained for family history of alcoholism; not all participants had been followed up allowing for censored observations; reporting bias. Suicide attempts are associated with increased likelihood of onset of substance dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality differences in early versus late suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Denzin, Sebastian; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael; Jabs, Burkhard

    2016-08-09

    Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late). We carried out structured interviews with these subjects addressing diagnosis (MINI), suicidality (Scale for suicide ideation), depression (HAMD-17), temperament and character inventory (TCI), and impulsivity (BIS-10). Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Our two groups did not differ significantly in sociodemographics or suicidality. However, patients in the SA early group were significantly more depressed (p < 0.001), and scored lower in reward dependence (p < 0.001) and persistence (p = 0.005) but higher in harm avoidance (p < 0.001); they did not differ significantly in impulsivity (p < 0.01). Reward dependence, persistence, and harm avoidance remained significantly different between the two groups after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that some personality traits vary after a suicide attempt. Further investigations are necessary to verify our results, ideally in longitudinal studies with larger, carefully-described cohorts. It would be also clinically important to investigate the influence of therapeutic strategies on the variability of personality traits and their impact on suicidal behavior.

  8. Grade Management in Establishing Pediatric Peripheral Venous Access

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Min Yan; Mei Gong; Dan Li; Ye Huang; Ai-Qiu Li; Jia-Yu Qiu; Yan-Shang Xiao; Qun-Feng Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background Establishing venous access is a challenging job for pediatric nurses, especially in the emergency department. Measures to ensure higher success rates on the first attempt are important to provide quality nursing care. Objectives To explore the effect of grade management on the success of establishing peripheral venous access in the child population of China and to analyze the factors influencing failed IV access on the ...

  9. Gender differentiation in indirect self-destructiveness and suicide attempt methods (gender, indirect self-destructiveness, and suicide attempts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the gender (sex) differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations as well as its relationships with suicide attempt methods in females and males. The study was conducted among 147 persons (114 females, 33 males) who attempted suicide. The research instrument was the polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale including Transgression and Risk, Poor Health Maintenance, Personal and Social Neglects, Lack of Planfulness, and Helplessness and Passiveness in the face of problems. Differences testing and correlation analyses were applied. Females scored higher on poor health maintenance and males scored significantly higher on personal and social neglects, lack of planfulness, and helplessness. Noteworthy is that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in females reached the same magnitude as in males. A number of statistically significant correlations were found between indirect self-destructiveness, or its manifestations, and the methods of suicide attempt in the two groups. Among these categories, the highest contribution was of helplessness and passiveness (both of groups), poor health maintenance (males), and personal and social neglects (females). Results of this study can be useful in the therapeutic efforts and prevention of not only indirectly self-destructive behaviours but also possible suicide attempts. Both preventive and therapeutic activities can take into account the specificity of those phenomena resulting from one's sex/gender. It is important to adapt preventive and therapeutic measures to psychological (personal) features that arise from an individual's sex/gender.

  10. Flows around two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation and translation and subsequent clap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sun; Xin, Yu

    2003-04-01

    The aerodynamic forces and flow structures of two airfoils performing “fling and subsequent translation” and “translation and subsequent clap” are studied by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in moving overset grids. These motions are relevant to the flight of very small insects. The Reynolds number, based on the airfoil chord length c and the translation velocity U, is 17. It is shown that: (1) For two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation, a large lift is generated both in the fling phase and in the early part of the translation phase. During the fling phase, a pair of leading edge vortices of large strength is generated; the generation of the vortex pair in a short period results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this period. During the early part of the translation, the two leading edge vortices move with the airfoils; the relative movement of the vortices also results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this part of motion. (In the later part of the translation, the vorticity in the vortices is diffused and convected into the wake.) The time averaged lift coefficient is approximately 2.4 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (2) For two airfoils performing translation and subsequent clap, a large lift is generated in the clap phase. During the clap, a pair of trailing edge vortices of large strength are generated; again, the generation of the vortex pair in a short period (which results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse) is responsible for the large lift in this period. The time averaged lift coefficient is approximately 1.6 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (3) When the initial distance between the airfoils (in the case of clap, the final distance between the airfoils) varies from 0.1 to 0.2 c, the lift on an airfoil decreases only slightly but

  11. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male. There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%, drug dependence or abuse (21.8%, psychoses (21.2%, depression (18.5%, and hypertension (14.2%. A total of 1,836 (18.1% veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years. The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1. Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22

  12. TNF-alpha -308G>A polymorphism is associated with suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Bun-Hee; Jung, Han-Yong; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Na, Kyoung-Sae

    2013-09-05

    Despite the substantial role of the cytokine network in depression and suicide, few studies have investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in suicide in major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) -308G>A, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) +874A>T, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) -1082A>G are associated with increased risk for suicide attempts in MDD. Among patients with MDD, 204 patients who had attempted suicide and 97 control patients who had not attempted suicide were recruited. A chi-square test was used to identify a possible risk genotype or allele type for suicide. A subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of a risk genotype or allele type adjusted for other environmental factors. The lethality of the suicide attempt was also tested between genotype and allele types among suicidal patients with MDD. The GG genotype of the TNF-alpha -308G>A polymorphism was found to significantly increase risk for suicide attempt (adjusted OR=2.630, 95% CI=1.206 to 5.734). IFN-gamma +874A>T and IL-10 -1082A>G were not associated with risk for suicide. Lethality of the suicide attempt was not associated with any of the three cytokine genotypes or allele types. Limitations include a relatively small sample size and a cross-sectional design. TNF-alpha -308G>A polymorphism is an independent risk factor for suicide attempts in MDD. Future studies should clarify the neural mechanisms by which the GG genotype of TNF-alpha -308G>A influences suicide in MDD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular access conversion and patient outcome after hemodialysis initiation with a nonfunctional arteriovenous access: a prospective registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar de Pinho, Natalia; Coscas, Raphael; Metzger, Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Ayav, Carole; Jacquelinet, Christian; Massy, Ziad A; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about vascular access conversion and outcomes for patients starting hemodialysis with nonfunctional arteriovenous (AV) access. We assessed mortality risk associated with nonfunctional AV access at hemodialysis initiation, taking subsequent changes in vascular access into account. We studied the 53,092 incident adult hemodialysis patients included in the French REIN registry from 2005 through 2012. AV access placed predialysis was considered nonfunctional when dialysis began with a central venous catheter. Information about vascular access changes was obtained from treatment modality updates. At hemodialysis initiation, AV access was functional for 47% of patients and nonfunctional for 9%; 44% had a catheter alone. After a 3-year follow-up, 63% of patients beginning hemodialysis with a nonfunctional AV access had changed to a functional one, 4% had had a transplant, 19% had died before any vascular access change, and 13% still used a catheter. Cox proportional hazard models with vascular access treated as a time-dependent variable showed an adjusted mortality hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for patients with nonfunctional AV access who subsequently converted to functional access of 0.95 (95% CI 0.89-1.03) compared with the reference group with functional AV access since first hemodialysis, versus 1.43 (95% CI 1.31-1.55) for those who did not convert. Among patients starting hemodialysis with a nonfunctional AV access, a substantial percentage may never experience successful vascular access conversion. Poor survival seems to be limited to these patients, while those who subsequently convert to functional AV access have similar mortality risk compared to patients with such access since hemodialysis initiation. Every effort should be made to obtain functional AV access in all suitable patients.

  14. Differences between subjective experiences and observed behaviors in near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taiju; Fujii, Chiyo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Takeshi, Kiyoaki; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    In cases of untreated schizophrenia, the patients' entourage often does not recognize the psychotic symptoms of the patient and the possibility that the patient may attempt suicide. The aim of this study was to investigate the discrepancies between the subjective experiences and observed behaviors in near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia. A semi-structured interview was carried out with seven near-fatal suicide attempters with untreated schizophrenia to examine the subjective experiences at the time of the suicide attempt. The families of the patients were also interviewed to determine their recognition of the patients' psychotic symptoms and the suicidal ideation. The interview data were analyzed qualitatively. Six subjects were undergoing exacerbation of the psychotic symptoms at the time of exhibiting the suicide-related ideation. One subject had been in a prolonged depressive state before attempting suicide. Although all the patients experienced severe distress due to psychotic symptoms and depressive mood, they all exhibited only low level or no help-seeking behavior, and six of seven families had not recognized the change in the patient's mental condition. Appropriate information about schizophrenia should be provided to the general public so that any help-seeking by the patients with this disease is not overlooked. In addition, accessible early intervention services for psychosis should be established.

  15. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  16. Attempts to create ball lightning with triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan D.; Uman, Martin A.; Stapleton, Michael; Jordan, Douglas M.; Chebaro, Alexander M.; Biagi, Christopher J.

    2010-08-01

    We describe attempts to create ball lightning by directing lightning, triggered from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, through a variety of materials. Some of the observed phenomena have features in common with natural ball lightning or with laboratory attempts to create it: flame-like luminosity for up to 0.5 s above salt water; constant-luminosity silicon fragments falling for about 1 s under the influence of gravity; a 0.7 m region of stationary luminosity whose bottom was 0.3 m above a stainless steel surface to which arcing had occurred; and a glow for about 0.5 s above pine tree sections.

  17. Panic symptom clusters differentially predict suicide ideation and attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Lance M; Moskowitz, D S; Galynker, Igor; Yaseen, Zimri S

    2014-05-01

    Increasingly strong evidence links anxiety disorders in general and panic attacks in particular to suicidality. The underlying causes and specifics of this relation, however, remain unclear. The present article sought to begin addressing this question by clarifying the association between panic symptoms and suicidality. Data were sampled from the NESARC epidemiological data set from the US and analyzed as four independently, randomly selected subsets of 1000 individuals using structural equation modeling analyses and replicating results across samples. Evidence is presented for four symptom clusters (cognitive symptoms, respiratory distress, symptoms of alpha and beta adrenergic activation) and the differential association of each with suicidal ideation and attempts. Symptoms of alpha adrenergic activation predicted prior suicide attempt whereas cognitive symptoms predicted prior suicidal ideation. These findings were independent of comorbid major depressive disorder. It is suggested that assessment of suicide risk in the community includes the presentation of cognitive symptoms and symptoms related to alpha adrenergic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The mangled extremity and attempt for limb salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontogeorgakos Vasileios A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision, whether to amputate or reconstruct a mangled extremity remains the subject of extensive debate since multiple factors influence the decision. Methods Sixty three patients with high energy extremity trauma and attempts at limb salvage were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed 10 cases of massive extremity trauma where there was made an attempt to salvage limbs, although there was a controversy between salvage and amputation. Results All of the patients except one had major vascular injury and ischemia requiring repair. Three patients died. All of the remaining patients were amputated within 15 days after the salvage procedure, mainly because of extremity sepsis. Seven patients required treatment at the intensive care unit. All patients had at least 2 reconstruction procedures and multiple surgical debridements. Conclusion The functional outcome should be considered realistically before a salvage decision making for extremities with indeterminate prognosis.

  19. Transgenderism and transformation: an attempt at a Jungian understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    While transgenderism as a cultural phenomenon seems to be based on a collective taste for the sensational, its emergence represents a collective shift towards a new or more differentiated way of experiencing and expressing sex and gender, a movement of world soul. This paper attempts to explore that emergence from a Jungian perspective. The paper utilizes clinical examples which illustrate how dissociated aspects of the personality are seeking assimilation and expression in order to move the personality towards greater wholeness. In that sense, it attempts to understand the teleology of transgenderism on an individual and collective level. The paper is intended as a starting-off point for discussion and explores gender as fantasy, anima/animus dynamics, the psyche/soma relationship, the role of hormones/biochemistry in our experience of ourselves and what transgender people carry and suffer for our culture. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Suicide attempts among children and adolescents: partial or total injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents between the age of 3 and 18 years were selected. It was revealed that the health professionals, particularly physicians and nurses, fail to register the cases appropriately, invalidating information about the problem and potential prevention measures. The conclusion reached was that underreporting and the discrepancy of the diagnoses which were not duly referred to the competent agencies require rethinking and reviewing medical practices, and taking a systematic and careful look to address the individual as a complex whole.

  1. [Suicidal attempts in child and adolescent and bipolar disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugand, N; Thümmler, S; Pradier, C; Askenazy, F

    2017-03-02

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are frequently confronted with suicide attempts and comorbid mood disorders. Diagnoses of juvenile bipolar disorders (BD) are rare and controversial and standardized assessment is helpful for a reliable diagnosis. The main objective of this study was to identify the number of juvenile bipolar disorder diagnoses according to DSM-5 criteria in a population of children and adolescents hospitalized for suicide attempts. Secondary objectives were the assessment of a patient's characteristics and the comparison of suicide attempt recurrence during 12 months of follow-up. This current practice study consecutively included children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years and hospitalized for a suicide attempt in a French University Pediatric Hospital over a 4-month period. Patients were assessed at baseline, at 3 months and at 12 months. The standardized assessment was realized by the investigator using semi-structured interview K-SADS-PL (2013) to diagnose juvenile bipolar disorders based on DSM-5 criteria. Clinical diagnoses based on medical charts and according to ICD-10 criteria were also collected at 12-month follow-up. Standardized assessment was completed by the French validated K-SADS-PL (2004) for comorbidities (DSM-IV), dimensional assessment by MADRS-YMRS-ARI-C-SSR, and C-GAS at inclusion. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) those presenting juvenile bipolar disorder according to DSM 5 (BD+) and (2) those without criteria for bipolar disorder (BD-). Suicide risk factors and suicide attempt relapse were assessed at 3 and 12 months of follow-up. Twenty-six inpatients (22 female and 4 male) aged 14.5 years (SD 1,5) were consecutively included. Twenty patients were followed up during the 12-month period. At baseline, 5 patients (19.2 %) presented a diagnosis of BD (DSM-5): 1 BD type 2, 2 non specified BD, 2 cyclothymic disorders. According to the medical charts (ICD-10), none of the patients had been diagnosed

  2. Complement titration by rectilinear attenuance and attempts at its automatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, P. S.; Yoshida, T. O.; Fukusima, Y.; Ono, N.; Yoshida, K.; Ito, Y.

    1969-01-01

    Immune haemolysis was determined by rectilinear attenuance at 625 mμ (l = 1.3 mm, 1.25 mm), and the data obtained treated by von Krogh's empirical equation. The C′H50/ml values obtained by the attenuance method had high correlation with those obtained by the conventional photometric method (541 mμ). Automatic complement titration was attempted, as a part of the basic studies on quantitative complement fixation tests. PMID:5386637

  3. Substance Use, Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Cohen, Patricia; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Shaffer, David

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a community sample of youth (N = 1,458; ages 9–17), this study assessed the association between adolescent substance use/abuse and suicidal behaviors. Suicide attempts were strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence, followed by frequent cigarette smoking. The associations remained significant even after controlling for depression. The associations between substance use/abuse and suicidal ideation were no longer significant after controlling for depression. These fi...

  4. [Experiences of Individuals With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Quintero, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt. A qualitative study with a psychodynamic approach. In-depth interviews were conducted in order to explore thought processes, emotions, motivations and experiences that underlie and accompany the suicide attempt. Five women and 3 men were interviewed. The average age was 29 years. The exploration of subjective experiences in the present study showed that loneliness and psychic pain were linked to hopelessness, pessimism and discouragement. Also, the illusion of death represents an invitation to suicide attempt. It is important to consider the subjective assessment that patients with suicidal risk make of their depression and stressful life situations. Additionally, the concepts of loneliness and psychic pain have a leading role in the interaction between discourse and the experiences of the participants interviewed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Victims of bullying in childhood and suicide attempts in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Vostanis, P; Ford, T; Bebbington, P; Dennis, M S

    2011-11-01

    To examine whether self-reported exposure to bullying during childhood is associated with suicide attempts over the life course, and if so, what mechanisms could account for this relationship. A random probability sample comprising 7461 respondents was interviewed for the 2007 survey of psychiatric morbidity of adults in Great Britain. Survey respondents were asked about suicidal attempts and whether they were bullied in childhood. Recall of being bullied in childhood decreased with age from 25% of 16-24-year-olds to 4% among those 75 or over with few differences in the proportions between men and women. Bullying co-occurred with several victimisation experiences including sexual abuse and severe beatings and with running away from home. Even after controlling for lifetime factors known to increase the risk of suicidal behaviour, adults who reported bullying in childhood were still more than twice as likely as other adults to attempt suicide later in life. Being the victim of bullying involves the experience of suffering a defeat and humiliation that in turn could lead to entrapment, hopelessness, depression and suicidal behaviour. Bullying is already known to be associated with substantial distress and other negative consequences and this further evidence of a strong correlation with the risk of suicide in later life should increase further the motivation of society, services and citizens to act decisively to reduce bullying in childhood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. VT Limited Access Highways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a...

  7. Differential encoding mechanisms for subsequent associative recognition and free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Davachi, Lila

    2006-09-06

    Recent neuroimaging studies have successfully identified encoding mechanisms that support different forms of subsequent episodic recognition memory. In our everyday lives, however, much of our episodic memory retrieval is accomplished by means of free recall, i.e., retrieval without an external recognition cue. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the encoding mechanisms that support later free recall and their relationship to those that support different forms of later recognition memory. First, in agreement with previous work, we found that activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus correlated with later associative/relational recognition. In these regions, activation was further enhanced for items later freely recalled, pointing to shared underlying relational encoding mechanisms whose magnitude of activation differentiates later successful free recall from successful associative recognition. Critically, we also found evidence for free recall-specific encoding mechanisms that did not, in our paradigm, support later associative recognition compared with item recognition. These free recall-specific effects were observed in left mid/dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPC). We speculate that the higher-level working memory operations associated with DLPFC and attention to internal mnemonic representations perhaps mediated via PPC may serve to embed an item into a rich associative network during encoding that facilitates later access to the item. Finally, activation in the perirhinal cortex correlated with successful associative binding regardless of the form of later memory, i.e., recognition or free recall, providing novel evidence for the role of the perirhinal cortex in episodic intra-item encoding.

  8. Incidence of Near-Death Experiences Following Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Near-death experiences, profound subjective experiences occurring during a close brush with death and containing transcendental or mystical elements, have been reported to reduce suicidal ideation, despite their "romanticization" of death. Further studies are indicated in regard to the effect of those experiences on subsequent suicidal…

  9. Patterns of victimization, suicide attempt, and posttraumatic stress disorder in Greenlandic adolescents: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsberg, Sidsel; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2014-09-01

    The current study had two main aims. The first was to identify groups of adolescents based on their similarity of responding across a number of victimizing and potentially traumatic events (PTEs). In doing so, we employed the statistical technique of Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The second aim was to assess the relationship between our resultant classes and the covariates of gender, suicide attempt, and PTSD. Two hundred and sixty-nine Greenlandic school students, aged 12-18 (M = 15.4, SD = 1.84) were assessed for their level of exposure to PTEs. In addition, adolescents were assessed for the psychological impact of these events. A LCA was performed on seven binary indicators representing PTEs. Logistic regression was subsequently implemented to ascertain the relationships between latent classes and covariates. Three distinct classes were uncovered: a violence, neglect, and bullying class (class 1), a wide-ranging multiple PTE class (class 2), and a normative/baseline class (class 3). Notably, classes 1 and 2 were largely separated by the presence or absence of sexual PTEs. Individuals who reported having previously attempted suicide were almost six times more likely to be members of class 1 (OR = 5.97) and almost four times more likely to be members of class 2 (OR = 3.87) compared to the baseline class (class 3). Individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD were five times as likely to be members of class 1 and class 2 (OR = 5.09) compared to the baseline class. No significant associations were found between classes and gender. The results underline the complexity of the interplay between multiple victimization experiences, traumatization, and suicide attempts.

  10. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  11. M2M massive wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to make the Internet of Things a reality, ubiquitous coverage and low-complexity connectivity are required. Cellular networks are hence the most straightforward and realistic solution to enable a massive deployment of always connected Machines around the globe. Nevertheless, a paradigm...... shift in the conception and design of future cellular networks is called for. Massive access attempts, low-complexity and cheap machines, sporadic transmission and correlated signals are among the main properties of this new reality, whose main consequence is the disruption of the development...... Access Reservation, Coded Random Access and the exploitation of multiuser detection in random access. Additionally, we will show how the properties of machine originated signals, such as sparsity and spatial/time correlation can be exploited. The end goal of this paper is to provide motivation...

  12. Different roles of resilience in depressive patients with history of suicide attempt and no history of suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Rossetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Suicidal ideation is modulated by several risk and protective factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between patients with a history of suicide attempt and those with no such history, with special attention to depression, interpersonal sensitivity, humiliation, and resilience. Methods: One hundred consecutively admitted patients with an index depressive episode were recruited. The Brief Symptom Inventory, Humiliation Inventory, and Resilience Scale for Adult were administered. Results: Scores for humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression were higher in subjects with history of suicide attempt, while higher scores for resilience were observed in the group with no such history. Different patterns of relationships among the variables of interest were found in the two groups. Resilience dimensions such as social resources and familial cohesion were strongly and negatively correlated with humiliation, interpersonal sensitivity, and depression in subjects with a past suicide attempt. Conclusions: Resilience factors can modulate and reduce the impact of suicide risk. Assessing risk and protective factors could enhance the ability to intervene appropriately.

  13. Assessing suicide attempts and depression among Chinese speakers over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nancy H; Contreras, Omar; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Leykin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In populations where mental health resources are scarce or unavailable, or where stigma prevents help-seeking, the Internet may be a way to identify and reach at-risk persons using self-report validated screening tools as well as to characterize individuals seeking health information online. We examined the feasibility of delivering an Internet-based Chinese-language depression and suicide screener and described its users. An Internet-based depression and suicide screener was created and advertised primarily through Google AdWords. Participants completed a suicide and depression screening measure and received individualized feedback, which, if necessary, included the suggestion to seek additional mental health resources. In 7 months, 11,631 individuals visited the site; 4,709 provided valid information. Nearly half reported a current major depressive episode (MDE) and 18.3% a recent suicide attempt; however, over 75% reported never having sought help, including 77.7% of those with MDEs and 75.9% of those reporting a suicide attempt. As participants found the site by searching for depression information online, results may not generalize to the entire Chinese-speaking population. Online screening can feasibly identify and reach many at-risk Chinese-speaking persons. It may provide resources to those with limited access to services or to those reluctant to seek such services.

  14. Suicide attempts in a Nigerian military setting | Okulate | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 78, No 9 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  15. A new perspective on the access process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    are important elements when trying to satisfy certain information needs. This topic is discussed based on two case studies: one concerning certain fixed expressions in seven Danish printed and electronic dictionaries and one concerning looking at different access attempts in six Afrikaans reference sources......, including linguistic text books, books presenting the formal spelling and orthographic rules of Afrikaans as well as a monolingual dictionary. The paper argues that the applicability of the access process, as developed in lexicography, goes beyond dictionaries, illustrating the importance of a process...

  16. Attempts to utilize and integrate traditional medicine in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungmook; Park, Jongbae; Han, Changyon

    2009-03-01

    To summarize the way North Korea attempted to modernize its system of traditional medicine and integrate it with Western biomedicine. We reviewed clinical textbooks and periodicals of traditional Korean medicine published in North Korea, research reports on North Korean health and medicine published elsewhere, and conducted interviews of defectors from North Korea who were students or clinicians of traditional medicine. Key findings of this study are: (1) North Korea has attempted several ways of integrating traditional medicine into education and clinical practices; (2) North Korea's communist government provided the main driving force for an integration policy; (3) school curricula of both Western and traditional Korean medicine incorporated knowledge of both disciplines, yet more weight was placed on traditional Korean medicine; (4) a combination of Western diagnosis and Korean therapeutics was the most frequent example of integration, while the dual system approach with reciprocal practice was also explored; (5) several forms of integrative therapeutic mixture were practiced including concurrent medication, injection on acupuncture points, and intramuscular or intravenous injection of extracts from medicinal plants; and (6) limited resources for research and the underdeveloped level of clinical research failed to secure rigorous scientific advancement. Despite the government-driven attempt to create an ideal integrative system of medicine, according to our findings, the actual introduction of an integrative system into practice was far from the North Korean government's anticipated outcome in regards to clinical practice. We hypothesize this was due to famine, economic crisis, and political isolation from the international realm. Traditional Korean medicine seems to have served the population, which is in desperate need of treatment amid difficulties in health, while North Korea's Western biomedicine-based health delivery system has been badly affected.

  17. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient : a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kato, Taiki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-11-01

    We report a suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient. A 68-year-old woman consulted several clinics with complaints of urinary frequency and bladder pain, but her symptoms did not improve. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Hydrodistention was performed, and the urethral catheter removed one day after surgery. The next day, the patient was afraid that her symptoms had not improved and, due to this physical and mental distress, cut her wrist with a razor. Vascular anastomosis and neuroanastomosis were performed accordingly. Eighteen months after hydrodistention, the patient's symptoms of interstitial cystitis have much improved.

  19. Attempted suicide in Ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities.

  20. A tale of two transparency attempts at FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This Article describes and evaluates two elements of the FDA's recent operations implicating information transparency: the Transparency Initiative and a reduction in the agency's FOIA backlog. After discussing the legal context for information disclosure at the FDA and these two transparency attempts, this Article identifies two reasons that the first has fallen short of expectations compared to the second: unlike the reduction in the FOIA backlog, the Transparency Initiative had legal constraints that it did not adequately address, along with political appointee leadership. These principles may be more generally useful for understanding how to stimulate institutional change in administrative agencies.

  1. CERN Access Cards and Access Authorisations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From the 01/05/2003, all problems relating to access cards and refusal of access to any zone, building or experiment within CERN must be addressed to the Centrale de Surveillance des Accès (CSA building 120) on 78877 or send an e-mail to Access.Surveillance@cern.ch. The responsibles for CERN access control have put into place a procedure with the CSA, Service Enregistrement and the Technical Control Room, to make sure that all problems get resolved in a proper and timely manner.

  2. Modeling of parallel access to shared data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesnais, A.; Gelenbe, E.; Mitrani, I.

    1983-03-01

    A model is constructed of a database that can be accessed and modified concurrently by a number of users, and an approximate solution is presented. The resource allocation policies considered involve dynamic acquisition of entities and locking; deadlock is avoided by limiting the number of consecutive attempts to acquire a particular entity. The accuracy of the approximation is evaluated by simulations. Several generalizations aimed at improving the practicality of the model are described. 5 references.

  3. One day access to a running wheel reduces self-administration of d-methamphetamine, MDMA and Methylone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarde, Shawn M.; Miller, Michelle L.; Creehan, Kevin M.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise influences drug craving and consumption in humans and drug self-administration in laboratory animals, but the effects can be variable. Improved understanding of how exercise affects drug intake or craving would enhance applications of exercise programs to human drug users attempting cessation. Methods Rats were trained in the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.05 mg/kg/inf), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 0.5 mg/kg/inf) or methylone (0.5 mg/kg/inf). Once IVSA was established, the effect of ~22 hrs of wheel access in the home cage on subsequent drug taking was assessed in a two cohort crossover design. Results Provision of home cage wheel access during the day prior to IVSA sessions significantly decreased the self-administration of METH, MDMA and methylone. At the individual level, there was no correlation between the amount a rat used the wheel and the size of the individual’s decrease in drug intake. Conclusions Wheel access can reduce self-administration of a variety of psychomotor stimulants. It does so immediately, i.e., without a need for weeks of exercise prior to drug access. This study therefore indicates that future mechanistic investigations should focus on acute effects of exercise. In sum, the results predict that exercise programs can be used to decrease stimulant drug use in individuals even with no exercise history and an established drug taking pattern. PMID:25863714

  4. Attempts to prepare an all-carbon indigoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Yildizhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First attempts are described to prepare a precursor for an all-carbon analog of indigo, the tetracyclic triene 4. Starting from indan-2-one (9 the α-methylene ketone 13 was prepared. Upon subjecting this compound to a McMurry coupling reaction, it dimerized to the bis-indene derivative 17, rather than providing the tetramethyl derivative of 4, the hydrocarbon 14. In a second approach, indan-1-one (18 was dimerized to the conjugated enedione 21 through the bis-1-indene dimer 19. All attempts to methylenate 21 failed, however. When 19 was treated with the Tebbe reagent, the dimer 23 was produced, presumably through a Cope reaction of the intermediately generated isomer 22. The bis-indene derivative 23 can be alkylated with 1,2-dibromoethane to produce a 1:1 mixture of the spiro compounds 24 and 25. Although 9 could be reductively dimerized to 30, the conversion of this olefin to 14 failed.

  5. Suicide attempts by elderly women - from a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Moura, Rosylaine; Hesler, Lilian Zielke; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran

    2015-06-01

    This article analyzes the presence of gender inequality and violence in the lives of elderly women who have attempted suicide. This survey is part of a qualitative research study developed in twelve municipal regions in Brazil with high levels of suicide, and is coordinated by Claves-Fiocruz. Information was obtained by means of semi-structured interviews with thirty-two women from a sampling of fifty-nine elderly women with a history of attempted suicide. It was decided not to identify the interviewees, and to construct a narrative based on events that have occurred in the lives of all these women. The study was based on the women's life cycle (infancy, youth, adult life and old age) to see if gender inequality had been an issue in each of these phases. The inequalities began in infancy with differentiated gender upbringing; these continued during their youth and with their sexual initiation, marriage and maturity these continued during their adult life through acts of violence committed by their partners and/ or other family members which culminates in old age, when they are deprived of their independence and have lost ties, possessions and points of reference. These lives permeated with violence result in a feeling of emptiness and unworthiness, and lead many elderly women to view death as their only solution.

  6. Nurses' attitudes and beliefs to attempted suicide in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven; Krishna, Murali; Rajendra, Raj Gopal; Keenan, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing global interest into the attitudes and clinical management of persons who have attempted suicide. The principal purpose was to determine senior nursing staff attitudes towards patients who had attempted suicide from a professional and cultural perspective, which might influence care following hospital admission. The focus concerned nursing staff interactions at a psychological level that compete with physical tasks on general hospital wards. A qualitative methodology was employed with audio-taped interviews utilising four level data coding. This article reports on a group of 15 nursing staff from a large general hospital in Mysore, Southern India. Findings suggested that patient care and treatment is directly influenced by the nurse's religious beliefs within a general hospital setting with physical duties prioritised over psychological support, which was underdeveloped throughout the participant group. The results allow a series of recommendations for educational and skills initiatives before progressing to patient assessment and treatment projects and cross-cultural comparison studies. In addition, interventions must focus on current resources and context to move the evidence-based suicide prevention forward.

  7. Ingratiation Attempts in Real Life: Determinants of Their Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    A total of 272 students at a German university were asked to write down the story of an ingratiation attempt they had made and one they had received. They were then asked to reflect on each episode via a questionnaire. All but one participant reported that they had performed at least one of the four tactics postulated in Jones's ingratiation theory: compliments, favor-doing, opinion conformity, and positive self-presentation. In the case of received ingratiation, we found higher success ratings for nondependent (vs. dependent) partners, for just-being-friendly (vs. attraction-seeking) as the attributed motive, and for honest (vs. nonhonest) compliments and self-presentation. Female senders reported more success than did males (interpretable through existing research on gender differences). Finally, success levels were higher in the sender than in the receiver condition. Thus with our new autobiographical method we have extended the validity of three known determinants of the success of ingratiation attempts and discovered two "novel" factors deserving further research.

  8. Attempts at memory control induce dysfunctional brain activation profiles in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An exploratory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Re, Marta; Cecchetto, Filippo; Garzitto, Marco; Piccin, Sara; Bonivento, Carolina; Maieron, Marta; D'Agostini, Serena; Balestrieri, Matteo; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-08-30

    Suppression of aversive memories through memory control has historically been proposed as a central psychological defense mechanism. Inability to suppress memories is considered a central psychological trait in several psychiatric disorders, including Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Yet, few studies have attempted the focused identification of dysfunctional brain activation profiles when patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorders attempt memory control. Using a well-characterized behavioral paradigm we studied brain activation profiles in a group of adult GAD patients and well-matched healthy controls (HC). Participants learned word-association pairs before imaging. During fMRI when presented with one word of the pair, they were instructed to either suppress memory of, or retrieve the paired word. Subsequent behavioral testing indicated both GAD and HC were able to engage in the task, but attempts at memory control (suppression or retrieval) during fMRI revealed vastly different activation profiles. GAD were characterized by substantive hypo-activation signatures during both types of memory control, with effects particularly strong during suppression in brain regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate and the ventral prefrontal cortex. Attempts at memory control in GAD fail to engage brain regions to the same extent HC, providing a putative neuronal signature for a well-established psychological characteristic of the illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    We review research on reactions to mirrors and self-recognition in nonhuman primates, focusing on methodological issues. Starting with the initial demonstration in chimpanzees in 1970 and subsequent attempts to extend this to other species, self-recognition in great apes is discussed with emphasis on spontaneous manifestations of mirror-guided self-exploration as well as spontaneous use of the mirror to investigate foreign marks on otherwise nonvisible body parts-the mark test. Attempts to show self-recognition in other primates are examined with particular reference to the lack of convincing examples of spontaneous mirror-guided self-exploration, and efforts to engineer positive mark test responses by modifying the test or using conditioning techniques. Despite intensive efforts to demonstrate self-recognition in other primates, we conclude that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes-gibbons and siamangs-are capable of mirror self-recognition.

  10. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachofi, Ari K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  11. Percutaneous portal vein access and transhepatic tract hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Wael E A; Madoff, David C

    2012-06-01

    Percutaneous portal vein interventions require minimally invasive access to the portal venous system. Common approaches to the portal vein include transjugular hepatic vein to portal vein access and direct transhepatic portal vein access. A major concern of the transhepatic route is the risk of postprocedural bleeding, which is increased when patients are anticoagulated or receiving pharmaceutical thrombolytic therapy. Thus percutaneous portal vein access and subsequent closure are important technical parts of percutaneous portal vein procedures. At present, various techniques have been used for either portal access or subsequent transhepatic tract closure and hemostasis. Regardless of the method used, meticulous technique is required to achieve the overall safety and effectiveness of portal venous procedures. This article reviews the various techniques of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein access and the various closure and hemostatic methods used to reduce the risk of postprocedural bleeding.

  12. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  13. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  14. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  15. Replication data collection highlights value in diversity of replication attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, K Andrew; Schweinsberg, Martin

    2017-03-14

    Researchers agree that replicability and reproducibility are key aspects of science. A collection of Data Descriptors published in Scientific Data presents data obtained in the process of attempting to replicate previously published research. These new replication data describe published and unpublished projects. The different papers in this collection highlight the many ways that scientific replications can be conducted, and they reveal the benefits and challenges of crucial replication research. The organizers of this collection encourage scientists to reuse the data contained in the collection for their own work, and also believe that these replication examples can serve as educational resources for students, early-career researchers, and experienced scientists alike who are interested in learning more about the process of replication.

  16. The effects of repeated thought suppression attempts on thought occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Nic; McHugh, Louise

    2013-01-01

    In the thought suppression literature the completion of one suppression and one expression phase is called an indulgence cycle. The current study aimed to determine the effects on thought frequency of entering multiple indulgence cycles. Participants were assigned to one of two groups. The repeated suppression group was required to complete 3 suppression and 3 think free phases in alternating fashion. The suppress think free group was required to complete 1 suppression phase before entering 5 think free phases. Participants pressed a spacebar to report each unwanted target thought occurrence. Participants in the repeated suppression group experienced maintenance of the number of unwanted thought intrusions in both suppression and think free phases, whereas those in the suppress think free group experienced a significant decline in target thought occurrence. The maintenance effect of engaging in repeated suppression attempts is discussed.

  17. [Isolated burns after white-spirit ingestion in attempted suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, J L; Tardy, B; Barthélémy, C; Cambazard, F

    1994-01-01

    We report an unusual complications of prolonged contact with white spirit leading to caustic burns. A 20-year-old patient was seen for caustic perianal burns several hours after ingesting one-half liter of white spirit in an attempted suicide. Motor diarrhoea also occurred quickly and a prolonged anal evacuation of white spirit. Complementary examinations did not reveal any lesions of the buccal, oesophageal, gastric or rectosigmoidal mucosa. Necrosis of the skin due to prolonged contact with petrol products is well known. Usually due to the delapidating action of dissolved petrol products on the superficial hydrolipid film and subjacent cell membranes. The absence of digestive tract lesions could be explained by the rapid onset of motor diarrhoea which may have limited the time of contact and thus protected the digestive tract mucosa which has a high content of mucopoly-saccharides and a low lipid content.

  18. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. March

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1, fresh frozen plasma (FFP, and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione.

  19. Complementary apologetics: An attempt for the integration of apologetic schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van Vlastuin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within Christian apologetics several schools of thought exist. This article is firstly an attempt to come to a classification of these different schools. Next, the agreements and disagreements between these schools are investigated. It appears that despite the differences there are several common convictions between the several apologetic approaches, namely ‘knowing as basis for showing’, and ‘faith seeks understanding’. These common convictions appear to be fundamental if compared with the differences. The third part of this article explores the arguments for an integration of the different approaches. However, the concept of a strict integration will be problematic, and this leads in the final part to a proposal. The proposal is for a complementary model of concentric circles, starting with the convictions of the heart in the centre in fideism and presuppositionalism, continuing with apologetics which refer to the human mind in classical apologetics and culminating in apologetics that refer to senses in evidentialism.

  20. Further attempts to characterize the normal incomplete cold antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, M.

    1965-01-01

    Attempts at eluting the normal incomplete cold (n.i.c.) antibody from sensitized red cells or red cell stroma, using standard methods, were unsuccessful; thus the antibody could not be detected in the eluates obtained by heating at 56° or 37° or by dissociation at acid pH. The n.i.c. antibody was partially eluted from sensitized red cells only when elution was carried out at 37° into serum instead of saline. Elution of the antibody from dextran (Sephadex G-200)—n.i.c. antibody complex formed at 0° was also achieved using a 15 per cent NaCl solution at 37°. Since it has been shown that red cells sensitized with the n.i.c. antibody are not agglutinated by anti-γG, anti-γA or anti-γM-globulin sera, an attempt at producing an antibody specifically reacting with the n.i.c. antibody was made by injecting into a rabbit the eluate obtained from zymosan—n.i.c. antibody complex. The immune serum was found to inhibit the n.i.c. antibody activity when added to normal serum and to interfere with the property of normal serum requiring the properdin system. In the present work it is also confirmed that the antibody is not associated with γG or γM-globulin; thus adult and cord sera and one serum from a patient with severe hypogammaglobulinaemia were fractionated with zone electrophoresis or DEAE-cellulose chromatography and it was found that the antibody was not present in the fractions containing the bulk of γG or γM-globulin. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4158583

  1. Tracking maximum ascending subsequences in sequences of partially ordered data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloks, Ton; Tan, Richard B.; van Leeuwen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068413025

    We consider scenarios in which long sequences of data are analyzed and subsequences must be traced that are monotone and maximum, according to some measure. A classical example is the online Longest Increasing Subsequence Problem for numeric and alphanumeric data. We extend the problem in two ways:

  2. Morbidity and risk of subsequent diagnosis of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Ole S; Lohse, Nicolai; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis.......Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis....

  3. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total amounts...

  4. Recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid antibodies: prognosis of subsequent pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, D.M.; Goddijn, M.; Middeldorp, S.; Korevaar, J.C.; Dawood, F.; Farquharson, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although women with antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) are at increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy is not clearly elucidated. Objectives: To assess the pregnancy outcome of a subsequent pregnancy in women with APLAs and compare this outcome with

  5. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  6. Access 2010 Programmer's Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem

  7. Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C

    2015-10-01

    Using previous research, we examined the impact of 4 handgun laws (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) on suicide rates. We used publicly available databases to collect information on statewide laws, suicide rates, and demographic characteristics for 2013. Each law was associated with significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. In addition, each law, except for that which required a waiting period, was associated with a lower overall suicide rate. Follow-up analyses showed a significant indirect effect on overall suicide rates through the proportion of suicides by firearms, indicating that the reduced overall suicide rate was attributable to fewer suicide attempts, fewer handguns in the home, suicide attempts using less lethal means, or a combination of these factors. States that implemented any of these laws saw a decreased suicide rate in subsequent years, whereas the only state that repealed 1 of these laws saw an increased suicide rate. Our results were supportive of a potentially vital role in suicide prevention for state legislation that limits access and exposure to handguns.

  8. Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Using previous research, we examined the impact of 4 handgun laws (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) on suicide rates. Methods. We used publicly available databases to collect information on statewide laws, suicide rates, and demographic characteristics for 2013. Results. Each law was associated with significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. In addition, each law, except for that which required a waiting period, was associated with a lower overall suicide rate. Follow-up analyses showed a significant indirect effect on overall suicide rates through the proportion of suicides by firearms, indicating that the reduced overall suicide rate was attributable to fewer suicide attempts, fewer handguns in the home, suicide attempts using less lethal means, or a combination of these factors. States that implemented any of these laws saw a decreased suicide rate in subsequent years, whereas the only state that repealed 1 of these laws saw an increased suicide rate. Conclusions. Our results were supportive of a potentially vital role in suicide prevention for state legislation that limits access and exposure to handguns. PMID:26270305

  9. The number of tracheal intubation attempts matters! A prospective multi-institutional pediatric observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Turner, David A; Kamat, Pradip; Nett, Sholeen; Shults, Justine; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Nishisaki, Akira

    2016-04-29

    The impact of multiple tracheal intubation (TI) attempts on outcomes in critically ill children with acute respiratory failure is not known. The objective of our study is to determine the association between number of TI attempts and severe desaturation (SpO2 attempts trichotomized as one, two, or ≥3 attempts. Estimates were adjusted for history of difficult airway, upper airway obstruction, and age. We included all children with initial TI performed with direct laryngoscopy for acute respiratory failure between 7/2010-3/2013. Our main outcome measures were desaturation (attempt), severe desaturation (attempt success was achieved in 1256/2080(60 %), second attempt in 503/2080(24 %), and ≥3 attempts in 321/2080(15 %). Higher number of attempts was associated with younger age, history of difficult airway, signs of upper airway obstruction, and first provider training level. The proportion of TIs with desaturation increased with increasing number of attempts (1 attempt:16 %, 2 attempts:36 %, ≥3 attempts:56 %, p attempts: 2.9[95 % CI:2.3-3.7]; ≥3 attempts: 6.5[95 % CI: 5.0-8.5], adjusted for patient factors). Proportion of TIs with severe desaturation also increased with increasing number of attempts (1 attempt:12 %, 2 attempts:30 %, ≥3 attempts:44 %, p attempts: 3.1[95 % CI:2.4-4.0]; ≥3 attempts: 5.7[95 % CI: 4.3-7.5] ). TIAE rates increased from 10 to 29 to 38 % with increasing number of attempts (p attempts: 3.7[95 % CI:2.9-4.9] ; ≥3 attempts: 5.5[95 % CI: 4.1-7.4]. Severe TIAE rates went from 5 to 8 to 9 % (p = 0.008); adjusted OR for 2 attempts: 1.6 [95 % CI:1.1-2.4]; ≥3 attempts: 1.8[95 % CI:1.1-2.8]. Number of TI attempts was associated with desaturations and increased occurrence of TIAEs in critically ill children with acute respiratory failure. Thoughtful attention to initial provider as well as optimal setting/preparation is important to maximize the chance for first attempt success and to avoid desaturation.

  10. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and Subsequent Enzymatic Treatment on Flax Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shaofeng; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qiongrong

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) plasma and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment on the properties of flax fabrics. The changes of surface morphology and structure, physico-mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, bending properties, whiteness, and dyeing properties of the treated substrate were investigated. The results indicated that atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma pre-treatment and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment could diminish the hairiness of flax fabrics, endowing the flax fabrics with good bending properties, water uptake and fiber accessibility while keeping their good mechanical properties compared with those treated with cellulase enzyme alone. supported by the Science and Technology Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (No. Y201432680) and the Professional Leaders Leading Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (No. lj2013131), the Teaching and Research Award Program for Outstanding Young Teachers in Higher Education Institutions of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (No. 1097802072012001)

  11. SELF-RATED EXPECTATIONS OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR PREDICT FUTURE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS AMONG ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; King, Cheryl A

    2016-06-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the predictive validity and clinical utility of a brief measure assessing youths' own expectations of their future risk of suicidal behavior, administered in a psychiatric emergency (PE) department; and determine if youths' ratings improve upon a clinician-administered assessment of suicidal ideation severity. The outcome was suicide attempts up to 18 months later. In this medical record review study, 340 consecutively presenting youths (ages 13-24) seeking PE services over a 7-month period were included. Subsequent PE visits and suicide attempts were retrospectively tracked for up to 18 months. The 3-item scale assessing patients' perception of their own suicidal behavior risk and the clinician-administered ideation severity scale were used routinely at the study site. Cox regression results showed that youths' expectations of suicidal behavior were independently associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, even after adjusting for key covariates. Results were not moderated by sex, suicide attempt history, or age. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses indicated that self-assessed expectations of risk improved the predictive accuracy of the clinician-administered suicidal ideation measure. Youths' ratings indicative of lower confidence in maintaining safety uniquely predicted follow-up attempts and provided incremental validity over and above the clinician-administered assessment and improved its accuracy, suggesting their potential for augmenting suicide risk formulation. Assessing youths' own perceptions of suicide risk appears to be clinically useful, feasible to implement in PE settings, and, if replicated, promising for improving identification of youth at risk for suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ontology Based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgü CAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As computer technologies become pervasive, the need for access control mechanisms grow. The purpose of an access control is to limit the operations that a computer system user can perform. Thus, access control ensures to prevent an activity which can lead to a security breach. For the success of Semantic Web, that allows machines to share and reuse the information by using formal semantics for machines to communicate with other machines, access control mechanisms are needed. Access control mechanism indicates certain constraints which must be achieved by the user before performing an operation to provide a secure Semantic Web. In this work, unlike traditional access control mechanisms, an "Ontology Based Access Control" mechanism has been developed by using Semantic Web based policies. In this mechanism, ontologies are used to model the access control knowledge and domain knowledge is used to create policy ontologies.

  13. Design for Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility......A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility...

  14. Physical Access Control Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains the personnel access card data (photo, name, activation/expiration dates, card number, and access level) as well as data about turnstiles and...

  15. Second attempt of Cabergoline withdrawal in patients with prolactinomas after a failed first attempt : is it worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio eVilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful discontinuation of cabergoline (CAB treatment has been reported in 31 to 74% of prolactinomas patients treated for at least two years. In contrast, it is not well established whether CAB therapy can be successfully withdrawn after a failed first attempt. This prospective open trial was designed to address this topic and to try to identify possible predictor factors.Among 180 patients with prolactinomas on CAB therapy, the authors selected those who fulfilled very strict criteria, particularly additional CAB therapy for at least 2 years, normalization of serum prolactin (PRL levels following CAB restart, no tumor remnant > 10 mm, no previous pituitary radiotherapy or surgery; and current CAB dose ≤1.0 mg/week. Recurrence was defined as an increase of PRL levels above the upper limit of normal.A total of 34 patients (70.6% female treated with CAB for 24-30 months were recruited. Ten patients (29.4 % remained without evidence of recurrence after 24–26 months of follow-up. Twenty-four patients (70.6% recurred within 15 months (75% within 12 months after drug withdrawal and ~80% were restarted CAB. Median time to recurrence was 10.5 months (range, 3–15. Despite overlapping values, non-recurring patients had significantly lower mean PRL levels before withdrawal. Moreover, the recurrence rate was lower in subjects without visible tumor on pituitary MRI than in those with small remnant tumor (60 vs. 79%, though the difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.20. No other characteristic could be identified as a predictor of successful CAB discontinuation.In conclusion, a second attempt of CAB withdrawal after 2 additional years of therapy may be successful, particularly in patients with lower PRL levels and no visible tumor on pituitary MRI. Close monitoring of PRL level is mandatory, especially within the first year after withdrawal, where most recurrences are detected.

  16. Access Control Management for SCADA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seng-Phil; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Xu, Wenjuan

    The information technology revolution has transformed all aspects of our society including critical infrastructures and led a significant shift from their old and disparate business models based on proprietary and legacy environments to more open and consolidated ones. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been widely used not only for industrial processes but also for some experimental facilities. Due to the nature of open environments, managing SCADA systems should meet various security requirements since system administrators need to deal with a large number of entities and functions involved in critical infrastructures. In this paper, we identify necessary access control requirements in SCADA systems and articulate access control policies for the simulated SCADA systems. We also attempt to analyze and realize those requirements and policies in the context of role-based access control that is suitable for simplifying administrative tasks in large scale enterprises.

  17. Transitions in Smokers' Social Networks After Quit Attempts: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Bethany C; Smith, Rachel A; Piper, Megan E; Roberts, Linda J; Baker, Timothy B

    2016-12-01

    Smokers' social networks vary in size, composition, and amount of exposure to smoking. The extent to which smokers' social networks change after a quit attempt is unknown, as is the relation between quitting success and later network changes. Unique types of social networks for 691 smokers enrolled in a smoking-cessation trial were identified based on network size, new network members, members' smoking habits, within network smoking, smoking buddies, and romantic partners' smoking. Latent transition analysis was used to identify the network classes and to predict transitions in class membership across 3 years from biochemically assessed smoking abstinence. Five network classes were identified: Immersed (large network, extensive smoking exposure including smoking buddies), Low Smoking Exposure (large network, minimal smoking exposure), Smoking Partner (small network, smoking exposure primarily from partner), Isolated (small network, minimal smoking exposure), and Distant Smoking Exposure (small network, considerable nonpartner smoking exposure). Abstinence at years 1 and 2 was associated with shifts in participants' social networks to less contact with smokers and larger networks in years 2 and 3. In the years following a smoking-cessation attempt, smokers' social networks changed, and abstinence status predicted these changes. Networks defined by high levels of exposure to smokers were especially associated with continued smoking. Abstinence, however, predicted transitions to larger social networks comprising less smoking exposure. These results support treatments that aim to reduce exposure to smoking cues and smokers, including partners who smoke. Prior research has shown that social network features predict the likelihood of subsequent smoking cessation. The current research illustrates how successful quitting predicts social network change over 3 years following a quit attempt. Specifically, abstinence predicts transitions to networks that are larger and afford

  18. An attempt of classification of theoretical approaches to national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Đorđević Jasna S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is compulsory that complex social concepts should be defined in different ways and approached from the perspective of different science disciplines. Therefore, it is difficult to precisely define them without overlapping of meaning with other similar concepts. This paper has made an attempt towards theoretical classification of the national identity and differentiate that concept in comparison to the other related concepts (race, ethnic group, nation, national background, authoritativeness, patriarchy. Theoretical assessments are classified into two groups: ones that are dealing with nature of national identity and others that are stating one or more dimensions of national identity, crucial for its determination. On the contrary to the primordialistic concept of national identity, describing it as a fundamental, deeply rooted human feature, there are many numerous contemporary theoretical approaches (instrumentalist, constructivist, functionalistic, emphasizing changeable, fluid, instrumentalist function of the national identity. Fundamental determinants of national identity are: language, culture (music, traditional myths, state symbols (territory, citizenship, self-categorization, religion, set of personal characteristics and values.

  19. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1995-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  20. [Suicide attempt with antidepressants ordered from the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Michael; Bosma, Margriet S; van der Klooster, Johan M

    2011-01-01

    Since its launch, the Internet has developed into a mass medium with 1.6 billion people using it worldwide. Due to anonymity, its wide reach and the infinite stream of information from the Internet, almost anything can be found on it. This includes medicines that can normally only be acquired by way of a doctor's prescription. A 27-year-old man made a suicide attempt using psychoactive drugs he got from an illegal website in India. This caused him to develop status epilepticus, rhabdomyolysis, renal insufficiency and pulmonary oedema for which he had to be admitted to intensive care. The patient was treated with medicine, cardioversion, ventilation and haemofiltration and recovered. He was referred to a psychiatric centre. The number of illegal online pharmaceutical websites on the Internet has increased drastically in the last decade. These websites sell medicines without prescription to consumers and the traditional doctor/patient consultation does not therefore take place. Many medicines that are delivered contain the wrong concentration or the wrong active ingredient and are often contaminated with other substances. The ease with which this life-threatening medicine can be ordered online without a doctor's supervision is a possible risk to public health.

  1. The narratives of abused children who have survived attempted filicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit

    2013-10-01

    Child abuse is a social problem that receives much attention from policy makers, practitioners, and researchers. This alarming phenomenon generates many consequences for children, their families, and society as a whole; one tragic consequence of child abuse is filicide. Because of the unfortunate circumstances surrounding such events, children are hushed by their perpetrators, whether abusers or killers, and we are thus denied the opportunity to hear their voices and to promote understanding of the phenomenon. The aim of the current study is to explore in depth the patterns and themes that can be found in the narratives of children who survived a murder attempt by one of their parents. Content analysis was performed on seven investigative interviews with children using thematic analysis. Five key categories were determined based on the children's narratives: (a) many bad things have happened to me, (b) this was not the first time I was abused by my parent, (c) I am concerned about my parent, (d) I am alive thanks to my siblings, and (e) it is hard to remember what exactly happened. This study contributes to the understanding of child physical abuse and filicide. The discussion integrated conclusions for policy makers and practitioners who seek methods of addressing child abuse as well as determining whether and how filicide can be prevented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do not attempt resuscitation: the importance of consensual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Janisch, Christine; Kesselring, Annemarie; Zuercher Zenklusend, Regula

    2011-02-03

    To describe the involvement and input of physicians and nurses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR / do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) decisions; to analyse decision patterns; and understand the practical implications. A Qualitative Grounded Theory study using one-time open-ended interviews with 40 volunteer physicians and 52 nurses drawn from acute care wards with mixes of heterogeneous cases in seven different hospitals in German-speaking Switzerland. Establishing DNAR orders in the best interests of patients was described as a challenging task requiring the leadership of senior physicians and nurses. Implicit decisions in favour of CPR predominated at the beginning of hospitalisation; depending on the context, they were relieved/superseded by explicit DNAR decisions. Explicit decisions were the result of hierarchical medical expertise, of multilateral interdisciplinary expertise, of patient autonomy and/or of negotiated patient autonomy. Each type of decision, implicit or explicit, potentially represented a team consensus. Non-consensual decisions were prone to precipitate personal or team conflicts, and, occasionally, led to non-compliance. Establishing DNAR orders is a demanding task. Reaching a consensus is of crucial importance in guaranteeing teamwork and good patient care. Communication and negotiation skills, professional and personal life experience and empathy for patients and colleagues are pivotal. Therefore, leadership by experienced senior physicians and nurses is needed and great efforts should be made with regard to multidisciplinary education.

  3. [Cardiac impairment after hanging attempt: a preliminary descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, S; Spagnoli, V; Deye, N; Mégarbane, B; Baud, F

    2013-08-01

    Cardiomyopathy has sometimes been reported after suicide attempts by hanging. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to describe cardiac dysfunction occurring after hanging and its consequences on prognosis. Fifteen patients admitted to the intensive care unit for hanging from 1997 to 2011 were included and divided into two groups according to presence or absence of cardiac arrest at initial presentation. Cardiac dysfunction was defined by the presence of clinical, biological, electrocardiographic or echocardiographic abnormalities. Cardiac impairment was diagnosed in nine patients over 15 (60%). Of the six patients with initial cardiac arrest, only one survived without severe neurological sequellae. Among the nine patients without cardiac arrest, eight survived and five patients (56%) had cardiac impairment, including two cases of echocardiographic aspect of Takotsubo complicated by pulmonary edema. Mortality in intensive care was significantly related to the severity of the initial neurological state assessed by the Glasgow Coma Score (OR=1.7; P=0.02), and the occurrence of cardiac arrest (OR=40; P=0.016). The presence of cardiac involvement, reversible after the acute phase in all surviving patients was not associated with increased mortality. In the aftermath of hanging, predictors of mortality are the presence of impaired consciousness or initial cardiac arrest, but not the occurrence of cardiac disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Teacher's identity: an attempt to describe a territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Desbouts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers should care for the emotional stability of their students, teachers must take on the work of social workers, teachers have to answer to those problems caused by the difficult socio-economic situation facing our students... Today, phrases like these are common in discussions among teachers and non-teachers. All of them, one way or another, relate to teacher's identity, and all are trying to tell their own truth about what is like being a teacher today. Obviously, not all refer to the processes of learning or teaching learning problems. What is then the identity of a teacher? What does the word "teacher" encapsulate in its meaning in today's society? We will try to make an approach to the definition of a teacher's identity but not looking for a single, dogmatic definition, but by highlighting some landscapes that will identify this territory. Our position will be, therefore, that of a cartographer trying to peer into the world through his own observations (provided he has the ability to travel to the land he is trying to represent, or with data from narratives of those who have traveled there already, or through representations made by others before him. Certainly, like any map, our representation will not be a finished product , but an attempt to present to other man and woman signs to orientate themselves in this new territory and that they themselves will enrich with their personal contributions.

  5. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ross Williams

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of lower-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI, including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using DECT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher velocity forms of intracranial injury.

  6. Visual search of illusory contours: an attempt of automatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Belgrade Recent research, which was mostly focused on assessing the types of visual search of illusory contours, showed that visual search is dependent on factors like target configuration and task type. Some experimental research supports the theory of parallel search while other research supports the theory of serial search of illusory contours. The inconsistency is most likely due to the fact that various types of illusory contour configurations were used in set creation. Up to this point, our research indicated that the serial search is used in most cases. Some exceptions of search type have been proven in some modification of task type but nevertheless the search profile remained serial. In this article, we are reporting on two visual search experiments. The first experiment was an investigation of a specific feature of a Kanisza type illusory triangle, orientation. The validity of the profile defined in the first experiment was tested in our second experiment with an attempt to automatize the visual search by the multiplication of the initial experimental trials. Our results confirmed that, regardless of the number of experimental trials, the visual search profile remains serial.

  7. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    KAUST Repository

    Kubiak, Jan J.

    2012-04-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As remediation and collected from a ditch in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The tanks were filled with surface water without any pre-cleaning, therefore containing various elements including metals as Mn (2.9mgL -1), Cu (0.05mgL -1), Fe (1.39mgL -1), and Ba (0.13mgL -1). This water was then spiked with As and allocated to a feed container, guaranteeing a continuous flow of 0.12mLs -1 to each tank. Two experiments were performed: Exp. 1 with 3 consecutive stages with rising applied voltage and Exp. 2, with a constant voltage over a period of 6d. Measurements of pH and temperature were taken every working day, as well as water samples from outlets of all tanks including feed container for control. From the present study, there was no evidence that As had been taken up by the plants, but a strong depletion of As was observed in the tanks where current was applied. Preliminary results clearly showed that applying voltage to the electrodes caused 90% removal of As from the spiked surface water. © 2012 .

  8. A Brief History of Attempts to Measure Sexual Motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hatfield

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Artists, creative writers, and musicians have long been interested in the complex motives that spark passionate love, sexual desire, and sexual behavior. Recently, scholars from a variety of disciplines have begun to investigate two questions: “Why do men and women choose to engage in sexual liaisons?” “Why do they avoid such encounters?” Theories abound. Many theorists have complained that there exists a paucity of scales designed to measure the plethora of motives that prompt people to seek out or to avoid sexual activities. In fact, this observation is incorrect. Many such scales of documented reliability and validity do exist. The reason that few scholars are familiar with these scales is that they were developed by psychometricians from a variety of disciplines and are scattered about in an assortment of journals, college libraries, and researchers’ desk drawers, thus making them difficult to identify and locate. This paper will attempt to provide a compendium of all known sexual motives scales, hoping that this will encourage scholars to take a multidisciplinary approach in developing typologies of sexual motives and/or in conducting their own research into the nature of sexual motives.

  9. Suicide attempt with acetonitrile ingestion in a nursing mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Borrasca-Fernandes, Carla Fernanda; Branco Pimenta, Maíra; Prado, Camila Carbone; Soubhia, Paula Christiane; Lanaro, Rafael; Mello Moreira, Sueli; Linden, Rafael; Nóbrega, Helena Valle; Bucaretchi, Fábio; Costa, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Acetonitrile (ACN) is a solvent rapidly absorbed through lungs and intestinal tract, and is slowly metabolized to cyanide (CN) by enzymatic processes mediated by CYP2E1. To describe the clinical and laboratory evolution, ACN elimination half-life, and its presence in breast milk in a nursing mother who attempted suicide. A 25-year-old 2-month nursing mother ingested an estimated dose of 2.1 g/kg of ACN. Blood and urine samples were collected 24 h later for ACN, CN and thiocyanate analysis, and 12.5 g sodium thiosulfate i.v. in 1-h infusion was started and repeated every 24 h for 4 days. ACN results showed 200 mg/L in blood and 235 mg/L in urine. ACN analysis in the breast milk at Day 6 showed level of 21 mg/L compared to 27 mg/L in blood collected at the same time, suggesting a possible relationship of 1.3:1.0 ratio. An elimination half-life of 40.4 h was calculated, compared to 32 and 36 h showed in other studies. The clinical management must involve the use of CN antidotes for more than 24 h depending on the symptoms and blood levels of ACN. Furthermore, our data showed the possible existence of a close relationship between plasma and breast milk levels.

  10. Faces Robust Image Hashing by ICA: An Attempt to Optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Thierry; Coltuc, Daniela

    Each chapter should be preceded by an abstract (10-15 lines long) that summarizes the content. The abstract will appear online at http://www.springerlink.com and be available with unrestricted access. This allows unregistered users to read the abstract as a teaser for the complete chapter. As a general rule the abstracts will not appear in the printed version of your book unless it is the style of your particular book or that of the series to which your book belongs. Please use the "starred" version of the new Springer abstract command for typesetting the text of the online abstracts (cf. source file of this chapter template abstract) and include them with the source files of your manuscript. Use the plain abstract command if the abstract is also to appear in the printed version of the book.

  11. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-09-03

    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada's overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada's commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada's position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada's Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada's involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada's views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada's 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries.

  12. Pro Access 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

  13. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  14. Access 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

  15. Twin birth changes DNA methylation of subsequent siblings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuai Li; Eunae Kim; Ee Ming Wong; Ji-Hoon Eric Joo; Tuong L Nguyen; Jennifer Stone; Yun-Mi Song; Louisa B Flander; Richard Saffery; Graham G Giles; Melissa C Southey; Joohon Sung; John L Hopper

    2017-01-01

    We asked if twin birth influences the DNA methylation of subsequent siblings. We measured whole blood methylation using the HumanMethylation450 array for siblings from two twin and family studies in Australia and Korea...

  16. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension

  17. Theta and Gamma Oscillations during Encoding Predict Subsequent Recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J; Howard, Marc W; Donner, Elizabeth J; Madsen, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    ... to 64 Hz as participants studied lists of common nouns. Significant increases in oscillatory power during encoding predicted subsequent recall, with this effect predominantly in the 4-8 Hz (theta) and 28-64 Hz (gamma) frequency bands...

  18. Learning increases human electroencephalographic coherence during subsequent slow sleep oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Mölle, Matthias; Marshall, Lisa; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Learning is assumed to induce specific changes in neuronal activity during sleep that serve the consolidation of newly acquired memories. To specify such changes, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence during performance on a declarative learning task (word pair associations) and subsequent sleep. Compared with a nonlearning control condition, learning performance was accompanied with a strong increase in coherence in several EEG frequency bands. During subsequent non-rapid eye m...

  19. [Follow-up interventions after suicide attempt. What tools, what effects and how to assess them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaigne, E; Hardy, P; Mouaffak, F

    2017-02-01

    After attempting suicide, 60 to 70% of patients are discharged from emergency departments and referred to outpatient treatment which entails psychosocial strategies, pharmacological strategies or a combination. The main objective of outpatient care consists in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. Yet suicide attempters have been found to be very difficult to engage in treatment. Between 11% and 50% of attempters refuse outpatient treatment or drop out of outpatient therapy very quickly. In order to address this extremely serious issue, for the past 20 years monitoring or follow up interventions has been presented as a promising approach. Follow-up intervention is defined as a service that aims at both increased access to and engagement in care as well as to prevent suicide and related behaviors. This approach consists in "stay in contact" or "connectedness" protocols using phone calls or tele-assistance, sending letters, email or mobile phone messages and medical visits or nursing at home. From one study to another these tools have been used separately, associated to one another or reinforced by motivational interviewing or brief psychotherapy. To our knowledge, since 1993 16 controlled and randomized controlled studies assessed the effectiveness of diverse follow-up. Four studies assessing telephone follow up reported a significant decrease in suicide reattempt while one study evaluating a sending letters strategy reported positive results. Among five studies assessing engagement in healthcare, only two (one using phone follow up and the other sending letters reported significantly positive results. The refusal rate of monitoring strategies has not exceeded 11% attesting to the high applicability of these methods. Despite several positive results, we cannot draw firm conclusions on replicability of these results. This is largely due to methodological issues: lack of standardization of interventions, lack of consensus on definition of the main measured variables

  20. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....

  1. Cesarean Delivery and Risk for Subsequent Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Zachary S; Smith, Ken R; Silver, Robert M

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to examine the risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in women with prior cesarean delivery. Women with a history of at least one cesarean delivery in the state of Utah during 1996 to 2011 were identified and compared with women with vaginal delivery only. The primary outcome was subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and stratified by first, second, or third live births. Model covariates included maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, gravidity, and prior ectopic pregnancy. Overall, 260,249 women with at least one live birth were identified. After exclusions, 255,082, 154,930, and 70,228 women had at least one, two, and three prior live births that lead to 531, 199, and 62 subsequent ectopic pregnancies, respectively. Women who had one prior cesarean delivery were not at increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in relation to women with no prior cesarean delivery. However, women with two of two, two of three, or three of three prior cesareans had increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.54 (1.06-2.22), 3.50 (1.49-8.24), and 1.99 (1.00-3.98), respectively. History of two or three cesarean deliveries is associated with increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Processing fluency hinders subsequent recollection: An electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many behavioural studies have investigated the effect of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory, little research has examined the neural mechanism of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the electrophysiological correlates of the effects of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory by using an event-related potential (ERP approach. The masked repetition priming paradigm was used to manipulate processing fluency in the study phase, and the R/K paradigm was utilised to investigate which recognition memory process (familiarity or recollection was affected by processing fluency in the test phase. Converging behavioural and ERP results indicated that increased processing fluency impaired subsequent recollection. Results from the analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that increased perceptual processing fluency of object features, reflected by the N/P 190 priming effect, can hinder encoding activities, reflected by the LPC priming effect, which leads to worse subsequent recollection based recognition memory. These results support the idea that processing fluency can influence subsequent recognition memory and provide a potential neural mechanism underlying this effect. However, further studies are needed to examine whether processing fluency can affect subsequent familiarity.

  3. Processing fluency hinders subsequent recollection: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Wang, Wei; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Although many behavioral studies have investigated the effect of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory, little research has examined the neural mechanism of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the electrophysiological correlates of the effects of processing fluency on subsequent recognition memory by using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. The masked repetition priming paradigm was used to manipulate processing fluency in the study phase, and the R/K paradigm was utilized to investigate which recognition memory process (familiarity or recollection) was affected by processing fluency in the test phase. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that increased processing fluency impaired subsequent recollection. Results from the analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that increased perceptual processing fluency of object features, reflected by the N/P 190 priming effect, can hinder encoding activities, reflected by the LPC priming effect, which leads to worse subsequent recollection based recognition memory. These results support the idea that processing fluency can influence subsequent recognition memory and provide a potential neural mechanism underlying this effect. However, further studies are needed to examine whether processing fluency can affect subsequent familiarity.

  4. Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time.

  5. An attempt to evaluate the risks associated with radiological terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The evaluation of the risk of a terrorist attack has been made frequently by multiplying the probability of occurrence of a terrorist attempt by the probability of its success and a quantity which represents the consequences of a successful attack. In the case of a radiological attack the consequences will vary in case the action will be active or passive. Thirteen radionuclides were examined for their potential uses in credible threats or terrorist attacks based on their availability from laboratories and hospitals. Taking into account the dose conversion coefficients published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, those radionuclides with higher dose effectiveness for ingestion are the following: {sup 210}Po; {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am. Other radionuclides which can be used in threats and terror attacks, like {sup 137}Cs for example have also been examined. The risks associated with the selected radionuclides have been tentatively ranked as high, medium, or low. The probability used to evaluate risks depends on the motivation of the terrorist and the capacity, which implies availability or the actual possibility of obtaining a particular radionuclide. On the other hand, whenever a list of radionuclides to be used in a malevolent action is available to a terrorist, the choice of the most adequate will depend also on the action to be undertaken. This work ranks risks associated with radiological terror based on physical, chemical, radio-toxicological and other relevant data on radionuclides, which were either already used in terror attacks, or were pointed out as adequate to be used in such malevolent actions. (author)

  6. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  7. Diagnosis and rehabilitation attempt of a patient with acquired dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart

    Full Text Available Abstract Although dyslexia is a common consequence of brain damage there are few studies about the rehabilitation of this disorder. Cognitive Neuropsychology models of reading have been used to describe several syndromes of acquired dyslexia. Phonological dyslexia is a reading disorder characterized by a dysfunctional grapheme-to-phoneme conversion procedure, which affects the ability to read low frequency words and nonwords. Lexical reading is preserved and patients can read frequent words (regular and irregular. Objective: Verify the application of the cognitive model in the characterization of the reading disorder of a patient with acquired dyslexia and in the devising and implementation of a rehabilitation plan. Methods: This study presents OCS, a 57-year-old patient who suffered from acquired phonological dyslexia after a left temporo-parietooccipital ischemic stroke. A rehabilitation program based on the principles of Cognitive Neuropsychology was devised non-words and low frequency words with controlled lengths were used and the patient was stimulated to read them aloud in a 22-session treatment. Results: The post-test evaluation showed quantitative and qualitative improvements Significant improvements were verified in the total number of correct responses including self-correction attempts (p<0.01 and in the reading of trisyllabic and polysyllabic non-words of simple syllabic structure (p=0.0007 and p=0.02 respectively. Conclusions: The use of the cognitive model to devise a rehabilitation program was successful and we observed significant improvement of reading skills in a short period of treatment. The achievements over this period provided the patient with functional reading performance.

  8. Guidelines on the facilities required for minor surgical procedures and minimal access interventions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2012-02-01

    There have been many changes in healthcare provision in recent years, including the delivery of some surgical services in primary care or in day surgery centres, which were previously provided by acute hospitals. Developments in the fields of interventional radiology and cardiology have further expanded the range and complexity of procedures undertaken in these settings. In the face of these changes there is a need to define from an infection prevention and control perspective the basic physical requirements for facilities in which such surgical procedures may be carried out. Under the auspices of the Healthcare Infection Society, we have developed the following recommendations for those designing new facilities or upgrading existing facilities. These draw upon best practice, available evidence, other guidelines where appropriate, and expert consensus to provide sensible and feasible advice. An attempt is also made to define minimal access interventions and minor surgical procedures. For minimal access interventions, including interventional radiology, new facilities should be mechanically ventilated to achieve 15 air changes per hour but natural ventilation is satisfactory for minor procedures. All procedures should involve a checklist and operators should be appropriately trained. There is also a need for prospective surveillance to accurately determine the post-procedure infection rate. Finally, there is a requirement for appropriate applied research to develop the evidence base required to support subsequent iterations of this guidance.

  9. Cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section for dystocia - effect on subsequent trial of labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Helle; Diness, Marie; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section due to dystocia and success in a subsequent pregnancy of attempted vaginal delivery. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. University hospital in Copenhagen capital area. Population. All women with a prior...... anesthesia and mode of birth was collected. Results. A total of 889 women were included; 373 had had a trial of labor. The success rate for vaginal birth among women with prior cesarean section for dystocia at 4-8 cm dilation was 39%, but 59% for women in whom prior cesarean section had been done at a fully...... or almost fully dilated cervix (9-10 cm) (p women with a previous vaginal delivery prior to their cesarean section, the success rate for vaginal birth was 76.2%, in contrast to 48.9% in the group without a previous vaginal delivery (p Women who had a trial of labor...

  10. The frequency of suicide attempts: a retrospective approach applied to college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, B L; Baker, A H; Mishara, T T

    1976-07-01

    Suicide attempt rates are usually reported as an annual statistic. However, annual rates may underestimate the cumulative prevalence of attempters since they ignore people whose attempts occurred in years other than the one examined. The authors studied the prevalence of suicide attempters over several years through data gathered from retrospective reports of college students. They found that 15% of the total sample studied (N=293) reported having attempted suicide at one time. This unexpectedly high rate suggests that suicidal behavior is a serious problem among college students and underlines the need for further retrospective studies of the prevalence of suicide attempters.

  11. Delayed high anion gap metabolic acidosis after a suicide attempt: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chen, Tsu-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Wu, Tsung-Jui; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Wu, Chia-Chao; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2014-09-25

    Metabolic acidosis, especially when induced by multiple drug poisoning, often makes rapid and accurate differential diagnosis of the condition challenging. We closely followed anion and osmolal gaps to differentiate among the aetiologies of metabolic acidosis caused by poisoning with unknown drugs. The patient was admitted to our emergency department (ED) in an alert and consciousness state after attempting suicide by ingestion of an uncertain quantity of rodenticides combined with an unknown liquid. Initially, metabolic acidosis (pH7.23) with normal anion gap (12.8) was observed. However, a change in consciousness and hypotension subsequently developed 6h later, combined with severe metabolic acidosis (pH7.16), high anion gap (25.5), and high osmolal gap (83). A presumed diagnosis of methanol intoxication was suspected. After 4h of high-flux haemodialysis (HD), the serum bicarbonate returned to 23 mmol/l, and the patient regained consciousness. The serum level of methanol before HD was 193.8 mg/dl. The patient was discharged nine days later without sequelae. Delayed high anion gap metabolic acidosis may occur in the ED. Frequent monitoring of anion and osmolal gaps is a feasible method to perform a rapid differential diagnosis, particularly in response to drug poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An attempt to assess the accepted model of family in a group of Polish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The authors in their subsequent study on the causes of the fall in the birth rate, based on data obtained by means of questionnaires attempt to verify their next hypotheses, concerning low fertility, observed in most European countries. Material and methods. Data were collected by means of a set of open questions concerning the preferred model of family, and then the characteristic types of responses were identified. Also short complementary questionnaires were used by means of which we tried to assess the pessimistic attitude, low resourcefulness and lack of energy and engagement as well as the intensity of the so-called type D personality pattern. Results. The results led the authors to conclude that young people in Poland are not convinced of the benefits from any specific pattern of the family. The various possible arguments against having children or against having two children discourage easily young couples. Conclusions. The authors think that today there is no “source” of message convincing young people of the proper model of the family in Poland. Theoretically, desirable model of the family (parents + 2 children is not convincingly promoted by any sources such as parents, school, neighbours or media.

  13. The Association Between Serum Biomarkers of Collagen Turnover and Subsequent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Harvey, Travis M; Tarwater, Patrick M; Brechue, William F; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    No study has attempted to associate the levels of preinjury serum biomarkers of collagen turnover with the subsequent risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Preinjury serum biomarkers of collagen turnover would be associated with the subsequent risk of ACL injury. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. We conducted a case-control study with 45 ACL-injured cases and 45 controls matched for sex, age, height, and weight. In addition to the matching criteria, controls had no history of major joint injury. Baseline preinjury serum samples were obtained from the Department of Defense Serum Repository for all subjects. Samples were assessed for 2 serum biomarkers of collagen synthesis (CPII and CS846) and 2 markers of collagen degradation (C1,2C and C2C) through commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. All ELISAs were performed in triplicate. Conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Univariate results suggested that both biomarkers for collagen degradation (C1,2C and C2C) were significantly associated with the subsequent likelihood of ACL injury. Serum C2C and C1,2C concentration at baseline were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 2.05 (95% CI, 1.30-3.23; P = .001) and 3.02 (95% CI, 1.60-5.71; P = .002), respectively. Baseline serum CPII concentrations were also associated with subsequent ACL injury. Serum CPII concentration at baseline was associated with an OR of 4.41 (95% CI, 1.87-10.38; P = .001). Baseline serum CS846 levels approached significance (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57-1.03; P = .080). Multivariable models suggested that preinjury CPII and C2C concentrations at baseline are important indicators of subsequent ACL injury risk. Preinjury differences in serum biomarker levels of collagen turnover suggest that collagen metabolism in individuals who go on to tear an ACL may be different when compared with a matched control group with no history of major joint injury. These differences may be

  14. Caesarean section and subsequent fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, S M; Marshall, T; Filippi, V

    2006-03-01

    To determine the impact of caesarean section on fertility among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of standardised cross-sectional surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys). Twenty-two countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 1993-2003. A total of 35 398 women of childbearing age (15-49 years). Time to subsequent pregnancy was compared by mode of delivery using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Natural fertility rates subsequent to delivery by caesarean section compared with natural fertility rates subsequent to vaginal delivery. The natural fertility rate subsequent to delivery by caesarean section was 17% lower than the natural fertility rate subsequent to vaginal delivery (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.96, P Caesarean section was also associated with prior fertility and desire for further children: among multiparous women, an interval > or =3 versus caesarean section at the index birth (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7, P= 0.005); among all women, the odds of desiring further children were lower among women who had previously delivered by caesarean section (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84, P Caesarean section did not appear to increase the risk of a subsequent pregnancy ending in miscarriage, abortion or stillbirth. Among women in sub-Saharan Africa, caesarean section is associated with lower subsequent natural fertility. Although this reflects findings from developed countries, the roles of pathological and psychological factors may be quite different because a much higher proportion of caesarean sections in sub-Saharan Africa are emergency procedures for maternal indication.

  15. Comparison of suicide attempts in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Girish H; Vankar, Ganpat K; Parikh, Minakshi N

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses associated with suicide. There is a dearth of published research systematically comparing suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and MDD. The present study aimed to compare suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, 50 outpatients each of schizophrenia and MDD were evaluated for their sociodemographic characteristics. In subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s), additional information related to the attempt(s) was obtained. Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to assess the suicidal intent and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure the current suicidal risk. Thirty-four percent and 44% of patients with schizophrenia and MDD, respectively, attempted suicide. The attempters in schizophrenia compared to those in MDD were younger and more likely to be single (unmarried, separated or divorced). Suicidal intent was stronger in schizophrenia, while the attempters with MDD were more often preoccupied with a death wish and reported that stressful life events influenced the attempt. There were no differences in the attempt methods of the two groups. Current suicidal risk was higher in attempters compared to the non-attempters in schizophrenia as well as MDD. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD have similar features, with quite a few notable differences, which have been discussed at length in the present paper. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Stressful life events, hopelessness, and coping strategies among impulsive suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Menon, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Suicides are among the most important causes of death in the economically productive population. Characteristics of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters may differ which would have a bearing on planning preventive measures. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and psychological profile of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters. This retrospective comprehensive chart-based study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. The study utilized records of patients over a period of 3 years. An attempt was considered impulsive if the time between suicidal idea and the attempt was hopelessness was evaluated using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and coping was measured using Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form. Impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Of 316 patients, 151 were classified as having an impulsive suicidal attempt (47.8% of the sample). The impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters did not differ on demographic characteristics. Use of natural plant products was more common in impulsive attempters (27.2% vs. 12.7%), while physical methods like hanging was less common (0.7% vs. 7.3%). Those with an impulsive attempt were more likely to have a recent contact with a health professional (24.5% vs. 4.5%). Impulsive suicide attempters had higher scores on BHS (Mann-Whitney U = 7680.5, P suicide attempters differ from nonimpulsive suicide attempters in clinical features like methods of attempt, presence of hopelessness, and stressors.

  17. Tobacco use and suicide attempt: longitudinal analysis with retrospective reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Berlin

    Full Text Available Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA is not well established.We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02 and Wave 2 (2004-05 were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2.Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users. The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24 and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49. Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2 also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42. However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52 suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2.In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA.

  18. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Elizabeth; Stock, Laura; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Mitchell, Christopher; Gossett, Dana R

    2013-01-01

    To describe obstetric outcomes in women with a prior obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and to identify risk factors for recurrence. A retrospective chart review of women who sustained an OASIS between November 2005 and March 2010 at a tertiary care hospital was performed to identify risk factors for recurrence. One thousand six hundred twenty-nine patients had an OASIS. Of these, 758 patients (90%) subsequently delivered during the aforementioned timeframe; 685 patients had a subsequent vaginal delivery. Of the women, 3.2% had a recurrent OASIS. Recurrence was associated with larger birth weight (27% ≥4000 g vs 11.6% <4000 g; P = 0.04) and delivery mode (25.0%, 12.5%, and 2.7% for forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, and spontaneous deliveries, respectively (P = 0.0001)), whereas a history of fourth-degree laceration, prior wound complication, or episiotomy at subsequent delivery were not (P = 0.5, P = 0.5, and P = 0.4, respectively). Recurrent OASIS occurred in a small percentage of women (3.2%) who subsequently delivered vaginally. Recurrent OASIS was associated with operative vaginal delivery and birth weight 4000 g or greater. Neither episiotomy at first delivery nor at subsequent delivery conferred an increased recurrence risk.

  19. Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-02-01

    Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance.

  20. Failure of fertility therapy and subsequent adverse cardiovascular events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A.; Lu, Hong; Redelmeier, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infertility may indicate an underlying predisposition toward premature cardiovascular disease, yet little is known about potential long-term cardiovascular events following fertility therapy. We investigated whether failure of fertility therapy is associated with subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort analysis of women who received gonadotropin-based fertility therapy between Apr. 1, 1993, and Mar. 31, 2011, distinguishing those who subsequently gave birth and those who did not. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, we estimated the relative rate ratio of adverse cardiovascular events associated with fertility therapy failure, accounting for age, year, baseline risk factors, health care history and number of fertility cycles. The primary outcome was subsequent treatment for nonfatal coronary ischemia, stroke, transient ischemic attack, heart failure or thromboembolism. RESULTS: Of 28 442 women who received fertility therapy, 9349 (32.9%) subsequently gave birth and 19 093 (67.1%) did not. The median number of fertility treatments was 3 (interquartile range 1–5). We identified 2686 cardiovascular events over a median 8.4 years of follow-up. The annual rate of cardiovascular events was 19% higher among women who did not give birth after fertility therapy than among those who did (1.08 v. 0.91 per 100 patient-years, p treatment cycles. INTERPRETATION: Fertility therapy failure was associated with an increased risk of long-term adverse cardiovascular events. These women merit surveillance for subsequent cardiovascular events. PMID:28385819

  1. Subsequent pregnancies in women with previous gestational syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebmuller, Marjorie Garlow; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Lago, Eleonor Gastal

    2015-09-01

    This study included data on syphilis-positive pregnant women seen for delivery or miscarriage, between 1997 and 2004, in Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, RS. Their subsequent obstetric outcomes were studied, until December 2011, to see if the disease recurred. From 450 pregnant women with positive syphilis serology, seen from 1997 to 2004, 166 had at least one more obstetric attendance until December 2011, with 266 new obstetric outcomes. Congenital syphilis (CS) was demonstrated in 81.9% of the initial pregnancies and in 68.4% of the subsequent ones. The main causes of CS in subsequent pregnancies were a negative VDRL that turned positive at delivery, and undocumented treatment. VDRL titers were higher than 1:4 in 50.4% of the initial and 13.3% of the subsequent pregnancies (p syphilis in a preceding pregnancy. No or inadequate prenatal care was the main risk factor for CS, both in initial and in subsequent pregnancies. These data suggest that non-infected neonates could have been defined as CS cases because of insufficient information about the mother's history.

  2. Sexual Assault Victimization and Mental Health Treatment, Suicide Attempts, and Career Outcomes Among Women in the US Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-05-01

    To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.

  3. Access to modern contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J; Stanback, John; Shelton, James

    2006-06-01

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery.

  4. Suicide attempts by firearms and by leaping from heights: a comparative study of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moore, G M; Robertson, A R

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and demographic profiles of patients who deliberately harmed themselves, either by jumping from a great height or by using firearms, and survived. The study consisted of an 18-year retrospective case history analysis of survivors of jumping and shooting identified from the database of consultation-liaison psychiatry referrals at a hospital in Sydney, Australia. Clinical and demographic information was collated and analyzed. Fifty-one patients who had shot themselves and 31 patients who had jumped, all of whom had survived, were assessed by the consultation-liaison psychiatry team. There were clear differences between the two groups. Those who jumped were more likely to be single, unemployed, and psychotic. Those who used firearms were more likely to be male, abuse alcohol, have a forensic history, and have an antisocial or borderline personality disorder. In this study, the subjects who attempted suicide by shooting themselves and those who did so by jumping had different profiles of mental state, personality function, and psychiatric diagnosis. The importance of mental state and specific psychiatric diagnosis as determinants of the method used has been neglected in studies of suicide. These factors should be considered along with others such as accessibility and acceptability of means, since these differences may be important when suicide prevention is considered. It is also important for psychiatrists providing consultation-liaison services to be aware of these differences in order to ensure optimal treatment of survivors.

  5. Attempting a first translation of the Septuagint psalms into Afrikaans: problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Steyn

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A translation project was started during October 2004 with a small number of senior students in order to translate the Sep- tuagint (LXX psalms into Afrikaans for the first time. The importance of the LXX for Christianity cannot be overestimated and this is an attempt to make people aware of this important first translation of the Jewish Scriptures on the African con- tinent, to give people access to it in a translation in their mother tongue, and to contribute to the importance of the psalms as a collection of hymns and prayers that is of value for the liturgy and the ministry of the church. However, a number of significant problems were encountered, among them the fact that (a no satisfactory Greek critical text edition of the LXX psalms exists currently; (b the LXX is already a translation from the Hebrew; (c words have different connotations and meanings in the receptor language (Afrikaans for different members in the group; (d being poetic language, to what extent would a literal or a dynamic translation be more appropriate?; (e given the pace of translation and the extent of the project, it will take quite a number of years to complete; and (f existing dictionaries and grammars are mainly focused on the New Testament – not on the LXX. These problems are discussed by means of practical examples encountered in Psalms 1-3.

  6. Open Access Monitor - DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Michael; Hansen, Lars Asger Juel; Andersen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Open Access Monitor - DK (OAM-DK) is a 2-year DEFF funded [DEFF.2016-0018] national project running in 2017-2018 with the aim of collecting, documenting and administrating Open Access publishing costs. OAM-DK is lead by Copenhagen University Library under the Royal Danish Library with participation...... of all Danish University Libraries. This poster presents the first results of Open Access costs related to 2015 publications at the The University of Copenhagen....

  7. Are PDF Documents Accessible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ribera Turró

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adobe PDF is one of the most widely used formats in scientific communications and in administrative documents. In its latest versions it has incorporated structural tags and improvements that increase its level of accessibility. This article reviews the concept of accessibility in the reading of digital documents and evaluates the accessibility of PDF according to the most widely established standards.

  8. Access Data Analysis Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bluttman, Ken

    2008-01-01

    This book offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Whether you use Access 2007 or an earlier version, this book will teach you new methods to query data, different ways to move data in and out of Access, how to calculate answers to financial and investment issues, how to jump beyond SQL by manipulating data with VBA, and more.

  9. Access control Tutorial 5

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Oberknapp, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial will review current access management technologies and invite participants to discuss use cases and requirements for access management, particularly with respect to scholarly archives and their users. The presenters will describe the concepts and architecture of Federated Access Management (FAM) with reference to some large-scale federation implementations, and discuss the challenges faced particularly in Identity Management by academic institutions. The tutorial will include a practical demonstration of how FAM can be applied to an Open Archive repository.

  10. Factors Influencing Army Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    fmultivariate Analyses Tables 161 Abbreviation Multivariate Analysis Variables i rAcces DODNP & DODHS (See definitions below) AFQT Armed Forces...BMA Black Military Available ColDg Associates Degree or higher DODHS DOD High School Diploma Male Accessions DODNP DOD Non-Prior Service Male Accessions...30 I Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients (With DOD Accession Variables) • - .CentroidsDRC Marri #MHSS Unemp ArnyR DODMP DODHS

  11. The attitudes of preclinical and clinical Turkish medical students toward suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emul, Murat; Uzunoglu, Zeynep; Sevinç, Hacer; Güzel, Cidem; Yilmaz, Cala; Erkut, Dervi; Arikan, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Interest in studies of stigma toward patients with mental disorders is growing. Research on the attitudes of medical students toward suicide attempters does not exist; although as medical personnel, they will encounter suicide attempters in emergency rooms. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of preclinical and clinical medical students toward suicide attempters and to compare their attitudes with nonmedical students. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires those were searching the attitudes toward suicide attempters. These questionnaires used a social distance scale, skillfulness assessment scale, and dangerousness scale. More than 73% of students had a negative attitude toward "renting a room of their home to a suicide attempter." More than 90% would not want "a suicide attempter to supervise their children for few hours." Significantly more preclinical than clinical students would not want their children to marry a suicide attempter. Social distance, skillfulness, and attitudes concerning the dangerousness of suicide attempters are problematic for medical students and need educational intervention.

  12. Can we predict agitation in patients with suicide attempts in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED) after suicide attempts is common and an important problem. Objective: To establish whether we can predict agitated patients among suicide attempt patients in ED. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of adult suicide ...

  13. Medically Serious Suicide Attempters with or without Plan in Rural China1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China, and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15–54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to estimate the planned and unplanned suicide attempt. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors related to planned or unplanned suicide attempt. The results showed that the planned suicide attempt were associated with higher education, hopelessness and prior suicide act. The unplanned suicide attempt tend to suicide by pesticide and store pesticide at home. A ban of lethal pesticides may be a method for suicide prevention in rural China. PMID:26524517

  14. Capabilities and accessibility: a model for progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Tyler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is seen to be a core issue which relates directly to the quality of life: if a person cannot reach and use a facility then they cannot take advantage of the benefits that the facility is seeking to provide. In some cases this is about being able to take part in an activity for enjoyment, but in some it is a question of the exercise of human rights – access to healthcare, education, voting and other citizens’ rights. This paper argues that such an equitable accessibility approach requires understanding of the relationships between the capabilities that a person has and the capabilities required of them by society in order to achieve the accessibility they seek. The Capabilities Model, which has been developed at UCL is an attempt to understand this relationship and the paper sets out an approach to quantifying the capabilities in a way that allows designers and implementers of environmental construction and operation to have a more robust approach to their decisions about providing accessibility.

  15. The Problem of Subject Access to Visual Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather P. Jespersen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of giving subject access to works of art. We survey both concept-based and content-based access by computers and by indexers/catalogers respectively, as well as issues of interoperability, database and indexer consistency, and cataloging standards. The authors, both of whom are trained art historians, question attempts to mystify fine art subject matter by the creation of clever library science systems that are executed by the naive. Only when trained art historians and knowledgeable catalogers are finally responsible for providing subject access to works of art, will true interoperability and consistency happen.

  16. Advanced multiple access concepts in mobile satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananasso, Fulvio

    1990-01-01

    Some multiple access strategies for Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) are discussed. These strategies were investigated in the context of three separate studies conducted for the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Satellite-Switched Frequency Division Multiple Access (SS-FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Frequency-Addressable Beam architectures are addressed, discussing both system and technology aspects and outlining advantages and drawbacks of either solution with associated relevant hardware issues. An attempt is made to compare the considered option from the standpoint of user terminal/space segment complexity, synchronization requirements, spectral efficiency, and interference rejection.

  17. Access 2013 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to the updated and new features of Access 2013 As the world's most popular database management tool, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data as well as build powerful database solutions. However, databases can be complex. That's why you need the expert guidance in this comprehensive reference. Access 2013 Bible helps you gain a solid understanding of database purpose, construction, and application so that whether you're new to Access or looking to upgrade to the 2013 version, this well-rounded resource provides you with a th

  18. OGIS Access System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The OGIS Access System (OAS) provides case management, stakeholder collaboration, and public communications activities including a web presence via a web portal.

  19. Practices and Perspectives in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Attempts and the Use of Do Not Attempt Resuscitation Orders: A Cross-sectional Survey in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Abi; Ambepitiyawaduge, Pubudu De Silva; Thilakasiri, Kaushila; Stephens, Tim; Padeniya, Anuruddha; Athapattu, Priyantha; Mahipala, Palitha G; Sigera, Ponsuge Chathurani; Dondorp, Arjen M; Haniffa, Rashan

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts, the perspectives of junior doctors involved in those attempts and the use of do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders. A cross-sectional telephone survey aimed at intern doctors working in all medical/surgical wards in government hospitals. Interns were interviewed based on the above objective. A total of 42 CPR attempts from 82 hospitals (338 wards) were reported, 3 of which were excluded as the participating doctor was unavailable for interview. 16 (4.7%) wards had at least 1 patient with an informal DNAR order. 42 deaths were reported. 8 deaths occurred without a known resuscitation attempt, of which 6 occurred on wards with an informal DNAR order in place. 39 resuscitations were attempted. Survival at 24 h was 2 (5.1%). In 5 (13%) attempts, CPR was the only intervention reported. On 25 (64%) occasions, doctors were "not at all" or "only a little bit surprised" by the arrest. CPR attempts before death in hospitals across Sri Lanka is prevalent. DNAR use remains uncommon.

  20. Factors associated with referral to mental health services among suicide attempters visiting emergency centers of general hospitals in Korea: does history of suicide attempts predict referral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Myung-Soo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Han Joon; Lee, Kyeongryong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Cho, Junho; Choi, Seung-Pil; Seo, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a history of past suicide attempts was a critical factor for referral to mental health services among suicide attempters visiting emergency centers of general hospitals in Korea. In this cross-sectional study, a resident of emergency medicine at each emergency center interviewed 310 suicide attempters visiting five tertiary general hospitals located in Seoul, using standardized questionnaires, during 7 months in 2007. We examined associations between suicide attempt history and referral to mental health services via multiple logistic regressions. Subjects' rate of referral to mental health services was 47.3%. When we controlled for participant age, time of arrival at the emergency center, psychiatric treatment history, use of alcohol, suicide attempt lethality and subjective expectation to suicide attempts, past suicide attempts did not predict referral to mental health services (odds ratio=1.74; 95% confidence interval .88-3.43). Psychiatric interventions for suicide reattempters visiting emergency centers are important for preventing suicide, but providers have not considered suicide attempt history as a critical factor for referral to mental health services. Therefore, we suggest that more effort is needed to systemize psychiatric interventions for suicide reattempters at emergency centers in Korea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  2. Faster Algorithms for Computing Longest Common Increasing Subsequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutz, Martin; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Kaligosi, Kanela

    2011-01-01

    of the alphabet, and Sort is the time to sort each input sequence. For k⩾3 length-n sequences we present an algorithm which improves the previous best bound by more than a factor k for many inputs. In both cases, our algorithms are conceptually quite simple but rely on existing sophisticated data structures......We present algorithms for finding a longest common increasing subsequence of two or more input sequences. For two sequences of lengths n and m, where m⩾n, we present an algorithm with an output-dependent expected running time of and O(m) space, where ℓ is the length of an LCIS, σ is the size....... Finally, we introduce the problem of longest common weakly-increasing (or non-decreasing) subsequences (LCWIS), for which we present an -time algorithm for the 3-letter alphabet case. For the extensively studied longest common subsequence problem, comparable speedups have not been achieved for small...

  3. Effect of uniaxiai ratcheting on subsequent creep deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsuhiko; Ishikawa, Hiromasa

    1998-05-01

    Experimental observation and numerical simulation are conducted to clarify the effect of viscosity on deformation of materials. First, creep tests after the primary uniaxial ratcheting are carded out using Type 304 stainless steel. Specimens are subjected to cyclic tension-unloading with step and triangular waves during 20000 seconds as the primary ratcheting. After the ratcheting the subsequent creep test at the maximum stress is conducted during 20000 seconds. The experimental results show that the values of the subsequent creep strain after the ratcheting depend on the wave type and the time period of the ratcheting. The shorter time period of the ratcheting leads to the larger subsequent creep strain. Numerical simulations are also carried out using the constitutive model based on dislocation density [Estrin et al.]. As a result, the equivalent value of the ratcheting strain to creep strain is found out from the simulations and experiments.

  4. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  5. Transradial approach for challenging vascular access interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatzadeh, Mitra; Vijayan, Vikram; Ritter, Carsten J; Hockley, Joseph; Leong, Benjamin Dk; Sandford, Monique; Mwipatayi, Bibombe P

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous interventional procedures for vascular access are usually performed using the draining cephalic or basilic vein. The transradial approach, which has been extensively investigated for coronary angiography and intervention, could be an attractive new technique for peri-anastomotic arteriovenous fistula stenosis. From June 2012 to February 2013, 30 patients with end-stage renal failure were evaluated for transradial vascular access intervention. A 4-French (Fr) micropuncture kit was used to access the radial artery and then subsequently upgraded to a 5-Fr sheath. Fourteen patients required an upgrade to a 6-Fr sheath for the final intervention. Primary technical success (residual stenosis access was achieved in all patients. There were no peri-procedural complications. The post-interventional primary patency was calculated as 100%, 100%, 88.4% and 32.8% at 1, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. The post-interventional primary assisted patency was calculated as 100%, 100%, 100% and 63.3% at 1, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Based on colour-coded Duplex scan and/or photoelectric plethysmography, all access-site arteries showed normal perfusion; however, the freedom from significant radial artery restenosis was 92.4% at 12-month follow-up. The transradial approach for vascular access endovascular interventions is technically feasible and safe. It allows simultaneous treatment of peri-anastomotic lesions in fistulas with complex venous anatomy as well as lesions in the arterial inflow and central outflow. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  7. Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among College Students in China: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Sheng Yang; Zhi-Hua Zhang; Liang Sun; Ye-Huan Sun; Dong-Qing Ye

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15?34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found. Objective and Methods This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college studen...

  8. Nurses' experiences of patient suicide and suicide attempts in an acute unit

    OpenAIRE

    DOYLE, LOUISE

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Suicide and suicide attempts in Ireland have increased dramatically in the last twenty years. Many of the presentations of suicide attempts to Emergency Departments are recommended an admission to an acute mental health unit. A psychiatric staff nurse working in an acute mental health setting has a high chance of experiencing a patient suicide or suicide attempt during their career. The occurrence of an inpatient suicide or suicide attempt is unquestionably an overwhelmingly stre...

  9. A STUDY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL AND CLINICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, C.T. Sudir; Chandrasekaran, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a good deal of research showing that suicide attempts increase markedly during adolescence. This study aims at studying the demographic and clinical variables of adolescent suicide attempters and comparing certain potential risk factors between adolescent and adult suicide attempters. It was found that adolescents in our study sample differ significantly from adults in the levels of depression, hopelessness, lethality of attempt and stressful life events. These findings are important...

  10. Medically Serious Suicide Attempters with or without Plan in Rural China1

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China, and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15–54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to estimate the planne...

  11. A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Subsequence Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc. combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed algorithm is easy to be implemented, can get good encryption effect, has a wide secret key's space, strong sensitivity to secret key, and has the abilities of resisting exhaustive attack and statistic attack.

  12. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data

  14. HIV-infection as a self-reported risk factor for attempted suicide in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Key Words: HIV-infection; Attempted suicide risk; Management; PreventionThe aim of this study was to examine variables associated with recently diagnosed HIV-infection as a self-reported attempted suicide risk factor. Method: The study cohort consisted of 112 general hospital in-patients who attempted suicide ...

  15. Individual and environmental contingencies associated with multiple suicide attempts among U.S. military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David; Wertenberger, Evelyn

    2016-08-30

    Suicidal behavior among U.S. military personnel persists as a significant public health issue. Previous research indicates the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is the desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, a finding that converges with studies in nonmilitary samples. Much less is understood about the consequences of a first suicide attempt that could influence the occurrence of additional suicide attempts. In order to identify these contingencies, 134 active duty Soldiers who had attempted suicide (n=69 first-time attempters, n=65 multiple attempters) participated in structured interviews focused on their experiences immediately following their first attempt. Soldiers were more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts if they were younger at the time of their first attempt, were not admitted to a hospital or treatment program after their first attempt, or experienced emotional and psychological relief immediately afterwards. Results suggest that Soldiers who experience emotional and/or psychological relief immediately after their first suicide attempt or do not receive treatment are more likely to make additional suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  17. Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  19. Recommended care for young people (15-19 years) after suicide attempts in certain European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hulten, A.; Wasserman, D.; Hawton, K.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Data on recommended care for young people aged 15±19 years after attempted suicide from nine European research centres dur- ing the period 1989±1992 were ana- lysed in terms of gender, history of previous suicide attempt and meth- ods used. Altogether 438 suicide attempts made by 353 boys

  20. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…