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Sample records for subsector analysis venezuela

  1. Energy demand, substitution and environmental taxation: An econometric analysis of eight subsectors of the Danish economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2017-01-01

    This research contains an econometric analysis of energy demand in trade and industry which allows for substitution between electricity and other energy carriers when relative prices change. The presence of substitution suggests that taxation can be a means of changing the energy input mix...

  2. Industry subsector analysis Australia: Air pollution control equipment. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution control equipment market in Australia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Australian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  3. Medición de la eficiencia relativa en dos subsectores de la economía colombiana desde 1993 a 2002 utilizando Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isabel Rodríguez Lozano

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados del estudio de la eficiencia según el modelo DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis para las empresas pertenecientes a los subsectores de elaboración de productos alimenticios y venta de vehículos automotores en el periodo comprendido entre 1993 y 2002. Se hace una introducción al DEA y a la forma como se utiliza en el estudio. Posteriormente se realiza una comparación entre las empresas más eficientes según DEA y aquellas que tienen los más altos márgenes operativo y neto durante el año 2002. A partir de un seguimiento al historial de empresas eficientes según DEA, se indaga acerca de la eficiencia sectorial. Por último se hace un análisis de aquellas empresas que lograron mantenerse eficientes por más tiempo.

  4. Medición de la eficiencia relativa en tres subsectores de la economía colombiana desde 1993 a 1999 utilizando Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Isabel Rodríguez Lozano

    2003-01-01

    Mediante la metodología del Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A), la cual permite determinar el desempeño relativo de distintas unidades organizacionales ante la presencia de múltiples entradas y salidas, el presente artículo desarrolla el estudio de tres subsectores de la economía Colombiana entre 1993 y 1999, estableciendo el desempeño comparativo entre diferentes empresas de un mismo sector, determinando de esta manera cuáles de ellas hacen el mejor uso de sus recursos. Así mismo, se identifi...

  5. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  6. Medición de la eficiencia relativa en tres subsectores de la economía colombiana desde 1993 a 1999 utilizando Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isabel Rodríguez Lozano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la metodología del Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A, la cual permite determinar el desempeño relativo de distintas unidades organizacionales ante la presencia de múltiples entradas y salidas, el presente artículo desarrolla el estudio de tres subsectores de la economía Colombiana entre 1993 y 1999, estableciendo el desempeño comparativo entre diferentes empresas de un mismo sector, determinando de esta manera cuáles de ellas hacen el mejor uso de sus recursos. Así mismo, se identifican características de la eficiencia que no serían consideradas bajo el esquema del cálculo de razones financieras, demostrando que las empresas con mejores márgenes operacionales y/o netos, no son necesariamente las más eficientes.

  7. The emergence of commercial genomics: analysis of the rise of a biotechnology subsector during the Human Genome Project, 1990 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Development of the commercial genomics sector within the biotechnology industry relied heavily on the scientific commons, public funding, and technology transfer between academic and industrial research. This study tracks financial and intellectual property data on genomics firms from 1990 through 2004, thus following these firms as they emerged in the era of the Human Genome Project and through the 2000 to 2001 market bubble. Methods A database was created based on an early survey of genomics firms, which was expanded using three web-based biotechnology services, scientific journals, and biotechnology trade and technical publications. Financial data for publicly traded firms was collected through the use of four databases specializing in firm financials. Patent searches were conducted using firm names in the US Patent and Trademark Office website search engine and the DNA Patent Database. Results A biotechnology subsector of genomics firms emerged in parallel to the publicly funded Human Genome Project. Trends among top firms show that hiring, capital improvement, and research and development expenditures continued to grow after a 2000 to 2001 bubble. The majority of firms are small businesses with great diversity in type of research and development, products, and services provided. Over half the public firms holding patents have the majority of their intellectual property portfolio in DNA-based patents. Conclusions These data allow estimates of investment, research and development expenditures, and jobs that paralleled the rise of genomics as a sector within biotechnology between 1990 and 2004. PMID:24050173

  8. Subsectors, Dynkin diagrams and new generalised geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2017-08-01

    We examine how generalised geometries can be associated with a labelled Dynkin diagram built around a gravity line. We present a series of new generalised geometries based on the groups Spin( d, d) × ℝ + for which the generalised tangent space transforms in a spinor representation of the group. In low dimensions these all appear in subsectors of maximal supergravity theories. The case d = 8 provides a geometry for eight-dimensional backgrounds of M theory with only seven-form flux, which have not been included in any previous geometric construction. This geometry is also one of a series of "half-exceptional" geometries, which "geometrise" a six-form gauge field. In the appendix, we consider exam-ples of other algebras appearing in gravitational theories and give a method to derive the Dynkin labels for the "section condition" in general. We argue that generalised geometry can describe restrictions and subsectors of many gravitational theories.

  9. [A functional analysis of healthcare auditors' skills in Venezuela, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos-Muñoz, Mónica S

    2010-10-01

    Using functional analysis for identifying the basic, working, specific and generic skills and values which a health service auditor must have. Implementing the functional analysis technique with 10 experts, identifying specific, basic, generic skills and values by means of deductive logic. A functional map was obtained which started by establishing a key purpose based on improving healthcare and service quality from which three key functions emerged. The main functions and skills' units were then broken down into the competitive elements defining what a health service auditor is able to do. This functional map (following functional analysis methodology) shows in detail the simple and complex tasks which a healthcare auditor should apply in the workplace, adopting a forward management approach for improving healthcare and health service quality. This methodology, expressing logical-deductive awareness raising, provides expert consensual information validating each element regarding overall skills.

  10. Anti-correlation and subsector structure in financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X. F.; Zheng, B.

    2012-02-01

    With the random matrix theory, we study the spatial structure of the Chinese stock market, the American stock market and global market indices. After taking into account the signs of the components in the eigenvectors of the cross-correlation matrix, we detect the subsector structure of the financial systems. The positive and negative subsectors are anti-correlated with respect to each other in the corresponding eigenmode. The subsector structure is strong in the Chinese stock market, while somewhat weaker in the American stock market and global market indices. Characteristics of the subsector structures in different markets are revealed.

  11. 77 FR 13585 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... Department of Energy (DOE) invites public comment on DOE's intent to publish the Electricity Subsector... targeted to the specific needs of electricity sector organizations. The objective of the guideline is to...

  12. 77 FR 30517 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... of the publication, by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk... specific needs of electricity sector organizations. The objective of the guideline is to build upon...

  13. Analysis and perspectives of monetary reformation in Venezuela (bolivar fuerte): impact on Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramón Javier Mesa Callejas; Mónica Alexandra Gómez Ospina

    2008-01-01

    .... The article is intended to discuss about perspective of Venezuelan reform and its impact on Colombia within a complex macroeconomic context characterized by its evident high levels of inflation in Venezuela...

  14. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    tion of Guyana), and the Empresa Nacional de Pesca (National Fishing Enterprise). As will be analyzed in the next chapter, Venezuela’s develop- ment...by familiar problems: lack of skilled labor and insufficient infrastructure (ports, electricity, transpor- tation) to support any great expansion...diversification of domestic producers and increased foreign competition for the growing market. However, the familiarity with the use of US equipment

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors.

  16. Diversity of users in banking agencies: An analysis of latent classes, Libertador municipality, Mérida state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysela Morillo Moreno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the existence of different groups of users of personal services of the banking agencies, based on demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics, field research was designed, based on random sampling, in the Libertador municipality of Merida state, Venezuela. As finding, a statistical analysis of latent classes highlights the existence of three classes of users; the kind that brings the largest number of users is characterized by a moderate frequency of use and perception over quality. The identification of such groups precedes the design of marketing practices for each segment, particulary for handling waiting times, service quality recovery.

  17. 77 FR 44572 - Second Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Longline Catcher Processor Subsector of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Reduction Program for the Longline Catcher Processor Subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Non... Longline Catcher Processor Subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish... Catcher Processor Subsector, NMFS must publish these regulations. Initial Reduction Program The measures...

  18. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the

  19. Reverse logistics in plastics subsector: main facilitators and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cecilia Pena-Montoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial solid waste (ISW is increasing in both quantity and complexity and it is a priority to establish strategies to manage it. Reverse Logistics (RL is a strategy that enables material recovery and reuse avoiding the damage that ISW may cause; also RL organizes solid waste management activities and supports other activities such as ISW trading. Most of the research linking ISW and RL in developed countries is related to the electronics subsector because of the negative effects on the environment; however, research oriented towards plastics subsector waste is lower. This is the case in Colombia where the plastics subsector is composed mainly by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs facing diverse constraints for their operation. Main facilitators and barriers that face SMEs in the Colombian plastics subsector to undertake RL programs were identified. An exploratory study was carried out in which business managers assessed the facilitators and barriers identified in the literature. The results showed that the availability of skilled people to perform RL activities is one of the most important internal facilitators and the lack of secondary markets for recovered materials is among the external barriers. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in the field that is still maturing in Colombia.

  20. Reverse logistics in the plastics subsector: Main facilitators and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Peña Montoya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial solid waste (ISW is increasing in both quantity and complexity, and it is a priority to establish strategies in order to manage it. Reverse Logistics (RL is a strategy that enables material recovery and reuse, avoiding the damage that ISW may cause; it also organizes solid waste management activities and supports other activities such as ISW trading. Most of the research linking ISW and RL in developed countries is related to the electronics subsector due to the negative effects on the environment; however, research oriented towards plastics subsector waste is lower. This is the case in Colombia, where the plastics subsector is composed mainly by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs facing diverse constraints for their operation. Main facilitators and barriers that face SMEs in the Colombian plastics subsector to undertake RL programs were identified. An exploratory study in which business managers assessed facilitators and barriers identified in scientific literature was carried out. The results showed that the availability of skilled people to perform RL activities is one of the most important internal facilitators, and that the lack of secondary markets for recovered materials is among the external barriers. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in the field that is still maturing in Colombia.

  1. Appraisal of agricultural subsectors growth in various policy regimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result also showed inconsistency in growth pattern reflecting the volatile nature or uncertainty of the Nigeria.s economy. However, the result also showed that the period (1995-2010) of liberalization policy regime accelerated outputs of agricultural subsector compared to other policy periods considered in the study.

  2. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  3. Competitive market and sources of its advantages in the electric energy subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pająk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electric energy subsector varies considerably in terms of competitiveness depending on the area under analysis. Power generation, transmission and distribution have quite different characteristics of competitiveness than areas such as electricity trading. In the area of power generation, competitive advantage is developed by factors such as: skilful operation in the fuel market and targeted investments affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of equipment. In the area of energy distribution, despite the natural monopoly, some distribution system operators dynamically take over the market share of newly constructed networks. The area of energy trading can be successfully compared to other competitive market segments where mass sales of services and products occur.

  4. Educational Reform in Colombia and Venezuela: An Organizational Analysis: Occasional Papers in Education and Development Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark

    This paper examines (1) attempts at educational reform in Venezuela and Colombia by means of decentralization, and (2) the impact of decentralization on two contrasting educational systems. In Venezuela, the national school system was highly centralized with even routine decisions being made in Caracas, which resulted in a rigid, unresponsive…

  5. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  6. Venezuela's Potential Threat to the United States' National Security: An Analysis of the Conflictual Inter-Country Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fulgham, Sr, Quintin

    2006-01-01

    ... national security objectives describe key points of contention from both countries identify perceived threats and recommend possible conflict solutions to significantly improve the strategic relationship between Venezuela and the US.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of two Vismia (Hypericaceae) species collected in Los Andes, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago D., Alexis; Rojas-Vera, Janne; Peñaloza, Yonel

    2016-01-01

    Vismia genus is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Central, South America and some areas of Africa. According to previous investigations, antioxidant potential of Vismia species might be related to anthrones, anthraquinones, flavonoids and phenol derivatives biosynthesized by these plants. In this investigation, phytochemical screening of Vismia baccifera (VB) from Mérida-Venezuela and Vismia macrophylla (VM) from Táchira-Venezuela methanolic extracts, carried out using...

  8. Politics of oil in Venezuela: A decision-making analysis of PDVSA's internationalisation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cesar E.

    The high degree of international vertical integration achieved by the Venezuelan state oil enterprise, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA), has placed it among the most important oil multinationals (MNs). The policy of creating downstream outlets through the establishment of foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the form of refinery assets was given the term of 'internationalisation'. By analysing PDVSA's internationalisation policy, the thesis explores the difficulties encountered by a major state-owned enterprise (SOE) from a developing country in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. The study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policymaking in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. Specifically, the study examines the intricate policymaking process that shaped the origins and the development of PDVSA's internationalisation policy, underlying the events and factors that influenced each one of its three distinguishable phases: adoption, formulation, and implementation. The tensions between politics and corporate strategy are highlighted at the core of the policymaking process. The study also looks at the relationship between the oil industry and the other two key decision-making centres involved in the oil policymaking process: the executive and Congress. In exploring the ways in which each one of them sought to influence policy outcome, the study attempts to gain insight into the main factors that prompted the tensions among the policy actors involved. Three environments, or pressure-generating centres, constantly exert influence on the oil industry: the oil market, the political context and the government's financial situation. By seeking to determine the industry's response to their pervasive influence on policy formulation and implementation, this research ascertains the extent to which these variables influenced the decision-making process that

  9. MORPHOANATOMICAL LEAF ANALYSIS IN HORTICULTURAL GROUPS OF AVOCADO (Persea americana PLACED AT INIA-CENIAP’S COLLECTION, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ferrer Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The avocado (Persea americana Mill. is the most important species of Lauraceae in America due to its exploitation as food for pre-Columbian and modern cultures. It is a very important seasonal crop in Venezuela based on a perennial fruit tree management. From a selection of 76 accessions (45 cultivars of avocados cultivated at the Germplasm Bank of INIA-CENIAP, a morphoanatomical analysis was performed to identify attributes of taxonomic resolution (diagnostic characters which allow to characterize sets and / or culta. Morphological study was carried out from each accession herborized sample. Information was obtained by freehand transverse leaf sections (epidermis, mesophyll and midvein as well as paradermic preparations, and observed data was recorded in DELTA System. New morphoanatomical characters and discriminating attributes between cultivars were identified and described, especially to discriminate the Mexican group, and a close relationship within West Indian and Guatemalan cultivars was observed due to the variability identified from the latter group. Indument- related attributes were highly informative to discriminate among cultivars, along with the outline, apical angle and projections at the base of the leaf blades, stem cross section and presence of anise odor, progress and joining of the secondary nerve branches, tertiary venation pattern, abaxial contour and thickness of the sclerenchymatous sheath and compaction of the phloem in the vascular bundle, adaxial contour of the median nerve, and thickness, outline and uniformity of the anticlinal walls of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells.

  10. Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Daría; Reyes, Jesús; Negredo, Ana; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María; Comach, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longline catcher processor subsector... Fishery or Program Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1106 Longline catcher processor subsector... longline catcher processor subsector of the BSAI non-pollock groundfish fishery that § 679.2 of this...

  12. Spatial Analysis of Dengue Seroprevalence and Modeling of Transmission Risk Factors in a Dengue Hyperendemic City of Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincenti-Gonzalez, Maria F.; Grillet, Maria Eugenia; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Lizarazo, Erley F.; Amarista, Manuel A; Sierra, Gloria M.; Comach, Guillermo; Tami, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) transmission is spatially heterogeneous. Hence, to stratify dengue prevalence in space may be an efficacious strategy to target surveillance and control efforts in a cost-effective manner particularly in Venezuela where dengue is hyperendemic and public health

  13. Sensitivity of stock market indices to oil prices: Evidence from manufacturing sub-sectors in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eksi Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil price is a critical cost factor for manufacturing industries that are of vital importance for economic growth. This study examines the relationship between crude oil prices and the indices of seven Turkish manufacturing sub-sectors over the period 1997:01-2009:12. The error correction model results reveal the long term causality from crude oil prices to chemical petroleum-plastic and basic metal sub-sectors indicating that these sub-sectors are highly sensitive to crude oil prices. We find no causal relationship for other sector indices for short or long time periods.

  14. Arms Production in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    34 Taylor and Francis, London and Philadelphia, 1986, p. 36. 39. Sabato, J.A. and Schverzer, J. "Funcionamiento de la Economia y Poder Politico en La...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5100 5. Director de Educacion de La Armada 1 Comandancia General de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San...Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela 6. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval 1 Direccion de Educacion de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela

  15. Monitoring of Land Deformation Due to Oil Production by InSAR Time Series Analysis Using PALSAR Data in Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Tomonori; Narita, Tatsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The target area of this study is the Maracaibo sedimentary basin located in the western part of Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The full-scale exploration and development for oil resources in Venezuela which was the greatest oil-producing country in South America had begun at the Maracaibo sedimentary basin in the 1910s, and it was a center of the oil product in Venezuela until the 1980s. But, in most of oil fields in the Maracaibo sedimentary basin, there is concern over the drain on recoverable reserves due to deterioration, and the production amount of petroleum in Venezuela has been diminishing these days. Leveling and GPS surveying were carried out in the past, and they revealed that the large-scale subsidence phenomenon of which cumulative subsidence amount was approximately 5 meter had occurred. The authors applied the vertical displacement measurement by InSAR time series analysis using PALSAR data obtained in the Fine-beam and ScanSAR observation mode. As a result, it could be confirmed clear ground deformation in the surrounding of three oil fields (Tia Juana, Lagunillas and Bachaquero) and easily recognized that the areas of phase anomalies detected by this analysis had expanded and the number of interference fringes had increased over time. The annual velocity of vertical ground surface displacement measured by InSAR time series analysis was -51 mm per year, -103 mm per year and -58 mm per year in Tia Juana, Lagunillas and Bachaquero oil field respectively. The tendency that an earth surface shifted towards the center of phase anomalies was detected from the result of the horizontal ground change measurement. It was interpreted from Google Earth and Landsat images that oil-related facilities (mainly bowling stations) were built intensively over the areas where phase anomalies were detected. Therefore, it was inferred that there was a high association between the operation activity of the oil field and ground deformation. In addition, the deterioration

  16. Differences in Measuring Market Risk in Four Subsectors of the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Benito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper defends the wisdom of not considering the Digital Economy to be one homogeneous sector. Our hypothesis is that it is best to consider it the result of adding four different subsectors. We test whether indeed the economic and financial performance of a portfolio of listed companies in each of the four subsectors presents relevant differences. We use the value at risk measure to estimate market risk of the four subsectors of the digital economy. The riskiest subsector is Mobile/Internet Contents & Services followed by SW&IT Services and Application Software. On the contrary, the Telecom sector is by far the safest one. These results support the hypothesis that the Digital Economy is not a homogeneous sector.

  17. Understanding ICT Adoption Determinants among Indonesian SMEs in Fashion Subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Setiowati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates factors that affect the adoption of Information Communication and Technology (ICT among SMEs in fashion subsector in Indonesia. This study adopts Technology, Organization, and Environment (TOE framework which consist technological factors such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability; organizational factors such as owner/manager IT knowledge, owner/manager innovativeness;and environmental factors namely competitive pressure, market turbulence, and institutional intervention. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from 204 SME owners/managers. The results show that under technological factors, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability significantly and positively influence ICT adoption. However, relative advantage and complexity have significant but negative influence on ICT adoption. Moreover, the organizational factors namely owner/manager’s knowledge and innovativeness also contribute significantly to the adoption. Furthermore, among three environmental factors, competitive pressure and institutional intervention are determinants that influence ICT adoption in SMEs, whereas market turbulence shows no significant contribution toward the adoption of ICT. This study provides valuable insights for government and policy makers as well as for SMEs owner/managers to develop strategies that promote and foster the adoption of ICT.

  18. Cytogenetic analysis of three species of the genus Haemulon (Teleostei: Haemulinae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, Mauro; Gaviria, Juan I; Oliveira, Claudio; Ferreira, Irani Alves; Martins, Cesar

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the karyotype analysis of Haemulon aurolineatum, Haemulon bonariensis and Haemulon plumierii, by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), to locate the 18S and 5S rRNA genes. Diploid modal count in the three species was 2n = 48 acrocentric elements. Except for pair 24, which exhibited an unmistakable secondary constriction in all three species, it was not possible to classify them as homologous to each other because differences in chromosome size were too slight between adjacent pairs within a size-graded series. Ag-NOR clusters were located in pair 24 in the three species with signal located on the secondary constriction of these chromosomes. C-banding demonstrated that the three species share the same distribution pattern of the constitutive heterochromatin with centromeric heterochromatic blocks in the 23 chromosome pairs and a pericentromeric block in pair 24 which is coincident with the NORs. FISH experiments showed that 18S rDNA sequences were located coincident with the Ag-NOR site in the three species; however, differences in both the number and chromosome distribution of 5S-rDNA cluster were detected among them. Our data suggest that chromosome evolution of Haemulon has been preserved from major changes in the karyotypic macrostructure, whereas microstructural changes have occurred.

  19. New Bouguer Gravity Maps of Venezuela: Representation and Analysis of Free-Air and Bouguer Anomalies with Emphasis on Spectral Analyses and Elastic Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanchez-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new gravity data compilation for Venezuela was processed and homogenized. Gravity was measured in reference to the International Gravity Standardization Net 1971, and the complete Bouguer anomaly was calculated by using the Geodetic Reference System 1980 and 2.67 Mg/m3. A regional gravity map was computed by removing wavelengths higher than 200 km from the Bouguer anomaly. After the anomaly separation, regional and residual Bouguer gravity fields were then critically discussed in term of the regional tectonic features. Results were compared with the previous geological and tectonic information obtained from former studies. Gravity and topography data in the spectral domain were used to examine the elastic thickness and depths of the structures of the causative measured anomaly. According to the power spectrum analysis results of the gravity data, the averaged Moho depths for the massif, plains, and mountainous areas in Venezuela are 42, 35, and 40 km, respectively. The averaged admittance function computed from the topography and Free-Air anomaly profiles across Mérida Andes showed a good fit for a regional compensation model with an effective elastic thickness of 15 km.

  20. Analysis of factors influencing the overall effect of racecadotril on childhood acute diarrhea. Results from a real-world and post-authorization surveillance study in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose ChacónOn behalf of the Racecadotril Post-authorization Record Group; Centro Clinico Profesional Caracas, Caracas, VenezuelaAbstract: Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 ± 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9–19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In

  1. Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, G.D. [Pantera Petroleum Inc., San Leandro, CA (United States)

    1995-06-19

    Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

  2. Consumption of agro-industrial supplies by the baker subsector of Palmira, Valle, Colombia. Consumo de insumos agroindustriales por el subsector panificador de Palmira, Valle del Cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme J Wilson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The indicators of agroindustrial consumption in the bakers subsector Pymes play a primary role for designing sustainable strategies for the small craftsman of bread. The administrative, operative and human talent subsystems were evaluated, in 30 of 178 organizations that conformed the bakers subsystems of Palmira on 2005. The estimated annual consumption of wheat flour on 2004 was 2016 t; 348 t of sugar; 240 t of cheese; 54 t of salt; 492 t of margarine; 99 t of yeast; 151200 panels of eggs. With regarding to raw materials it consumes 384000 m3 of natural gas; 1.2 million kw of electric power and 156000 m3 of water. The sector generates 681 direct employments. Map is presented with the location of 86% of the bakeries registered in the Trade Chamber. There is not a unique bakery that had implemented a program of Good Manufacture Practices BPM in an integral way, that meets the National Institute of Medications and Foods Surveillance INVIMA Standars, that has of a system of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP or have been is to be certified with Quality Assuring Standars (ISO 9000, and/or Environmental Administration (ISO 14000, with occupational health programs (OHSAS 18000 and permanent improvement programs relative to administrative and commercial aspects.Los indicadores de consumo agroindustrial en las Pymes del subsector panificador resultan apremiantes para el diseño de estrategias de sostenibilidad para los pequeños artesanos del pan. Se evaluaron los subsistemas administrativos, talento humano y operativo en 30 de las 178 organizaciones que conformaron el subsistema panificador de Palmira en el 2005. El consumo estimado anual para el 2004 de harina de trigo fue 2.016 t; 348 t de azúcar; 240 t de queso; 54 t de sal; 492 t de margarina; 99 t de levadura; 151.200 paneles de huevos. En materias primas auxiliares consume 384.000 m3 de gas natural; 1.2 millones de kw de energía eléctrica y 156.000 m3 de agua. El sector genera

  3. Analysis of factors influencing the overall effect of racecadotril on childhood acute diarrhea. Results from a real-world and post-authorization surveillance study in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Jose

    2010-07-21

    Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 +/- 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9-19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In conclusion, the racecadotril overall effect, evaluated in a real-world setting of Venezuela, was in agreement with results of some earlier controlled trials. It

  4. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  5. Consumption of agro-industrial supplies by the baker subsector of Palmira, Valle, Colombia. Consumo de insumos agroindustriales por el subsector panificador de Palmira, Valle del Cauca.

    OpenAIRE

    Adarme J Wilson; Álvarez P. Camilo

    2007-01-01

    The indicators of agroindustrial consumption in the bakers subsector Pymes play a primary role for designing sustainable strategies for the small craftsman of bread. The administrative, operative and human talent subsystems were evaluated, in 30 of 178 organizations that conformed the bakers subsystems of Palmira on 2005. The estimated annual consumption of wheat flour on 2004 was 2016 t; 348 t of sugar; 240 t of cheese; 54 t of salt; 492 t of margarine; 99 t of yeast; 151200 panels of eggs. ...

  6. Estimating Venezuelas Latent Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Bencomo; Hugo J. Montesinos; Hugo M. Montesinos; Jose Roberto Rondo

    2011-01-01

    Percent variation of the consumer price index (CPI) is the inflation indicator most widely used. This indicator, however, has some drawbacks. In addition to measurement errors of the CPI, there is a problem of incongruence between the definition of inflation as a sustained and generalized increase of prices and the traditional measure associated with the CPI. We use data from 1991 to 2005 to estimate a complementary indicator for Venezuela, the highest inflation country in Latin America. Late...

  7. The policy process in a petro-state. An analysis of PDVSA's (Petroleos de Venezuela SA's) internationalisation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, C.E. [Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-07-01

    Venezuela offers a unique case and fertile ground for the study of oil policy-making processes. In the specialised literature very little attention has been paid to the nature and operations of multinationals from developing countries. By analysing Petroleos de Venezuela SA's (PDVSA's) internationalisation policy, this unique book explores the difficulties encountered by a major state oil enterprise in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. This informative study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policy-making in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. (author)

  8. Spatial Analysis of Dengue Seroprevalence and Modeling of Transmission Risk Factors in a Dengue Hyperendemic City of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti-Gonzalez, Maria F.; Grillet, María-Eugenia; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Lizarazo, Erley F.; Amarista, Manuel A.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Comach, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) transmission is spatially heterogeneous. Hence, to stratify dengue prevalence in space may be an efficacious strategy to target surveillance and control efforts in a cost-effective manner particularly in Venezuela where dengue is hyperendemic and public health resources are scarce. Here, we determine hot spots of dengue seroprevalence and the risk factors associated with these clusters using local spatial statistics and a regression modeling approach. Methodology/Principal Findings From August 2010 to January 2011, a community-based cross-sectional study of 2012 individuals in 840 households was performed in high incidence neighborhoods of a dengue hyperendemic city in Venezuela. Local spatial statistics conducted at household- and block-level identified clusters of recent dengue seroprevalence (39 hot spot households and 9 hot spot blocks) in all neighborhoods. However, no clusters were found for past dengue seroprevalence. Clustering of infection was detected at a very small scale (20-110m) suggesting a high disease focal aggregation. Factors associated with living in a hot spot household were occupation (being a domestic worker/housewife (P = 0.002), lower socio-economic status (living in a shack (P<0.001), sharing a household with <7 people (P = 0.004), promoting potential vector breeding sites (storing water in containers (P = 0.024), having litter outdoors (P = 0.002) and mosquito preventive measures (such as using repellent, P = 0.011). Similarly, low socio-economic status (living in crowded conditions, P<0.001), having an occupation of domestic worker/housewife (P = 0.012) and not using certain preventive measures against mosquitoes (P<0.05) were directly associated with living in a hot spot block. Conclusions/Significance Our findings contribute to a better comprehension of the spatial dynamics of dengue by assessing the relationship between disease clusters and their risk factors. These results can inform health authorities

  9. Spatial Analysis of Dengue Seroprevalence and Modeling of Transmission Risk Factors in a Dengue Hyperendemic City of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti-Gonzalez, Maria F; Grillet, María-Eugenia; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I; Lizarazo, Erley F; Amarista, Manuel A; Sierra, Gloria M; Comach, Guillermo; Tami, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) transmission is spatially heterogeneous. Hence, to stratify dengue prevalence in space may be an efficacious strategy to target surveillance and control efforts in a cost-effective manner particularly in Venezuela where dengue is hyperendemic and public health resources are scarce. Here, we determine hot spots of dengue seroprevalence and the risk factors associated with these clusters using local spatial statistics and a regression modeling approach. From August 2010 to January 2011, a community-based cross-sectional study of 2012 individuals in 840 households was performed in high incidence neighborhoods of a dengue hyperendemic city in Venezuela. Local spatial statistics conducted at household- and block-level identified clusters of recent dengue seroprevalence (39 hot spot households and 9 hot spot blocks) in all neighborhoods. However, no clusters were found for past dengue seroprevalence. Clustering of infection was detected at a very small scale (20-110m) suggesting a high disease focal aggregation. Factors associated with living in a hot spot household were occupation (being a domestic worker/housewife (P = 0.002), lower socio-economic status (living in a shack (P<0.001), sharing a household with <7 people (P = 0.004), promoting potential vector breeding sites (storing water in containers (P = 0.024), having litter outdoors (P = 0.002) and mosquito preventive measures (such as using repellent, P = 0.011). Similarly, low socio-economic status (living in crowded conditions, P<0.001), having an occupation of domestic worker/housewife (P = 0.012) and not using certain preventive measures against mosquitoes (P<0.05) were directly associated with living in a hot spot block. Our findings contribute to a better comprehension of the spatial dynamics of dengue by assessing the relationship between disease clusters and their risk factors. These results can inform health authorities in the design of surveillance and control activities. Focalizing

  10. A Test for Relative Efficiency in the Smallholder Tea Sub-sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite availability of tea growing technologies to all Kenya tea farmers, green leaf production in smallholder sub-sector remains low. Tea in Kenya is grown in the East of the Rift Valley and the West of the Rift Valley regions. It is assumed that tea farms behave according to a certain decision rule termed as profit ...

  11. Venezuela y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cardozo de da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela es uno de los principales actores económicos de América Latina, de allí la importancia de conocer las características de su política exterior. Los desarreglos de la política exterior hacia el caribe pueden ser resueltos si se les comprende en su dimensión local y global. En este sentido es necesario avanzar del espacio "inter-societal" de la preocupación estrictamente comercial a los espacios culturales y de cooperación técnica.

  12. del estado Amazonas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Rondón-R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aporta información sobre 12 especies forestales de uso en la cestería por las comunidades de la etnia Piaroa del Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Los productos de cestería más comunes son los bolsos (Darúafa, catumares (Phäjphá, cesta o red de pesca (Máya, cesta de pescar (Kawita, esteras (Deaka guayares, manares (Rütújkä mapires (Dejäcke, petacas (Rútupja, sebucanes (ärá y yoperas (Daruwapja. Las especies vegetales de mayor uso en esta actividad correspondieron a la familia Arecaceae (Palmae con siete especies, mientras que, las familias Araceae, Maranthaceae, Annonaceae, Lecythidaceae y Malpighiaceae están representadas por una especie cada una.

  13. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  14. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  15. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  16. Kaos. Venezuelas top flirter med Hizbollah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked.......Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked....

  17. Venezuela: A Full-Year Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higdon, Melody

    2006-01-01

    This Country Climatology Digest is a climatological study of Venezuela. After describing the geography and major meteorological features of the entire region, the study discusses in detail the climatic controls of Venezuela's weather...

  18. Los archivos Universitarios de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Alí Enrique López Bohórquez

    2006-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es hacer un balance sobre los Archivos de las principales Universidades de Venezuela, se incluyen consideraciones acerca del Archivo Universitario como gestión administrativa e investigaci ón histórica, antecedentes sobre propuestas sobre la situación actual de algunos repositorios documentales universitarios, la necesidad de un Sistema Nacional de Archivos Universitarios en Venezuela, el mecanismo para la formulación del SINARU y la comisión encargada de ponerlo...

  19. On the absence of the Green-tailed TrainbearerLesbia nuna(Trochilidae) from Venezuela: an analysis based on environmental niche modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoni Perazzi, Paolo; Schuchmann, Karl L; Ablan Bortone, Magdiel; Soto Werschitz, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Lesbia nuna , a hummingbird distributed in the tropical Andes, has been included in Venezuela's bird list on the basis of a specimen collected in 1873 at Sierra Nevada, Mérida and deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, with no further records for this country since then. This record, largely considered as valid by most authors, has been questioned by others, although without formal analyses. The potential habitat range of the Green-Tailed Trainbearer, Lesbia nuna gouldii (Trochilidae), in the northern Andes from Ecuador to Venezuela was modelled, using maximum entropy niche modelling, environmental covariates and records from locations across the Colombian Andes. The predicted suitable habitat range corresponded well to the known range of the subspecies L. n. gouldii in Colombia and clearly excluded Sierra Nevada. Therefore, these analyses suggest that this species should be removed from the Venezuelan bird list.

  20. Consumo de insumos agroindustriales por el subsector panificador de palmira, valle del cauca.

    OpenAIRE

    Adarme J, Wilson; Álvarez P., Camilo

    2007-01-01

    Los indicadores de consumo agroindustrial en las Pymes del subsector panificador resultan apremiantes para el diseño de estrategias de sostenibilidad para los pequeños artesanos del pan. Se evaluaron los subsistemas administrativos, talento humano y operativo en 30 de las 178 organizaciones que conformaron el subsistema panificador de Palmira en el 2005. El consumo estimado anual para el 2004 de harina de trigo fue 2.016 t; 348 t de azúcar; 240 t de queso; 54 t de sal; 492 t de margarina; 99 ...

  1. Stock return, seasonality and asymmetric conditional volatility in steel & iron subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chirila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained following the testing of five hypotheses regarding conditional return and volatility of the most listed European stocks in the steel & iron subsector. The following elements of the stocks are analysed: time variation of volatility, seasonality of return and volatility, relationship between return and volatility and volatility asymmetry. The results obtained confirm for all the analyzed stocks the existence of volatility variation in time, the lack of correlation between return and volatility, the existence of asymmetry phenomenon of volatility and the presence in some stocks of the seasonality effect both for return and volatility.

  2. Analysis of factors influencing the overall effect of racecadotril on childhood acute diarrhea. Results from a real-world and post-authorization surveillance study in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Chacón

    2010-01-01

    Jose ChacónOn behalf of the Racecadotril Post-authorization Record Group; Centro Clinico Profesional Caracas, Caracas, VenezuelaAbstract: Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors in...

  3. Quantitative analysis of the relief in watersheds of the “El Ávila” massif northern hillside (Vargas State, Venezuela and its hydrogeomorphological meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams José Méndez Mata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphological features of the relief and its quantitative morphometric quantification are essential elements in interpreting its influence on the hydrogeomorphological dynamics of watersheds in mountainous environments. This is particularly important when studying small spatial units (micro watersheds and torrential regimes, as this influences the sudden and aggressive hydrological responses of these systems and the likelihood of activation of mass removal processes. In the study region (Vargas State, Venezuela the most important debris flow recorded in Venezuela’s history occurred on December 14, 15 and 16, 1999, as a consequence of extremely heavy rainfall in those dates associated with a very particular weather. For the above reasons, this research conducted a quantitative analysis of the relief features in watersheds of “El Ávila” massive northern hillside and their impact on the local hydrogeomorphological dynamics, aimed at identifying the main attributes influencing these dynamics. The study area is located in the northern-central region of Venezuela, in the central part of Vargas state, delimited by 10º32’25”-10º37’35”N and 66º40’08”- 66º59’12”W, and comprises thirteen micro watersheds of mountainous environment. The methodology consisted of (a the geomorphological characterization of the area, from the review and interpretation of digitized base maps at scales 1:5 000 and 1:25 000, the digital elevation model (DEM, aerial photographs at scale 1:5 000, orthophotomaps at scale 1:25 000, satellite images, Google Earth and Google Maps images, and geomorphological maps (landforms and geomorphological processes at scale 1:25 000; (b measurements and calculations of basic morphometric parameters of watershed relief on digital mapping using the ArcGIS 9.2 and their Spatial Analysis and ArcHydro modules, and the mathematical equations that define the other parameters using MS Excel; (c descriptive statistical

  4. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  5. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

  6. Sequence stratigraphic analysis as an exploration and production tool in the Ceuta Eocene field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argenis, R. (Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1990-05-01

    Oil plays in Ceuta field, as in other areas of the Maracaibo Lake were delineated using the common methodology of standard seismic reflection interpretation. Prospective structures were defined and drilled, and suites of logs were then used for petrophysical evaluation of the section of interest. These established seismic and petrophysical techniques for delineating oil-bearing intervals in the Maracaibo basin failed to perform as expected in Ceuta Eocene. Here, after drilling and coring well VLG-3726 in a prospective structure, it was proven that although logs showed high resistivity in sand intervals with good porosity, it did not necessarily mean commercial hydrocarbon accumulation. To explain this phenomenon, a sequence stratigraphic analysis of the cored 600-ft (200-m) section was done. Results showed that petrophysical evaluation correctly identified sand intervals with good porosity, but in particular instances this porosity was unconnected. For example, sand facies S1 and S2, with good secondary, uneffective porosity was not oil bearing. These facts could explain their sand-log response, high resistivity, and noncommercial oil accumulation. This analysis also explained the role played by depositional and diagenetic processes in delineating sand body geometries and reservoir qualities for proposing an exploration or development program. From this study, the author was concluded that application of rock data through a facies analyst subordinates seismic and petrophysical consideration for hydrocarbon evaluation in this and other areas with similar sedimentological characteristics.

  7. Understanding ICT Adoption Determinants among Indonesian SMEs in Fashion Subsector (47-57

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Setiowati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates factors that affect the adoption of Information Communication and Technology (ICT among SMEs in fashion subsector in Indonesia. This study adopts Technology, Organization, and Environment (TOE framework which consist technological factors such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability;organizational factors such as owner/manager IT knowledge, owner/manager innovativeness;and environmental factors namely competitive pressure, market turbulence, and institutional intervention. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from 204 SME owners/managers. The results show that under technological factors, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability significantly and positively influence ICT adoption. However, relative advantage and complexity have significant but negative influence on ICT adoption. Moreover, the organizational factors namely owner/manager’s knowledge and innovativeness also contribute significantly to the adoption. Furthermore, among three environmental factors, competitive pressure and institutional intervention are determinants that influence ICT adoption in SMEs, whereas market turbulence shows no significant contribution toward the adoption of ICT. This study provides valuable insights for government and policy makers as well as for SMEs owner/managers to develop strategies that promote and foster the adoption of ICT. Keywords: ICT adoption,TOE framework,SMEs,fashion subsector, Indonesia

  8. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  9. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a

  10. [Molecular characterization of Sigmodon hirsutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) populations in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Arrivillaga, Jazzmín; Aguilera, Marisol

    2011-06-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies based on cytochrome b gene sequence, have determined that the species historically known as Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia) from South America comprises a species S. hirsutus of paraphyletic origin. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that populations from Venezuela, represent the sensu strict form, ancestral haplotypes, and monophyletic subspecieS. For this, 12 individual sequences from three localities of different biogeographic regions in Venezuela were evaluated and sequenced based on cyto b. Additionally, the sequences were used to develop a cladistic analysis and genetic distance calculations, and to compare this information with two individual sequences of Sigmodon specimens available in Genbank. Phylogenetic analyses show that the three populations of S. hirsutus of Venezuela form an ancestral and monophyletic subclade supported by high bootstrap values and significant genetic distance between subclade within the S. hirsutus. Besides, the existence of two lineages suggests two subspecies, S. hirsutus hirsutus from Venezuela, and S. hirsutus mexicanus from Mexico-Central America, but, both species need formal description.

  11. [Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela.

  12. 50 CFR 600.1105 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Longline Subsector. Web site means the internet Web site developed and maintained on behalf of the... dates and times of the voting period, which shall be not less than three (3) nor more than seven (7) calendar days from the date of such notice. A voting period shall commence at 9 a.m. (Pacific time) on...

  13. Indigenous territorial rights as a human right; an analysis of the (auto demarcation of indigenous territories process in Venezuela (1999-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bustillos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CBRV recognizes Indigenous Rights; among them, the territorial claims. In agreement with what is stated in the article 119 of the Magna Carta, the right to the territory of these populations is exercised through the public policy of demarcation, which is understood as the process in which its territorial space is disclaimed, made by the State in participation with the peoples and communities to be demarcated, subsequently to entitle the collective ownership for these human beings groups. Fifteen years after the Constitution was approved, this process of delineation has been slow and misleading. This delay has caused that in the present, these human beings groups are being stalked by outside interests (illegal mining, development projects, irregular forces, among others who threaten their existence as distinct cultures; since the right to territory is a fundamental human right for their survival. This article is the result of a field research. In the first part, the study analyzes the Organic Law of Indigenous Peoples and Communities (LOPCI (2005 in Venezuela, with the purpose of clarifying at what stage the territorial demarcation process is paralyzed; and as a result, it describes how many communities and indigenous peoples have been demarcated and entitled from 2005 to 2014.

  14. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Los archivos Universitarios de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Enrique López Bohórquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer un balance sobre los Archivos de las principales Universidades de Venezuela, se incluyen consideraciones acerca del Archivo Universitario como gestión administrativa e investigaci ón histórica, antecedentes sobre propuestas sobre la situación actual de algunos repositorios documentales universitarios, la necesidad de un Sistema Nacional de Archivos Universitarios en Venezuela, el mecanismo para la formulación del SINARU y la comisión encargada de ponerlo en práctica. Todo ello dentro de la perspectiva que un historiador de la Universidad tiene acerca de la importancia de los Archivos Universitarios, así como la necesidad de compartir la experiencia al frente del Archivo Histórico de la Universidad de Los Andes (Mérida-Venezuela, 1996-2000, para lo cual se hace uso tanto de la historia como de la archivística, áreas del conocimiento estrechamente vinculadas y necesarias en el momento de explicar el papel que en el tiempo han cumplido las instituciones de educación superior de nuestro país. El artículo está acompañado del documento aprobadosobre. El Sistema Nacional de Archivos Universitarios Venezolanos.

  16. Aproximación preliminar al estudio de la eficiencia de 5 subsectores de la economía colombiana usando DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isabel Rodríguez Lozano

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo se analizan cinco subsectores de la economía colombiana aplicando una novedosa técnica que mide el desempeño relativo de unidades organizacionales ante la presencia de múltiples entradas y salidas, esta técnica se denomina DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA y ha sido desarrollada prioritariamente por académicos en Estados Unidos. Se han hecho aplicaciones en algunos subsectores y sectores de la economía estadounidense y de países europeos, demostrando ventajas sobre otro tipo de estudios y análisis aportados por el hecho de trabajar simultáneamente con diferentes recursos y diversos outputs; adicionalmente porque optimiza el comportamiento de cada una de las unidades organizacionales comparándolas entre ellas y sacando como fruto un grupo que compone la frontera de aquellas que son eficientes y arrojando datos que analizados reportan para cada una de las no eficientes el comportamiento que debería tener para mejorar su desempeño y lograr estar en este selecto grupo. Es necesario aclarar que las aplicaciones también se pueden adelantar al interior de una sola organización buscando medir el desempeño de los diferentes departamentos, sucursales, etc. con el objetivo de mejorar el desempeño de cada una de estas unidades para que finalmente se refleje en un mejoramiento global de la organización o empresa. En Colombia se está empezando a estudiar este novedoso tema y el trabajo de investigación llevado a cabo para la elaboración de la citada Tesis es hasta el momento uno de los primeros intentos de aplicación es necesario aclarar que no se encontraron investigaciones sobre este tema que hayan sido publicadas.

  17. El subsector empresarial no financiero de la economía social. La fiscalidad de las sociedades cooperativas, sociedades laborales y sociedades agrarias de transformación

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras Roig, Lluís

    2007-01-01

    Tesis: "El subsector empresarial no financiero de la economía social. La fiscalidad de las sociedades cooperativas, sociedades laborales y sociedades agrarias de transformación"El primer capítulo de la tesis lleva por título "El sector de la economía social o tercer sector" y en el se procede a delimitar el sector y a exponer los criterios que permitirán seleccionar y agrupar las entidades que lo componen. Distinguimos el subsector empresarial o de mercado de la economía social y el subsector...

  18. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    Misión de Apoyo Internacional a la Observación de las Elecciones Presidenciales in Venezuela 14 de abril 2013, Instituto de Altos Estudios Europeos...supported the 30 Amnesty International, “Venezuela, Los Derechos Humanos en Riesgo en Medio de Protestas

  19. Child labor and health in a public market, valencia, venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Martini, Maritza; Briceno, Leonardo; Vegas, Zulay; Rodriguez, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study was aimed at determining the living conditions, work practices, health effects and associated occupational risk factors in children working in a public market in Valencia, Venezuela.Methodology A questionnaire was administered which included demographic and exposure variables; a descriptive analysis was then made of the data. Forty-four children were selected. Results The average workday lasted 9.2 ± 3.2 hours/day. Children were most frequently employed...

  20. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  1. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  2. Characterization and Conditions of the Internationalization Process of Companies in the Plastic Products Manufacturing Subsector in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Paul Pereira Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a qualitative research by conducting surveys in 30 companies from the plastic products manufacturing subsector, based on theories of internationalization. It aims to find the main determinants of internationalization of these companies, while characterizing and analyzing evidence by contrasting practice and theory, in order to explain how the dynamics in the sector and its current state are and to propose recommendations for greater competitiveness and efficiency in foreign trade.

  3. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  4. Forecasting Capacity of ARIMA Models; A Study on Croatian Industrial Production and its Sub-sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important indicator for monitoring the production in industry as well as for directing investment decisions, industrial production plays important role within growth perspectives. Not only does the composition and/or fluctuation of the goods produced indicate the course of economic activity but it also reflects the changes in cyclical development of the economy thereby providing opportunity to macro-manage with early signs of (short-term turning-points and (long-term trend variations. In this paper, we compare univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models of the Croatian industrial production and its subsectors in order to evaluate their forecasting features within short and long-term data evolution. The aim of this study is not to forecast industrial production but to analyze the out-of-sample predictive performance of ARIMA models on aggregated and disaggregated level inside different forecasting horizons. Our results suggest that ARIMA models do perform very well over the whole rage of the prediction horizons. It is mainly because univariate models often improve the predictive ability of their single component over the short horizons. In that manner ARIMA modelling could be used at least as a benchmark for more complex forecasting methods in predicting the movements of industrial production in Croatia.

  5. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria.

  6. Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents...

  7. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  8. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  9. VENEZUELA: TEACHING IN TROUBLED TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Oré

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key aspects of the teaching task is to keep up with the advances that continually come up in the areas in which they are experts; Aspect that at times for multiple reasons is not easy that is feasible. The updating in content, new technologies, as well as teaching and learning methodologies is required for the training of competent students capable of performing before their peers. This paper presents how the methodology of Project-Based Learning (ABP applied in the subject "Underground Water" of the civil engineering program of the Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, promoted the exchange of information, training of students in the field of software used In the area, as well as cooperation for the study of real situations in the context of the Lara state aquifers in Venezuela

  10. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  11. Reflections of the Capitalization on Operational Leasing in Transport Subsector Companie's Structure Indicators Listed on Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Gomes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an alternative to financing the acquisition of assets for entities, and it has like modalities the operating procedures and financial leasing. This type of operation has caused several theoretical obstacles, among them the issue of off-balance sheet transactions. To reduce these accounting inconsistencies, the IASB and FASB have been working together to standardize the subject, this result was the publication of Exposure Draft 2010/09 (ED, which promises significant changes in the treatment of such transactions. Given this, this study aimed to analyze the impacts of the proposed changes contained in the ED, as the capitalization of operating leases, in the structure indicators at transportation subsector companies listed on the Bovespa. For this, we used the simulation methodology of the proposals in ED, confirming previous research. After the simulation accomplished, we proceeded with the Student's t test for paired samples, in order to check if the expected changes may cause significant differences in the indicators tested. The evidence points in the year of 2011, an amount of $ 3.8 billion, related to operating leases, not moved by the balance sheet (off-balance sheet of their respective companies. It was also observed that, on average, sample firms have operating leases to pay equivalent to 18.46% equity and 16.14% of debt. Finally, by simulating the proposals in the ED, it was found that the indicators of debt, equity and immobilization of the detention of non-current resources show significant variation from the statistical point of view, due to the capitalization of operating lease balances.

  12. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  13. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  14. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-10-07

    Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10-12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001-2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. From 2007-2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at-risk in the country. Consequently, the two

  15. El Fenomeno Chavez: Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Venezuela’s state owned oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela. Ever seeking opportunities to provoke the giant United States, Chavez agreed to provide...controlled joint “El Fenomeno Chavez” . . . 9 venture, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). Exxon Mobil Corporation decided to sell their stakes among...exploited. 9. Major oil companies in Venezuela: 1. Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA) – government-owned; generates 1/3 of national GDP; monopolized the

  16. The Life Science Exchange: a case study of a sectoral and sub-sectoral knowledge exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Brian Lee; Garlick, Rob; Wren, Jodie; Smart, Jon; Kennedy, Julie; Stephens, Phil; Tudor, Gwyn; Bisson, Jonathan; Ford, David V

    2016-04-27

    Local and national governments have implemented sector-specific policies to support economic development through innovation, entrepreneurship and knowledge exchange. Supported by the Welsh Government through the European Regional Development Fund, The Life Science Exchange® project was created with the aim to increase interaction between stakeholders, to develop more effective knowledge exchange mechanisms, and to stimulate the formation and maintenance of long-term collaborative relationships within the Welsh life sciences ecosystem. The Life Science Exchange allowed participants to interact with other stakeholder communities (clinical, academic, business, governmental), exchange perspectives and discover new opportunities. Six sub-sector focus groups comprising over 200 senior stakeholders from academia, industry, the Welsh Government and National Health Service were established. Over 18 months, each focus group provided input to inform healthcare innovation policy and knowledge mapping exercises of their respective sub-sectors. Collaborative projects identified during the focus groups and stakeholder engagement were further developed through sandpit events and bespoke support. Each sub-sector focus group produced a report outlining the significant strengths and opportunities in their respective areas of focus, made recommendations to overcome any 'system failures', and identified the stakeholder groups which needed to take action. A second outcome was a stakeholder-driven knowledge mapping exercise for each area of focus. Finally, the sandpit events and bespoke support resulted in participants generating more than £1.66 million in grant funding and inward investment. This article outlines four separate outcomes from the Life Science Exchange programme. The Life Science Exchange process has resulted in a multitude of collaborations, projects, inward investment opportunities and special interest group formations, in addition to securing over ten times its own

  17. Espacios culturales comunitarios en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, José Adolfo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The community centre programme in Venezuela (ECC,Spanish initials for Espacios Culturales Comunitarios wasundertaken in 2001 on the initiative of the Deputy Ministry ofCulture’s Department of Cultural Buildings. The idea was todesign an extremely simple, flexible and inexpensive system,readily applicable all across the country and suitable for atropical climate. The programme was headed by ProfessorJuan Pedro Posani, who created the architectural design forthese centres. Engineer José Adolfo Peña and architectCarmen Yáñez authored the structural and buildingengineering. The solutions devised to meet constructionrequirements were based on two principles: the choice of alightweight prefabricated building system and the definition ofthe extreme climatic conditions characteristic of the tropics asthe core issue to be addressed.In terms of architectural and humanist policy, the project is anarchitectural commitment to the environment, buildingtechnology and the conditions and demands of a clearlydisadvantaged social community.El programa de los Espacios Culturales Comunitarios (ECCen Venezuela surge de la dirección de EdificacionesCulturales del ViceMinisterio de Cultura en el año 2001. Laidea consiste en diseñar un sistema extremadamente sencillo,flexible y económico que pueda multiplicarse rápidamentepor todo el país y que sea capaz de responderadecuadamente a las condiciones contextuales del trópico. Elprograma ha sido dirigido por el profesor Juan PedroPosani, quien concibió la arquitectura de los mismos. Laconcepción estructural y constructiva es obra del ingenieroJose Adolfo Peña y de la arquitecta Carmen Yáñez. Larespuesta a las condiciones de partida se basó en dosprincipios: la elección de un sistema de prefabricación ligeray la consideración en primer plano de las condicionesclimáticas extremas propias del trópico.El proyecto, en términos de arquitectura y de política humanista,es un compromiso arquitect

  18. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50, 7202.21.75... Venezuela. Accordingly, effective July 19, 2013, the Commission instituted antidumping duty investigation...

  19. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and...

  20. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  1. Ceuta-Tomoporo field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, E.R.; Fernando Marcano, R. (Maraven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1990-09-01

    Ceuta field is located in the southeastern part of the Maracaibo basin, western Venezuela. The field is a conspicuous high belonging to the Pueblo Viejo trend, a set of strike-slip faults trending northwest. The field has an area of 320 km and is divided into eight fault-bounded blocks where light- or medium-grade oil is being produced. The structural framework is characterized by a major left-slip fault and oil accumulations are associated with compressive and extensive structural features. The deposition of Eocene sediments in some areas may have been controlled by normal faulting and a period of shortening may have altered the character of some of the faults during the late Eocene or later. The main producing intervals are shallow-water marine or fluviodeltaic Miocene and Eocene sands with porosities ranging from 8 to 15% and a production potential of up to 3,500 BOPD from depths averaging 5,182 m (17,000 ft). The reservoirs seem to contain mixtures of hydrocarbons, probably due to the generation of oil in more than one oil kitchen and/or at different migration times from a common drainage area.

  2. Pobreza y asistencialismo en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritza Alvarado Chacín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de contribuir a discernir la compleja problemática de la pobreza y de sus posibles salidas, en este trabajo se discuten algunas razones que explicarían la continuidad del estilo asistencial compensatorio focalizado, propio de la política social neoliberal, en la actual estrategia venezolana de atención a la pobreza, pese a que el discurso del presente gobierno se opone frontalmente a dicho modelo. Destacan, entre otros, dos factores básicos: 1 la vigencia de los mecanismos psicológicos del rentismo, manifiesto en la cultura clientelar aún internalizada en el venezolano, tanto en los ciudadanos como en los gobernantes, a pesar de los cambios de la coyuntura económica y sociopolítica del país, y 2 la importancia político-estratégica del asistencialismo en función del objetivo prioritario, no declarado, de mantener una relativa paz social, legitimidad política, estabilidad del gobierno y del régimen democrático. Se señalan riesgos potenciales del asistencialismo y se bosquejan algunos de los prerrequisitos que hoy exige el enfrentamiento a la pobreza en Venezuela.

  3. Democracia y conflicto en Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda el tema de la democracia en Venezuela desde una perspectiva múltiple y variada. Parte de la consideración de un conjunto de variables (papel del Estado en la sociedad globalizada, la política y el ejercicio del poder, la economía, la política social, los movimientos sociales y las protestas colectivas, medio ambiente y grupos étnicos para realizar una ponderación del curso y los retos de la sociedad democrática venezolana en el período 1988-2008. El trabajo maneja el análisis desde la óptica de la comparación histórica, la historia crítica, la sociología histórica y el pensamiento político para establecer las principales tendencias que ha adquirido la democracia venezolana en cada una de esas variables en el período estudiado, así como la prospectiva que pueden adquirir en los próximos años.

  4. Modelo de evaluación de gestión de empresas industriales del subsector de empaques y envases plásticos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar de Jesús Montilla Galvis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra una propuesta de modelo de evaluación de gestión aplicable a las empresas industriales del subsector de empaques y envases plásticos, producto de investigación teórica y de campo, como avance del proyecto de investigación titulado Modelos de evaluación de gestión, que se realiza dentro del Grupo de Investigación en Contabilidad, Finanzas y Gestión Pública.Este avance de investigación corresponde al estudio efectuado en empresas del subsector, en el Valle del Cauca, subsector que fue seleccionado ya que representa más del 52% de la producción nacional.

  5. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  6. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  7. Institutional Interplay in Natural Resources Governance: Toward a Sub-Sectoral Approach for Medicinal Plants Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Shahidullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the significance of medicinal plants for rural livelihoods and primary healthcare, this paper attempted to analyze institutional interplays in medicinal plants management in Bangladesh. It assessed the governing process of natural resources by identifying cross-scale linkages of the institutions involved with managing medicinal plants. The study intended to delineate the interactional patterns and dynamics between existing formal and informal organizations toward exploring prospects of new medicinal plants governance institutions. Employing case study and participatory approaches to empirical field investigation, two intervention cases of the Livelihood and Agro-Forestry (LEAF and Sustainable Environmental Management Program (SEMP were assessed in two different social-ecological settings of the country. Involving 45 respondents in each site, Focus Group Discussions were carried out, and a total of 26 Key Informants were interviewed. The findings have revealed that undefined roles and responsibilities, inadequate coordination, and weak linkages among the cross-scale institutions resulted in ineffective management and relatively poor performance. Institutions with direct or indirect involvement in the process of managing medicinal plants interacted haphazardly, without much focus on the subsector and its local producers. Addressing the weaknesses, this study calls for formulating a national sub-sectoral approach focusing on strengthening and sustaining local producers and value addition to producer levels. Finally, this research offers a framework for developing a multi-stakeholder forum to govern medicinal plant resources coherently and effectively in Bangladesh.

  8. Modelo de evaluación de gestión de empresas industriales del subsector de empaques y envases plásticos.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar de Jesús Montilla Galvis

    2005-01-01

    El presente artículo muestra una propuesta de modelo de evaluación de gestión aplicable a las empresas industriales del subsector de empaques y envases plásticos, producto de investigación teórica y de campo, como avance del proyecto de investigación titulado Modelos de evaluación de gestión, que se realiza dentro del Grupo de Investigación en Contabilidad,Finanzas y Gestión Pública.Este avance de investigación corresponde al estudio efectuado en empresas del subsector, en el Valle del Cauca,...

  9. REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs.  The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative

  10. Venezuela electoral 2012: escenarios y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Trak Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de estas líneas es reflexionar sobre los posibles escenarios que se pueden dar en Venezuela a partir de las elecciones presidenciales del 7 de octubre, en donde se juega la reelección de Hugo Chávez Frías (HCF. Para ello es necesario hacer un breve recorrido por la historia política reciente de Venezuela, cómo llega HCF al poder y los hitos más importantes que han marcado sus mandatos desde 1998.

  11. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  12. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  13. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE VENEZUELA ROUND STINGRAY UROTRYGON VENEZUELAE SCHULTZ FROM THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY ACEVEDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As for most batoid species, little is known about the basic biology of the Venezuela round stingray Urotrygon venezuelae (Urotrygonidae. This study presents information about the reproductive biology of the species, including fecundity, embryonic development stage, relationship between maternal size and fecundity, gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, sex ratios, maturity size and size at birth. With all this information, a preliminary reproductive cycle is proposed. A total of 269 specimens were caught with beach seine in Salguero beach, Colombian Caribbean Sea, between August 2005 and October 2006. We propose for U. venezuelae a biological cycle with three reproductive peaks: November-December, March-April and August. Size at sexual maturity was calculated in 176 mm (total length for females and 227 mm for males; fecundity ranged between one and six embryos per female. We found that cloacal diameter and liver weight were better predictors for fecundity than total length for U. venezuelae.

  14. Sistema de salud de Venezuela The health system of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Bonvecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Venezuela, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos humanos y materiales con los que cuenta, y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Este sistema cuenta con un sector público y un sector privado. El sector público está constituido por el Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud (MS y diversas instituciones de seguridad social, dentro de las que destaca el Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS. El MS se financia con recursos del gobierno central, estados y municipios. El IVSS se financia con cotizaciones patronales, cotizaciones de los trabajadores y con aportes del gobierno. Ambas instituciones cuentan con su propia red de atención ambulatoria y hospitalaria. El sector privado está constituido por prestadores de servicios que reciben pagos de bolsillo y por compañías aseguradoras. El sistema de salud venezolano atraviesa por un proceso de reforma desde la aprobación de la Constitución de 1999 que plantea la creación de un Sistema Público Nacional de Salud cuya punta de lanza hoy es el programa Barrio Adentro.This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS. The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999

  15. The paramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, A.N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal paramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based oil analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  16. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  17. The páramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello A., N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal páramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based on analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  18. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people…

  19. The history of aeronautical medicine in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Aerial Medical Service of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Venezuela was created on June 1949, and later became the Department of Aeronautical Medicine. Its functions include the medical examinations of future pilots, navigators and flight engineers. The importance of good mental and physical health in all flight and ground personnel to ensure the safety of air travel is discussed.

  20. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  1. Occupational Safety and Health in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, Yohama

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela has pioneered a preventive-focused and comprehensive movement for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Latin America. However, despite being an oil-rich country, it has some of the lowest salaries for their workers and highest levels of hyperinflation, devaluation, crime, and violence of the world. Review the current status and challenges on relevant aspects of OSH in Venezuela. Review of literature and documents from national governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and the Venezuelan government concerning OSH and related topics since 1986. Reformed in 2005, the Organic Law on Prevention, Conditions and Environment (LOPCYMAT) was a fundamental moment of change for OSH. Factors which have impacted OSH the strongest are (i) the creation of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (INPSASEL) and (ii) the socioeconomic crisis Venezuela is going through. Venezuela's laws are innovative and yet non-compliance is enormous. Almost half of the population works in the informal sector. Following the International Labor Office projections, 5 people die per day in Venezuela due to occupational accidents or diseases, making health and safety at work a luxury rather than a right. The quality of life for the average worker has deteriorated, affecting not only health but the overall well-being of all Venezuelans. The political and socio-economic situation has led to a mass exodus of more than 1.6 million highly qualified and talented professionals. Many statistics concerning OSH are not updated and are unreliable regarding occupational accidents and diseases. There is a substantial difference between what is written to protect individual Venezuelans in the workplace and the reality of workplace conditions. Substantial governmental actions are needed in the immediate future to improve occupational safety and health of Venezuelan workers. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gasto social y consolidación de la sobrepoblación relativa en Venezuela durante el chavismo (1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina De Luca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the administration of Hugo Chavez, social expenditure in Venezuela expanded in relative and absolute terms simultaneously with the increase in oil revenues. Expenditures even went beyond the levels reached during the previous oil boom in the 1970s, particularly due to the expenditures in social security. Based on an analysis of Venezuela's social and economic structure, we show that this increase is aimed mostly towards the working population that is increasingly seen as excess workers. The increase in expenditure substantially improves the living conditions of this group. However, since there is no change in capital accumulation in Venezuela, this group continues to consolidate itself as excess wokers.

  3. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of...: December 23, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Irene Gorelik (Russia) or Kabir Archuletta (Venezuela... the Russian Federation (``Russia'') and Venezuela.\\1\\ The Initiation Notice stated that, unless...

  4. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representation

  5. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-05

    spire________________ NOY NCESSAILY AYNORI’ATIV 21 ENDNOTES lCurso do Formacion Socio- Politica , Historia de la Lucha Armada en Venezuela, 1960-1969, 3. 2 Colonel...Mas Alla del Deber. Caracas: Ministerio de la Defensa, November 1989. Curso de Formacion Socio- Politica . Historia de la Lucha Armada en Venezuela...revolution on the Venezuelan communists, giving them ideas about a similar undertaking; and the continuing deterioration of living standards in Venezuela

  6. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-04

    America, 2006, preliminary version, December 2006. 47 Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), República Bolivariana de Venezuela , “Línea de Pobreza ...Order Code RL32488 Venezuela : Political Conditions and U.S. Policy Updated September 4, 2007 Mark P. Sullivan Specialist in Latin American Affairs...DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Venezuela : Political Conditions and U.S. Policy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  7. Colombia and Venezuela: steady progress - but when?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Changes in the prospects for Colombia`s Carbocoal exports from Cerrejon/Cesar deposits and Venezuela`s Carbozulia/Guasare in the last nine months are noted. Carbocoal are now responsible only for marketing Cerrejan Norte coal and are being prepared for privatisation, although this is unlikely to take place in the near future. Carbocoal can only compete in Northwest Europe and the Americas, and quality is low. Prodeco has taken over Cerrejan Central where facilities are being improved, Carbones del Caribe now operate La Jagua and Oreganal. Other projects still face problems. No significant changes have taken place in the Venezuelan coal industry in the last nine months. New projects are being developed in the Guasare Basin will give impetus to intended infrastructure improvements, including the proposed port at Pararu. Exports should double from 5 mt by the end of the century. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Maduro’s term, through 2018 . Organization of American States (OAS) Secretary General Luis Almagro invoked the Inter-American Democratic Charter on the...22 Misión de Apoyo Internacional a la Observación de las Elecciones Presidenciales in Venezuela 14 de abril 2013, Instituto de Altos Estudios...Venezuela’s April 2013 Presidential Elections,” The Carter Center, May 22, 2014; Misión de estudio del Centro Carter, elecciones presidenciales en

  9. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Observatory (Observatorio Venezolanao de Violencia , OVV).16 Reported kidnappings have increased over the past decade, from 50 in 1998 to 385 in 2008, but the...Oficina Nacional Antidrogas,Observatorio Venezolano de Drogas, Estadísticas, Incautaciones y Detenidos por Delito de Drogas en Venezuela, ONA-OVD- O -IE-51...continued) prepared testimony by Dennis C. Blair, Director of National Intelligence, February 2, 2009, p. 33. 108 Juan O . Tamayo, “Missile

  10. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  11. An analysis of labor and multifactor productivity in air transportation : 1990 - 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The analysis has two main objectives: 1) to examine : labor productivity and multifactor productivity : (MFP) in U.S. air transportation during the 1990 : to 2001 period and to compare these measures to : those of two other transportation subsectors ...

  12. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  13. Molecular detection and characterization of Aichi viruses in sewage-polluted waters of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Ana; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Zambrano, José L; Betancourt, Walter; Liprandi, Ferdinando

    2010-06-01

    The circulation of Aichi virus in a major urban area was demonstrated using molecular detection with samples recovered from a major river polluted with sewage discharges in Caracas, Venezuela. Five out of 11 water samples studied were positive, being classified by phylogenetic analysis as genotype B. Analysis of sewage waters appears to be a useful methodology to uncover the presence of a hitherto undetected fecal pathogen in a given geographical area.

  14. Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

    This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela,…

  15. Institutions for safe and inclusive cities in Venezuela | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caracas, Venezuela, is one of the most violent cities in the world with a homicide rate of 122 per 100,000 inhabitants. Urban violence experts believe that social and income inequalities are highly correlated with the incidence of violence, but this does not hold true in this context. In fact, Venezuela has the lowest level of ...

  16. Análisis estratégico del sector envasador de aceite de oliva en España. Recomendaciones para el subsector cooperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Pelayo Díaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone, a partir de un análisis dafo en el sector envasador de aceite de oliva en España, un posicionamiento producto-mercado para el subsector productor cooperativo, con el objeto de encontrar estrategias para que éste participe en el sistema agroalimentario no sólo en la fase de producción, sino también en las actividades comercializadoras orientadas al consumidor final.

  17. Análisis retrospectivo de los proyectos de ciencia, tecnología e innovación del subsector pecuario financiados por Colciencias, 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Baquero Parra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre las herramientas que ofrece Colciencias para lograr sus objetivos como entidad rectora del Sistema Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, se encuentran las convocatorias públicas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es identificar y analizar los proyectos financiados por Colciencias durante el periodo 1991-2010 en temáticas correspondientes al subsector pecuario. Para esto se empleó la base de datos de registro de proyectos de Colciencias, a fin de identificar los proyectos del subsector pecuario financiados desde 1991 hasta el 2010. De cada proyecto se identificó el área temática, la especie animal objeto del proyecto, el tipo de entidad ejecutora, el departamento de ejecución y el programa nacional responsable del seguimiento. Durante el periodo de interés, Colciencias financió 4839 proyectos, de los cuales 218 corresponden al subsector pecuario, siendo el 2009 el año con un mayor número de proyectos financiados (23 en este subsector. El área temática con un mayor número de proyectos financiados es acuicultura y pesca seguida de sanidad animal y sistemas de producción, con 86, 39 y 24 proyectos financiados, respectivamente. Las especies objeto del mayor número de proyectos financiados fueron las acuáticas (86 proyectos y los bovinos (80 proyectos. Las entidades ejecutoras fueron en su mayoría universidades públicas, seguidas por institutos de investigación y CENI; los departamentos de ejecución fueron Bogotá, Antioquia y Cundinamarca con 29,55, 13,64 y 13,64 %, respectivamente. Finalmente, los programas nacionales que hicieron seguimiento a un mayor número de proyectos son agropecuario, mar y recursos hidrobiológicos y biotecnología.

  18. A stable demand for money despite financial crisis: The case of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for broad money in Venezuela, over a period of financial crisis and substantial exchange rate fluctuations. The analysis shows that there exist a long run relationship between real money, real income, inflation, the exchange rate and the domestic interest rate, that remains stable over major policy changes and large shocks. The long run properties emphasize that both inflation and exchange rate depreciations have negative effects on real money demand. The lo...

  19. [Child labor and health in a public market, Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maritza; Vegas, Zulay; Briceño, Leonardo; Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed at determining the living conditions, work practices, health effects and associated occupational risk factors in children working in a public market in Valencia, Venezuela. A questionnaire was administered which included demographic and exposure variables; a descriptive analysis was then made of the data. Forty-four children were selected. The average workday lasted 9.2 + or - 3.2 hours/day. Children were most frequently employed in selling provisions and fruit (43.2 %); 22.7 % of them were evidently backward at school. The symptoms most reported were headache (84%), stress (59.1 %) and fatigue (58.2 %). Occupational accidents were reported by 11.4 % of the children and 2.3 % had suffered an occupational disease related to their present activity. The most frequently occurring occupational risks were discomfort caused by heat (93.2 %), noise (88.6 %) and repetitive work (84.1 %). A significant, indirect correlation was found between age and stress (p=0.04), as in publications showing that the negative impact of stress is more severe in children aged less than 10. It was determined that being a minor had greater significant association with the occupational risk of having greater exposure to organic toxic waste (p=0.017) and working under pressure (p=0.04). There is no systematic data collection programme for assessing child labour in Venezuela even though a variety of risk factors have been identified and perceived for children. More sensitive indicators are required for the early identification of effects and how to control exposure to the risks mentioned above so that the problem can be studied in greater depth.

  20. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  1. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo.

  2. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  3. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  4. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  5. Consumo de insumos agroindustriales por el subsector panificador de Palmira, Valle del Cauca. Indicadores de subsistemas Administrativo, Talento Humano y Operativo Consumption of agro-industrial supplies by the baker subsector of Palmira, Valle, Colombia . Indicators of administrative, operative and human talent subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Adarme J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los indicadores de consumo agroindustrial en las Pymes del subsector panificador resultan apremiantes para el diseño de estrategias de sostenibilidad para los pequeños artesanos del pan. Se evaluaron los subsistemas administrativos, talento humano y operativo en 30 de las 178 organizaciones que conformaron el subsistema panificador de Palmira en el 2005. El consumo estimado anual para el 2004 de harina de trigo fue 2.016 t; 348 t de azúcar; 240 t de queso; 54 t de sal; 492 t de margarina; 99 t de levadura; 151.200 paneles de huevos. En materias primas auxiliares consume 384.000 m3 de gas natural; 1.2 millones de kw de energía eléctrica y 156.000 m3 de agua. El sector genera 681 empleos directos. Se presenta mapa con la ubicación del 86% de las panaderías registradas en la Cámara de Comercio. No existe una sola panadería que en forma integral haya implementado un programa de Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura-BPM, que cumpla con las normas del (INVIMA, que disponga de un sistema de Análisis de Peligros y Puntos Críticos de Control (HACCP, que esté certificada con normas sobre aseguramiento de calidad (ISO 9000, y/o Gestión Ambiental (ISO 14000, con programas de salud ocupacional (OHSAS 18000 y programas de mejora permanente en aspectos administrativos y comerciales.The indicators of agroindustrial consumption in the bakers subsector Pymes play a primary role for designing sustainable strategies for the small craftsman of bread. The administrative, operative and human talent subsystems were evaluated, in 30 of 178 organizations that conformed the bakers subsystems of Palmira on 2005. The estimated annual consumption of wheat flour on 2004 was 2016 t; 348 t of sugar; 240 t of cheese; 54 t of salt; 492 t of margarine; 99 t of yeast; 151200 panels of eggs. With regarding to raw materials it consumes 384000 m3 of natural gas; 1.2 million kw of electric power and 156000 m3 of water. The sector generates 681 direct employments. Map is

  6. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  7. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Fonsecaea pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Rojas, O; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Moreno-Treviño, María G; González, Gloria M

    2015-05-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused frequently by fungi of the Fonsecaea genus. The objective of this study was the phenotypic and molecular identification of F. pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela. Ten strains were included in this study. For phenotypic identification, we used macroscopic and microscopic morphologies, carbohydrate assimilation test, urea hydrolysis, cixcloheximide tolerance, proteolitic activity and the thermotolerance test. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated against the isolates. Molecular identification was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions of the isolated strains. The physiological analysis and morphological features were variable and the precise identification was not possible. All isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole and posaconazole. Amphotericin B was the least effective drug. The alignment of the 559-nucleotide ITS sequences from our strains compared with sequences of GenBank revealed high homology with F. pedrosoi (EU285266.1). In this study, all patients were from rural areas, six from Mexico and four from Venezuela. Ten isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular analysis, using ITS sequence and demonstrated that nine isolates from Mexico and Venezuela were 100% homologous and one isolate showed a small genetic distance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Hepatitis A virus genetic diversity in Venezuela: exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA and evidence of quasispecies distribution in the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbaran, Y; Gutierrez, C R; Marquez, B; Rojas, D; Sanchez, D; Navas, J; Rovallo, E; Pujol, F H

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is highly prevalent in Latin America, including Venezuela. Subgenotype IA seems to circulate in an almost exclusive fashion, except in Brazil. The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of the HAV infection in Venezuela, in order to characterize the circulating strains and to analyze the presence of quasispecies in sporadic cases and an epidemic outbreak. A total of 125 (113 sera and 12 feces) samples positive for anti-HAV IgM from sporadic cases and epidemic outbreak, were submitted to hemi-nested RT-PCR for amplification of the VP1 N terminus or complete region of the HAV genome. Sequences obtained from 96 Venezuelan isolates were used for phylogenetic analysis. The quasispecies distribution was evaluated by cloning of HAV amplicons. Phylogenetic analysis of HAV sequences from Venezuela showed the exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA, but with co-circulation of two lineages, not found in other countries. The genetic variability found among Venezuelan strains was also analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). This technique allowed the detection of intra-strain variability, which was indeed related to the presence of quasispecies populations in the isolates. The quasispecies heterogeneity was higher in some isolates derived from sporadic cases compared to the one observed in the outbreak. The molecular characterization of HAV isolates from Venezuela showed the circulation of a unique subgenotype IA, but with the presence of diverse strains and quasispecies inside the viral populations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. NPP Grassland: Calabozo, Venezuela, 1969-1987, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains four ASCII text files for a 260-hectare humid Trachypogon savanna at the Estacion Biologica de Los Llanos, Calabozo, Venezuela (8.93 N, -67.42...

  10. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  11. NPP Tropical Forest: San Eusebio, Venezuela, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall,a nd nutrient content of above- and below-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical montane forest at San Eusebio, Venezuela.

  12. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  13. Information Sciences: training, challenges and new proposal from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar José Montilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It reflects on the training of information professionals in Venezuela and the potential contributions that these professionals can provide to society and its projection to it. The content is divided into three parts: the first deals with issues related to professional training in Information Sciences in Venezuela, the second project the training Venezuelan Information Sciences in the future and the third reflects on the prospects for professionals in Information Science

  14. Nostalgic Venezuela. Reelection, rupture and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Dámaso Luis León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Venezuela was an oasis in Latin America, a stable, democratic and prosperous country for several decades until the coming of the 1980s’ crisis. The new context and the erosion of traditional actors forced profound political changes. The crisis, the adjustments made during the 1990s and the population’s hopes of one day returning to the path of prosperity generated increasingly radical policy responses. This article seeks to analyse the political responses of the Venezuelan people to the challenges posed by their new socioeconomic reality and how these connect with visions derived from past experience and the approach to the roles of state and leader. It also explores the frustration caused by failure to meet their expectations, leading to the election of increasingly radical options.

  15. Military nurses in Venezuela and training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Izquierdo-Martínez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nursing career professionals with solid-humanistic way scientific, ethical and basis in order that they can properly integrate the multidisciplinary team to creatively solve health problems through nursing care. This article analyzes the formation of the military nurse in Venezuela, with the help of logical historical method to uncover trends and regularities that characterize this process. The nurse is a professional attitudes, values, knowledge and skills to assume their social responsibility, applying theories and models of discipline in the promotion, prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of health. Similarly, military nurse career provides to the military institution and especially health institutions of the country leadership training in the management of custodial care, management and research on health and committed to education continues in his practice.

  16. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  17. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  18. Is profitability a good proxy for efficiency? Evidence from the subsector of tour operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedija Veronika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to evaluate the economic efficiency of tour operators in the Czech Republic in the period 2007-2014 using data envelopment analysis (DEA models and prove the link between economic efficiency and profitability and to find out if profitability is a good proxy for economic efficiency. Data was exported from the database Albertina CZ Gold Edition. We calculated the efficiency score using CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes and BCC (Banker, Charnes and Cooper models based on 3 inputs and 1 output. In the years 2007 to 2010, the efficiency score of almost all the companies was higher than 0.5; however, in years since 2011, we revealed significant differences in the efficiency of individual firms and only about 40 percent of tour operators achieved an efficiency score higher than 0.5. Using Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, our findings show that, in the case of the Czech tour operator market, profitability ratios do not correspond with firm efficiency. Profitability ratios are not a good proxy for economic efficiency and should not be used as the only firm criterion of performance.

  19. The rate of the productivity of human resources, capital, and energy in sub-sectors of industry during 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Parandakh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the rate of productivity of human resources, capital, and energy (electricity in a selection of sub-sectors of industry (basic metals, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, rubber and plastic products, and food products during 1991-2011 using the econometric methods. For this purpose, first, the amount of the stability of the model's variables in time series was tested. Then, the existence of co-integration between them was determined and, finally, the productivity of the model was calculated using ARDL. According to the results, the elasticity of labor force, capital and energy were 1.07, 1.47 and -0.23, respectively.

  20. Efeitos colaterais do ''fomento industrial'' : o exemplo do subsector português do volfrâmio até à década de 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Avelãs Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, one intends to characterise and analyse the way in which, in Mainland Portugal, from the 1870s to the 1950s, and in the mining tungsten sub-sector, the relationship between industrial or artisanal activity and neighbouring rurality was structured, in aspects such as the working and living conditions, work accidents and illnesses, pollution and the type of integration into the global economy. More than judging or taking a stand on the object of study, one seeks to describe and explain, contextualising, the traits of “normality” and of “exceptionality”, the permanences and mutations detected.

  1. Evolution of dengue virus type 3 genotype III in Venezuela: diversification, rates and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alvaro; Fajardo, Alvaro; Moros, Zoila; Gerder, Marlene; Caraballo, Gerson; Camacho, Daria; Comach, Guillermo; Alarcón, Victor; Zambrano, Julio; Hernández, Rosa; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Liprandi, Ferdinando

    2010-11-18

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4) and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119) of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C) can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 x 10⁻⁴ substitutions/site/year (s/s/y) for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A→V) was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a lack of correlation among DENV genotype III

  2. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  3. Factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela / Factors of School Effectiveness in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Martínez-Garrido; F. Javier Murillo Torrecilla

    2016-01-01

    La línea de investigación sobre Eficacia Escolar aporta información sobre los factores de aula y escuela que promueven de forma duradera el desarrollo global de todos y cada uno de sus estudiantes más allá de lo que sería esperable teniendo en cuenta sus condiciones previas, al mismo tiempo que fomentan el desarrollo de la comunidad educativa (Murillo, 2007). El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar cuáles son los factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela. Para dar respuesta a este ob...

  4. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  5. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant...

  6. Histological and microbiological aspects of actinomycetoma cases in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available A ten year (1976-1986 review study of cases of Actinomycetoma in Venezuela was made through personal interview and clinical examinations, analysis of medical records of patients with actinomycetoma, histological studies of biopsy samples, as well as microbiological studies of isolates strain, also through out personal interviews with researchers and dermatologists who were sources of information on mycetoma cases. A total of 47 cases were recorded. As etiologic agent Actinomadura madurae was found in 20 cases - (42.5%, Nocardia brasiliensis in 13 cases (27.6%, Nocardia spp 7 cases (14.8%, Streptomyces somaliensis in 4 cases (8.5%, N. asteroides in 2 cases (4.2% and N. otitidis caviarum, (N. caviae in 1 case (2.1%. Most of the reported cases involved individuals living and working in rural areas, mostly males who outnumber females 4:1. The patients were 18 to 80 years old. A. madurae was reported as the most frequent etiologic agent. Most of the clinical cases were seen when the disease was well established. Twenty four of the forty seven cases reported were observed in Lara State, which represents a 51.0% of all the cases studied.

  7. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  8. Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  9. Thermal modeling in Ceuta, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcano, F.; Padron, S. (Maraven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    Hydrocarbon generation from Upper Cretaceous source rocks (Fm.La Luna) in Ceuta, center-eastern Maracaibo lake area in Venezuela, is modeled here, using a kinetic method and the conventional Time-Temperature Index (TTI) procedure. Geological evolution, burial and erosional history is based on available interpretation of 3D seismic and well data. Fragmentary present-day subsurface temperature data comes from corrected measurements in a few wells. Paleogradient/heat paleoflux was estimated during the thermal modeling on wells, by calculating vitrinite reflectances (Ro) or Tmax values and then comparing them with measured ones. However, thermal-indicator data does not always appear to be consistent and some data had to be rejected. Paleogradient evolution in the Cretaceous is controlled by the development of a isolated thermal compartment related to overpressures in a thick shaly sequence in the Upper Cretaceous. A geological section was studied in detail to illustrate possible migration paths to known fields and undrilled traps. Results show a good fit between the thermal evolution of the source rock and the maturity of the crude produced in the area.

  10. New Maracaibo plant called most advanced. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, A.

    1970-12-01

    A new gas-injection plant, recently put on stream, raises to 10 the number of oil-field-repressuring facilities in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. The combined capacity of these installations is 2,015 MMcfd. The new plant is Menegas I, the most advanced ever built. The 45 MMcfd unit is owned and operated by Mene Grande Oil Co.; it is located in the Ceuta field and will be used to repressure 2 Bachaquero reservoirs. A small portion of the compressed gas will be used in gas lift operations. The main components of the plant are 5 gas-compressor units (totaling 10,000 hp), an alternator, an air compressor, a gas scrubber, and control center. The L-shaped structure is 245 ft long with a maximum width of 80 ft. Shell's crane barge was used to lift the 9 modules for the Menegas I plant. The company feels the prefabrication approach has saved them from 9 to 12 mo. of construction time.

  11. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  12. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  13. Carbon regeneration in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Marquez

    Full Text Available Abstract The carbon regeneration in the water column of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela was investigated using a regression model of total alkalinity (TA and the concentration of total inorganic carbon (TCO2. Primary productivity (PP was determined from the inorganic carbon fraction assimilated by phytoplankton and the variation of the 22 and 23ºC isotherm was used as an indicator of coastal upwelling. The results indicate that CO2 levels were lowest (1962 µmol/kg at the surface and increased to 2451 µmol/kg below the oxic-anoxic redox interface. The vertical regeneration distribution of carbon was dominated (82% by organic carbon originating from the soft tissue of photosynthetic organisms, whereas 18% originated from the dissolution of biogenic calcite. The regeneration of organic carbon was highest in the surface layer in agreement with the primary productivity values. However, at the oxic-anoxic interface a second more intense maximum was detected (70-80%, generated by chemotrophic respiration of organic material by microorganisms. The percentages in the anoxic layers were lower than in the oxic zone because aerobic decomposition occurs more rapidly than anaerobic respiration of organic material because more labile fractions of organic carbon have already been mineralized in the upper layers.

  14. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  15. Determinantes económicos de la pobreza total en Venezuela: 1975-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Rueda, Rafael Alexis; Harmath Fernández, Pedro alexander

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the determinants of the behavior on the long time of the total poverty in Venezuela during the period 1975-2000. Series of time are utilized and applies an analysis of multiple lineal regression. The empirical results indicate that an increase of the 1% in the rate of investment, a rise of 1US$ in the prices of the barrel of petroleum and an increment of Bs. 1 (old) in the price average of the American currency, will cause a reduction of the 5.05%, 2.43% and 0.06% respe...

  16. Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

  17. Retrospectiva de la política universitaria en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas; Janette García Yépez

    2017-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es hacer una breve revisión histórica de la política universitaria en Venezuela. La política universitaria en Venezuela tiene como antecedente la Universidad Colonial, pero surge más concretamente a partir de la reforma de 1827. Las universidades son un ente fundamentalmente político. Las universidades no son solamente espacios para el adiestramiento y formación de los profesionales que requiere la nación. Las universidades reflejan a la sociedad a la que pertene...

  18. Proteste in Venezuela und die Krise des Chavismus

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor M. Mijares

    2014-01-01

    Seit Wochen demonstrieren in Venezuela Gegner der Regierung von Nicolás Maduro gegen Gewaltkriminalität, Inflation und die Einschränkung bürgerlicher Grundrechte. Die Regierung antwortet mit Repression und lässt einen führenden Oppositionspolitiker verhaften. Venezuela steht vor einem neuen Zyklus der Instabilität. Das während der Präsidentschaft von Hugo Chávez (1999-2013) etablierte sozioökonomische Modell stößt schon im ersten Amtsjahr seines Nachfolgers Nicolás Maduro an seine Grenzen: Ve...

  19. Submissions of stakeholders on voluntary codes of conduct, guidelines and best practices, and/or standards in relation to access and benefit-sharing for all subsectors of genetic resources for food and agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martyniuk, E.; Berger, B.; Bojkovski, D.; Bouchel, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Commission, at its Fourteenth Regular Session, requested its Secretary to invite stakeholder groups to report on voluntary codes of conduct, guidelines and best practices, and/or standards in relation to access and benefit-sharing for all subsectors of genetic resources for food and agriculture,

  20. Consumo de insumos agroindustriales por el subsector panificador de Palmira, Valle del Cauca. Indicadores de subsistemas Administrativo, Talento Humano y Operativo Consumption of agro-industrial supplies by the baker subsector of Palmira, Valle, Colombia . Indicators of administrative, operative and human talent subsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Adarme J; Camilo Álvarez P.

    2007-01-01

    Los indicadores de consumo agroindustrial en las Pymes del subsector panificador resultan apremiantes para el diseño de estrategias de sostenibilidad para los pequeños artesanos del pan. Se evaluaron los subsistemas administrativos, talento humano y operativo en 30 de las 178 organizaciones que conformaron el subsistema panificador de Palmira en el 2005. El consumo estimado anual para el 2004 de harina de trigo fue 2.016 t; 348 t de azúcar; 240 t de queso; 54 t de sal; 492 t de margarina; 99 ...

  1. Genetic History of Hepatitis C Virus in Venezuela: High Diversity and Long Time of Evolution of HCV Genotype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán, Maria Z.; Di Lello, Federico A.; Sulbarán, Yoneira; Cosson, Clarisa; Loureiro, Carmen L.; Rangel, Héctor R.; Cantaloube, Jean F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Pujol, Flor H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The subtype diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes is unknown in Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings Partial sequencing of the NS5B region was performed in 310 isolates circulating in patients from 1995 to 2007. In the samples collected between 2005 and 2007, HCV genotype 1 (G1) was the most common genotype (63%), composed as expected of mainly G1a and G1b. G2 was the second most common genotype (33%), being G2a almost absent and G2j the most frequent subtype. Sequence analysis of the core region confirmed the subtype assignment performed within the NS5b region in 63 isolates. The complete genome sequence of G2j was obtained. G2j has been described in France, Canada and Burkina Fasso, but it was not found in Martinique, where several subtypes of G2 circulate in the general population. Bayesian coalescence analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of G2j around 1785, before the introduction of G1b (1869) and G1a (1922). While HCV G1a and G1b experienced a growth reduction since 1990, coincident with the time when blood testing was implemented in Venezuela, HCV G2j did not seem to reach growth equilibrium during this period. Conclusions/Significance Assuming the introduction of G2j from Africa during the slave trade, the high frequency of G2j found in Venezuela could suggest: 1- the introduction of African ethnic groups different from the ones introduced to Martinique or 2- the occurrence of a founder effect. This study represents an in-depth analysis of the subtype diversity of HCV in Venezuela, which is still unexplored in the Americas and deserves further studies. PMID:21179440

  2. Distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel FREIJE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El análisis de la distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela se puede resumir en tres conclusiones generales. En primer lugar, la distribución del ingreso en Venezuela es más desigual en el año 2000 que a finales de la década de 1970. En segundo lugar, esta situación se debe a un descenso en la acumulación de capital que está también asociado al colapso del producto y el ingreso. En tercer lugar, el descenso en la acumulación de capital no parece estar asociado a la desigualdad inicial de la economía o a mecanismos redistributivos por parte del gobierno. Puede decirse que la contracción del crecimiento económico es lo que ha causado el aumento de la pobreza y el aumento de la desigualdad en la economía venezolana.ABSTRACT: An analysis of distribution and redistribution of income in Venezuela leads to three general conclusions. In first place, the distribution of income is more unequal in 2000 than by the end of the seventies. In second place, this situation is due to a drop in the accumulation of capital, also linked to the collapse of the product and the income. In third place, the drop in the accumulation of capital does not seem to be associated to the initial inequality of the economy or to redistributive mechanisms of the government. It is possible to say that the reduction of the economic growth has caused an increase of the poverty and the raise of inequality in the Venezuelan economy.

  3. Distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel FREIJE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El análisis de la distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela se puede resumir en tres conclusiones generales. En primer lugar, la distribución del ingreso en Venezuela es más desigual en el año 2000 que a finales de la década de 1970. En segundo lugar, esta situación se debe a un descenso en la acumulación de capital que está también asociado al colapso del producto y el ingreso. En tercer lugar, el descenso en la acumulación de capital no parece estar asociado a la desigualdad inicial de la economía o a mecanismos redistributivos por parte del gobierno. Puede decirse que la contracción del crecimiento económico es lo que ha causado el aumento de la pobreza y el aumento de la desigualdad en la economía venezolana.ABSTRACT: An analysis of distribution and redistribution of income in Venezuela leads to three general conclusions. In first place, the distribution of income is more unequal in 2000 than by the end of the seventies. In second place, this situation is due to a drop in the accumulation of capital, also linked to the collapse of the product and the income. In third place, the drop in the accumulation of capital does not seem to be associated to the initial inequality of the economy or to redistributive mechanisms of the government. It is possible to say that the reduction of the economic growth has caused an increase of the poverty and the raise of inequality in the Venezuelan economy.

  4. La alta gerencia corporativa, el marketing y la responsabilidad social empresarial: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Raspa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es una visión que analiza y examina el desarrollo del concepto de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y el Marketing,a nivel global, bajo la óptica de autores como Lindbaek (2003 hasta las tendencias modernas de la misma, a través de las normativas que controlan e incentivan la acción social de las empresas en el concierto de las naciones. Luego de un análisis de esas tendencias se adentra en la situación de la Responsabilidad Social y Marketing en Venezuela y como se viene desarrollando durante las últimas décadas. Finalmente, al comparar las tendencias mundiales sobre Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y la situación venezolana se destaca la propensión del empresariado venezolano a la puesta en práctica de la acción social de una manera eficiente y con orientación al Marketing.Palabras Clave: Responsabilidad social empresarial; marketing, estrategia; acción social; ciudadano corporativo.Corporate senior management, marketing and corporate social responsibility: Venezuela Case AbstractThe work presented below is an overview that draws the development of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and global marketing from the perspective of authors like Lindbaek (2003 to modern trends of this perspective, through regulations that control and encourage social action of the companies in the concert of nations. After an analysis of these trends, it goes deeper into the situation of the Social Responsibility and Marketing in Venezuela and how it has been developing itself over recent decades. Finally, and to compare global trend about Corporate Social Responsibility and the Venezuelan situation, it is highlighted the propensity of the Venezuelan entrepreneurial to the implementation of social action in an efficient way and marketing focused.Keywords: corporate social responsibility; marketing; strategy; social action; corporate citizen.

  5. Prevalence of diabetes in three regions of Venezuela. The VEMSOLS study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brajkovich, Imperia; Ugel, Eunice; Risques, Alejandro; Florez, Hermes; González-Rivas, Juan Pablo

    2017-12-14

    The prevalence of diabetes in multiple regions of Venezuela is unknown. To determine the prevalence of diabetes in five populations from three regions of Venezuela. During 2006-2010, 1334 subjects ≥20years were selected by multistage stratified random sampling from all households from 3 regions of Venezuela. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical analysis were obtained. Statistical methods were calculated using SPSS 20 software. Mean (SE) age was 44.8 years (0.39) and 68.5% were females. The prevalence of diabetes was 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9%-10.0%), higher in men than women (11.2% and 7.0% respectively; p=0.01). The prevalence adjusted by age and gender was 8.0% (95% CI, 6.9%-9.9%). This figure increased with age, with the lowest prevalence in the 20-29year old group (1.8% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.8%]) and the highest in the oldest group (26.8% [95% CI, 16.2%-40.5%]). Subjects with overweight or obesity had no increased risk of diabetes compared with those with normal weight. However, in women, the presence of abdominal obesity was associated with an increase of the risk of diabetes by 77% (OR 1.77 [95% CI, 1.1%-2.9%]). The prevalence of prediabetes was 14.6% (95% CI, 12.8%-16.7%), and only 48.2% were aware of their diabetes condition. In this study, 8.3% of the subjects had diabetes and 14.6% prediabetes. Less than half of the subjects with diabetes were aware of their condition. These results point to a major public health problem, requiring the implementation of diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life and death in the city: Lessons from Venezuela | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... ... compassion and solidarity in the cities of Venezuela — and the lessons that can be taken from their experience. Cities of Life and Death presents findings from research led by Laboratorio de Ciencias Sociales (LACSO) in four cities: Caracas, Ciudad Guayana, San Cristobal, and San Antonio del Táchira.

  7. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies

  8. La comuna socialista como nueva territorialidad emergente en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luther Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 2006, la propuesta de transformación del gobierno en Venezuela, se sintetiza en la construcción de la sociedad comunal mediante el ejercicio del poder popular y en el marco de la democracia participativa. Estos elementos, definidos y dispuestos a través de instrumentos legales, se constituyen como fundamentos para la construcción del Socialismo Bolivariano del siglo XXI. Con la intención de interpretar los alcances de la propuesta, revisamos desde una perspectiva socio-historica, los elementos presentes en la propuesta colectiva de planificación, producción y control del territorio comunal en Venezuela. Abstract In Venezuela, since 2006 the proposed transformation of the revolutionary government of President Hugo Chavez is synthesized in the construction of communal society through the exercise of popular power and within the framework of participatory democracy. These elements, defined and arranged through legal instruments, constitute grounds for the construction of Bolivarian Socialism of the XXI century. With the intention of interpreting the scope of the proposal, we reviewed from a socio-historical perspective, the elements present in the collective proposal planning, production and control of communal land in Venezuela.

  9. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  10. State-Led Education for Democratic Socialism: Venezuela's Education Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela's "Bolivarian Revolution" is conceptualised as an anti-neoliberal project that aims to promote fundamental changes in the configuration of political power via processes of state-grassroots collaboration. Central to this process is an emphasis on the key role of education in the development of a 21st Century socialism based on…

  11. Molecular epidemiologic source tracking of orally transmitted Chagas disease, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Maikell; Carrasco, Hernán J; Martínez, Clara E; Messenger, Louisa A; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Miles, Michael A; Llewellyn, Martin S

    2013-07-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing.

  12. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  13. Diversity of avian haemosporidians in arid zones of northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Nayara O; Rodríguez-Ferraro, Adriana; Braga, Erika M; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Arid zones of northern Venezuela are represented by isolated areas, important from an ornithological and ecological perspective due to the occurrence of restricted-range species of birds. We analysed the prevalence and molecular diversity of haemosporidian parasites of wild birds in this region by screening 527 individuals (11 families and 20 species) for parasite mitochondrial DNA. The overall prevalence of parasites was 41%, representing 17 mitochondrial lineages: 7 of Plasmodium and 10 of Haemoproteus. Two parasite lineages occurred in both the eastern and western regions infecting a single host species, Mimus gilvus. These lineages are also present throughout northern and central Venezuela in a variety of arid and mesic habitats. Some lineages found in this study in northern Venezuela have also been observed in different localities in the Americas, including the West Indies. In spite of the widespread distributions of some of the parasite lineages found in northern Venezuela, several, including some that are relatively common (e.g. Ven05 and Ven06), have not been reported from elsewhere. Additional studies are needed to characterize the host and geographical distribution of avian malaria parasite lineages, which will provide a better understanding of the influence of landscape, vector abundance and diversity, and host identity on haemosporidian parasite diversity and prevalence.

  14. Escuela de psicología en Venezuela: estructura curricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Vicentelli

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning to the academic formation of the psycho1ogist at Venezuela, studing the curriculum structure, taking in consideration the recommendations, suggestions and reflections presented in events that had influenced the teaching of Psychology and the action of the professional.

  15. A contribution to the centipede fauna of Venezuela (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schileyko, Arkady A

    2014-06-20

    The descriptions of twelve Venezuelan Scolopendromorpha, a list of species, identification key and detailed list of localities are presented. Cryptops (C.) venezuelae Chamberlin, 1939, known only from the holotype has been re-described and Scolopendra conjungens Muralewicz, 1913 reduced to a junior synonym of Scolopendra angulata Newport, 1844 syn. nov.

  16. Case-control study of gastric cancer screening in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, P; Oliver, W E; Parkin, D M; Alvarez, N; Vivas, J

    1994-06-01

    A screening programme for early gastric cancer was introduced in the state of Tachira, Venezuela, in 1980. Screening was performed by photofluorography, using two mobile units. The efficacy of this programme in reducing mortality from stomach cancer was evaluated by means of a case-control study. Cases were 241 individuals who died from stomach cancer in the period 1985-89. Ten live controls per case were drawn from the electoral rolls, matched by sex, age and residence. Exposure to the screening examination of cases and controls was assessed through individual linkage with the programme's centralised database. After the exclusion of examinations occurring within the 6 months preceding the case's diagnosis, the odds ratio (OR) of dying from stomach cancer for those screened was 1.26 (CI 0.83-1.91) and the OR in females was lower than in males: 0.77 (CI 0.33-1.78) and 1.52 (CI 0.94-2.47) respectively. Odds ratios associated with years since last test and number of tests did not differ significantly from 1. These results show the inefficacy of the programme in reducing mortality from gastric cancer in the area. In an attempt to determine whether this result was due to selection bias, an analysis restricted to subjects who had been screened at least once was performed. When examinations occurring after an index date at various intervals before the case's diagnosis were excluded, the screening test appeared to protect from death, although confidence intervals of the odds ratios are large, for example OR = 0.47 (CI 0.24-0.98) when excluding tests within 1 month.

  17. [Changes in lipid availability in Venezuela, 1970-1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Olivo, E A; Ablan de Flórez, E

    1994-12-01

    The authors carry out a research focused on the quantification and analysis of the main changes in feeding and nutrition in Venezuela between 1970 and 1992. Such research started with the review and adjustment of the Food Balance Sheets (Hojas de Balance de Alimentos) elaborated by the Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (National Nutrition Institute) between 1970 and 1979 in order to homogenize them in a methodological way to make them similar to those elaborated by that institution and the Fundación Polar for the 1980-90 period. Estimates were made about the daily and per person availability of food for human consumption (DCH) for 1991 and 1992. This report, a partial product of that research, characterizes the evolution of the lipidic DCH in Venezuela for the 1970-1992 period. This period has been divided in seven stages of the evolution of the total energetic DCH, as this reflects well the course of the daily and per person Food Purchasing Power (PCA); there is a direct and strong functional relationship between these two variables. Along those stages the behaviour of the lipidic DCH is studied and we try to view possible relationships between the evolution of the Venezeluans economical situation and the absolute and relative variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH. This structure is analyzed from several points of view: groups of food sources, origin, "visibility", and place of origin. One purpose is to determine also which food groups are mainly responsible for the venezuelan's external lipidic dependence. A general picture of the evolution of the DCH for saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is made, as well as of the variations experienced by the P/S and M/S relationships. It was found that the most dynamic elements, those that can explain a very high percentage of the variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH were: the groups of foods of Visible Fats, Milk and dairy products, and Meats; vegetal lipids

  18. Las cárceles y población reclusa en Venezuela Prisos and inmates population in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Posada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de los asuntos penitenciarios, en América Latina existen pocos estudios comprensivos y recomendaciones regionales con relación a este contexto. En este trabajo se describen las características de las cárceles y los reclusos en Venezuela, información recopilada a través de revisión documental y en visitas realizadas desde 1998-2006 a diferentes penales venezolanos, en el marco de las Jornadas de Salud insertas en el Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, con el propósito de realizar un aporte que sirva como antecedente nacional y regional para la investigación en el ámbito penitenciario, que permita avanzar en el estudio de sus problemas y en la promoción e implementación de posibles soluciones.Despite the importance of prison issues in Latin America, there is little in the way of detailed local studies or recommendations on the subject. This article sets out to describe the situation concerning prisons and inmates in Venezuela. Data for this study was compiled from documentary sources and visits to a number of Venezuelan prisons from 1998 to 2006 as part of the Health Conference of the Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, (Central University of Venezuela Prison Program. The program’s aim was to make contributions towards research on the prison environment at national and regional levels that might serve as a precedent for further study of the problems and issues that exist, and promote and implement possible solutions.

  19. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the First National Survey of Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristimuño, Liselotte; Armengol, Raimond; Cebollada, Alberto; España, Mercedes; Guilarte, Alexis; Lafoz, Carmen; Lezcano, María A; Revillo, María J; Martín, Carlos; Ramírez, Carmen; Rastogi, Nalin; Rojas, Janet; de Salas, Albina Vázques; Sola, Christophe; Samper, Sofía

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has become a valuable tool in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) by allowing detection of outbreaks, tracking of epidemics, identification of genotypes and transmission events among patients who would have remained undetected by conventional contact investigation. This is the first genetic biodiversity study of M. tuberculosis in Venezuela. Thus, we investigated the genetic patterns of strains isolated in the first survey of anti-tuberculosis drug-resistance realised as part of the Global Project of Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance (WHO/IUATLD). Results Clinical isolates (670/873) were genotyped by spoligotyping. The results were compared with the international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4). Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains (14/18) were also analysed by IS6110-RFLP assays, and resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was characterised. Spoligotyping grouped 82% (548/670) of the strains into 59 clusters. Twenty new spoligotypes (SITs) specific to Venezuela were identified. Eight new inter-regional clusters were created. The Beijing genotype was not found. The genetic network shows that the Latin American and Mediterranean family constitutes the backbone of the genetic TB population-structure in Venezuela, responsible of >60% of total TB cases studied. MDR was 0.5% in never treated patients and 13.5% in previously treated patients. Mutations in rpoB gene and katG genes were detected in 64% and 43% of the MDR strains, respectively. Two clusters were found to be identical by the four different analysis methods, presumably representing cases of recent transmission of MDR tuberculosis. Conclusion This study gives a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in Venezuela during the first survey of anti-tuberculosis drug-resistance. It may aid in the creation of a national database that will be a valuable support for further studies. PMID:17032442

  20. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?; Kan Venezuela's oliesector Chavez' ambities nog langer dragen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-15

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [Dutch] De auteur beschrijft de teruggang van de olie-industrie van Venezuela en de reacties van president Chavez op de budgettaire crisis in Venezuela. Politisering, dalende investeringen en de verplichtingen m.b.t. de overvloed aan sociale uitgaven zorgen er voor dat de nationale oliemaatschappij Petroleos de Venezuela niet in staat is om efficient te produceren en de productie op peil te houden. Dalende olie-productie en lagere olieprijzen zorgen er ook voor dat de president niet in staat is om de rijkdom te verdelen over de armen in Venezuela. Hij is op zoek naar manieren om meer te halen uit de slecht functionerende economie. Zijn dure buitenlandse Venezuela beleid, onder meer door ondersteuning van regionale bondgenoten, in het bijzonder Cuba, en het zoeken naar export mogelijkheden, behalve naar de USA, pakt fiancieel gezien slecht uit. De verarmde massa's van Venezuela steunden Chavez nog in de verkiezingen in

  1. Factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela / Factors of School Effectiveness in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Martínez-Garrido

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La línea de investigación sobre Eficacia Escolar aporta información sobre los factores de aula y escuela que promueven de forma duradera el desarrollo global de todos y cada uno de sus estudiantes más allá de lo que sería esperable teniendo en cuenta sus condiciones previas, al mismo tiempo que fomentan el desarrollo de la comunidad educativa (Murillo, 2007. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar cuáles son los factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela. Para dar respuesta a este objetivo, se lleva a cabo un estudio multinivel siguiendo el planteamiento de valor añadido, esto es, se considera cuál es la aportación de cada factor de eficacia descontando el efecto que generan las características personales, sociales previas del estudiante (nivel socioeconómico y cultural de la familia del estudiante, rendimiento previo, género…. El estudio se lleva a cabo con la información aportada por 362 estudiantes de 23 aulas de tercer curso de Primaria de 10 escuelas venezolanas. El análisis se realiza sobre 4 variables de producto (Rendimiento en Matemáticas y Lectura, Autoconcepto y Satisfacción hacia la escuela, 5 variables de ajuste y 37 variables explicativas. Para la recogida de la información se utilizaron pruebas de rendimiento, test de autoconcepto y cuestionarios a los profesores de la escuela y los estudiantes. Como método de análisis se utilizaron Modelos Multinivel con dos niveles de análisis (estudiante, escuela. Los resultados encontrados indican la existencia de 6 factores de eficacia escolar en Venezuela que demuestran hacer una aportación significativa al desarrollo cognitivo y socioafectivo de los estudiantes: Sentido de Comunidad, Clima de aula y escuela, Currículum de calidad, Dirección escolar, Participación de la comunidad escolar y Recursos. Los resultados de esta investigación han de considerarse como un insumo esencial en cualquier debate informado que busque mejorar la calidad y la equidad de

  2. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  3. Prevalencia de infeccion por citomegalovirus en pacientes pediatricos con afecciones neurologicas en el estado Zulia, Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vivolo, Maria; Duran, Anyelo; Atacho, Luisaima; Porto, Leticia; Bermudez, John; Valero, Nereida

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de citomegalovirus en pacientes pediatricos con afecciones neurologicas, provenientes del Estado Zulia, Venezuela durante el periodo 2007-2008...

  4. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  5. A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilano Contreras-Ramos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles C. neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to C. crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15th species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided.

  6. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  7. Open Veins: Spirits of Violence and Grief in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrándiz Martín, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Transnational processes of stigmatization and criminalization of poverty associated to neoliberal models of development unfold locally in various modalities and intensities of de-pacification of everyday life. In this framework, this article presents the case study of a well-known spirit possession devotion in Venezuela, the cult of María Lionza, where the enormous symbolic, structural and repressive pressure exerted on shantytown dwellers, particularly male youngsters, is recycled — in a sor...

  8. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  9. Poverty and the Labor Market in Venezuela: 1982-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Márquez; Carola Álvarez

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the performance of the Venezuelan labor market in the period between 1982 and 1995, and to analyze its impact on the evolution of poverty. This period analyzed is a convulsed one, one within Venezuela that suffered from the consequences of both changes in the international financial market conditions, and a sustained deterioration of economic management. Growth and inflation were highly volatile, real wages fell in a sustained way, and poverty increase...

  10. Research in seismology and earthquake engineering in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, L.; Grases, J.

    1983-01-01

    Venezuela has been affected by destructive earthquakes for the past four centuries. According to entries in the national seismic catalog, there have been about 180 earthquakes which have caused some type of damage to the country. The most catastrophic earthquake occurred on March 26, 1812, on the Bocono fault system and caused widespread destruction in the cities of Merida and Caracas and claimed an estimated 30,000 lives.

  11. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Graduating in 1975 with a Military Arts and Science degree, Chavez entered service for a few months before starting a political science graduate degree...9254 (accessed 29 Dec 08). 95 Lupi, Juan Pablo and Vivas , Leonardo. “(Mis) Understanding Chavez and Venezuela in Times of Revolution.” The...Loveman, Brian. Addicted to Failure. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006 Lupi, Juan Pablo and Vivas , Leonardo. “(Mis) Understanding

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Cynthia Case; Melissa Arria; Marisela Ravelo; Henry Perez; Oscar Urdaneta; Gloria Gervasio; Nestor Rubio; Andrea Maldonado; Ymora Aguilera; Anna Viloria; Blanco, Juan J.; Magdary Colina; Elizabeth Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a...

  13. When populism takes over the delivery of health care: Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Adequate and modern health care is not available in Venezuela at this moment. A humanitarian crisis of post war dimensions is currently rampant and afflicting all Venezuelans alike. The delivery and availability of cancer care is severely limited and inadequate. No funding is available as populist measures, mismanagement, pillaging, corruption, lack of forethought and expertise have brought the country into severe economic collapse and political turmoil.

  14. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  15. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  16. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  17. Diversity and composition of dengue virus type 2 in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtamo, E; Comach, G; Sierra, G; Camacho, D E; Sironen, T; Vapalahti, O; Uzcátegui, N Y

    2013-09-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by four closely related dengue virus (genus Flavivirus)serotypes (DENV-1–4). The clinical outcomes vary from mild febrile illness to life-threatening haemorrhagic manifestations. DENVs are endemic in the tropics and subtropics globally and currently no specific treatment or vaccines are available. In Venezuela, the American-Asian genotype of DENV-2 is the most prevalent and has been associated with severe disease outcomes.We aimed to follow-up the molecular epidemiology of DENV-2 in Venezuela to investigate if the evolution of the virus has remained the same throughout time or if the same dynamics documented in Brazil (hyperendemic co-circulation) also occurred. The results show that whereas the epidemiology of DENV in several endemic areas is characterized by serotype replacements through time, in Venezuela the American-Asian genotype DENV-2 has evolved into several genetic lineages and has remained in hyperendemic co-circulation with the other serotypes.

  18. Retrospectiva de la política universitaria en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer una breve revisión histórica de la política universitaria en Venezuela. La política universitaria en Venezuela tiene como antecedente la Universidad Colonial, pero surge más concretamente a partir de la reforma de 1827. Las universidades son un ente fundamentalmente político. Las universidades no son solamente espacios para el adiestramiento y formación de los profesionales que requiere la nación. Las universidades reflejan a la sociedad a la que pertenecen. Cuando se refiere a la política universitaria venezolana estamos haciendo referencia a las políticas de los respectivos estados y gobiernos en relación al papel que debe jugar las universidades en el desenvolvimiento del país. Pretendemos responder a las preguntas: ¿cómo ha sido la relación entre los gobiernos y las universidades?, ¿Ha existido una política universitaria en Venezuela?, ¿Cómo han evolucionado los principios de equidad, democracia y autonomía en las universidades?, ¿Quién manda en las universidades?¿Qué y quiénes investigan?, ¿Cómo y quién mide la cal

  19. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  20. LAS PYMES EN EL DESARROLLO DE LA ECONOMÍA SOCIAL. FACTORES DE ÉXITO1 SUBSECTOR CONTRATISTA DEL MUNICIPIO LAGUNILLAS DEL ESTADO ZULIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Acosta Campos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar los factores endógenos que han influido en el desarrollo sustentable de las Pymes del subsector contratista adscritas a la Cámara de Comercio e Industrial del municipio Lagunillas del estado Zulia. La investigación se ubica en el nivel descriptivo. Se utilizó como fuente de recolección de datos la documental y la encuesta. Para el procesamiento de la información se utilizó el análisis de contenido a través de matrices de categorías. Los hallazgos encontrados revelan que los factores endógenos se ubican en las siguientes categorías: (a económicos (b financieros, (c técnicos, (d talento humano, (e gerenciales. Se concluye que los factores internos incidentes en el desarrollo sustentable de las Pymes se ubican en las diferentes áreas de funcionamiento de las empresas.

  1. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  2. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

    The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

  3. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve

  4. 78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and... imports from Russia and Venezuela of Ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50...

  5. A new species and first record of Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) for Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor Jaime; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-04-20

    A new Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini) species from Venezuela is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with Cotinis barthelemyi (Gory & Percheron) from Colombia. The Neotropical distribution of Cotinis is expanded to Venezuela. A revised key to the species of Cotinis is provided in both English and Spanish.

  6. The Crisis of Civil-Military Relations in Venezuela: Testing Rational Choice, Cultural, and Institutional Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    universal.com. [10 October 1998], 1. El Universal Digital, " Pobreza Critica in Venezuela," 01 January 1998. Available [Online]:HYPERLINK "http:/www.eud.com...Digital, " Pobreza Critica in Venezuela," 01 January 1998. Available [Online] :HYPERLINK "http:/www.eud.com/Elecciones98" http:/www.el- universal.com

  7. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  8. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Ryan M.; Sachs, Daniel; Petkiewicz, Shayne J.

    2017-01-01

    precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor...... expression system. These tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts....

  9. Writing Skills in Students of Education. (Case: University Pedagogical Experimental Libertador. Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Consolación Quintero Chacón

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the partial results of a research conducted on the writing skills of students of the Education at the Pedagogical University Experimental Libertador in Venezuela. The overall objective of the research was to identify the characteristics of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic types of texts produced by students. The method used for the interpretation of the data was discourse analysis, which allowed communication processes addressing their structures to describe them textually. The difficulty table was adapted from Rudy Mostacero containing one hundred fifty seven (157 difficulties was reduced to twenty-four (24; distributed as follows: eleven (11 for syntax, eight (8 to semantics and five (5 to the Pragmatic. The results show a high percentage of features in the semantic and pragmatic dimension valued regular and bad. These results will help to design a comprehensive program that will act in favor of innovative proposals for improving the writing process in the training of professionals in Education career.

  10. [Protection of mangroves in Venezuela and its impact on environment management: retrospective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, M; Villamizar, A; Olivo, M L

    1996-01-01

    In Venezuela, the law protects mangroves specifically. This paper is a retrospective review of the existing regulations on mangrove to find out: how has it been protected?; which have been the results of different approaches followed to do so?; which could be the problems for its protection in the near future? The result from the analysis indicates that regulations should not protect a specific mangrove species. The focal point on the regulation should be the protection of mangrove, as well as the vital relationships between this landscape unit and the existing others. Therefore, decisions of mangrove should be proposed as part of a plan for the basin where it belongs. Intervention on mangrove must be based on expert judgement, due to high uncertainty about the success of corrective or mitigative actions.

  11. Training Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System to Infer Permeability in Wells on Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Hurtado, Nuri; Torres, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The high accuracy on inferrring of rocks properties, such as permeability ($k$), is a very useful study in the analysis of wells. This has led to development and use of empirical equations like Tixier, Timur, among others. In order to improve the inference of permeability we used a hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System (NFS). The NFS allowed us to infer permeability of well, from data of porosity ($\\phi$) and water saturation ($Sw$). The work was performed with data from wells VCL-1021 (P21) and VCL-950 (P50), Block III, Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela. We evaluated the NFS equations ($k_{P50,i}(\\phi_i,Sw_i)$) with neighboring well data ($P21$), in order to verify the validity of the equations in the area. We have used ANFIS in MatLab.

  12. Agaporomorphus sharynae, a new species of diving beetle (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Copelatinae) from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly B

    2014-04-16

    Agaporomorphus sharynae sp. n. is described from Amazonas, Venezuela. Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, 1921 now includes nine known species. The new species is part of the A. knishi species group since it has similarly convoluted male genitalia with rows of setae on the dorsal surface. Males can be separated from those of other members of the genus by the structure of the abdominal ventrites, shape of the antennae, and shape of the male median lobe. The cladistic analysis of K.B. Miller & Wheeler (2008) is modified to include the new species. The habitus and male and female genitalia are illustrated, and male genitalia of other species of the A. knishi species group are illustrated for comparison.

  13. Molecular identification of unusual Mycetoma agents isolated from patients in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Olga C; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Moreno-Treviño, Maria; González, Gloria M

    2017-02-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, subcutaneous disease endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. It is currently a health problem in rural areas of Africa, Asia and South America. Nine cases of mycetoma were analysed in a retrospective study. All isolates were identified by morphological features. The level of species identification was reached by molecular tools. Definitive identification of fungi was performed using sequence analysis of the ITS of the ribosomal DNA region and the ribosomal large-subunit D1/D2. Identification of actinomycetes was accomplished by the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Six unusual clinical isolates were identified: Aspergillus ustus, Cyphellophora oxyspora, Exophiala oligosperma, Madurella pseudomycetomatis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia wallacei. The prevalence of mycetoma in Venezuela remains unknown. This study represents the first report in the literature of mycetoma caused by unusual pathogens identified by molecular techniques. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. PhD IN IBEROAMERICA AND YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH PhD IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Barboza Jiménez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctorates in Venezuela as fifth level studies represent a relatively new compared to other countries with higher levels of development, this paper aims to present a comparative analysis of the nature and degree of development studies doctorates are offered in different Latin American countries. To accomplish this we followed a research methodology and descriptive documentation, obtaining conditions and characteristics of doctorates from universities in several countries representative of the geographical scope mentioned. As a result of this investigation it was found that such studies in the Latin American region are significantly below levels in developed countries, and in the case of Latin America that difference is more marked, and within this region, the differences in coverage and quality of doctoral studies are much greater, so much so that most of these countries research is almost nonexistent.

  15. CTX-M-14 β-lactamase-producing Citrobacter freundii isolated in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkind Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A clinical isolate of C. freundii with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum β-lactams from a woman with cystocele associated with recurrent urinary tract infection was analyzed. Susceptibility tests, double disk synergy tests (DDST and enzymatic activity by the agar iodometric method suggested the presence of ESBLs. Conjugation experiments revealed the presence of a large conjugative plasmid (pLM07/20 with an exclusive FrepB replicon type (IncF/FIB. PCR analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of the blaCTX-M-14 gene in the pLM07/20 from C. freundii.LM07/10. Although this is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Venezuela, we alert the medical community that future increase of these β-lactamases in our city could be due to dissemination of plasmids into bacterial populations.

  16. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, Mauro; Ehemann, Nicolás; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Ron, Ernesto; Pérez, Julio Eduardo; Rossi, Anna Rita; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n = 48 (2m + 10sm + 36a) with FN = 60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH

  17. Venezuela: from doctrine to dialogue to participation in the processes of regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allor, D J

    1984-01-01

    . Neighborhood associations were mentioned in the decree, but their role was not formalized. This series of newly established bodies plays a role in both advisory and administrative processes. The advisory process begins at the lowest level, and local concerns are expressed upward through the hierarchy. The administrative process flows in the opposite direction. Participation remains highly formalized and is restricted to the participation of recognized leaders and organizations. For example, members of the Assembly of Participation include the state governor, representatives of municipal councils, and representatives of various industrial and commercial organizations. Despite the formal nature of the participation, the 1980 Decree clearly exhibited the trend toward decentralization predicted by John Freeman in his analysis of Venezuelan political structure and published in a book entitled "venezuela: From doctrine to Dialogue." Increased pressure will now be exerted for broader community participation in the development process, and eventually development planning will focus on the equitable distribution of development benefits rather than on the maximization of economic growth.

  18. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae from Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela. Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n=48 (2m+10sm+36a with FN=60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and

  19. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  20. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos; da Silva, Sandro P.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L. S. G.; Nunes, Marcio R. T.

    2016-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  1. Isolation of Leishmania infantum, zymodeme MON-1 from canine and human visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa, O; Pratlong, F; Ulrich, M; Convit, J

    2001-10-01

    An increase in the incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) has been detected in recent years on Margarita Island, located off the NE coast of Venezuela. Recent studies have revealed reactivity to rK39 antigen (Leishmania chagasi) in 20% of 541 sera from domestic dogs in endemic communities; PCR reactions were positive using primers for the L. donovani complex. Here we report that isolates from human and canine infection, identified by isoenzyme analysis, correspond to L. infantum, zymodeme MON-1. This appears to be the first isolation and identification of an isolate from HVL on Margarita Island and demonstrates the presence of this zymodeme in the canine population.

  2. Más allá de las ideologías. El comercio y las finanzas entre Argentina y Venezuela (2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Roark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se propone analizar las relaciones bilaterales entre Argentina y Venezuela durante el período 2003-2008, con el objetivo general de brindar una aproximación al proceso de acercamiento económico desarrollado durante dichos años,estableciéndo un análisis general acerca de las oportunidades y desafíos que implica el estrechamiento de vínculos con entre estos dos países.AbstractThis article offers an analysis of bilateral relations between Argentina and Venezuela during the period 2003-2008. The overall objective is to offer an approximation of how the countries have come closer together in matters of economic development during the years cited, establishing a general analysis of opportunities and challenges that the strengthening of ties implies for the countries involved.

  3. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  4. [Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk creams manufactured in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcbort de Tamsut, L; García, C E

    1999-03-01

    A total of 100 samples of pasteurized milk creams produced by eleven (11) dairy milk industries were analyzed for the presence of microoganisms. The dairy milk industries were distributed along different places of Venezuela. The samples were analyzed for the presence of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychotropic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes, molds and yeasts 75% of the analyzed samples did not reach the international standards for aerobic mesophilic bacteria, similarly, 95% for Staphylococcus aureus, 91% for coliformes and 58% for molds and yeasts, so pathogenic enterobacteria we have found: Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli enteropathogenic.

  5. BYTTNERIA CARIPENSIS (STERCULIACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Byttneria caripensis Cristóbal (sección Crassipetala de Edo. Bolívar, Venezuela se describe como nueva. Se estudia también la anatomía de los nectarios de la hoja y la venación menor. El tamaño y la forma muy peculiar de la cavidad glandular de los nectarios multiaperturados están estresados. Se presentan dos ilustraciones.

  6. Natural Host Relationships of Hantaviruses Native to Western Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Duno, Gloria; Utrera, Antonio; Richter, Martin H.; Duno, Freddy; de Manzione, Nuris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Strains of Caño Delgadito virus (CADV) and Maporal virus (MAPV) were isolated from 25 (8.9%) of the 280 rodents captured on farms in 1997 in western Venezuela. The results of analyses of laboratory and zoographic data indicated that Alston's cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) is the principal host of CADV, horizontal virus transmission is the dominant mode of CADV transmission in Alston's cotton rat in nature, a pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys sp.) is the principal host of MAPV, and the natural host relationships of CADV and MAPV are highly specific. PMID:20055578

  7. La sustentabilidad agro-alimentaria, un debate pendiente en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Domené Painenao, Olga; Herrera, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    El sistema agroalimentario mundial ha logrado dominar la producción hasta el consumo, producto de estas dinámicas, hoy evidenciamos consecuencias, como la crisis alimentaria, hambre-malnutrición en los países del sur y las enfermedades alimentarias en el norte, además de la erosión y agotamiento de los recursos naturales y valores culturales. En Venezuela, la situación ha sido la misma, profundizado por la cultura rentista, que ha conllevando a una situación de inseguridad y transculturizació...

  8. [Interpopulation reproductive synchrony of Agave cocui (Agavaceae) in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Carmen J; Villegas, José Luis; Nassar, Jafet M

    2011-09-01

    Agave cocui (Agavaceae) is a species with broad distribution in arid and semiarid areas of Venezuela and Colombia. Despite of its ecological importance as a source of food for wildlife, and its economic value for production of a spirit drink, studies on the reproductive ecology of the species are relatively rare. In this study, we conducted a one-year evaluation of the flowering and fruiting phenology of A. cocui in the eight representative localities of the species' distribution in Venezuela. Within each study site, we chose an area with a minimum of 50 reproductive individuals and followed their reproductive phenophases with the help of binoculars, using six qualitative cathegories (emerging reproductive stalk, flowers, inmature fruits, mature fruits, bulbils and dry stalk) every two months. Emergence of the reproductive stalk in most of the examined populations began in September (rainy season), although this event delayed two months in a few populations. We detected significant negative correlations between precipitation and the percentage of flowering occurrence in four of the eight populations. Floral resources are available for flower visitors during approximately five months of the year (January-May). In most populations production of flowers initiated in January (dry season), and for Western Venezuela and Andean regions, the flowering main peak occurred in January. Localities from the Central and Eastern Coast exhibited the flowering peak in March, showing a delay of approximately two months with respect to other populations. Beginning of fruit set varied among localities from January to May; however, peak production of mature fruits concentrated in May, and fruit occurrence varied broadly between 5.2 and 85%. Bulbil production was detected in all populations and varied greatly among them (maximum percentage per population: 26.19-92.10%). High flowering synchronicity (Phenophase Overlapping Index: 0.756 and 0.999) was observed among all populations

  9. The New Phase of Constitutional Struggle in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Leopoldo López a casi 14 años de cárcel por hechos del 12F,” El Universal, September 10, 2015, http://www.eluniversal.com/nacional-y- politica /150910...cárcel por hechos del 12F,” El Universal, September 10, 2015, http://www.eluniversal.com/nacional-y- politica /150910/jueza-condena-a-leopoldo-lopez-a...Charter in Venezuela if necessary,” El Universal, March 12, 2014, http://www.eluniversal.com/nacional-y- politica /140312/us-ready-to-invoke-inter

  10. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  11. Venezuela en el camino hacia el socialismo del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Bueno, Derly Juliana

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela, ha enfrentado en la última década un proceso reformista, que combina elementos de política social, un modelo productivo organizado bajo el poder financiero del petróleo, y una política exterior orientada hacia la multipolaridad, una mirada al sur, y una creciente confrontación con el establishment; en el escenario, el proceso se vio contrastado en su inicio con la necesidad de atender las demandas sociales, mayor inclusión, elevados niveles de pobreza, y serias restricciones extern...

  12. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  13. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Gomez, J.; Greaves, E.D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Quimica; Capote, T. [Universidad Centro Occidental Lisandro Alvarado (Venezuela); Herrera, O. [Ministerior de Sanidad y Asistencia Social, Caracas (Venezuela); Salazar, V. [Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela); Smith, A. [National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Montgomery, AL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql{sup -1} and only 12% above 0.37 Bql{sup -1}. Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year{sup -1}. (author).

  14. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Caracas (Venezuela); Flores, N.; Urbani, F. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Dept. de Geologia, Caracas (Venezuela); Carreno, R. [Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia, Apdo. 47334, Caracas 1041A (Venezuela)

    2001-09-01

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m{sup 3}. (Author)

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxocariasis in preschool children in Aragua state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María; García, Héctor; Figuera, Liliana; González, Verónica; Lamas, Félix; López, Katherinne; Mijares, Víctor; Corrales, Yeasiry; Lares, María; Ferrer, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Toxocara canis. In Venezuela, the magnitude of the disease is unknown and seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out in Aragua state. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in eight preschools in three municipalities from Aragua state in Venezuela. A total of 224 children aged between 1 and 6 years were studied (43.8% [98/224] male and 56.2% [126/224] female). Blood samples were obtained for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara spp. using ELISA. Participating families were given a questionnaire and children included in the study were clinically evaluated by paediatricians, and signs and symptoms observed were included in the questionnaires. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected in 29.0% (65/224) of children. The seroprevalence in the different preschools studied ranged between 4.2% and 60.6%. Leucocytosis and eosinophilia were also detected. Analysis of questionnaires indicated that boys were more at risk than girls. Younger children were also more at risk. Other significant risk factors were socio-economic strata (IV and V), inadequate improvised housing, earthen flooring indoors and outdoors and the presence of dogs in preschools. The results from this work show the presence of infection and a high prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara spp. in the studied municipalities and indicate that toxocariasis poses a serious health problem to preschool children in Aragua state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. [A validation study of the Personal Health Scale in Argentina and Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, R; Jatuff, D; Mezzich, J E; González-Mora, J; Zapata-Vega, M I

    2010-01-01

    International reports have shown that the majority of patients with a psychiatric disorder are most often seen in non-psychiatric services and are not effectively diagnosed. The objectives of this study, conducted in Argentina and Venezuela, was to validate the Personal Health Scale (PHS), a 10-item instrument developed for the detection of possible cases of mental disorders. A total of 227 subjects were recruited in both countries. The PHS's ease of use and the time required for completion was rated. Its internal structure (calculating the Cronbach's alpha) and factorial structures was analyzed. Mean total scores of psychiatric patients (n=127) and control subjects without psychiatric illness (n=100) were compared to determine its discriminant validity. Mean time for completion was less than 3 minutes and the majority of subjects judged it as easy to use. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.77 in both countries and the factorial analysis (extraction limited to one factor)showed that 8 (Venezuela) or 9 (Argentina) of the 10 items were represented in that factor; the variance explained by that factor was of 34%. A significant statistical difference (p<0.05) was found for the mean total scores between the psychiatric patients and controls. The best cut-off score to discriminate between groups was 6/7. The results suggest that the PHS is efficient, easy to use, has a high internal consistency, adequate factorial structure and ability to discriminate between samples of psychiatric patients and controls.We propose its use in primary care settings, clinical and epidemiological in Latin American countries.

  18. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  19. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  20. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  1. Aspectos legales del gobierno electrónico en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arcila Calderón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta una revisión documental de los principales textos legales que amparan el funcionamiento del Gobierno Electrónico en Venezuela, vigentes al finalizar el primer semestre de 2009. Los resultados sugieren que existen dos grandes bloques legales que sustentan el uso de las TIC por el Gobierno, y tienen que ver, por un lado, con aquellas dirigidas a dotar de eficacia jurídica a las manifestaciones de voluntad por vía electrónica y, por otro, con aquellas pensadas para conseguir eficiencia en el cumplimiento de las funciones del Estado. El análisis de los distintos instrumentos que regulan la implementación de las TIC revela que Venezuela cuenta con una base jurídica en la materia sólida y  avanzada, por lo que la mayoría de las deficiencias que existen se deben más bien a la implementación. Se adopta un concepto amplio de gobierno electrónico, expandiéndolo a todas las ramas del poder público en tanto y en cuanto sus órganos se relacionen con el ciudadano o entre si. Por último se hace un llamado al poder judicial de manera de que se incorpore de manera plena las ventajas de los recursos electrónicos al proceso judicial.

  2. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental life cycle of Philophthalmus gralli (Trematoda: Philophthalmidae in Venezuela

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    Marcos T. Díaz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of the miracidium, mother redia, daughter redia, grandaughter redia, cercaria, metacercaria and adult stages of Philophthalmus gralli Mathis and Leger,1910 recovered from experimental infections are presented. The intermediate host, Melanoides tuberculata, was collected from freshwater rivulets in Aguasanta and Yaguracual, Sucre State, Venezuela. Chicken were orally infected with cercariae and metacercariae, and metacercariae were introduced directly into the eyes by pipette. Both processes of infection produced adult worms. This is a new geographical record for P. gralliSe describe el miracidio, redia madre, redia hija, redia nieta, cercaria y el adulto de Philophthalmus gralli Mathis y Leger, 1910, obtenidos de infecciones experimentales. El hospedero intermediario Melanoides tuberculata fue recolectado en las localidades de Aguasanta y Yaguaracual, estado Sucre,Venezuela. Varios pollos fueron infectados oralmente con cercarias y metacercarias y colocando metacercarias directamente en los ojos con una pipeta. En ambos procesos de infección, se obtuvo parásitos adultos. Se amplía la distribución geográfica de P. gralli

  4. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-09-01

    A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 microg STX/100 microg meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2548 and 115 microg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1422 and 86 microg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization). A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3) toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSP.

  5. A new species of Acestrocephalus (Characiformes: Characidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Lasso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acestrocephalus is described from 60 specimens collected in the Río Orinoco and Río Negro drainages, Venezuela. This species is distinguished from all other Acestrocephalus by the combination of the following characters: anal rays, 29-36; 63-71 perforated scales on the lateral line; 10-12 scales above and 9-12 below the lateral line; 39-52 teeth on the maxillary; 9-12 premaxillary teeth; 8-12 teeth in the inner row on the dentary; 5-7 gill rakers on the lower part of the first gill arch; humeral, peduncular and caudal blotch absent.Se describe una nueva especie, Acestrocephalus ginesi, con base a 60 ejemplares recolectados en las cuencas del Río Orinoco y Río Negro, Venezuela. Esta especie difiere de otros miembros del género por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: aleta anal, 29-36 radios; 63-71 escamas con poro en la línea lateral; escamas transversales 10-12 / 9-12; 39-52 dientes en el maxilar; 9-12 dientes en el premaxilar; 8-12 dientes en la fila interna del dentario; 5-7 branquispinas en la parte inferior del primer arco branquial; mancha humeral, peduncular y caudal, ausentes.

  6. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  7. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  8. Identification of planorbids from Venezuela by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcriber spacer of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.

  9. Virus de hepatitis C en poblaciones de riesgo a adquirir la infección: Venezuela Hepatitis C virus in populations at risk for infection: Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Monsalve-Castillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia del virus de hepatitis C en diferentes poblaciones de riesgo a adquirir la infección de la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Método: la presente investigación comprendió un estudio de tipo descriptivo y transversal, cuyas variables fueron evaluadas por el análisis de correlación de Pearson. Se seleccionaron 100 drogadictos, 47 trabajadoras sexuales y 50 hemodializados, para un total de 197 individuos. Como único criterio de inclusión se tomó el hecho de presentar riesgo de contraer la infección por el virus de hepatitis C. Para la detección de anticuerpos contra el virus se utilizó la técnica de inmunoensayo enzimático de cuarta generación (Innotest HCV Ab IV. Toda muestra reactiva se confirmó por el método de inmunoblot recombinante de tercera generación (INNO-LIA HCV Ab III , ambos de Innogenetics Lab (Bélgica. La detección del genoma viral (ARN se realizó en aquellas muestras reactivas por ELISA e INNO-LIA por la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, HCV-fast de Pharma Gen. Resultados: se encontró uno por ciento de prevalencia de hepatitis C en la población de drogadictos y ausencia de infección o contacto previo con el virus en trabajadoras sexuales y pacientes en hemodiálisis. Conclusiones: en el presente estudio se señala la baja prevalencia de la infección por el virus de hepatitis C en poblaciones de riesgo a adquirir la infección, por lo que se considera que esta infección no representa un problema de salud en estas poblaciones de la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela.Objective: the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in different populations at risk for infection. Method: this was a descriptive, transversal study whose variables were evaluated by Pearson...s correlation analysis. Different populations were selected: 100 drug users, 47 sex workers, and 50 hemodialysis patients for a total of 197 individuals. The only

  10. DIVERSIDAD MITOCONDRIAL EN EL NOR-OCCIDENTE DE VENEZUELA. IMPLICACIONES PARA PROBABLES RUTAS MIGRATORIAS PREHISPÁNICAS Mitochondrial diversity in Northwest Venezuela. Implications for probable prehispanic migratory routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINORAH CASTRO DE GUERRA

    prehispanic extinct groups are difficult. Admixture of Neoamerican groups has been characterized by unions between European males and Amerindian females. This allows the identification in present populations of Amerindian mitocondrial haplogroups which give information on ancestral groups. In order to investigate female lineages present in western Venezuela, RFLP haplogroups from mtDNA were obtained from 193 individuals with grandparents from this region, 81 from the State of Lara (Barquisimeto and 112 from 3 towns of the State of Falcon (Macuquita=25; Macanilla=29 and Churuguara=58. Comparison of haplogroup distributions between groups was performed, and admixture estimates based on female lineages were obtained. The distribution of four Amerindian haplogroups was compared with those of other populations from the American Continent. In our four samples Amerindian haplogroups predominate, followed by those of African origin. In the comparison of the mtDNA Amerindian fraction with other populations we find that Macanillas, Lara and Churuguara are similar to South American and Amazonian groups whilst Macuquita is similar to groups from Aruba. Our findings suggest an important genetic diversity in this region, explained by migration routes to and from the south and the Caribean. They also suggest genetic relationship between prehispanic groups from Aruba and those from the Paraguaná peninsula, which have been inferred by archeological evidences. An increase in sample size and analysis of sequences for more precision is recommended.

  11. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  12. Las relaciones públicas ante el reto digital y el fenómeno Twiter: estudio sobre la respuesta de las agencias de RRPP y del subsector empresarial de las bebidas fermentadas en España

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Muñoz, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    El principal objetivo marcado en este trabajo de investigación es el de profundizar en el conocimiento del impacto que la comunicación digital está teniendo entre los practicantes de las Relaciones Públicas en España en el ámbito de las agencias de servicios profesionales y de un subsector empresarial español, en este caso el de las bebidas fermentas, como muestra del universo corporativo en nuestro país. Las agencias de RR.PP. y los departamentos de comunicación de las organizaciones del sec...

  13. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

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    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  14. Componentes del Nuevo Campo Intelectual de la Educación y la Pedagogía en Venezuela(1994-2000. Components of the New Intellectual Field: Education and Pedagogy in Venezuela (1994-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Duque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se inscribe en el campo de las Reformas Escolares e intenta desarrollar el Concepto de Campo Intelectual de la Educación y la Pedagogía como vía para estudiar la aparición de un nuevo horizonte conceptual para pensar la educación y la pedagogía en Venezuela durante los años 1994-1998/1999-2000. Mediante la reconstrucción de un universo temático, a través del análisis de contenido se plantea mostrar los paradigmas relevantes y las tendencias generales de desarrollo. This investigation is inscribed in the field of school reform and proposes to use the concept of Intellectual Field of Education and Pedagogy as a meaningful approach to study educational and pedagogical changes happening in Venezuela during the years 1994- 2000. This study reconstructs thematic universes through content analysis of key documents and discourses about education to identify the relevant paradigms and general tendencies in educational development.

  15. Valores hematologicos de psitacidos de los generos Ara y Amazona cautivos en zoologicos de Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz Alvarado, Mary; Arraga-Alvarado, Cruz; Rincon Rincon, Maria; Fernandez, Gibson; Aguilar Lara, Juan; Villasmil-Ontiveros, Yenen; Gomez, Orlando; Henriquez, Antmar

    2008-01-01

    Se obtuvieron muestras sanguineas de 104 aves cautivas en zoologicos de Venezuela con la finalidad de obtener valores hematologicos de referencia en especies de los generos Amazona (loros) y Ara (guacamayas...

  16. The Cogollo Group and the oceanic anoxic events 1a and 1b, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dot, José Alejandro Méndez; Baamonde, José Méndez; Reyes, Dayana; Whilchy, Rommel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTCarbonates of Cogollo Group (Apón, Lisure and Maraca formations) constitute the broader calcareous platform system originated during Aptian and Albian of Cretaceous in north-western South America, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela...

  17. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-01-01

    ... of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance...

  18. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  19. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to...'s TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance...

  20. Prevalencia de parasitos intestinales en gallos de pelea de la Ciudad de Coro, Estado Falcon, Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cazorla P., Dalmiro; Morales M., Pedro

    2013-01-01

    .... Se realizo un estudio epidemiologico en el ultimo trimestre de 2012 y primero de 2013 para determinar la prevalencia de parasitos gastrointestinales en gallos de pelea de la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcon, Venezuela. Las muestras (n = 1 02...

  1. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  2. Three new rarely collected or endangered species of Annonaceae from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Pirie, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Annonaceae from Venezuela are described here: Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie, Klarobelia subglobosa Chatrou, and Pseudomalmea wingfieldii Chatrou. All three are represented by few collections (in comparison to those of other Neotropical species of Annonaceae). Klarobelia

  3. Identificacion de bacterias del genero vibrio asociadas a zonas productoras de moluscos bivalvos, estado Sucre, Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munoz, Daniel; Grau de Marin, Crucita; Marval, Hilda; Martinez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    ... consumo de moluscos bivalvos. Un total de 192 muestras de moluscos bivalvos, obtenidas entre abril 2006 a julio 2007, provenientes de Punta Patilla, Bahia Iglesia, Isla Lobos-Chacopata y Bahia Guiria, estado Sucre, Venezuela...

  4. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer patients from Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lara, Karlena; Consigliere, Nigmet; Pérez, Jorge; Porco, Antonietta

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 58 familial breast cancer patients from Venezuela were screened for germline mutations in the coding sequences and exon-intron boundaries of BRCA1 (MIM no. 113705) and BRCA2 (MIM no. 600185...

  5. Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 Maintains Excretion of Jadomycin upon Disruption of the MFS Transporter JadL Located within the Natural Product Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Stephanie M; McVey, Jennifer; Vining, Leo C; Jakeman, David L

    2017-01-01

    JadL was identified as a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter (T.C. 2.A.1) through sequence homology. The protein is encoded by jadL, situated within the jadomycin biosynthetic gene cluster. JadL has, therefore, been assigned a putative role in host defense by exporting its probable substrates, the jadomycins, a family of secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230. Herein, we evaluate this assumption through the construction and analysis of a jadL disrupted mutant, S. venezuelae VS678 (ΔjadL::aac(3)IV). Quantitative determination of jadomycin production with the jadL disrupted mutant did not show a significant decrease in production in comparison to the wildtype strain, as determined by HPLC and by tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that efflux of jadomycin occurs upon disruption of jadL, or that JadL is not involved in jadomycin efflux. Potentially, other transporters within S. venezuelae ISP5230 may adopt this role upon inactivation of JadL to export jadomycins.

  6. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Boadas, Jenny; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Borges, Adolfo; Boadas, Jesús; Marcano, Jenny; Turkali, Iván; De Los Ríos, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae) are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school), in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.

  7. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922.

  8. VENEZUELA AND GEOPOLITICAL RELATIONS IN SOUTH AMERICA AT THE BEGINNING OF XXI CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Чупрін, Р. В.; Ленда, Ю. В.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of research are the position and the role of Venezuela in regional geopolitical relations. The aim is to analyze the regional activities H. Chavez and N. Maduro at this stage, and make characteristics of relations with the leading states of Venezuela CELAC (The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States). The methodological basis is the principle of historicism, the principle of systematic, the chronological method; it allows analyzing the prob-lem in its time sequence. The ...

  9. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

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    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  10. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  11. What does the failure to reduce homicides in Venezuela teach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the paradox of increased homicides in Venezuela in a period of wealth and redistribution. To do so, theories that explain criminality through poverty and inequality are reviewed and refuted and weighed against theories of institutionalism. Thus, the article analyses the situation of homicides between 1985 and 2010 and establishes three periods in which the rules regulating access to a goods, b political power, and c social and penal control were broken. The theories are discussed with statistical information and interpreted within the economic and political context of the time. It is concluded that the reduction in homicides requires institutionalism based on sensitivity and certain formal and informal rules that allow the construction of legitimacy around social difference and punishment, and a citizens’ culture that favours social control by peers over penal control by the State.

  12. Ergonomic evaluation in a values transportation company in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Evelin; Hernández, Maylem; Yanes E, Lucia; Yanes, Laura; Yanes, Leopoldo

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the work activity and identify risk factors that could account for musculoskeletal disorders in the upper extremities, shoulder and neck of workers of a transport values company in Venezuela. The methods used were: collective interview, tasks observation, evaluation of posture with RULA method and evaluation of repetitive motions with the OCRA method. Five workstations were evaluated. Main problem perceived by workers was: exposure to chemical and biological hazards when handling paper money and coins; inadequate chairs and close supervision. The postures level risk was 1 or 2 for the RULA scale. Only two workstations showed ligth and medium risk level by OCRA method. The factors identified that could explain the musculoskeletal changes were: wrist repetitive flexion and extension, shoulder elevation, lifting weight above shoulder height, elbow repetitive flexion and extension, neck flexion, extended work journey, work overload, high responsibility and strict supervision by a video camera.

  13. Venezuela 1983. Impacto de la crisis económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Keller R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, (1985 Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983 Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986 Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria, (1984Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984 En DOCUMENTOS se publica sobre Innovación tecnológica en Educación, el Informe de proyectos 1985, la Primera reunión de Jamaica.

  14. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia La Barbera-Sánchez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 µg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1 422 and 86 µg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization. A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX, but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3 toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSPUn severo brote de intoxicación paralizante por moluscos (PSP en inglés ocurrió en Manzanillo y Guayacán en la costa noroeste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela entre agosto y octubre de 1991. Una proliferación de Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum y Alexandrium tamarense causó el brote. Los niveles de PSP en mejillón (Perna perna superaron los niveles máximos permisibles de saxitoxina, 80 µg STX/100g carne. Los niveles de toxinas variaron entre 2 548 y 115

  15. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Venezuela-Colombia-05-06-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The Virtual Center of High Energy Studies (Centro Virtual de Altos Estudios en Altas Energias CeVALE2) is a Colombian-Venezuelan initiative to promote the research on particle physics in the region. It groups four Colombian universities and four Venezuelan institutions. The two main objectives of CeVALE2 are the development and transfer of collaborative and organizational platforms in the area and the creation of opportunities for the dissemination of particle physics such as courses and seminars. A cycle of conferences has been organized during June 2014 for teachers and students from the member institutions. The ATLAS Virtual Visit will be a key part of this experience - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2014/Venezuela-Colombia-2014.html#sthash.tZw8PxLn.dpuf

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  17. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  18. La credibilidad del sistema de banda cambiaria de Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Campos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la credibilidad del régimen cambiario de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante de Venezuela durante el periodo julio de 1996-febrero de 2002. Mostramos que los análisis de credibilidad aplicados a zonas objetivo, introduciendo algunas modificaciones, también pueden utilizarse para estudiar la credibilidad de sistemas cambiarios de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante. En este trabajo aplicamos tanto el denominado test de credibilidad de Svensson como el método de ajuste de la deriva. Con ambos métodos obtenemos resultados similares en cuanto al alto grado de credibilidad del sistema durante el periodo analizado.

  19. Antiinflammatory activity of some medicinal plant extracts form Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Carretero, E; Martínez-Acitores, C; Noguera, B; Villar, A

    1996-12-01

    Six medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela, used in traditional medicine, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory potential against adjuvant-carrageenan-induced inflammation (ACII). All doses expressed here are equivalents of dried starting plant materials (1.50 g dry plant/kg body wt.). The most interesting plant extracts were Synedrella nodiflora, and the hexane leaf extract of Bursera simaruba. In ACII, orally administered extracts (at doses 40 and 80 mg/kg, respectively), inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of this experimental model of inflammation, mainly the chronic phase. These extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity daily throughout the experiment, and were as effective as reference drugs, phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg).

  20. Venezuela: hacia un canal de servicio público

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    Carlos Eduardo Colina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor presenta la situación de la televisión por suscripción en Venezuela, analiza desde sus inicios en 1988, con OMNIVISIÓN hasta la actualidad cuando los abonados llegan a cuatrocientos mil. Reflexiona sobre la normativa actual que regula este servicio, enfatizando sus logros y flaquezas, y propone la constitución de un canal de servicio público. Es bueno elucidar que no partimos de una posición estatizante, esta debe traducirse en una reglamentación mínima, cuanto más en un servicio pagado y libremente elegido por el usuario. No obstante, no se puede eludir la definición de algunas directrices adecuadas.

  1. Rómulo Gallegos: dos épocas, una venezuela

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    Pedro Acosta

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available El último desenlace de Rómulo Gallegos careció de los imprevistos giros con que salpicó su extensa obra de narrador. Se extinguió con una pasmosa naturalidad, en un tránsito lento y demasiado obvio, poniéndole fin en uno de los amaneceres vacíos de la Semana Mayor a una agonía que tuvo filialmente crispada a Venezuela. Una compenetración tan absoluta entre Gallegos y su país, y, por extensión, con la América Latina, merecían este postrer acto que confirma su invaluable lección: la lealtad del escritor consigo mismo, por lo tanto con sus gentes, y en Consecuencia su altivez de combatiente.

  2. Estados Unidos y Venezuela: Una relación necesaria.

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    Carlos Romero.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies Hugo Chavez's electoral victory and the implementation of a new type of democracy as two factors that transformed Venezuelan foreign policy, and in particular, the bilateral relationship with the United States. Chavez's international activism, in addition to his Bolivarian policy signaled a shift from "safe partner" to "partner with reservations" in the country's relations with Washington. Although Venezuela considered itself a Latin American showcase in previous years, the text argues that Chavez's populist tendencies, his critical posture towards the promotion of democracy and human rights, and his supposed links with Colombian guerrillas has led to a "wait-and-see" policy characterized by high levels of caution on the part of the United States.

  3. Las haciendas cañeras en el sur del lago de Maracaibo-Venezuela (siglos XVI-XVII

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    Ramírez Méndez, Luis Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This analysis studies sugar cane plantations located south of Lake Maracaibo, in the jurisdiction of Merida (Venezuela, where sugar cane was cultivated and processed from the sixteenth century. It is a quantitative and qualitative study of the origin, evolution, production, infrastructure, and profitability of the plantations. The research is based on unpublished documentary sources in national and foreign archives.En el presente análisis se estudian las haciendas cañameleras ubicadas al sur del lago de Maracaibo, área jurisdiccional de Mérida (Venezuela, donde se desarrolló el cultivo y procesamiento de la caña de azúcar a partir del siglo XVI. Es un estudio cuantitativo y cualitativo sobre el origen de las haciendas de caña, su evolución y producción, su infraestructura y rentabilidad. La investigación se asienta en las fuentes documentales inéditas existentes en los archivos nacionales y extranjeros.

  4. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela: A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzmán, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a high seroprevalence (77.4%), with 10% of people experiencing recent infections. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poverty-related socioeconomic factors (place and duration of residence, crowding, household size, and living in a shack) and factors/constraints related to intradomiciliary potential mosquito breeding sites (storing water and used tires) were linked with a greater risk of acquiring a dengue infection. Our results also suggest that transmission occurs mainly at home. The combination of increasingly crowded living conditions, growing population density, precarious homes, and water storage issues caused by enduring problems in public services in Maracay are the most likely factors that determine the permanent dengue transmission and the failure of vector control programs. PMID:25223944

  5. Dengue seroprevalence and risk factors for past and recent viral transmission in Venezuela: a comprehensive community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I; Sierra, Gloria M; Guzmán, Diamelis M; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C; Tami, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a high seroprevalence (77.4%), with 10% of people experiencing recent infections. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poverty-related socioeconomic factors (place and duration of residence, crowding, household size, and living in a shack) and factors/constraints related to intradomiciliary potential mosquito breeding sites (storing water and used tires) were linked with a greater risk of acquiring a dengue infection. Our results also suggest that transmission occurs mainly at home. The combination of increasingly crowded living conditions, growing population density, precarious homes, and water storage issues caused by enduring problems in public services in Maracay are the most likely factors that determine the permanent dengue transmission and the failure of vector control programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Amphinomidae y Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta de la costa nororiental de Venezuela Amphinomidae and Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from northeastern coast of Venezuela

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    Ildefonso Liñero-Arana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron ejemplares pertenecientes a ocho especies de Amphinomidae y una de Euphosinidae recolectados en diferentes lugares de la costa oriental de Venezuela: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus cana-riensis, L. paucibranchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae y Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Excepto para Eurythoë, Hermodice y Notopygos, los demás géneros y/o especies constituyen nuevos registros para la costa de Venezuela.Specimens belonging to eight species of Amphinomidae and one of Euphosinidae collected in different localities of the East coast of Venezuela were identified: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus canariensis, L. pauci-branchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae and Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Except for Eurythoë, Hermodice and Notopygos, the remain genera or species constitute new records from Venezuelan coast.

  7. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

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    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  8. Americo Negrette (1924 to 2003): diagnosing Huntington disease in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michael S; Thommi, Nia

    2004-07-27

    To elucidate the role of Dr. Americo Negrette in diagnosing and reclassifying the dancing mania in Maracaibo, Venezuela as Huntington disease (HD). All of the medical and nonmedical books and articles by Negrette were collected and reviewed. Personal interviews with Negrette were performed to confirm the details of his life and original work. His childhood, medical education, and contribution to HD, as well as contributions to medicine, art, and poetry, were covered in interview sessions. Excerpts from his autobiography, Ciudad de Fuego, were translated into English for publication. A complete bibliography of 70 books and research articles authored by Negrette was assembled. Negrette himself reviewed the compilation of this manuscript just days before his sudden death on September 14, 2003. Americo Negrette, a Venezuelan physician, biochemist, artist, and poet, observed a dancing epidemic in 1952. He acquired, through interviews with locals, the knowledge that there were two other small towns along Lake Maracaibo devastated by a syndrome called el mal (the bad). Negrette changed the diagnosis of these patients from a dancing mania to what he believed was Huntington chorea, later termed HD. He presented his findings at the Venezuelan Sixth Congress of Medical Science in 1955. He was met with reluctance in the local scientific community and a passive ear from government authorities. His description, written in Spanish, was not widely distributed beyond Venezuela, and its importance would have to wait until one of his students shared his observations (more than a decade later) with the HD research community and the rest of the world. The "dancing mania" of Maracaibo, because of the work of Americo Negrette, has been reclassified as Huntington disease.

  9. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

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    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  10. Petróleo y producción agropecuaria en las relaciones bilaterales entre Colombia y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gast Niño, Laura María

    2010-01-01

    Las relaciones bilaterales entre Colombia y Venezuela se caracterizan por una interdependencia de tipo estructural dada por el petróleo como factor vinculante. La industria petrolera venezolana deterioro a tal punto su sector agropecuario, que puso en riesgo la seguridad alimentaria de los venezolanos, hecho que hace a Venezuela depender de los productos agropecuarios colombianos y a su vez, que la producción agropecuaria colombiana se enfoque a entender este mercado en Venezuela.

  11. [Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

    2011-09-01

    The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus.

  12. [Managing the quality of attention in public hospitals' clinical laboratories in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Tania; Panunzio, Amelia; Cruz, Solbellys; Núñez, Milagros; Zambrano, Mariana; Parra, Irene; Sánchez, Jesús

    2010-08-01

    Evaluating how clinical laboratories' quality was being managed according to the view of external users, thereby determining the dimensions of quality related to their satisfaction and sociodemographic characteristics. The study was descriptive; the sample consisted of 1,875 outpatients attending the laboratories of type 3 and 4 care level public hospitals located in the metropolitan area of Zulia State in Venezuela between October and December 2008. A previously validated survey was applied. Frequency allocation, multivariate analysis and variance analysis were used for analysing data. The results showed that the most users were female (72.7 %), of local origin (87.9 %), aged between 15 and 45 (65.7 %) and had received primary and secondary education (70.5 %). Multivariate analysis showed that quality management could be evaluated in terms of accessibility, tangible elements, response ability, safety and professional competence. There were highly significant differences (pquality. Weaknesses were revealed concerning time spent waiting in reception, waiting room comfort and safety measures used by technical staff. The results should lead to establishing action aimed at evaluating the degree of improvement in service and proposed targets for improving the quality of attention; such measures will form part of a quality assurance programme in accordance with international standards.

  13. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo, I.

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  14. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly J

    2014-06-01

    The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16 +/- 55.35 ind./m2) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a

  15. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16±55.35ind./m² belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae, Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not

  16. A atenção pré-natal na ótica de um grupo de mulheres usuárias do subsetor suplementar La atención prenatal en la óptica de un grupo de mujeres usuarias del subsector suplementar Prenatal care attention in the view of a group of women who use the supplementary subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Regina Etges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, de abordagem qualitativa, objetivou conhecer a percepção de mulheres que vivenciaram a Atenção Pré-Natal (APN no contexto do Subsetor Suplementar (SS sobre a qualidade desta atenção. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e analisados por categorização descritiva. Para as entrevistadas, a APN foi de qualidade, suprindo suas necessidades e expectativas. Acolhimento, vínculo com o profissional, a consequente segurança transmitida e a duração das consultas foram critérios destacados nesta avaliação. Suas experiências sugerem que a APN realizada no SS segue, em parte, as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde (MS e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. A freqüência das consultas e as orientações fornecidas são aspectos condizentes ao que se recomenda. Os dados sugerem, contudo, que a APN não segue a orientação do MS e da OMS para que seja evitado o uso excessivo de tecnologias duras, como é o caso das ecografias obstétricas.Este estudio, de abordaje cualitativo, objetivó conocer la percepción de mujeres que vivenciaron la Atención Prenatal (APN en el contexto del Subsector Suplementar (SS sobre la calidad de esta atención. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y analizados por categorización descriptiva. Para las entrevistadas, la APN fue de calidad, supliendo sus necesidades y expectativas. Acogida, vínculo con el profesional, la consecuente seguridad trasmitida y la duración de las consultas fueron criterios destacados en esta evaluación. Sus experiencias sugestionan que la APN realizada en el SS sigue, en parte, las recomendaciones del Ministerio de la Salud (MS y Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. La frecuencia de las consultas y las orientaciones fornecidas son aspectos coherentes a lo que se recomienda. Los datos sugestionan, con todo, que la APN no sigue la orientación del MS y de la OMS para que sea evitado el uso

  17. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  18. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela

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    Ramón Syr Salas Perea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Note from the Editors: This article by Drs. Borroto Cruz and Salas Perea was published in the Fall 2008 edition of MEDICC Review. We will be publishing a Spanish translation this month in Medicina Social. We present here the abstract of the article. We encourage readers to read the English original which is available at: www.medicc.org/mediccreview/. The issue is entitled: Teaching for Health Equity: Changing Paradigms of Medical Education. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela Introduction: Through the 1990s, wide disparities in health status were recorded in Venezuela, a mirror of poor social conditions, decreasing investment in the public health sector and a health workforce distribution unable to meet population health needs or to staff effective, accessible public health services. Venezuelans’ health status deteriorated as a result. In 2003-2004, the Venezuelan government launched Barrio Adentro, a new national public health model aimed at assuring primary health care coverage for the entire population of an estimated 26 million. Cuban physicians staff Barrio Adentro clinics, mainly in poor neighborhoods, until enough Venezuelan physicians can be trained to fill the posts. Intervention: Cuban experience with community-oriented medical education and global health cooperation was drawn upon to develop curriculum and provide faculty for the new National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, begun in 2005 in cooperation with six Venezuelan universities. The program differs from previous Venezuelan medical education models by adopting a stated goal of training physicians for public service, recruiting students who had no previous opportunity for university-level education, and concentrating the weight of their training on a service- and community-based model of education, relying on practicing physician-tutors. Results: Over 20,000 students have been enrolled in three years. The six

  19. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  20. Role of Manufacturing Sector and Trade, Hotel, Restaurant Sector In East Java’s Economy: Input Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggari Marya Kresnowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 analyze the relationship the manufacturing sector and the trade, hotel, and restaurant sector with other sectors in East Java, (2 to analyze the economic impact caused the two sectors based on the multiplier effect, (3 and analyze the economic impact caused by these two sectors if there additional investment funds. This study uses data analysis input output 2010 East Java 19x19 aggregation sector.The results indicate that base metals subsector has the highest linkages to other sectors. Based on household income multiplier effect, trade subsector has the greatest multiplier. Employment multiplier in trade and industrial sectors are in medium rank. This is indicates that the labor has been absorbed well in both sectors. The output multiplier effect, subsector non-metal goods, except petroleum and coal has the highest multiplier. The last, according to the analysis of investment injection simulations Input-Output East Java in 2010, subsector other processing industries has a best value added. Overall, the manufacturing sector has a better influence to East Java's economy than trade, hotel, and restaurant sector.

  1. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

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    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  2. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  3. A new species of Microphallus (Trematoda: Microphallidae from Venezuela

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    M.T Díaz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available During 1997-1999, a total of 94 crabs, Uca rapax were collected from La Sabana, La Ceiba and El Paujil, Sucre State, Venezuela. Of these 36 were infected with metacercariae. Two parasites were located in the abdominal muscles and one under the tissue of carapace and gonad. These metacercariae grew to adults in the following genera: Levinseniella, Microphallus and Maritrema, in the period of 2-5 days after feeding experimentally to the rat Rattus norvegicus, mice Mus musculus and duck Cairinia moschata. Specimens of the genus Microphallus were described herein as a new species M. sabanensis. The life cycle of M. sabanensis sp.nov. were studied experimentally using rat, mice and duck. All developmental stages and the adult are described. In addition, M. sabanensis was collected from wild birds Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea and Nycticorax violaceus from the same localitiesDurante 1997-1999, se recolectaron en La Sabana, La Ceiba y El Paujil del Distrito Cajigal, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, un total de 94 cangrejos Uca rapax, 36 de ellos estaban parasitados con tres especies de metacercarias de digéneos. Dos de ellos localizados en la musculatura del abdomen y una en el tejido que recubre internamente el caparazón y las gónadas. Estas metacercarias fueron dadas como alimento a ratones Mus musculus, ratas Rattus norvegicus, y patos Cairina moschata y tres genéros de microfálidos, Levinseniella, Microphallus y Maritrema fueron recuperados del intestino delgado de estos animales después de 2-5 días de la infección. Especimenes del genero Microphallus de este estudio se describen como Microphallus sabanensis sp.n. Se estudió experimentalmente los aspectos de ciclo vida de la especie, utilizando ratas, ratones y patos. Se describen todas las estapas larvales y los adultos. Además, M. sabanensis se encuentra naturalmente en las aves: Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea

  4. Structural Model of the Tucupita Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Tucupita Field has an area of 73,51 Km2, is located between the states of Monagas and Delta Amacuro, geologically is located at the greater Temblador area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, where the Oficina Formation's sands represent the main hydrocarbons reservoirs. From the results of the seismic reprocessing realized by Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc., the structural model of this field was done as initial step to the geocellular model of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, which was defined as a Faulted Relay Ramp, where the normal faults are dominant with NE-SW orientation Introduction The Tucupita Field is a mature oilfield at the greater Temblador area, however most of the wells were completed in the upper sands, therefore the main study is focused in the geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir's lower sands, starting by the structural model Previous Studies 1. Proyecto Tucupita 3D The seismic data of the Tucupita Field were adquired in 1996 by Western Atlas of Venezuela for the Benton Vinccler Company. The UTM coordinates of the wells used in this project, have been taken to make this geological model 2. Soporte Geofísico Integrado The seismic project Tucupita was processed by Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., in Houston and consisted of reprocessing and pre-stack migration in time (PSTM) and pre-stack migration in depth (PSDM), this data belong to the Petrodelta Company Based on the regional stratigraphy, were validated the "picks" to make the structural sections to support research with hard data. After, it proceeded to interpret the structural style of the field from the seismic amplitude cube. Then, it was done the faults modelling and the stratigraphic horizons to carry out the geocellular model Three structural sections were realized, which was interpreted like a faulted monocline, whose peak is located southward, where justly the wells are located. The contact oil-water was interpreted to -5648'. Echelon faults were interpreted in a

  5. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Pettito, Michele; Peñaranda, Carlos F; de Yepez, Jazmin; Maestre, Gladys; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed. To report the ocular manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome with microcephaly in Colombia and Venezuela. This prospective case series included 43 patients from 2 ophthalmic centers in Colombia and Venezuela who underwent evaluation from October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016, and were clinically diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome. Twenty patients were Hispanic; 13, African; 8, white; and 2, Native American. Ophthalmic and systemic evaluations and serologic testing were performed on all infants. Patients underwent external ocular examination and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Serologic testing ruled out toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus. Ophthalmic manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome. Of the 43 patients included in this series (28 female and 15 male), the mean (SD) age at examination was 2.1 (1.5) months. The mothers of all the children had no ophthalmic findings and did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. All patients had bilateral ophthalmic manifestations. Optic nerve findings included hypoplasia with the double-ring sign, pallor, and increased cup-disc ratio in 5 patients (11.6%). Macular abnormalities included mild to severe pigment mottling in 27 patients (63%) and lacunar maculopathy in 3 (6.9%). Chorioretinal scarring was present in 3 patients (7%). Eleven patients (26%) had a combination of lesions in the posterior pole. Five patients (12%) were

  6. Physiological age in Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae populations from an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Venezuela

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    Scorza José V.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Batches of sylvatic females of Lutzomyia youngi (Phlebotominae captured in a Shannon trap on twelve occasions over one year in a locality where subcutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic, near the city of Trujillo, Venezuela, were used to study: 1 the percentages of parous females according to previously established criteria and 2 the average number of eggs laid spontaneously by isolated females during 7 days after feeding on hamsters. The data on the batches of females captured on nights previous to the rainy period (prepluvial were compared with those on females captured after the rains (postpluvial . Significant differences were detected by variation analysis for two variables and different number of N, as also were consistent groupings by Duncan's Test for pre-and postpluvial lots of females. The females captured on nights prior to the rainy periods (January-March and August-September presented higher rates of nulliparity (86-72% and contained or laid a greater number of eggs (71-67 than those captured after the rains (March-June and November-December which presented lower rates of nulliparity (60-24% and a smaller number of eggs (50-30. The rainfall peaks occurred in April and September-October, respectively. It is considered that these differences can be used by epidemiological studies as a means of estimating the physiological age of female populations of L. youngy.

  7. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

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    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  8. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  9. A new species of Hemerobiella Kimmins (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) from Venezuela with notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Francisco; Lara, Rogéria I R; Martins, Caleb C

    2015-10-09

    Hemerobiella periotoi Sosa & Lara sp. nov. is described from Venezuela. The new species was collected at the edges of a mature cloud forest in Lara state. This is the third species known in Hemerobiella Kimmins, and the second recorded from Venezuela. Additionally, new Venezuelan records and illustrations of H. oswaldi Monserrat, as well as, a key to Hemerobiella species are provided.

  10. Redescrição de Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus costaricensis isolado de novo hospedeiro silvestre, Proechimys sp., na Venezuela (Metastrongyloidea, Angiostrongylidae

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    Cláudia Portes Santos

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus costaricensis, nematódeo encontrado em artérias mesentéricas do rato silvestre Proechimys sp., na Venezuela, é redescrito e colocado no subgênero Parastorngylus.Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus costaricensis is reported from a new host, Proechimys sp., a rodent collected in Venezuela. A study of the species is presented.

  11. Confronting health disparities: Latin American social medicine in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L; Mantini-Briggs, Clara

    2009-03-01

    We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, "Inside the Neighborhood Mission," a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician-patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians' lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than "horizontal" collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas.

  12. en la Venezuela de Chávez

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    Alfredo Ramos Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el liderazgo carismático y plebiscitario, el experimento bolivariano de Chávez y del chavismo en el poder se mueve entre el desgobierno y el autoritarismo. La relevancia de esta fórmula política, en la experiencia de Venezuela en los años recientes, ha sido observada, si no adoptada, en otras experiencias recientes en las democracias andinas, como una alternativa exitosa frente al denunciado fracaso de la democracia representativa. Con las banderas y símbolos de un bolivarianismo retórico, que se combina con un indeterminado “socialismo del siglo xxi”, se ha pretendido impulsar lo que se ha convenido en llamar “revolución bolivariana”. En este artículo me propongo como objetivo interpretar tal fenómeno a partir de los resultados de las elecciones y referendos después de la reelección de Chávez en diciembre de 2006.

  13. Diversified techniques are key to successful Venezuela operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J.C.; Verde, F.D.

    1975-04-01

    Texas Petroleum Co.'s Mata field is an 84,453-acre concession separated into 3 blocks that contain a total of 463 reservoirs. It is one of E. Venezuela's major fields and currently produces an average of 22,500 bpd. Production is highly diversified, i.e., natural flow, gas lift, hydraulic pump, and rod pumping. Crude gravities range from 10/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/ API, so production is divided into 2 streams: the Mata Mesa 30/sup 0/ API and Mata Merey 17/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/ API. At present, 78% of the production is from secondary recovery projects. The first application of secondary recovery was initiated in 1957 with a gas injection project. There are 18 gas injection projects now in operation, producing 44% of the total field production. Waterflooding, initiated in 1969 with a pilot project in a 2-well reservoir, proved highly successful, and consequently, has been extended to 19 reservoirs producing 34% of the current field production. Other subjects discussed include geology, rock properties, fluid characteristics, production history, well completion, artificial lift methods, stimulation treatments, gas injection, and waterfloods.

  14. Chavism and Criminal Policy in Venezuela, 1999-2014

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    Martha Lia Grajales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the Venezuelan democracy was an exception in South America due to a party system that was based on what was known as the ‘Punto Fijo Pact’. At the start of the 1980s a series of economic, social and political events began to occur, which caused this ‘exceptionalism’ to stagger and disrupt the institutionality of the traditional Venezuelan democratic State. The events led to a deep national crisis and the birth of a new political era. By the end of the 1990s, there had been a significant shift towards left-wing governance. Hugo Chávez Frías subsequently won the presidential elections in 1998. This paper analyzes some aspects of the criminal policies that were implemented during the reign of left-wing leader Chávez till his death in 2013 and thereafter by Chavist party president elect, Nicolás Maduro during 2013-2014. Four stages can be identified in the behavior of incarceration rates. The first stage, from 1999 to 2000, was characterized by the lowest recordings of incarceration rates and the lowest measured percentage of preventive detention in Venezuela in thirty years. The second stage, from 2001 to 2005, saw a slight increase in the incarceration rate which then remained stable. The third stage, from 2006 to 2012, and the fourth stage, from 2013 to 2014, are characterized by sustained increases in preventive detention, incarceration and murder rates.

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  16. Sucesos de la Venezuela Rentista, 1989 y 2014

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    Ibelis Coromoto Blanco Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX, Venezuela fue catalogado uno de los países de Sudamérica más ricos del continente, destacándose por su y estabilidad económica. Sin embargo, el capitalismo rentístico tanto de la época democrática como en el socialismo del siglo XXI sobredimensionó el tamaño del estado, utilizó mecanismos de subsidios que desaceleró el aparato productivo, generó niveles de inflación y déficit fiscal que se reflejaron en malestar y estallido social. Este artículo hace una reflexión sobre la crisis que atraviesa este país, para lo cual se describen elementos de política económica de corte neoliberal en 1989 y un resumen de los catorce años del gobierno actual caracterizado por las medidas de control cambiario que han generado, escasez. De igual forma se revisan los hechos desataron la crisis social en 1989 y 2014, así como los puntos en común presentes en los dos momentos, el más característico: la inseguridad.

  17. Pros and cons of power combined cycle in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, C.; Hernandez, S. [Tecnoconsult/Tecnofluor, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1997-09-01

    In Venezuela combined cycle power has not been economically attractive to electric utility companies, mainly due to the very low price of natural gas. Savings in cost of natural gas due to a higher efficiency, characteristic of this type of cycle, does not compensate additional investments required to close the simple cycle (heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine island). Low gas prices have contributed to create a situation characterized by investors` reluctance to commit capital in gas pipe lines and associated equipment. The Government is taking measures to improve economics. Recently (January 1, 1997), the Ministry of Energy and Mines raised the price of natural gas, and established a formula to tie its price to the exchange rate variation (dollar/bolivar) in an intent to stimulate investments in this sector. This is considered a good beginning after a price freeze for about three years. Another measure that has been announced is the implementation of a corporate policy of outsourcing to build new gas facilities such as pipe lines and measuring and regulation stations. Under these new circumstances, it seems that combined cycle will play an important role in the power sector. In fact, some power generation projects are considering building new plants using this technology. An economical comparative study is presented between simple and combined cycles power plant. Screening curves are showed with a gas price forecast based on the government decree recently issued, as a function of plant capacity factor.

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections among pregnant women in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Barbella, Rosa A; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  19. Origin of ultramafic-hosted magnesite on Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jaber, N. S.; Kimberley, M. M.

    1992-06-01

    Ultramafic-hosted deposits of magnesite (MgCO3) have been studied on Margarita Island, Venezuela, to elucidate the source of carbon and conditions of formation for this type of ore. Petrographic, mineralogic, and δ18O data indicate that magnesite precipitated on Margarita in near-surface environments at low P and T. δ13C ranges from -9 to -16‰ PDB within the magnesite and -8 to -10‰ PDB within some calcite and dolomite elsewhere on the island. The isotopically light dolomite fills karst and the calcite occurs as stock-work veins which resemble the magnesite deposits. These carbon isotopic ratios are consistent with a deep-seated source rather than an overlying source from a zone of surficial weathering. However, there is not much enrichment of precious metals and no enrichment of heavy rare-earth elements, as would be expected if the carbon had migrated upward as aqueous carbonate ions. The carbon probably has risen as a gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4 which partially dissolved in near-surface water before leaching cations and precipitating as magnesite and other carbonates. The process probably is ongoing, given regional exhalation of carbonaceous gases.

  20. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela

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    Jesús Oduber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. El propósito es observar su relación con la victimización por hackeo y acoso online en una muestra de 308 sujetos. Este estudio halló un grupo de variables que pueden estar relacionadas con la probabilidad de victimización cibernética, las cuales serán discutidas en términos

  1. Venezuela en el comercio internacional y frente al desarrollo sustentable

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    Marysela Coromoto Morillo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela pese a los innumerables dotes naturales no ha podido alcanzar el anhelado desarrollo, tampoco el bienestar de todos sus habitantes, en parte porque sus acciones y prácticas económicas no se han fundamentado en el desarrollo sustentable, su comercio exterior se limita a la exportación de materias primas básicas sin mucho valor agregado cuya explotación intensiva incrementa la vulnerabilidad ecológica irreversible. En el presente trabajo se analiza la economía venezolana en el marco del desarrollo sustentable, vinculando su participación en el comercio exterior con el desarrollo sustentable. Se recomienda la urgente reducción de la dependencia petrolera, la diversificación económica y de exportaciones, para participar en el comercio internacional de forma dinámica con productos de alto valor agregado. El reto son los procesos de liberalización comercial y mundialización que promueva la sustentabilidad ecológica y el desarrollo humano equitativo, integrando mundialmente las políticas ecológicas y comerciales, dado que el comercio internacional no necesariamente eleva la calidad de vida y la salud del planeta, por el contrario, todo depende del uso eficiente de los recursos para crear riquezas en concordancia con la protección del medio ambiente.

  2. SOFTWARE LIBRE: OPORTUNIDADES Y RETOS CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Rodríguez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan algunas consideraciones en torno al software libre, sus oportunidades pero también sus desafíos, a la vez que se expone el marco legal de esta figura a partir de su implementación en Venezuela. Se ha empleado una metodología descriptivo-explicativa, partiendo de la revisión bibliográfica conjuntamente con la legislación nacional sobre el tema. Asimismo, se consultó a FUNDACITE ZULIA, a través de la Misión Ciencia, y se concluye que el software libre es una oportunidad para desarrollar programas que atiendan necesidades particulares, y hay quienes consideran que resulta una herramienta especialmente útil para democratizar el acceso a la información en países en desarrollo; sin embargo, planteamos la realidad de una brecha digital entre países en desarrollo y desarrollados

  3. The emergence of commercial genomics: analysis of the rise of a biotechnology subsector during the Human Genome Project, 1990 to 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiechers, Ilse R; Perin, Noah C; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    .... This study tracks financial and intellectual property data on genomics firms from 1990 through 2004, thus following these firms as they emerged in the era of the Human Genome Project and through...

  4. Factores de riesgos asociados a la infección por dengue en San Mateo, Anzoátegui, Venezuela Dengue infection associated-risk factors with in San Mateo, Anzoátegui, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antulio Hoyos Rivera

    2011-09-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To determine the dengue infection associated-risk factors in San Mateo, Anzoátegui, Venezuela. METHODS: Universe included 15 000 inhabitants of San Mateo, Libertad municipality, Anzoátegui in Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela from May, 2007 to May, 2008. A bi-varied analysis was made related to associated risk factors to estimate the relative risk and a multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the Odds Ratio value. RESULTS: According the results from the bi-varied and multi-varied analysis of dengue infection risk factors associated with cases of recent infection due to positive M-immunoglobulin dengue and the dengue cases, there was not any study variable, according to proposed hypothesis except that of the low level of knowledge in population on the disease, particularly as regards the symptoms, transmission mechanisms, causal agent and prevention measures. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of dengue in this place is the result of lack of knowledge on disease and the existence of the vector; this latter is the basic condition for its transmission. Its presence is an indirect indicator of the poor hygienic-health conditions of population and also of the existence of the home breeding places.

  5. [Population status of insects of Plecoptera order in Sierra Nevada National Park in Venezuela and its implications for conservation planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Maribet

    2010-12-01

    Longitudinal distribution of Plecoptera species were examined along the Sierra Nevada National Park in the Andean region of Merida State, Venezuela. PNSN is one of the largest protected areas and consists of two major sub-basins. Quantitative samples were collected in 7 river tributaries along the PNSN from February to May of 2009, and a total of 135 individuals and 4 species of the genus Anacroneuria were collected. Only three rivers (Nuestra Señora, La Picón y Corcovada) found the presence of stoneflies, the principal component analysis show that the characterization of habitat, current velocity, dissolved oxygen and the absence of human disturbance sources of influence in a suitable habitat for populations. Stoneflies are endangered or have become extinct throughout much of its range due to human activities. Conservation plans must be implemented urgently, in order to avoid recreational areas and/or economic in vicinity thereof.

  6. Trip Generation by Transportation Mode of Private School, Semi-private and Public. Case Study in Merida-Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero Petit, A.M.; Diaz Gallardo, M.I.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    The trip generation model (TGM) is the first step in transportation forecasting, this is useful for estimating travel demand because it can predict travel from or to a particular land use. Typically, the analysis focuses in residential trip generation as a function of the social and economic attributes of households, but nonresidential land use suggests others variables. Travel generator poles such as: Private school, Semi-private and Public, have not been studied in Venezuela. The TGMs that shows the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), EE.UU, are used typically and could be not appropriate. By using stepwise regression and transformation of data, high correlation coefficients and substantial improvements in the variability of data from several schools they were found. The trip generation rates (TGRs) by transportation mode: walking, motorcycle, public transport and cars, can be compared and be included in the Ibero-American Network of travel attractors poles. (Author)

  7. Aves de la Ribera Colombiana del Rio Negro (Frontera de Colombia y Venezuela Aves de la Ribera Colombiana del Rio Negro (Frontera de Colombia y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors list 77 species and subspecies of birds collected on the Colombian bank of the Rio Negro, one of the larger northern tributaries of the Amazon. The Rio Negro, known as Guainía ("Huaynía" in the upper part of its course, forms the natural border of Colombia and Venezuela before entering the territory of Brazil. Of the birds listed, 74 were taken by Manuel Castro for the Coleccion ornitológica Phelps (Caracas, Venezuela, at San Felipe (opposite San Carlos, -Venezuela and Macacuní (opposite El Carmen, Venezuela in August-September, 1947. The authors also record the birds collected by Ernest G. Holt, Emmet R. Blake, and Charles T. Agostini in January, 1931, opposite San Carlos, Venezuela, i. e. San Felipe, Colombia. Among the nine species secured by these collectors three are not represented in Castro's 1947 collection. Sixteen birds are recorded as new to the avifauna of Colombia. The introduction of the paper mentions the naturalists who have explored the Rio Negro and the Guainía since Humboldt's celebrated voyage in 1800, and includes geographical notes, a map, and a brief description of the ecology of the region. Los autores enumeran 77 especies y subespecies de aves coleccionadas en la ribera colombiana del rio Negro, uno de los mayores afluentes septentrionales del Amazonas. El rio Negro, llamado Guainía ("Huaynía" en la parte superior de su curso, forma la frontera natural entre Colombia y Venezuela antes de entrar en territorio del Brasil.  De las aves catalogadas, 74 fueron colectadas por Manuel Castro, expedicionario de la Colección Ornitológica Phelps, en San Felipe (frente a San Carlos, Venezuela y Macacuní (frente a El Carmen. Venezuela en agosto y septiembre de 1947.  Los autores también hacen mención de las aves colectadas en enero de 1931 frente a San Carlos, Venezuela, es decir, en San Felipe, Colombia, por Ernest G. Holt, Emmet R. Blake y Charles T. Agostini. Entre las nueve especies conseguidas por estos

  8. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leslie C; Ponce, Gustavo; Oviedo, Milagros; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-08-01

    Temephos is an insecticide widely used in Venezuela to control the proliferation of the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), the principal vector of dengue virus. The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility to temephos of Ae. aegypti in four locations in western Venezuela: Lara, Tres Esquinas, Ureña and Pampanito. Larval bioassays were conducted on samples collected in 2008 and 2010, and the levels of α- and β-esterases, mixed-function oxidases, glutathione-S-transferase and insensitive acethyl cholinesterase were determined. Larval populations from western Venezuela obtained during 2008 and 2010 were found to be susceptible to temephos, with low resistance ratios and without overexpression of enzymes. The low RR values reveal the effectiveness of temephos in controlling the larval populations of Ae. aegypti. Control strategies must be vigorously monitored to maintain the susceptibility to temephos of these populations of Ae. aegypti. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. UN MODELO DE EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA PARA VENEZUELA EN EL MARCO DEL SOCIALISMO DEL SIGLO XXI (A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION MODEL FOR VENEZUELA IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SOCIALISM OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Miguel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo se basa en un análisis de la educación universitaria en el contexto socio-político de la realidad venezolana, en el período referencial es 2007-2013, centrado a partir de la promulgación de la Ley Orgánica de Educación (2009. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Unidad de Investigación de Análisis de Políticas Públicas y Desarrollo Socio-educativo de la Universidad de Carabobo. Tomando como referencias teóricas a E. Morin y J. Habermas, se desarrollan tres categorías presentes en la realidad de Venezuela: el Socialismo del Siglo XXI, el Estado Docente y la Autonomía Universitaria. El tratamiento metodológico parte del planteamiento de la premisa: el Nuevo Modelo de Educación Universitaria que está por construirse, se debe a la crisis del modelo cognitivo instrumental instituido en la Constitución de la República de Venezuela (1961, sus Leyes y Reglamentos. Al triangular las tres categorías se plantea, como valor agregado, concebir la educación a través de un proceso transdisciplinario, sustentado en una primera instancia por el ordenamiento jurídico que le dé concreción y sincronización en el tiempo y el movimiento. En el caso de la educación venezolana, se concluye que no se han producidos cambios significativos que nos indiquen que estamos en presencia de un nuevo modelo de educación. La educación universitaria sigue atada al modelo cognitivo instrumental, impidiendo cualquier cambio que desde su seno se pretenda impulsar, de manera que la nueva Ley de Educación Universitaria y el nuevo modelo de educación siguen diferido.Abstract: This essay is based on an analysis of the higher education in the context socio-political of the Venezuelan reality, in the reference period is 2007-2013, focused the promulgation of the organic law of education (2009. This study was developed in the research unit of analysis of public policies and development partner-education of the University of Carabobo. On

  10. Impacto Distributivo de las Reformas del IVA en Venezuela (1993-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quilez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular los impactos distributivos de las reformas a las exenciones del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2011. Los impactos distributivos se midieron a través de indicadores locales de progresividad/regresividad, bajo un enfoque de equilibro parcial, utilizando las encuestas nacionales de presupuestos familiares de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las Leyes del IVA. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que el diseño de las exenciones en Venezuela logró conferir progresividad al impuesto

  11. Estudio preliminar de la fauna de insectos asociada a cadáveres en Maracay, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Magaña, Concepción; Andara, Carmen; Contreras, María José; Coronado, Alfredo; Guerrero, Edmundo; Hernández, Dilcia; Herrera, Melfran; Jiménez, Matilde; Liendo, Carmen; Limongi, Jorge; Liria, Jonathan; Mavárez, Marcel; Oviedo, Milagros; Piñango, José; Rodríguez, Idalia

    2006-01-01

    Los insectos pueden ser una herramienta importante en la investigación médico legal, pero su utilidad depende mucho de la información base que se tenga en relación a las especies y su orden de llegada a los cadáveres para determinada zona. En Venezuela muy poco se conoce de la fauna de insectos asociada a cadáveres. En el presente trabajo se reportan las especies de artrópodos de importancia forense de asociadas a cadáveres de Rattus norvegicus y Oryctolagus cuniculus en Maracay –Venezuela, e...

  12. Hugo Chávez's 21st century socialism and the resource curse in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cabdi Yusuf, Ayaan; Filipovska, Kalina; Mahamed, Safa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the following problem formulation: How did the presidency of Hugo Chávez affect the resource curse in Venezuela? This was done by looking at the aftermath of president Chávez’s 21st century Socialism and the consequences of this policy on the oil industry and the Venezuelan economy. Despite being a resource-rich country, Venezuela has been subject to an unstable economy due to the presence of the resource curse. Therefore, this project investigates th...

  13. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922. PMID:28228670

  14. Normativas contables aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos, Alira; Rodríguez Medina, Guillemo; Urdaneta, Mary Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo planteó como objetivo, analizar las normativas contables internacionales aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela. Se realizó una investigación analítica, con diseño documental, obteniendo como resultado que en Venezuela no existen normas contables en materia medioambiental específicamente; se asume lo establecido de manera indirecta en las normas internacionales de información financiera (NIIF), en cuanto al reconocimiento de activos y provisiones medi...

  15. Complete genome sequence of jacquemontia yellow vein virus, a novel begomovirus infecting Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    Wild plants of the family Convolvulaceae are hosts for a few New World begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus infecting the wild convolvulaceous plant Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela. The cloned bipartite genome showed the organization of typical New World begomoviruses and was found to be phylogenetically related to those of begomoviruses from Venezuela and other Caribbean countries. Several recombination events have been shown to have occurred involving genome fragment exchange with related begomoviruses infecting crops such as tomato and cucurbits and wild plants, including Jacquemontia sp. We propose the name jacquemontia yellow vein virus (JacYVV) for this new begomovirus.

  16. Cambios institucionales: La descentralización en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramírez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un esbozo de un conjunto de hechos históricos ocurridos en el transcurrir de los siglos XIX y XX, concebidos como antecedentes de la descentralización en Venezuela. Esos acontecimientos son interpretados y analizados dentro del amplio contexto político de la organización y consolidación del Estado desde los inicios de la República en el siglo XIX hasta la creación de la Comisión Presidencial para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE en 1984. Se parte de una noción sobre las bases teóricas de esas estrategias del desarrollo, se busca el vínculo a lo largo del proceso histórico republicano desde los tiempos del federalismo en adelante, se hace un diagnóstico e interpretación de la regionalización, y se aborda el origen de la descentralización y sus objetivos. A modo de conclusión se reafirma la apreciación teórica y metodológica de esas propuestas para el desarrollo, se insiste en su indisoluble unión a lo histórico, se deslinda el momento de inicio de la aceleración del crecimiento económico a partir de la regionalización, y se ratifica la descentralización como propuesta política para la modernización de la democracia partidista de finales del siglo XX.

  17. Morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Núñez Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela; en el período de enero a octubre de 2009. El universo fue de 286 niños, lo que se corresponde con la población total del grupo de edad de menores de 15 años. De estos se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio simple 43 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario y se confeccionó una guía de observación, para describir los factores epidemiológicos que influyen en la infestación por parasitismo intestinal. Además, se les realizaron análisis de las heces fecales seriadas para el diagnóstico del parasitismo. El método estadístico fue el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. A través del estudio de las heces fecales seriadas se obtuvo que 27 pacientes tenían parasitosis intestinal, para una morbilidad de 62,79%, con una mayor incidencia en los niños de cinco a nueve años de edad. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado. Los factores epidemiológicos que más influyeron fueron: los malos hábitos higiénicos personales, el entorno desfavorable y el consumo de agua no potable; existió relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, los factores epidemiológicos y la morbilidad por parasitismo intestinal. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba Histolytica, con 11 casos, para un 40,74%. La diarrea, las molestias abdominales y la pérdida de apetito constituyeron los principales síntomas

  18. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  19. Open data: realidades sobre apertura de datos en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Sandoval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El vertiginoso crecimiento de datos producidos y necesarios para el desarrollo de las organizaciones, tienen un gran valor que se acrecienta con el uso de estos en otros ámbitos. En función de ello, el objetivo del artículo se basa en el análisis del estado del arte de los datos abiertos, su fundamentación y marco legal que lo rige. Se fundamenta en una investigación descriptiva-proyectivo, mediante la cual se determina la necesidad de la apertura de datos, conocido con el término en inglés Open Data (datos abiertos, esta filosofía que persigue que ciertos datos que han estado en dominio de organizaciones públicas o privadas sean liberados para su uso por cualquiera que los requiera, sin restricciones de licencias, copyright y/o patentes. Para que un dato sea considerado abierto, tiene que ser accesible y reutilizable por la comunidad, sin exigencia legal y/o permisos. Los resultados se plantean con el fin de que la Administración Pública Nacional (APN se mantenga a la vanguardia, aproveche las ventajas competitivas de los datos abiertos y cumpla con las disposiciones legales establecidas, asimismo se requiere la implementación de mecanismos que apoyen una adecuada administración y publicación de sus datos para uso de los ciudadanos. Se recomienda la efectividad de una propuesta de portal de datos que permita la apertura de datos de la APN, como alternativa para garantizar la apertura de los datos en Venezuela.

  20. Hechos estilizados del crecimiento económico en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idana Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo describir el comportamiento del crecimiento económico en Venezuela para el período 2000-2010 a través de las variaciones del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB como indicador macroeconómico. El abordaje se enmarcó con una metodología de tipo descriptiva mediante la revisión de fuentes documentales. Por su parte, los hechos estilizados permiten evidenciar el comportamiento de la economía venezolana en el período de estudio y los elementos fundamentales de incidencia sobre el crecimiento económico. Finalmente se concluyó que los variantes e inestables niveles del crecimiento económico en los últimos años, estuvieron influidos generalmente por el gasto público auspiciado por los altos ingresos petroleros. La economía venezolana se caracteriza por tener un sector productivo “estrangulado”, no obstante, los últimos cinco años del período estudiado, el PIB ha presentado una propensión decreciente generado por la disminución del crecimiento económico. En suma, no se ha logrado subsanar y erradicar los problemas sociales más importantes en la economía venezolana como la pobreza, la inflación, el desempleo, entre otros; muchas de estas dificultades inciden directa y proporcionalmente sobre el bienestar social y por ende sobre el desarrollo humano, concluyendo que los beneficios económicos de los períodos de bonanza, no se trasladan en significativas mejoras de la calidad de vida.

  1. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Marcella M A; Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermans, Peter W M; del Nogal, Berenice; Sánchez, Adriana Márquez; Acevedo, Natacha Martinez; Murga, Rosalicia Ramirez; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-05-29

    While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 - 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 - 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 - 30.5). High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth

  2. Molecular characterization of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients in a Public Hospital in Caracas, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco Restrepo, Aura Dayana; Velásquez Nieves, Mariel Alexandra; Takiff, Howard

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are amongst the most important causative agents of nosocomial infections worldwide. Isolates of this bacterium have been identified in Venezuela but little is known about their local spread. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of KPC-producing strains isolated from 2012 to 2013 in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela. Twenty-two K. pneumoniae clinical isolates phenotypically classified as KPC producing were subjected to PCR screening for the presence of blaKPC genes and their location within transposon Tn4401. The blaKPC PCR product was sequenced to identify the KPC alleles. Genotypic analysis was performed by means of repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Finally, conjugation and electroporation assays were used to determine whether the blaKPC genes were found in plasmids. All isolates contained the blaKPC-2 variant, and 21 of the 22 were associated with the Tn4401b isoform. The strains were distributed in 8 sequence types (ST), three of which were new. Conjugation and electroporation assays indicated that 95.5% (n=21/22) of the isolates contained the blaKPC gene in plasmids. This study on circulating bacterial strains and the identification of KPC alleles may help to understand the routes of dissemination and control their spread within this hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Pleistocene slip rates on the Boconó fault along the North Andean Block plate boundary, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousse-Beltran, Lea; Vassallo, Riccardo; Audemard, Franck; Jouanne, François; Carcaillet, Julien; Pathier, Erwan; Volat, Matthieu

    2017-07-01

    The Boconó fault is a strike-slip fault lying between the North Andean Block and the South American plate which has triggered at least five Mw > 7 historical earthquakes in Venezuela. The North Andean Block is currently moving toward NNE with respect to a stable South American plate. This relative displacement at 12 mm yr-1 in Venezuela (within the Maracaibo Block) was measured by geodesy, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation have remained partially unclear. We used two alluvial fans offset by the Boconó fault (Yaracuy Valley) to quantify slip rates, by combining 10Be cosmogenic dating with measurements of tectonic displacements on high-resolution satellite images (Pleiades). Based upon a fan dated at >79 ka and offset by 1350-1580 m and a second fan dated at 120-273 ka and offset by 1236-1500 m, we obtained two Pleistocene rates of 5.0-11.2 and <20.0 mm yr-1, consistent with the regional geodesy. This indicates that the Boconó fault in the Yaracuy Valley accommodates 40 to 100% of the deformation between the South American plate and the Maracaibo Block. As no aseismic deformation was shown by interferometric synthetic aperture radar analysis, we assume that the fault is locked since the 1812 event. This implies that there is a slip deficit in the Yaracuy Valley since the last earthquake ranging from 1 to 4 m, corresponding to a Mw 7-7.6 earthquake. This magnitude is comparable to the 1812 earthquake and to other historical events along the Boconó fault.

  4. HIV-1 and GBV-C co-infection in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Anny Karely; Garzaro, Domingo José; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Gutiérrez, Cristina R; Ameli, Gladys; Jaspe, Rossana Celeste; Porto, Leticia; Monsalve, Francisca; Pozada, Ángela; Vázquez, Luzmary; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E; Pujol, Flor Helene; Rangel, Héctor Rafael

    2014-07-14

    Co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has been associated with prolonged survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GBV-C infection among HIV-1-infected patients in Venezuela, and to determine the effects of the co-infection on the levels of relevant cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 270 HIV-1-seronegative and 255 HIV-1-seropositive individuals. GBV-C infection was determined by RT-PCR of the NS5 region and genotyped by sequence analysis of the 5´UTR region. HIV-1 strains were characterized by sequence analysis of pol, vif, env, and nef genes. Selected cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Ninety-seven of 525 (18.5%) plasma samples tested positive for GBV-C RNA. A significantly higher prevalence of GBV-C was found among HIV-1 patients compared to HIV-1-seronegative individuals (67/255, 26% versus 30/270, 11%; p GBV-C+ and HIV-1+GBV-C- (p = 0.014), although no differences in CD4+ cell counts were found between both groups. TNFα concentration was higher in HIV-1+GBV-C- than in HIV-1+GBV-C+ patients (25.9 pg/mL versus 17.3 pg/mL; p = 0.02); RANTES expression levels were more variable in GBV-C co-infected patients and more frequently elevated in HIV-1 mono-infected patients compared to patients co-infected with GBV-C. The previously observed beneficial effect of co-infection with HIV-1 and GBV-C on disease progression is complex and might be due in part to a change in the cytokine environment. More studies are required to understand the interaction between both viruses.

  5. Education, Democracy and Social Change: Venezuela's Education Missions in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The "Bolivarian Revolution" in Venezuela is conceptualised as a pedagogical project that aims to develop "twenty-first century Socialism" through state-grassroots collaboration in the reorganisation of political space in order to develop participatory, democratic institutions and processes. The cornerstones of this project to…

  6. Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, D; Viéitez, J M

    2002-03-01

    Five species of polychaetes (Spionidae) were found associated to Thalassia testudinum meadows in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. We included a guide for their identification and present range extensions for the Venezuelan coasts and Southern Caribbean Sea. The species are: Dipolydora socialis, Prionospio (Minuspio) cirrifera, P. (Prionospio) fallax, P. (P.) steenstrupi, and Spio pettiboneae.

  7. Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, Luis; Van Bressem, Marie-Fran?oise; Reyes-Jaimes, Oscar; Sayegh, Alejandro J.; Paniz-Mondolfi,Alberto E.

    2009-01-01

    We report 1 case of lobomycosis caused by Lacazia loboi in a fisherman and 1 case of lobomycosis-like disease in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) along the coast of Venezuela. These findings suggest that the marine environment is a likely habitat for L. loboi and a reservoir for infection.

  8. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  9. La invención de la democracia racial en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Quintero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la conformación del mito de la democracia racial en Venezuela, a través del análisis de la novela nacional Doña Bárbara de Rómulo Gallegos. Publicada por primera vez en 1929, la novela representa una de las obras fundantes tanto del mito de la democracia racial, como de las disposiciones contemporáneas de la identidad nacional en Venezuela. El análisis desarrollado en el trabajo, relaciona la función proyectiva de los diseños nacionales de la élite criolla, con la reconfiguración y consolidación de la colonialidad del poder en la Venezuela del siglo XX. Asimismo, se examinan las prácticas representacionales, contenidas en la obra, y las tecnologías civilizatorias que se proponen allí como solución al problema de la «barbarie» de la sociedad y la naturaleza en Venezuela.

  10. Universities, Public Policy and Economic Development in Latin America: The Cases of Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorey, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Since establishment of national university systems in Mexico and Venezuela, three principal demands have dominated policy formation: government ideological demand; economic demand for expertise; and political and social demand for upward mobility through education. Tensions between these demands have stemmed from economic inability to sustain…

  11. Comparison and validation of two computational models of Chagas disease: A thirty year perspective from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Bartsch

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The PHICOR/CIDMA and Princeton models differ in level of detail and included features, yet both were able to generate the historical changes in T. cruzi seroprevalence in Venezuela over 9 and 19-year time periods. Our model comparison has demonstrated that different model structures can be useful in evaluating disease transmission dynamics and intervention strategies.

  12. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  13. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  14. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  15. Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Luis; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Reyes-Jaimes, Oscar; Sayegh, Alejandro J.

    2009-01-01

    We report 1 case of lobomycosis caused by Lacazia loboi in a fisherman and 1 case of lobomycosis-like disease in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) along the coast of Venezuela. These findings suggest that the marine environment is a likely habitat for L. loboi and a reservoir for infection. PMID:19751598

  16. Volatile compounds from Tagetes pusilla (Asteraceae) collected from the Venezuela Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Diolimar; Rojas, Luis B; Rojas, Janne; Morales, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Tagetes pusilla Kunth (Asteraceae) collected from Mérida, Venezuela, was analyzed by GC/MS. A yield of 0.38% oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Only two components, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base.

  17. Índices de pobreza en Venezuela: En búsqueda de las cifras correctas

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Luis Sandoval; David Rosnick

    2006-01-01

    ¿Ha incrementado la pobreza en Venezuela bajo el mandato del Presidente Hugo Chávez? Este reporte estudia los datos disponibles sobre el tema y corrige información errónea que se ha presentado en varios medios de comunicación.

  18. The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

  19. Decentralization and Regionalization in Educational Administration: Comparisons of Venezuela, Colombia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    A nation's transition from dictatorship to democracy generally involves institutional reform attempts with new priorities serving a wider range of people and goals. This study describes and compares the goals, means, and outcomes of administrative reforms in the public educational systems of three Hispanic nations (Venezuela, Colombia, and Spain).…

  20. Contraloría social a las gobernaciones en Venezuela. Estudio de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Boscán; Deyanira Henríquez; Yorbeth Montes de Oca

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar la realidad de la contraloría social en la gobernación del Estado Lara en Venezuela. El estudio parte de cuatro variables: marco legal larense, condiciones en las cuales se encuentra el objeto y el sujeto de contraloría social, y otros recursos disponibles para el ejercicio de este derecho ciudadano.

  1. Venezuela's African Agenda in a South–South: Context The Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venezuela's African Agenda, an intention to diversify its oil partners as well as a search for a land where to export the 'Bolivarian Revolution', is a sign of the growing interest on the part of Latin America to strengthen ties with the African continent, and constitutes an alternative to the option represented by the BRICS ...

  2. High Precision Optical Observations of Space Debris in the Geo Ring from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.; Downes, J. J.; Casanova, D.; Tresaco, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results to demonstrate that our method for detection and location of Space Debris (SD) in the geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) ring, based on observations at the OAN of Venezuela is of high astrometric precision. A detailed explanation of the method, its validation and first results is available in (Lacruz et al. 2017).

  3. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted...

  4. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  5. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. LA CAPACITACIÓN PROFESIONAL DE FUNCIONARIOS POLICIALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Sofía Rodríguez Ugueto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacitación del funcionario policial en la actualidad, en cuanto a la práctica policial, presupone la delimitación de contradicciones que resultan necesarias en la sociedad y que no se corresponde con la pertinencia del momento histórico. Esta realidad está presente en la sociedad venezolana, que de manera particular la están viviendo los cuerpos policiales del país, los cuales en el marco de las transformaciones sociales que se llevan a cabo, requiere también cambios de su rol como funcionario a nivel nacional en la orientación del proyecto social, exigencia que conlleva a un Nuevo Modelo Policial alejado de lo tradicional y poco funcional como cuerpo represivo capaz de orientarse hacia una nueva disposición como funcionario inserto en la comunidad cuya función de represión se ha de ajustar a un plano primario de prevención y formación ciudadana. Los autores reflexionan en estas problemáticas.PALABRAS CLAVE: capacitación profesional; capacitación continua; modelo policial.THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF POLICE OFFICIALS IN VENEZUELA ABSTRACTThe police official's training at the present time, as for the police practice, it presupposes the delimitation of contradictions that are necessary in the society and that doesn't belong together with the relevancy of the historical moment. This reality is present in the Venezuelan society that are living her the police bodies of the country in a particular way, which also requires changes of its list like official at national level in the orientation of the social project in the mark of the social transformations that are carried out, demand that bears a New Police Model far from the traditional and not very functional as repressive body able to be guided toward a new disposition like official inserts in the community whose function of repression must be adjusted to a primary plane of prevention and civic formation. The authors meditate in these problems.KEYWORDS: professional training

  7. [Growth and mortality parameters of Orthopristis ruber (Perciformes: Haemulidae) from Los Frailes Archipelaeo. Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenas, Guerrieri; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo Walter; Guevara, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    Orthopristis ruber is a species in high demand in Eastern Venezuela, but production has been decreasing in recent years. For this reason, our objective was to estimate the growth and mortality parameters of this resource. Monthly samples were collected from June 2011 to May 2012, obtaining 2980 specimens in El Tirano and Puerto Abajo. Data on total length (cm), total weight (g), and sex were recorded for each specimen. No sexual dimorphism was shown with respect to length (t(S)=1.113, p>0.05), so one length-weight ratio was established for both sexes (Wt=0.0612*Lt(2.54)); and they both exhibited minor allometric growth. Growth was estimated by analysis of length frequency distributions using FiSAT software. The estimated growth parameters (L.=39.03cm, W.=679.60g, k=0.48/year and t(O) = -0.32 year) showed moderately rapid growth. Length frequency data were adjusted to the von Bertalaniffy model, and indicated an exponential tendency of accelerated growth during the first years of life, followed by slow growth until the fish reached its maximum length. The coefficient of variation of the growth index (theta) demonstrated no differences in growth pattern. The natural mortality rate (M=0.97/year), from fishing (F=1.57/year), and total mortality (Z=2.54/year), were high, as well as the exploitation rate (E=0.62/year). We concluded that O. ruber has been fully exploited by artisanal fishers, and suggest a continuous study on population dynamics, to recommend optimum management techniques for the fishery.

  8. [Imposex in Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae) from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ana Carolina; Miloslavich, Patricia; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Voluta musica is a dioecious marine gastropod endemic of the South Caribbean. Tributyltin (TBT) and copper (Cu) are potential inducers of imposex, an endocrine disorder by which females develop a penis and/or vas deferens. The goal of this work was to determine the imposex incidence in V. musica populations from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya. For this, we selected three sites (Isla Caribe, Isla Lobos and Bajo Cuspe) and made monthly samplings of 15 snails in each site, during one year, and determined: (1) sizes; (2) sex and imposex incidence and (3) the Relative Penis Length Index (RPLI). We also performed histological analysis of the gonads, and measured TBT and Cu concentrations in sediments from the studied localities. Our results showed that the total number of sampled females affected by imposex was 24.5% at Isla Caribe, 12% at Isla Lobos, and none at Bajo Cuspe. In sediments, Cu was detected mostly in Isla Lobos. The female gonads with imposex did not show any development of male cells in any of the sampled sites. The higher percentage of females with imposex matched with the higher boat traffic locality, and higher TBT level (Isla Caribe). No esterilization was evident in this work, nevertheless, the presence of TBT and Cu in the sediments and females with imposex were considered as a potential threat to V. musica populations in this region. In Venezuela there is no control over this particular issue, possibly because of the lack of information and research in this topic, but certainly, this information will be useful in biodiversity conservation policies.

  9. [Mycoses in Venezuela: Working Groups in Mycology reported cases (1984-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Méndez, Dilia; Hernández Valles, Rosaura; Alvarado, Primavera; Mendoza, Mireya

    2013-01-03

    In 1984 the Venezuelan Work Groups in Mycology (VWGM) were created introducing an innovative approach to the study of the mycoses in Venezuela. To study the occurrence of the mycoses in Venezuela. Review the reported cases of mycoses by the newsletter Boletín Informativo Las Micosis en Venezuela (VWGM) from 1984 to 2010. The data collected showed 36,968 reported cases of superficial mycoses, 1,989 of deep systemic cases, and 822 of localized mycoses. Pityriasis dermatophytosis was the most common superficial infection, and paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis the most frequent deep systemic infection. Chromoblastomycosis was the most frequently diagnosed subcutaneous infection. The data provided showed the distribution by geographical area for each of the fungal infections studied, which may help to establish the endemic areas. Superficial mycosis is a public health problem due to its high morbidity and is probably responsible for some of the outbreaks in high-risk groups. Paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis were reported more often, which agrees with earlier reports prior to the formation of the VWGM. Cases of sporotrichosis and chromoblastomycosis in Venezuela can be considered unique due to the high number of cases. This study highlights the contribution of the VWGM to the behavior of the mycoses in Venezuela, its incidence, prevalence, and the recognition of these infections as a problem of public health importance. The VWGM should keep working in this endeavor, not only reporting new cases, but also unifying the clinical and epidemiological criteria, in order to properly monitor the evolving epidemiological changes reported in these types of infections. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. In the Name of the People: Democratization, Popular Organizations, and Populism in Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Torre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The regimes of Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales, and Rafael Correa undermine contestation while simultaneously increasing the material inclusion of the poor and the excluded. These regimes that are usually lumped together show distinct patterns in fostering participation. Whereas in Ecuador participation is reduced to voting in elections, participatory institutions were created in Venezuela and Bolivia. And whereas mobilization in Bolivia comes mostly from the bottom up, in Venezuela and Ecuador it comes from the top-down. To compare their divergent patterns this paper analyses: 1 the strength of subaltern organizations when these leaders were elected; 2 the confrontation between governments and the oppositions; and 3 the views of democratization of the coalitions that brought these regimes to power.Resumen: En nombre del pueblo: democratización, organizaciones populares y populismo en Venezuela, Bolivia y EcuadorLos regímenes de Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales y Rafael Correa atentan en contra del pluralismo a la vez que incluyen materialmente a los pobres y a los excluidos. Estos regímenes que por lo general son aglutinados en un mismo saco tienen diferentes patrones para promover la participación política. Es así que mientras que en Ecuador la participación se reduce a votar en elecciones, en Venezuela y Bolivia se crearon instituciones participativas. Mientras que en Bolivia la participación viene en gran medida desde las bases, en Ecuador y Venezuela viene desde arriba hacia abajo. Para comparar los diferentes patrones este trabajo estudia: 1 la fuerza de organizaciones de los subalternos cuando estos líderes fueron electos; 2 la confrontación entre el gobierno y las oposiciones; 3 las visiones sobre democratización de las coaliciones que llevaron al poder a estos líderes.

  11. Innovación de la gestión pública en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée Ochoa Henríquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Venezuela transita desde 1999 por un proceso propio de transformación impulsado por el Estado. La aprobación de políticas alternativas plasmadas en una nueva constitución, en las leyes aprobadas en el marco de ésta y en otros documentos, dan cuenta de una nueva orientación dirigida a romper con las tendencias neoliberales de los 90 del pasado siglo. Desafortunadamente, en cuanto a los procesos de gestión, es evidente la presencia de viejas prácticas que obstaculizan los avances, aunque se maneja la hipótesis de que en este contexto existen algunos procesos innovadores vinculados a las políticas alternativas. El propósito de este trabajo es explorar la presencia de estos procesos en la gestión pública venezolana, vinculados a la nueva política. La metodología consistió en el análisis de documentos oficiales y fuentes secundarias, así como entrevistas abiertas a actores que han estado cerca de algunos de los procesos innovadores. Los resultados dan cuenta de: 1 Procesos de desconcentración flexibles que acerca el Estado al ciudadano; 2 Comunicación argumentativa a los ciudadanos, sobre las nuevas políticas; 3 Un sistema de participación que potencia la incorporación de los ciudadanos en la defensa de los intereses colectivos; 4 Estrategias de articulación sectorial e institucional; 5 Procesos de incorporación del sector privado a las políticas de inclusión social; 6 Sistemas de compras y financiamiento como promotores de la economía social. Se concluye que en el marco de un aparato público que se niega al cambio se han introducido formalmente algunos procesos innovadores, cuya práctica aún está pendiente por comprender.AbstractSince 1999, Venezuela is going through a transformation process launched by the State. The approval ofalternative policies set forth in a new constitution, in laws under the constitution’s frame and in other documents,are proof for a new guideline headed towards the braking up of

  12. Capacidad operativa de tecnicas de union primaria y seroepidemiologia de la brucelosis porcina en la Region Centro Occidental de Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubio-Fuenmayor, Eli Ramon; Becerra-Ramirez, Luis; Trompiz-Lachmann, Jacqueline; Mejia-Silva, Willian; Pino-Ramirez, Disney; Perez-Barrientos, Mario; Sanchez-Villalobos, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    ...) y de un inmunoensayo enzimatico de competencia comercial (ELISA-c) para el diagnostico de brucelosis en porcinos y evaluar la seroepidemiologia de esta enfermedad en la region centro occidental de Venezuela...

  13. El Impacto de las politicas nacionales en los redisenos de los sistemas de gobernanza petrolera en Ecuador y Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Calvez, Marc

    2009-01-01

    .... El objetivo de este estudio consiste en explicar los contrastes en los procesos de rediseno de los sistemas de gobernanza petrolera entre Ecuador y Venezuela, a partir del analisis de las politicas...

  14. [Blastocystosis: a high prevalence of cases found in patients from Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Virma; Caldera, Rixcia; Wong, Wladimir; Cermeño, Gloria; Fuentes, Maximo; Blanco, Ytalia; Aponte, Maria; Devera, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    The parasitological examination of fecal samples from 98 patients from an Ambulatory Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui, Venezuela revealed a rather high proportion of results positive for Blastocystis hominis (46.9%).

  15. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  16. Descripcion, intensidad de infeccion y prevalencia de metacestodos Lecanicephallidae en camarones peneidos silvestres del nororiente de Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aguado Garcia, Nieves; Bashirullah, Abul

    2011-01-01

    Las especies de camarones peneidos: Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. notialis, F. subtilis y Litopenaeus schmitti de la region nororiental de Venezuela fueron examinados en busca de cestodos, determinandose la intensidad de infeccion media...

  17. Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    fractured society’s success in the amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) process. In Venezuela, there remains a fractured political system...Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process A Monograph by... Reintegration (AR2) Process 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ngo, Danielle J., Major, USA 5f. WORK

  18. La rentabilidad del negocio azucarero en Venezuela. El caso de los precios y los productores del río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigala Venegas, Luis H.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of the sugar business, cane supply and the productivity of the sector have suffered reductions in Rio Turbio, Venezuela, during the last years. This is partly due to uncertainties on the future of the sector and to its decapitalization. Taking into account the country’s hard economic situation and inflation high rates, this article studies the performance of sugar prices as a factor affecting profitability. The analysis is focused on the adjusting -constant or actual- prices paid to the producers, with the aim of comparing the different «zafras» along the 1988-2001 period .

    Los rendimientos del negocio azucarero, la oferta de caña y su productividad se han reducido en los últimos años en Río Turbio, Venezuela, en parte debido a la incertidumbre sobre el futuro del sector y a su descapitalización. Teniendo en cuenta la difícil situación económica y los altos niveles de inflación que ha sufrido el país, este trabajo estudia el comportamiento de las cotizaciones del azúcar como factor que afecta a la rentabilidad de su cultivo. Para ello analizan los precios recibidos por los productores, ajustándolos a valores constantes o reales, con el fin de poder comparar las diferentes zafras del período 1988-2001.

  19. Distribución y taxonomía de Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae, en el Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Nava

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Algunos autores han planteado que los géneros Pyrgophorus Ancey 1888 y Potamopyrgus Stimpson 1865, son sinónimos, mientras que otros opinan que ambos se encuentran restringidos geográficamente. La similitud en la escultura de la concha, es lo que ha llevado a que sean considerados sinónimos, sin embargo las especies de Pyrgophorus son mucho más pequeñas, con cinco o menos vueltas y de sutura poco profunda. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer la distribución y taxonomía del gasterópodo de agua dulce Pyrgophorus platyrachis en el Sistema de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Durante muestreos efectuados entre 2001 y 2009 se detectó la presencia de cientos de individuos de P. platyrachis en las localidades de la laguna de Gran Eneal, laguna Las Peonías, Punta Capitán Chico, San Francisco, Curarire, desembocadura del Río Apón, Ciudad Ojeda, Bachaquero y Tomoporo de Agua. Por lo tanto, se realizó un análisis taxonómico de los ejemplares obtenidos, destacando su distribución y la presencia de tres morfotipos: liso, enroscado y espinoso; el primero limitado a la Laguna de Gran Eneal, las Peonías, desembocadura del Río Apón y Punta Capitán Chico, mientras que los otros dos se encuentran juntos en las localidades restantes. Además, se propone la sinonimia entre P. platyrachis y otras especies descritas como Pyrgophorus parvulus y Pyrgophorus spinosus.Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela. The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. Was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the

  20. Review of the genus Bythonia Oman 1936 with description of a new species and new record from Venezuela (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Iassinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiani, Marco A

    2017-06-06

    Bythonia freytagi sp. nov. is diagnosed and described from northern Venezuela. Bythonia rugosa is recorded for the first time in Venezuela from the southern state of Amazonas. The presence of both species of Bythonia in Venezuela represent the first occurrences of this genus north of the Equator. Comments on the relationships of the described species are made and two species groups are proposed. A checklist and key to the known species of the genus are provided.

  1. CARIOTIPO DEL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus(SAURIA: TROPIDURIDAE) EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA Lizard Karyotipe Tropidurus hispidus (Sauria: Tropiduridae) in the East of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS ALEJANDRO GONZÁLEZ S.; ANA BONILLA; JENNIFFER VELÁSQUEZ

    2011-01-01

    El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular) del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por seis pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa 13%...

  2. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves, E; Rondon, M; E Zamora; Salazar M

    2005-01-01

    Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), se determinó una prevalencia ...

  3. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  4. La imagen de Venezuela en la prensa española. Una visión desde los diarios: El País, El Mundo, ABC y La Vanguardia Venezuela's image in the Spanish press. A view from the newspapers: El Pais, El Mundo, ABC and La Vanguardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Urdaneta García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo analizar el tratamiento periodístico que los diarios El País, El Mundo, ABC y La Vanguardia hacen sobre Venezuela para difundir y proyectar su imagen. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido sustentado en autores como: McCarteney, Butler y Bennett, (2008; González, (2008; Noya y col., (2007; Igartua y Humanes, (2004; Dhoest, (2004; Martínez y Díaz, (2003; Bodas y Gragoevic, (1994; entre otros. Como conclusión se obtuvo que los tres principales temas con los que se vinculó a Venezuela fueron la situación interna del país a causa de su sistema de gobierno (31,2%, la relación con los países latinoamericanos no miembros del ALBA (21,6%, relación con los países miembros del ALBA (19,7%. Hubo un predominio de la noticia como género periodístico (58,7%, no obstante se observó que en el 53,9% de las noticias publicadas el redactor hacía juicios de valores y que el 56% de las noticias difundidas tienen entre cero y una fuente, lo cual permite señalar que las informaciones publicadas son escuetas y sin profundidad periodística. En cuanto al tratamiento que se le dio a las informaciones difundidas sobre Venezuela se precisó que el 81,7% tuvieron una cobertura negativa y sólo en un 2,8% hubo un enfoque positivo. This research aims to study the various jobs that have been made about the construction of the country's image and branding country and then analyze the press coverage that the newspapers El Pais, El Mundo, ABC and La Vanguardia made on Venezuela to disseminate and project its image. It uses the content analysis supported by authors such as: Mccarteney, Butler and Bennett, (2008; González, (2008; Noya and col., (2007; Igartúa and Humanes, (2004; Dhoest, (2004; Martínez and Díaz, (2003; Bodas and Gragoevic, (1994, among others. As a conclusion was reached that the three major issues wich were linked to Venezuela the internal situation of the country due to the established system of

  5. Venezuela: confrontación social y polarización política

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    Leonardo Bracamonte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medófilo Medina y Margarita López Maya. Venezuela: Confrontación social y polarización política. Bogotá: Ediciones Aurora, 2003. La intensidad del debate público y del enfrentamiento político al que asiste el país desde 1998, ha logrado penetrar los espacios ociales más diversos, incluso aquellos en los que se creía que estaban vedados asuntos tan terrenales como los políticos, tenidos hasta la víspera como banales y de poca monta. Tal es uno de los saldos más trascendentales del proceso de transformación en curso hoy en Venezuela. Esto último es tan innegable, que constituye una verdad compartida por los dos bandos en que fatalmente está dividido el país

  6. La violencia como mecanismo del debate público en Venezuela durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Guardia Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente ensayo es describir los mecanismos por medio de los cuales la violencia política se presenta como uno de los elementos fundamentales del debate público en dos coyunturas históricas en Venezuela: en la Revolución de Octubre y en la Revolución Bolivariana. El trabajo se desarrolla en torno a dos ideas: primero se abordará el problema de la violencia y el miedo desde una perspectiva teórica, luego se describirá cada una de estas coyunturas históricas; finalmente se revisa comparativamente este fenómeno que se repite a lo largo del tiempo en Venezuela.

  7. Producción, Reservas y Sostenibilidad de la Energía en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Rojas-Zerpa; José María Yusta-Loyo

    2015-01-01

    El propósito del presente trabajo está relacionado con la evaluación de los recursos energéticos de Venezuela y su posicionamiento estratégico mundial, referido principalmente a la producción y consumo de energía primaria y reservas. Así mismo se han evaluado los recursos energéticos renovables con la finalidad de identificar oportunidades para el desarrollo de la energía sostenible. Los resultados indican que Venezuela posee recursos fósiles para más de 130 años de explotación, lo cual lo co...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE SUB-NATIONAL DECENTRALIZATION OF THE HEALTH IN VENEZUELA INFANTILE MATERNAL PROGRAM

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    Maritza Ávila Urdaneta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The work approaches the evaluation of the decentralization of the health at sub-national level in Venezuela, maternal program Infantile (PROMIN, period 1998-2004: Case of study, Estado Zulia. With the samples of ten Municipalities and Coordinators of Health (CH. Of the results and conclusions, it is appraised that in Venezuela with the Model of Integral Attention with respect to the PROMIN (1998-2004, the reason of Maternal Mortality RMM average for the country ascends to 60 by 100,000 NVR (OPS, 2003, whereas in Zulia was in 79,9; they emphasize the Municipalities: Cañada de Urdaneta with but the high one of 214.13, followed of Mara 149.44 by 100,000 NVR. Key words: Sub-national decentralization of the Health, Infantile Maternal Program, Indicating of Morbidity and Mortality, Coordination of the Municipal Health.

  9. ANÁLISIS DEL COMERCIO DE GAS ENTRE COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

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    SEBASTIÁN OSORIO RUIZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las oportunidades de intercambio de gas natural de Colombia con otros mercados regionales. Para dicho análisis, se propone un modelo del mercado de gas natural en Colombia, el cual incluye la oferta, la demanda, y las restricciones de transporte, así como las importaciones y exportaciones. El modelo se basa en la representación del comportamiento de los productores y su efecto en el mercado. Ya en este mercado la oferta es un oligopolio y el modelo es un modelo de equilibrio espacial con competencia a la Cournot. Los fl ujos resultantes del modelo indican que el impacto inicial de las exportaciones a Venezuela sobre el mercado Colombiano es bajo, y que las importaciones desde Venezuela mejoran la seguridad del suministro de gas al mercado y aumentan la competencia entre los productores.

  10. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini with description of fourteen new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: B. aragua sp. n., B. asymmetricus sp. n., B. capanaparo sp. n., B. castaneus sp. n., B. corozo sp. n., B. ebeninus sp. n., B. garciai sp. n., B. humeralis sp. n., B. jolyi sp. n., B. llanensis sp. n., B. megaphallus sp. n., B. ornaticollis sp. n., B. repertus sp. n., and B. tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: B. ambogynus Mouchamps, B. consobrinus Knisch, B. elegans Knisch, B. geayi d’Orchymont, B. ghanicus d’Orchymont, B. guyanensis Queney, B. holdhausi Knisch, B. marquardti Knisch, B. olivae Queney, B. reticulatus Knisch, B. wintersteineri Knisch, and B. zimmermanni Knisch.

  11. LA TELEMÁTICA Y LOS DELITOS INFORMÁTICOS EN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio E. Mendoza Vera; Eugenio E. Urdaneta

    2005-01-01

    La presente investigación se desarrolló con el propósito de analizar los principales factores telemáticos que limitan la persecución y penalización de los delitos Informáticos en Venezuela. La metodología utilizada en la investigación fue de campo, el diseño fue no experimental descriptivo. La población estuvo conformada por especialistas en las áreas Jurídico Informática y Telemática que laboran en Venezuela, la muestra fue seleccionada mediante el criterio de muestra de expertos y estuvo co...

  12. Perú y Venezuela: desempeño económico e instituciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martínez C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1989 Venezuela implementó un programa de reformas para fortalecer el papel del mercado en la asignación de los recursos y disminuir la intervención del Estado y un año después Perú hizo otro tanto. Sin embargo, Perú creció a una tasa de 6,3 por ciento en las siguientes dos décadas, mientras que Venezuela lo hizo al 3,1 por ciento. El objetivo de este trabajo es indagar, mediante una investigación documental, las causas que explican ese resultado. La principal conclusión es que el marco institucional es un elemento fundamental para explicar el desempeño económico de estos dos países

  13. Algunas Características de los Cacaos Criollos de Venezuela

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    Ciferri R.

    1949-03-01

    Full Text Available Se indican algunas características morfológicas y biométricas de los cacaos "Criollo de cáscara morada" y "Criollo de cáscara decolorada", observadas en un cacaotal de Venezuela y las cuales se comparan con las de algunos de sus cruces, así más afines, como más alejados, que en conjunto forman el Forastero Venezolano. Se llama la atención sobre unos tipos de cacao muy valiosos, derivados de los cruzamientos entre estos dos tipos de Criollo, mencionados. Se indica, además, la distribución de dichos Criollos en Venezuela.

  14. KPC and VIM producing Enterobacter cloacae strain from a hospital in northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Marcano, Daniel; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Salgado, Nurys; Cuaical, Nirvia; Rodriguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; De Donato, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old male patient is admitted to the central hospital in Cumana, Venezuela with severe urinary infection, history of hospitalizaions and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated showing resistance to multiple types of antibiotics (only sensitive to gentamicin), with phenotype of serine- and metallo-carbapenemases. Both, bla(VIM-2) and bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolate. This is the first report of an Enterobacteriaceae species producing both KPC carbapenemase and VIM metallo carbapenemase in Venezuela. This finding has a great clinical and epidemiological impact in the region, because of the feasibility of transferring these genes, through mobile elements to other strains of Enterobacter and to other infection-causing species of bacteria.

  15. [Morphological abnormalities in the cibarium of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) caught in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-de Daboín, Yolanda; Oviedo-Araújo, Milagros; González-Pérez, Adalberto; Suárez-Hernández, Jorge; Sandoval, Claudia M; Cazorla, Dalmiro

    2015-01-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is a recognized vector of Leishmania infantum in Colombia and Venezuela. To describe and illustrate the morphological abnormalities in Lu. evansi females captured in a rural focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Trujillo, Venezuela. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, Shannon traps and aspiration in resting places. The identification was performed according to Young & Duncan (1994) and drawings were made using a microscope with camara lucida . Abnormalities in the cibarium of Lu. evansi were detected in 4 (0.12%) females of the 3,477 adults that were studied. Lutzomyia evansi can have uncommon morphological variants associated with an increase in the number of teeth in the cibarium and their arrangement, which may lead to errors in the taxonomic identification of anomalous specimens. The study of such deformities can serve to avoid taxonomic identification errors.

  16. The hope of the universe: Bolivarianism in the era of Gran Venezuela (1974-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Straka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews Venezuelan Bolivarianism and its relationship with the political discourses and projects during what has been called “Gran Venezuela” (Great Venezuela, 1974- 1983. During this period, Venezuela enjoyed a combination of two decades of democratic stability and high oil prices, becoming an exceptionally prosperous, free and peaceful country in Latin-America. In this context, democratic governments used political Bolivarian historicism in order to legitimize their apparent success as proof that they were complying with the vision set out by Simón Bolívar, traditionally associated with conservative thought and dictatorship. It also used Bolivarianism to project its status as an emerging power in the Third World.

  17. SINOPSIS DE CROTON (EUPHORBIACEAE EN LOS ANDES DE MÉRIDA, VENEZUELA

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    MANUEL LUJÁN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una sinopsis taxonómica del género Croton en los Andes de Mérida, Venezuela. Se analizaron caracteres vegetativos en 245 especímenes y se hizo un análisis de agrupamiento que resultó en la identificación de 21 grupos discretos a los cuales les fueron asignadas las identidades taxonómicas específicas más apropiadas. De estas 21 especies, C. pedicellatus representa un nuevo registro para Venezuela, C. fragilis, C. speciosus y C. redolens son nuevos registros para la región andina. Se proponen dos nuevos sinónimos (C. chamanus bajo C. conduplicatus y C. timotensis bajo C. pungens y se designan tres lectotipos (C. pungens, C. ovalifolius y C. speciosus. Se discuten las relaciones entre las especies y se incluye una clave para su identificación.

  18. SIMULACIÓN DE UN MODELO DE EQUILIBRIO GENERAL COMPUTABLE PARA VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Pedauga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de la simulación de un modelo de equilibrio general computable construido para Venezuela. El uso de este modelo se ejempli-fica mediante la calibración y simulación de una economía abierta con tres agentes institucionales (hogares, empresas y gobierno y tres sectores productivos (petró-leo, manufactura y resto, para una economía abierta. Se considera diferentes re-glas de política. En cada caso se muestra el proceso de calibración y los resultados de las simulaciones utilizando información proveniente de la serie de matrices de contabilidad social para Venezuela entre 1997 y 2005. Se aporta simulaciones de la economía hasta 2009, tanto en los parámetros pertinentes y como algunos ejerci-cios de sensibilidad

  19. Comet Halleys Legacy: SUNA, Astronomy from Universidad Central de Venezuela (U.C.V.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gabriel; Fernandez, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    The Sociedad Universitaria de Astronomia (SUNA) is a group of astronomy amateurs which works inside the Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuelas Central University)s campus. The initiative is originated during the path through the perihelion of Comet Halley in 1986, and since then their goals are promotion of astronomical information to all the university community. Observational works are also carried out, such as: registration and investigation of astronomical events, with the purpose to offer the opportunity to all public, mostly students o the University, to enjoy a spectacle, and at the same time to motivate the students to continue professional studies of astronomy. Being this last goal one of the most gratifying in the society.

  20. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Ryan M. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Sachs, Daniel [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Petkiewicz, Shayne J. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Barajas, Jesus F. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Blake-Hedges, Jacquelyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Thompson, Mitchell G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant & Microbial Biology; Reider Apel, Amanda [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Rasor, Blake J. [Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio (United States). Dept. of Biology; Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Department of Bioengineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kogle Alle (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability

    2016-09-07

    Streptomyces have a rich history as producers of important natural products and this genus of bacteria has recently garnered attention for its potential applications in the broader context of synthetic biology. However, the dearth of genetic tools available to control and monitor protein production precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor protein production in this host. These tools were applied to characterize heterologous promoters and various attB chromosomal integration sites. A final study leveraged the characterized toolset to demonstrate its use in producing the biofuel precursor bisabolene using a chromosomally integrated expression system. In conclusion, these tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  1. Discurso y comunicación en Venezuela: del determinismo al nacionalismo tecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de las tecnologías de información en Venezuela y cómo el elemento discursivo legitima su uso; para ello, se identifican tres tipos de discursos (determinismo tecnológico, democracia tecnológica y nacionalismo tecnológico. Se parte del supuesto de que la hegemonía es un proceso ideológico en constante búsqueda de poder, que usa el discurso para su legitimación. Se analiza cómo en Venezuela, junto con las políticas estatales que buscan la construcción de un modelo comunicacional basado en tecnologías de información, el discurso técnico "permea" los ambientes donde las tic puedan legitimar su existencia, con el fin de establecer una hegemonía ideológica en la sociedad.

  2. Des institutions au service de villes sûres et inclusives au Venezuela

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caracas, au Venezuela, est l'une des villes les plus violentes au monde; il s'y commet 122 homicides par tranche de 100 000 habitants. Selon les experts en violence urbaine, les inégalités sociales et la disparité des revenus sont étroitement liées à l'ampleur de la violence, mais cette théorie ne tient pas dans le cas ...

  3. Paleoecology of the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) since the last glacial to the present

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to study the paleoecology of the southern Gran Sabana region (GS; SE Venezuela) since the Late Glacial to the present. This region is characterized nowadays by the occurrence of large extent of savannas in a climate suitable for rainforests. For this purpose, three sequences (two from peat bogs and one from lake sediments) have been analyzed for pollen and spores, non‐pollen palynomorphs (NPP), and microscopic charcoal particles. Among the sequences analyzed, two of them ...

  4. Nuevo Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de la Sierra San Luis, Venezuela noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. de Armas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo esquizómido del género Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, proveniente de la Sierra de San Luis, Estado Falcón, en Venezuela noroccidental. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. se caracteriza por el dedo móvil del quelícero con un diminuto diente subdistal, una débil eminencia dorsoposterior en el segmento abdominal XII del macho y espermatecas constituidas por dos pares de lóbulos largos y sinuosos, tenuemente quitinizados, sin bulbo terminal notable. Su asignación al género Rowlandius es tentativa, pues posee varios caracteres que no concuerdan plenamente con el mismo, sin embargo la carencia de caracteres sinapomórficos limita su asignación a otro género. Este es el primer registro del género para Venezuela y la tercera especie suramericana conocida.A new species of the genus Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from Sierra San Luis, Falcón State, northwestern Venezuela. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. may be characterized by having movable finger of chelicerae with a diminute sub-distal tooth, male with a poorly developed dorsal eminence on abdominal segment XII, and female with two pairs of weakly sclerotized, sinuous spermathecal lobes, without conspicuous terminal lobe. It is assigned to Rowlandius tentatively, because some characters are not congruent with this genus, nevertheless the absence of synapomorphic characters limits its inclusion in other one. This is the first record of the genus from Venezuela, and the third South American species described.

  5. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Alex González; Natalia Labrín; Álvarez, Rosa M.; Yorman Jayaro; Carlos Gamboa; Edicta Reyes; Venancio Barrientos

    2012-01-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced li...

  6. [Seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in Canis familiaris, state of Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Concepción, Juan Luis; Carzola, Valentina; Rodríguez, Jéssicca; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans has been extensively studied in Venezuela; however, in reservoirs it has been less investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiology of T. cruzi in the state of Sucre, Venezuela. A cross-sectional and prospective study conducted in 95 towns and 577 dwellings in the 15 municipalies of the state of Sucre, Venezuela, from August to November, 2008. The evaluation of serum samples was performed with the CruziELISA kit and the multiple antigens binding assays (MABA). Furthermore, epidemiological surveys were applied to evaluate the risk factors. A total of dogs (average age of 2, 6 + 2.2 years, 226 males and 137 females) was evaluated. The combination of the ELISA / MABA tests detected 78 positive sera, sixty-nine negative and 10 of inconclusive results. The seroprevalence of the T. cruzi infection in dogs in the state of Sucre, was 22.1% (CI 95%: 20.58-22.4%). No significant statistic association was found between the T. cruzi infection in dogs and the evaluated epidemiological variables: hunting dogs that slept oudoors roaming freely in the populated center, sex of the animal and eating habits. The T. cruzi infection was associated to the age of canines, being significantly higher in the group of 0 to 3 years, when compared with older dogs. The high T. cruzi seroprevalence dected in dogs shows that in this región of Venezuela there prevails an important risk factor of transmissibility of this parasite to human populations.

  7. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month--86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second--higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza

  8. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Díaz-Ramos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas, los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 especies tecadas y los cocolitóforidos (24 especies a los cuales se les realizado una diagnosis formal e ilustraciones (dibujos y/o fotografias y que han sido reportados en la literatura científica (revistas y/o tesis de licenciatura o maestría. Esta ordenado según la clase, orden, familia y especie. Además, en el se cita al autor (es de cada taxón.ha.The marine phytoplankton of Venezuela has been studied on a regular basis since the mid 20th century. However, a species checklist that can be used as a framework for taxonomic studies is lacking. In this paper, an index of the marine microflora of Venezuela is presented for the first time. The index includes only those diatoms (89 centric and 186 pennate species, dinoflagellates (eight naked and 154 thecate species and coccolithophores (24 especies for which formal diagnosis and illustrations (drawings and/or photographs have been reported in the scientific literature (journals and/or first degree or master's theses. It is ordered alphabetically according to class, order, family, and species. It includes the author (s of the taxa.

  9. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Nirchio, Mauro; Eheman, Nicolás; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; PÉREZ, JULIO EDUARDO; Rossi,Anna Rita; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific...

  10. Useful plants in the lower basin of La Palma River (Trujillo, Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    Berlingeri, Chiara A.; Benítez, Carmen E.; Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito

    2012-01-01

    The results of an ethnobotanical study in the lower basin of the La Palma River (Trujillo State, Venezuela) are presented. The local knowledge about the use of plants present in forest relicts was registered through participatory surveys, semi-structured interviews, open-ended conversations and field trips. One hundred and seventeen (117) useful species belonging to 61 families were recorded, and 12 use categories were mentioned. Forty-four per cent (44%) of the species are used for construct...

  11. Des institutions au service de villes sûres et inclusives au Venezuela

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les chercheurs testeront l'hypothèse voulant que les institutions jouent un rôle médiateur important entre la pauvreté, les inégalités et la violence; ils examineront à cette fin en quoi les institutions provoquent, perpétuent ou réduisent ces facteurs dans des villes du Venezuela. En se fondant sur des études concernant le ...

  12. Características etiológicas, clínicas y sociodemográficas de la diarrea aguda en Venezuela Etiological, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics of acute diarrhea in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Urrestarazu

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro ciudades de Venezuela se llevó a cabo un estudio para evaluar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y etiológicas de la diarrea aguda en niños menores de 5 años. Entre junio de 1993 y mayo de 1995 se estudiaron 2 552 niños con diarrea y 793 controles que fueron atendidos en el hospital. Para el análisis estadístico de los resultados se empleó la prueba exacta de Fisher. Los rotavirus fueron los agentes más importantes, tanto por su frecuencia (30% como por su asociación con la deshidratación (58%. Le siguieron en importancia Campylobacter spp. (13% y Escherichia coli serogrupos O clásicos (9%, pero su asociación con la diarrea solo fue estadísticamente significativa en los niños menores de 3 meses, hecho de particular importancia desde el punto de vista del tratamiento. Se confirmó la importancia de la edad como factor determinante de la prevalencia y gravedad de la diarrea.In four cities of Venezuela a study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. The study was done between June 1993 and May 1995 and involved children who were seen in a hospital, 2 552 with diarrhea and 793 controls. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. Rotaviruses were the most important agents, both in terms of their frequency (30% and their association with dehydration (58%. Following in importance were Campylobacter spp. (13% and Escherichia coli classical O serogroups (9%, but their association with diarrhea was only statistically significant among children less than 3 months old, a fact that is particularly important from the standpoint of treatment. The importance of age was confirmed as a determining factor in the prevalence and severity of diarrhea.

  13. Enfoque comunicativo del Planeamiento Estratégico Situacional en el nivel local: salud y equidad en Venezuela Communicative approach of Situational Strategic Planning at the local level: health and equity in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Luz Heredia-Martínez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute los resultados de la operacionalización del Planeamiento Estratégico Situacional (PES adaptado al nivel local en salud, considerando el enfoque comunicativo y la dimensión de la equidad en una parroquia en Venezuela. Se utilizaron dos criterios innovadores: la estimativa de las necesidades de salud y el análisis del potencial participativo de los actores. Los problemas identificados fueron relacionados con los artículos referentes a derechos de la Constitución venezolana. Se midieron inequidades con indicadores de salud, asociados al problema seleccionado; se incorporaron criterios de equidad en las propuestas de acción y elementos comunicativos. Se dio prioridad al problema "baja capacidad resolutiva de la red de servicios de salud" y se seleccionaron cinco nudos críticos para el plan de acción, que quedó constituido por 6 operaciones y 21 acciones. Se concluyó que la articulación de la epidemiología y planeamiento amplía la explicación situacional. La incorporación del enfoque comunicativo y de la dimensión de equidad al PES permite potencializar la gestión en salud y contribuir a la disminución de las brechas por inequidad.The article discusses the results of operationalizing Situational Strategic Planning adapted to the local level in health, considering the communicative approach and equity in a parish in Venezuela. Two innovative criteria were used: estimated health needs and analysis of the actors' potential for participation. The problems identified were compared to the corresponding article on rights in the Venezuelan Constitution. The study measured inequalities using health indicators associated with the selected problems; equity criteria were incorporated into the action proposals and communicative elements. Priority was assigned to the problem of "low case-resolving capacity in the health services network", and five critical points were selected for the action plan, which finally consisted of

  14. El impacto fiscal de las reformas del IVA en Venezuela. 1993-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quílez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el impacto fiscal de las reformas a la ley del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA en Venezuela, desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2012. Para ello, se utilizaron las Encuestas Nacionales de Presupuestos Familiares (ENPF de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las leyes del IVA, así como la data de consumo final de los hogares en el mercado interno que publica el BCV en sus Cuentas Nacionales. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que en Venezuela el sacrifico fiscal de las exenciones del IVA es elevado, y para el período en estudio oscilan entre un mínimo de 2,17% del PIB en 2008 y un máximo de 4,51% del PIB en 1999. Esta pérdida fiscal se incrementa en la medida que aumenta la base exenta y la alícuota aplicada son mayores y los costos fiscales que asume el Estado son entre 9 y 11 veces superiores para el diez por ciento de la población de mayor ingreso comparado con el diez por ciento de menores ingresos.

  15. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  16. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  17. Genetic variability of carbapenemase KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated at different states in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaical-Ramos, Nirvia Margot; Montiel, Marynes; Marcano Zamora, Daniel

    2018-02-05

    In Venezuela, there have been some reports of carbapenemase KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Nevertheless, since the first report in 2008, only a few studies have been done on their molecular epidemiology in this country. The aims of this study were to detect extended-spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing (blaTEM and blaCTM-M-1) and to determine the genetic relationship between 30 isolates of carbapenemase KPC-producing K. pneumoniae taken from patients at eleven health centers in different states of Venezuela from January 2008 to December 2012, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All isolates were identified as K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae. Isolates showed the highest resistance to the ertapenem, 97%. The KPC gene was detected in all studied strains. Seventy three percent showed ESBL, having the bla TEM in 68% and bla TEM , CTX-M-1 in 27% of the strains. Eleven groups were found using the field-pulsed gel electrophoresis. High genetic diversity was found during 2008-2012 in K. pneumoniae isolated at different states in Venezuela, some of them circulating at eleven health centers. Results showed the importance of performing epidemiologic studies and the need to develop some activities to control this type of microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela--a model for knowledge dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwing, Kristina; Arredondo, Ynes C; Tedroff, Marika; Tedroff, Kristina

    2015-09-04

    A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims of this study were to examine a model in order to introduce the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) in Venezuela, and to examine the validity and the reliability. Children with CP, registered at a National child rehabilitation centre in Venezuela, were invited to participate. The Spanish version of GMFCS-E&R was used. The Wilson mobility scale was translated and used to examine the concurrent validity. A structured questionnaire, comprising aspects of mobility and gross motor function, was constructed. In addition, each child was filmed. A paediatrician in Venezuela received supervised self-education in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale. A Swedish student was educated in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale prior to visiting Venezuela. In Venezuela, all children were classified and scored by the paediatrician and student independently. An experienced paediatric physiotherapist (PT) in Sweden made independent GMFCS-E&R classifications and Wilson mobility scale scorings, accomplished through merging data from the structured questionnaire with observations of the films. Descriptive statistics were used and reliability was presented with weighted Kappa (Kw). Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to explore the concurrent validity between GMFCS-E&R and Wilson mobility scale. Eighty-eight children (56 boys), mean age 10 years (3-18), with CP participated. The inter-rater reliability of GMFCS-E&R between; the paediatrician and the PT was Kw = 0.85 (95% CI

  19. Análisis de estructura, conducta y desempeño del subsector de la confitería en el área metropolitana de Cali 2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe González Mejía

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se efectúa un análisis descriptivo del subsector de la confitería en Cali para el periodo 2002-2010, se busca identificar la existencia de poder de mercado por parte de los productores. Se utiliza el enfoque Estructura-Conducta-Desempeño (ECD y los posteriores desarrollos de la Nueva Organización Industrial Empírica (NOIE, ambos pertenecientes a la teoría microeconómica de la Organización Industrial. Se utilizan trece encuestas cualitativas a pymes del sector, estadísticas de las diferentes Muestras Manufactureras del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE y la información pública del Registro Mercantil de la Cámara de Comercio de Cali. Se estima el grado de concentración del mercado, se contrastan las variaciones en los precios y las cantidades producidas de diferentes productos de confitería, conindicadores del comportamiento de insumos y de variables macroeconómicas relevantes; se busca además determinar si la proximidad de los ingenios azucareros significa una ventaja competitiva para las firmas. Entre losresultados se destaca la fuerte concentración del sector, dominado por unas pocas firmas; el azúcar constituye la materia prima principal para todos los productos, sin embargo no hay evidencia de una ventaja en el costo de este insumo relacionado con la ubicación geográfica. Los patrones de precios y cantidades más estables pertenecen al grupo de los dulces tradicionales.

  20. Sincronía reproductiva interpoblacional de Agave cocui (Agavaceae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J Figueredo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available cocui (Agavaceae es una especie de amplia distribución en zonas áridas y semiáridas de Venezuela y Colombia. A pesar de su importancia ecológica como fuente de recursos para la fauna silvestre y de su potencial valor económico como materia prima para la producción del licor “Cocuy de Penca”, los estudios sobre su ecología reproductiva son muy escasos. En este estudio se evaluó la fenología de floración y fructificación de A. cocui en ocho localidades de Venezuela. La fase reproductiva se inició al finalizar el periodo de lluvias. Las flores se producen durante cinco meses. Para la Región Noroccidental del país y los Andes los máximos de floración ocurrieron en enero, mientras que las localidades en la costa central y oriental exhibieron un desface de cerca de dos meses, a principios de marzo. La mayor sincronía floral ocurrió entre todas las poblaciones censadas en el occidente del país, incluyendo las localidades andinas. Dicha sincronía reproductiva potenciaría la conformación de un corredor de néctar para aves y murciélagos, que se extendería desde el Norte de Falcón, en la Costa Occidental, hasta los bolsones andinos, en el Suroeste del país.Interpopulation reproductive synchrony of Agave cocui (Agavaceae in Venezuela. Agave cocui (Agavaceae is a species with broad distribution in arid and semiarid areas of Venezuela and Colombia. Despite of its ecological importance as a source of food for wildlife, and its economic value for production of a spirit drink, studies on the reproductive ecology of the species are relatively rare. In this study, we conducted a oneyear evaluation of the flowering and fruiting phenology of A. cocui in the eight representative localities of the species’ distribution in Venezuela. Within each study site, we chose an area with a minimum of 50 reproductive individuals and followed their reproductive phenophases with the help of binoculars, using six qualitative cathegories (emerging

  1. [Oropharyngeal morphology and food habits of Micropogonias furnieri (Pisces: Sciaenidae) in the North coast of Estado Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, L J; Prieto, A; Lemus, M

    2001-01-01

    Morphology of the mandibular and pharyngeal region, and the feeding habits of Micropogonias furnieri were examined in 256 male and female specimens, between 28.7 and 54.3 cm total length, collected around Morro Puerto Santo, in northeast Sucre State, Venezuela (10 degrees 45'00" N-63 degrees 8'0" W), from May 1989 to April 1990. Micropogonias furnieri has a small ventral mouth; protrusible premaxillary and dentary; first branchial arches with 21 to 27 gill rakers, generally 24 to 25; and 7 to 11 pyloric caecae. The index of vacuity was low, with mean value of 7.00%. The mean intestinal index was 0.72, indicative of carnivorous species. Analysis of frequency of occurrence, indicates preference for crustaceans (45.70%), mainly crabs (34.90%), followed by polychaetes (28.00%), fishes (11.41%) and occasionally mollusks and echinoderms (4.0 and 3.9%, respectively). The diet of this species did not vary with sex.

  2. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). In the light on these results, it can be concluded that poverty, overcrowding, anal pruritus, scarcity of water, inadequate personal and community hygiene play a relevant role on the transmission dynamics and endemic maintenance of enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  3. [Follow-up on an outbreak in Venezuela of soft-tissue infection due to Mycobacterium abscessus associated with Mesotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Mata Jardín, Omaira; Hernández-Pérez, Rolando; Corrales, Haideé; Cardoso-Leao, Sylvia; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2010-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NMT) are reported to be associated with injections, liposuction, plastic surgery, and acupuncture. Herein, we describe an outbreak of soft tissue infection due to NMT following mesotherapy, a cosmetic procedure involving injection of poorly defined mixtures alleged to reduce local adiposity. Patients with skin lesions and a history of mesotherapy treatment, who visited the dermatology department of the public hospital in Barinas, Venezuela, from November 2004 to February 2005 were interviewed. Clinical and environmental samples were taken for mycobacteria isolation. The interviews revealed that 68 patients who had been treated for cosmetic purposes at the same clinic by the same therapist had received injections with the same product and were infected with NMT. Clinical specimens from 5 patients grew Mycobacterium abscessus. No mesotherapy solution was available for analysis but M. abscessus was isolated from an environmental sample in the clinic. PCR-based strain typing techniques (ERIC-PCR, BOXA1R and RAPD) showed that the patient's isolates were undistinguishable from each other but different from the environmental isolate. This outbreak was likely caused by a contaminated injectable mesotherapy product and not by mycobacteria from the clinic environment. We emphasize the importance of better microbiological control of these products. To our knowledge, this outbreak, which affected at least 68 patients, appears to be the largest ever associated with mesotherapy and described in the literature. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  5. [Sponges (porifera) distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Flores, Mónica; Rodríguez-Quintal, José Gregorio; Cristina Díaz, María

    2010-10-01

    Sponges constitute one of the most diverse and abundant animal groups in the marine tropical benthos especially in coral reefs, though poorly studied to species level. The aim of this study is to characterize the sponge community along a depth gradient at Isla Larga (Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela) fringe reef. Net and total sedimentation, roughness index, sponge species richness, density and proportion of the bottom covered by sponges, were evaluated at seven depths (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 m), 17 species were identified grouped in 10 demosponges families. The highest densities and coverage corresponded to 6 m of depth (6.03ind/m2; 11%), that coincides with the lowest net sedimentation and highest substrate heterogeneity. Most abundant species were Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina and Scopalina rueztleri. Principal component analysis divided this community in three zones according to depth. The shallow zone of the reef (1 and 3 m), where wave force and high irradiance exert a constant stress sponges, shows the lowest density and coverage by sponges. In contrast, medium depth (6, 9 y 12 m) and deep zone (15 y 18 m) with lower light and sedimentation levels seem to enhance sponge growth and survival that are reflected on the higher densities and coverage of sponges.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities in a coral cay system (Morrocoy, Venezuela) and their relationships with environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M M; Torrecillas, E; Lozano, Z; Roldán, A

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the natural diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and understanding of their biogeographical patterns and what drive them might help to the maintenance and preservation of ecosystems under a changing environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of different environmental factors to the determination of the composition of AMF assemblages in representative sites within the Morrocoy National Park (Venezuela). The community structure of the AMF under the canopy of Coccoloba uvifera was investigated in four cays (Borracho, Muerto, Peraza, and Paiclás) and one mainland location (Las Luisas). Based on partial sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA gene, the AM fungi in soil samples were divided into 31 operational taxonomic units, grouped in eight families. The canonical correspondence analysis showed that environmental factors related to insularity (the mean annual rainfall, the distance to the mainland coast, and the cay land area) and a soil property related to biological activity (the total carbohydrate content) were significantly related to the distribution of the AMF communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical model for the prediction of the dead heavy crude oil viscosity produced in Monagas State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Darío Marín Velásquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is the property of fluids to oppose movement when a cutting effort is applied on them to convey them from one point to another. Heavy oil has a high viscosity greater than 1000 cP, which makes it difficult to transport. The present work shows a mathematical model for the prediction of the viscosity of dead heavy oils produced in the fields of Monagas State, Venezuela. For the development of the work, 25 samples of oil were collected and the viscosity was measured at 5 temperatures, in addition to the API gravity and the percentage of Asphaltenes. The data were introduced in the Statgraphics Centurion XVI statistical package and through multiple regression analysis two mathematical models were obtained, 1 linear multiple and 2 multiple nonlinear; The best model being divided according to its coefficient of determination R2 and the average relative error (ARE. The selected model was compared with the Glaso, Bennison and Naseri models. The nonlinear multiple model with R2 of 0.9792 and ARE of 5.05% was obtained as the best model, surpassing the models of Glaso (35.5% ARR, Bennison (107.5% ARE and Naseri (61.7% ARE.

  8. Frequency and clinical and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia in an endocrinology unit in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Alejandra; Magaña-Torres, María Teresa; Guevara, Ornella; Muñoz, María Carolina; Parrilla-Alvarez, Alberto; Márquez, Yuliangelys; Medeiros, Ana; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2017-10-01

    To assess the frequency and the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in subjects attending an endocrinology unit. An observational, descriptive study evaluating 3,140 subjects attending the endocrinology unit of Centro Médico Orinoco in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, from 7 January 2013 to 9 December 2016. The index cases were selected using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. Plasma lipid levels were measured, and a molecular analysis was performed by DNA sequencing of the LDLR and APOB genes. Ten (0.32%) of the 3,140 study patients had clinical and biochemical characteristics consistent with FH. All but one were female. Three had first-degree relatives with prior premature coronary artery; and none had a personal history of this condition. Three patients were obese; three had high blood pressure; and no one suffered from diabetes. Three patients had a history of tendon xanthomas, and one of corneal arcus. LDL-C levels ranged from 191 to 486mg/dL. Two patients were on statin therapy. The genetic causes of FH were identified in four patients, and were LDLR gene mutations in three of them and an APOB gene mutation in exon 26 in the other. Approximately, one out of every 300 people attending this endocrinology unit in those four years had FH, and LDLR gene mutations were the most prevalent cause. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Jacquemontia yellow mosaic virus, a novel begomovirus from Venezuela related to other New World bipartite begomoviruses infecting Convolvulaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    The complete genome of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting Jacquemontia sp. (Convolvulaceae) in Venezuela has been cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis have shown that it represents an isolate of a novel species with closest relatives being two New World bipartite begomoviruses that infect Convolvulaceae, Jacquemontia mosaic Yucatan virus and Merremia mosaic virus. The DNA-As of these begomoviruses, however, share only 77.0-78.4 % nucleotide sequence identity with the DNA-A of the isolate described here, for which a recombinant origin is suggested. Based on the symptoms observed in the field, the name Jacquemontia yellow mosaic virus (JacYMV) is proposed for this novel bipartite begomovirus.

  10. Composition of decapod crustacean assemblages in beds of Pinctada imbricata and Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia in Cubagua Island, Venezuela: Effect of bed density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández-Ávila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beds of the Atlantic pearl oyster (Pinctada imbricata and the turkey wing (Arca zebra of contrasting population densities were evaluated to determine the occurrence of associated decapod crustaceans. In these beds at Cubagua Island, Venezuela, we recorded 40 decapod species belonging to 18 families. Mithraculus forceps (Majidae, Pilumnus caribaeus (Pilumnidae, Cuapetes americanus (Palaemonidae and Petrolisthes galathinus (Porcellanidae were the most common species found in these assemblages. The medium- and high-density bivalve beds exhibited more species and a greater abundance of associated decapods than the low-density bivalve beds, and more taxonomic distinctness. Multivariate analysis detected different groups of decapods in the low-density beds and the medium- to high-density beds. Additionally, similarities were found in the communities of crustaceans in the beds of Atlantic pearl oysters and turkey wing, demonstrating that bed density is important for the composition of associated fauna.

  11. Estado poblacional del orden Plecoptera (Insecta en el Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada en Venezuela y sus implicaciones para planes de conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribet Gamboa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La distribución longitudinal de las especies de plecópteros fue examinada a lo largo del Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada en la región Andina del estado Mérida, Venezuela. El PNSN es uno de las más grandes regiones protegidas y abarca dos subcuencas hidrográficas importantes. Muestras cuantitativas fueron recolectadas en 7 ríos tributarios de estas cuencas a lo largo del PNSN desde febrero a mayo del 2009, con un total de 135 individuos de 4 especies del género Anacroneuria. Sólo en tres ríos (Nuestra Señora, La Picón y Corcovada se encontró la presencia de plecópteros, los análisis de componentes principales muestran que la caracterización del hábitat, la velocidad de la corriente, el oxígeno disuelto y la ausencia de fuentes de perturbación antrópica influyen en un hábitat idóneo para las poblaciones. Los plecópteros se hallan en peligro de desaparición o incluso se han llegado a extinguir en gran parte de su área de distribución como consecuencia de actividades humanas. Planes de conservación deben ser implementados con urgencia, como evitar zonas recreacionales y/o económicas en las cercanías de los mismos.Population status of insects of Plecoptera order in Sierra Nevada National Park in Venezuela and its implications for conservation planning. Longitudinal distribution of Plecoptera species were examined along the Sierra Nevada National Park in the Andean region of Merida State, Venezuela. PNSN is one of the largest protected areas and consists of two major sub-basins. Quantitative samples were collected in 7 river tributaries along the PNSN from February to May of 2009, and a total of 135 individuals and 4 species of the genus Anacroneuria were collected. Only three rivers (Nuestra Señora, La Picón y Corcovada found the presence of stoneflies, the principal component analysis show that the characterization of habitat, current velocity, dissolved oxygen and the absence of human disturbance sources of influence in

  12. Estudio seroepidemiologico de la amibiasis en una comunidad del estado Zulia, Venezuela A seroepidemiological study of amebiasis in a community of Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Chacin-Bonilla

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiologico de amibiasis en una comunidad de bajas condiciones socioeconómicas del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 283 individuos cuyas edades fluctuaron de 2 a 53 años. Se obtuvieron muestras de sueros, las cuales se examinaron con la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta de KESSEL et al., según una modificación de MILGRAM et al. Se utilizó antígeno amibiano obtenido de cultivos axénicos de la raza HK9 de E. histolytica. La tasa de seropositividad obtenida fué de 46.6%; la mayoría de los reactores tenía títulos bajos y no presentaba signos de amibiasis. El porcentaje de seropositividad aumentó con la edad. Los resultados sugieren una alta endemicidad de la infección en esta comunidad, ocurriendo la transmisión con mucha mayor frecuencia que la amibiasis invasiva.In the present evaluation, a community of low socioeconomical conditions from Zulia State, Venezuela, was analyzed for the prevalence of antibodies to E. histolytica. Two hundred and eighty three serum samples were collected and examined by the indirect hemagglutination test according to a microtiter modification of the KESSEL and LEWIS method, as used by MILGRAM et al. Antigen prepared from axenically-grown. E. histolytica strain HK9 in Diamond's medium was used. The seropositivity rate obtained was 46.6% and the frequency of positive cases was dependent on age. The antibody profiles obtained suggest a high endemicity for this parasitic infection in the area studied, with a much higher level of transmission than invasive amebiasis.

  13. Crisis política y narrativas transmedia en las protestas de 2014 en Venezuela/ Political crisis and transmedia storytelling in the 2014 protests in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Orlando Pernía Peñalver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación en curso sobre el surgimiento en Venezuela de los online espacios de autonomía que vienen alterando los regímenes de intercambio informativo. Las protestas civiles de 2014 sumaron evidencias a la disolución de las fronteras, cada vez más imprecisas, entre los medios clásicos de comunicación de masas y las plataformas digitales que han posibilitado el acceso directo de los usuarios a la mediasfera. Abordamos ejemplos que lo demuestran y aportamos elementos teóricos para una interpretación del fenómeno. El bloqueo informativo gubernamental es el eje que ha obligado a los nuevos infociudadanos a formar colectividades en red para construir las narraciones y modelos de lectura sobre el entorno crítico y sus fases de tensión. This work is part of an ongoing research on the rise in Venezuela of online autonomy spaces which are altering the information exchange regimes. Civil protests of 2014 brought into evidence the dissolution of borders, increasingly blurred, between traditional mass media and digital platforms which are enabling direct user access to the media sphere. In this article, we provide and analyze examples and also, theoretical elements contributing to an interpretation of the phenomenon. The government's information blockade is the axis that has forced communities to form new social info-network where to build stories and models of reading on critical environment and its phases of tension.

  14. Derechos de propiedad, compañías petroleras, Estado y renta en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús MORA CONTRERAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo muestra que las compañías petroleras internacionales han estado haciendo negocios en Venezuela durante más de cuatro quintas partes de casi un siglo de historia de la industria petrolera en este país (1917-2009. Muestra también que lo que ha cambiado para ellas a lo largo del tiempo es la manera de hacer negocios en la industria petrolera venezolana, valga decir, los términos y condiciones de acceso a las actividades de exploración y producción que les ha impuesto el propietario del recurso natural, relacionados particularmente con el reparto de la renta petrolera internacional. El artículo, dividido en cuatro secciones, es una síntesis de la historia del derecho de propiedad del subsuelo, de las compañías petroleras, del Estado y de la renta petrolera internacional en Venezuela desde 1920 hasta el presente. ABSTRACT: This paper shows that in almost a century of history of the Venezuelan oil industry (1917-2009, International Oil Companies (IOCs have been doing business in this country for just more than fourth fifth of this period (74/92 years. It shows too that during that time, what has been changing in this country for the oil companies, IOCs or National Oil Companies (NOCs, is the way of doing business in the upstream of the oil industry: the terms and conditions of the owner of the underground property rights. Terms and conditions mean in this context how much of the oil generated rents in the underground public and national property rights goes to the pockets of the oil companies and government. This paper summarizes the history of the underground property rights, oil companies, the State, and rent in Venezuela from 1920 up to the present.

  15. [Urban construction, professions, and immigration at the origin of urban studies in Venezuela, 1870-1957].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Frechilla, J J

    1996-01-01

    The individuals and circumstances involved in the creation of the first graduate urban studies program in Venezuela are recalled, beginning with the odernization of Caracas under the impulse of President Antonio Guzman Blanco, elected in 1870. Guzman Blanco converted himself into Venezuela's first urbanist with the establishment of organizational frameworks and completion of massive public works projects, which were based largely on the urban models of the US and Europe. Engineering and public health were consolidated as the two most influential sources of professional competence for guiding urban development. By the mid-1930s, growth fueled by petroleum revenues was causing rapid urbanization, and it became apparent that trained professionals able to manage the increasingly complex tasks of urban planning were in short supply. A new surge of modernizing construction began in 1936 and led to a cooperative arrangement with a French firm, whose personnel were to be required to train Venezuelan engineers for future service in urban planning. An influx of refugees from the Spanish Civil War and the increasing influence of urban planning processes in the US were also observed. The National Commission on Urbanism was created in 1946 as a dependency of the Ministry of Planning to facilitate public administration of the development and control of cities. Throughout the period, a debate was underway on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to urban planning versus a primarily architectural or engineering approach. In 1957, some consensus was reached on the need for urban planning to be viewed as more than a speciality of architecture. A framework was developed for a graduate program in 1969 in the Central University of Venezuela. The National Commission on Urbanism was disbanded in 1957, largely because of its excessive focus on architecture to the exclusion of other disciplines relevant to the urbanization process.

  16. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  17. PCR deduction of invasive and colonizing pneumococcal serotypes from Venezuela: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Gonzalez, Teresita; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar Alejandra; Sisco, María Carolina; Spadola, Enza; Hermans, Peter W; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-04-15

    Serotype surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is indispensable for evaluating the potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotyping by the standard Quellung reaction is technically demanding, time consuming, and expensive. A simple and economical strategy is multiplex PCR-based serotyping. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a modified serial multiplex PCR (mPCR), resolving 24 serotypes in four PCR reactions and optimally targeting the most prevalent invasive and colonizing pneumococcal serotypes found in Venezuela. A total of 223 pneumococcal isolates, 140 invasive and 83 carriage isolates, previously serotyped by the Quellung reaction and representing the 18 most common serotypes/groups identified in Venezuela, were serotyped with the adapted mPCR. The mPCR serotyped 76% of all the strains in the first two PCR reactions and 91% after four reactions, correctly identifying 17 serotypes/groups. An isolate could be serotyped with mPCR in less than 2 minutes versus 15 minutes for the Quellung reaction, considerably lowering labor costs. A restrictive weakness of mPCR was found for the detection of 19F strains. Most Venezuelan 19F strains were not typeable using the mPCR, and two 19F cps serotype variants were identified. The mPCR assay is an accurate, rapid, and economical method for the identification of the vast majority of the serotypes from Venezuela and can be used in place of the standard Quellung reaction. An exception is the identification of serotype 19F. In this setting, most 19F strains were not detectable with mPCR, demonstrating a need of serology-based quality control for PCR-based serotyping.

  18. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of human sporotrichosis in Venezuela reveals high frequency of Sporothrix globosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Emma; León-Navarro, Isabel; Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Mendoza, Mireya; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A

    2015-02-25

    Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal disease of humans and other mammals, known to be caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, which comprises four species of clinical importance: S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, and S. schenckii sensu stricto. Of them, S. globosa and S. schenckii s. str. show global distribution and differences in global frequency as causal agents of the disease. In the Americas, only three species are present: S. schenckii s. str., S. brasiliensis (so far, only reported in Brazil), and S. globosa. In Venezuela, since the first case of sporotrichosis reported in 1935, S. schenckii have been considered its unique etiological agent. In the present work, the presence of more than one species in the country was evaluated. By phenotypic key features and molecular phylogeny analyses, we re-examined 30 isolates from diverse Venezuelan regions belonging to the fungi collection of Instituto de Biomedicina, Caracas, Venezuela, and national reference center for skin diseases. All isolates were collected between 1973 and 2013, and maintained in distilled water. Sporotrichosis in Venezuela is mainly caused by S. schenckii s. str. (70%). However, a significant proportion (30%) of sporotrichosis cases in the country can be attributable to S. globosa. A correlation between intraspecific genotypes and clinical presentation is proposed. Our data suggest that sporotrichosis various clinical forms might be related to genetic diversity of isolates, and possibly, to diverse virulence profiles previously reported in the S. schenckii species complex. Sporothrix globosa was found to be the causative agent of 30% of sporotrichosis for the Venezuelan cases re-examined, the highest frequency of this species so far reported in the Americas. The high genetic variability presented by S. schenckii s. str. indicates that species distinction based on phenotypic key features could be a challenging and uncertain task; molecular identification

  20. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2017-07-04

    In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.

  1. "La Junta Patriótica Portuguesa: una voz de izquierda de la comunidad portuguesa inmigrante en Venezuela"

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu Xavier, Antonio de

    2005-01-01

    Estudo da representação sociopolítica da imigração portuguesa na Venezuela através do texto "Problemas de la emigración portuguesa en Venezuela", emitido pela Junta Patriótica Portuguesa no ano 1965. Uma visão da própria comunidade, partindo dos aportes teóricos metodológicos da análise do discurso, como complemento à orientação historiográfica.

  2. MONOPOLY AND OLIGOPOLY: CAUSES OF ENTERPRISES CLOSED IN VENEZUELA. A CASE STUDY IN THE ZULIA STATE.GROUP SIDEPRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Agostini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The economy has been impacted because of the monopoly and oligopoly Venezuela markets. This study analyzes the causes of the closure of the main company producing pipes for the oil industry in Zulia State.(Group SIDERPRO It is a research field, documentary and descriptive. The information was collected on experiences arising in the process of expropriation and recovery. As a result evidence of the need to propose a macroeconomic planning and control allowing to speed recovery of closed industrial parks and Venezuela recovery process model.

  3. Competitividad de la cadena arrocera del Estado Portuguesa, Venezuela, en procesos de integración sudamericanos

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas Sánchez, Víctor Vicente; Albisu Aguado, Luis Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó la competitividad de la cadena arrocera del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela, con relación a países de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) y el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR). Venezuela se integró en 1996 como miembro pleno de la CAN, aunque en 2007 demandó su desincorporación, y en 2005 solicitó ser miembro pleno del MERCOSUR. Esta realidad supone la apertura de las fronteras a productos de países asociados, con pérdida o ganancia de competitividad. En los productos agr...

  4. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

    OpenAIRE

    Amada Mogollón de González

    2006-01-01

    Resumen:Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los e...

  5. El estado del conocimiento sobre las migraciones laborales de Colombia a Venezuela 1973 - 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Gómez

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Se plantean los principales desarrollos que, a propósito de las migraciones de los colombianos a Venezuela, se han llevado a cabo en ambos países en los últimos quince años. Para el efecto, se establece un marco conceptual que permite, entre otras cosas, situar los estudios en dos periodos claramente diferenciados: el del decenio de 1970, de expansión económica y el de la recesión que llega hasta mediados de la presente década.

  6. A multidisciplinary study of swine gastroesophageal ulcers syndrome in slaughter pigs of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Briceño, Abelardo; Bermúdez, V.; García, Francisco; Gómez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el estómago de 250 cerdos masacre (Sus scrofa), fueron desde el matadero Turmero frigoríficos, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Ninguno de estos cerdos mostaron ningún síigno clínico previo de enfermedad gastrointestinal. De cada estómago y el esófago, dos secciones de tejido gástrico se tomaron de las regiones cardial y otras dos de las regiones glandulares mucosa fúndica, uno de cada tipo en el 100% de etanol y los otros fueron fijadas en formol al 10%. Las muestras de tejido fijado en ...

  7. oas electoral observations vs. unasur accompaniment in the last elections in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos PASCUAL PLANCHUELO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral observation has become an essential exercise for the development of electoral democracy. The proliferation of organizations monitoring elections makes necessary to distinguish real «election observation activities», from other similar activities, such as «electoral accompaniment». Independence is an essential element that must be respected by true electoral observation organizations. Accordingly, the lack of independence in some of these organizations transforms them into «intervened electoral observation» actors, dowgrading its credibility and reliability. Hence, the last electoral processes that have taken place in Venezuela, provide the necessary factual basis to distinguish oas election observation missions, from unasur accompaniment missions.

  8. CARIOTIPO Y BANDEO C EN EL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus (Sauria: Tropiduridae) EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez Jenniffer

    2011-01-01

    El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular) del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por 6 pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose, esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa un 13...

  9. Cariotipo y bandeo c en el lagarto tropidurus hispidus (sauria: tropiduridae) en el oriente de venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, Jenniffer

    2011-01-01

    El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular) del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por 6 pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose, esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa un 13...

  10. CARIOTIPO DEL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus (SAURIA: TROPIDURIDAE) EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS ALEJANDRO GONZÁLEZ S.; ANA BONILLA; JENNIFFER VELÁSQUEZ

    2011-01-01

    El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular) del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por seis pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa 13%...

  11. Estrategias para lograr la soberanía alimentaria en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yuneska Nava Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    El hecho de ser un país dependiente económicamente primordialmente de la renta petrolera, ha ocasionado que en Venezuela se hayan descuidado otros sectores no menos importantes, como lo es el sector agroalimentario. En el país, se enfrenta una crisis en dicho sector que se ha evidenciado en el desabastecimiento de buena parte de los alimentos de la cesta básica. A pesar que en los últimos meses esa situación ha mejorado levemente, se hace necesario diseñar e implementar estrategias que permit...

  12. El régimen populista en Venezuela :¿avance o peligro para la democracia?

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Nelly; Gómez Calcaño, Luis

    2006-01-01

    El régimen actual de Venezuela es difícil de ubicar en las categorías usuales: se le han aplicado términos como populismo, autoritarismo, democracia radical y otros. También su ubicación en el continuo izquierda-derecha es más compleja de lo que parece, dada la ambigüedad de muchas de sus políticas y el desdibujamiento de la identidad de izquierda en los últimos años. El trabajo intenta caracterizar las relaciones del «chavismo» con la izquierda, entendida tanto en el sentido de act...

  13. "socialismo del siglo xxi” o viejo centrismo estatal? una lectura disidente de las transformaciones en venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Zelik, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Las transformaciones políticas en Venezuela polarizan los debates, no sólo en Colombia. Lo que para unos es una dictadura comunista, para otros representa una esperanza de democratización y justicia social. En realidad, un análisis serio de la ‘Revolución Bolivariana’ muestra un panorama mucho más complejo y contradictorio. Por un lado, hay importantes avances en la política social: con la recuperación de los ingresos petroleros —que antes no salieron de la empresa estatal PDVSA— el Gobierno ...

  14. El abuso de poder en Venezuela como síntoma de Estado fallido

    OpenAIRE

    Falah Tascón, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    El abuso de poder en Venezuela ha sido el principal causante del deterioro de la democracia. A través del uso degenerativo del poder político prácticas antidemocráticas han surgido en la sociedad venezolana caracterizando, desde el presidente Hugo Chávez Frías hasta el presidente Nicolás Maduro, las políticas de gobierno. Como consecuencia de ello, una crisis prolongada en materia de DD.HH., la debilidad institucional, la discriminación política y la represión indiscriminada hacia sectores d...

  15. El tema de género en las convenciones colectivas en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Iranzo; Jacqueline Richter

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es evaluar la atención que le ha prestado la convención colectiva en Venezuela a la regulación de los problemas que derivan de la condición de género y, en particular los relativos al trabajo femenino, partiendo de considerar que dicho instrumento es el más idóneo para confrontar la desigualdad de oportunidades presentes en el mercado de trabajo. Se presenta un breve diagnóstico del contexto actual de la negociación colectiva en nuestro país y los avan...

  16. La enseñanza del arte en Venezuela durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador González, José María

    2003-01-01

    El artículo traza el devenir de la enseñanza artística en Venezuela de 1800 a 1850. Rescata los embrionarios esfuerzos pedagógicos del italiano Onofre Padroni (1804-1805), del cumanés José Juan Franco (1809) y del francés M. H. Gamezey (1812), antes de mostrar a Juan Lovera (diciembre 1825) como profesor de una «academia» de dibujo establecida por Vicente Méndez en su escuela primaria. Destaca luego la Escuela de Dibujo que, patrocinada por la Sociedad de Amigos del País con financiamiento gu...

  17. Nuevo Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) de la Sierra San Luis, Venezuela noroccidental

    OpenAIRE

    Luis F. de Armas; Osvaldo Villarreal Manzanilla; Colmenares-García,Pío A.

    2009-01-01

    Se describe un nuevo esquizómido del género Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, proveniente de la Sierra de San Luis, Estado Falcón, en Venezuela noroccidental. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. se caracteriza por el dedo móvil del quelícero con un diminuto diente subdistal, una débil eminencia dorsoposterior en el segmento abdominal XII del macho y espermatecas constituidas por dos pares de lóbulos largos y sinuosos, tenuemente quitinizados, sin bulbo terminal notable. Su asignación al género Ro...

  18. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Álvarez, Rosa M.; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos,Venancio

    2012-01-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the r...

  19. Wood anatomy of eight species from Euphorbioidea subfamily (Euphorbiaceae) in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    León Hernández, Williams José; Chavarri, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió la estructura anatómica de ocho especies de la subfamilia Euphorbioideae (Euphorbiaceae) que crecen en Venezuela. Las especies estudiadas son las siguientes: Hura crepitans, Mabea piriri, M. taquari, Maprounea guianensis, Sapium aubletianum, S. glandulosum, S. laurifolium y S. stylare. En base a la estructura anatómica de la madera se pueden identificar las especies pertenecientes a géneros diferentes, pero no es posible la diferenciación entre especies de un mismo género. En todas...

  20. Algunas características de los cacaos criollos de venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ciferri, R.

    2012-01-01

    Se indican algunas características morfológicas y biométricas de los cacaos "Criollo de cáscara morada" y "Criollo de cáscara decolorada", observadas en un cacaotal de Venezuela y las cuales se comparan con las de algunos de sus cruces, así más afines, como más alejados, que en conjunto forman el Forastero Venezolano. Se llama la atención sobre unos tipos de cacao muy valiosos, derivados de los cruzamientos entre estos dos tipos de Criollo, mencionados. Se indica, además, la distribució...

  1. Heavy metals in sediments,mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rojas de Astudillo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Paria is bordered by both Trinidad and Venezuela,from which various metallic pollutants and other contaminants can originate.The Gulf is still a significant source of fish,crabs and shellfish for human consumption to both countries,where concerns over the quality of this marine environment have been long expressed but never properly addressed.In addition,the circulatory current patterns in the Gulf ensure that contaminants originating from either country are likely to affect both countries eventually.Heavy metals were determined in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae and C.virginica ,green mussels (Perna viridis and sediments from the Gulf of Paria.Samples were obtained at four sites in Trinidad and three sites in Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria,in addition to comparative samples collected from three sites on the north coast of Venezuela.Edible tissues of twelve shellfish from each location were blended and aliquots digested with concentrated nitric acid, for extraction of cadmium,chromium,copper,lead,nickel and zinc.The solutions were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.Mercury was extracted with a mixture of nitric,hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and determined by cold vapour atomic absorption.Sediments were oven-dried at 60°C, before being similarly extracted.Results showed that mercury in sediments at all sites in Trinidad and Venezuela exceeded NOAA and Canadian sediment quality guidelines,while cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc also exceeded these guidelines at several sites.Heavy metal levels in oysters and green mussels varied widely with location. However,oysters from the Gulf of Paria contained significantly higher mean levels of cadmium,copper,nickel and zinc than those from the north coast of Venezuela, but this difference was not apparent in mussels.Cadmium, mercury and zinc in sediments were significantly correlated with those of mussels,but not of oysters,in which copper and zinc at several sites in the

  2. Cambio organizacional: Aspecto trascendental para las instituciones de educación superior en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Labarca; Juliana Ferrer; Esmeralda Villegas

    2006-01-01

    El artículo presenta el estudio de aspectos teóricos gerenciales para el cambio organizacional en el contexto de las instituciones de educación superior en Venezuela. En primer lugar, se plantea la resistencia al cambio, tanto individual como organizacional. En segundo lugar, el camino para superar la resistencia al mismo, los modelos gerenciales para administrar dicho proceso, así como la Universidad desde la perspectiva de la complejidad. Se concluye que la actual dinámica económica, políti...

  3. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  4. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, carabobo - Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato) fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. R...

  5. Reforma estructural, pobreza y exclusión. El caso de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Lacabana, Miguel; Jungemann, Beate; Ramírez, Ana María

    1997-01-01

    La reestructuración del mercado de trabajo y el impacto negativo sobre las condiciones de existencia de la población latinoamericana es una constante que se reproduce en los países de la región más allá de las particularidades que ha tomado en cada uno de ellos el proceso de reestructuración económica. El mayor impacto social que ha tenido el proceso de reestructuración económica en Venezuela son los cambios en: 1. el mercado de trabajo, que tiende hacia una mayor informalización y precarieda...

  6. Microcrédito y pobreza en Venezuela: un caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Martínez

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo, el autor analiza y evalúa el Proyecto de Desarrollo de Comunidades Rurales Pobres (PRODECOP) como uno de varios programas que existen en Venezuela para reducir los índices de pobreza. La metodología utilizada comprende tanto investigación documental como trabajo de campo. Dentro de los principales resultados obtenidos resaltan el éxito del PRODECOP en el fortalecimiento de los activos humanos, sociales, financieros y físicos de las familias b...

  7. Venezuela: del ajuste neoliberal a la promesa de “Socialismo del siglo XXI”

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Uharte Pozas

    2009-01-01

    El presente artículo, partiendo de un marco conceptual en torno a la democracia, pretende identificar los rasgos fundamentales del proyecto de gobierno que actualmente rige en Venezuela, y que está liderado por el presidente Hugo Chávez. Se analizan los cambios en el sistema político, en el ámbito económico, en el área social, en participación ciudadana, y en política exterior, realizando una comparación con los dos gobiernos precedentes, el de Carlos Andrés Pérez y el de Rafael Caldera._____...

  8. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial

  9. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Comach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month--86 years. Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6% subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144 of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144, parainfluenza virus (13/144, and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144 were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second--higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its

  10. La mujer en las publicaciones institucionales de las empresas petroleras extranjeras en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Luis J. González Oquendo

    2006-01-01

    Durante las décadas de 1940 y 1950 las empresas petroleras extranjeras que operaban en Venezuela editaron publicaciones institucionales como herramientas clave para el manejo de las relaciones públicas y laborales tanto con sus empleados como con la comunidad. Entre otras secciones, éstas prestaron un interés significativo a la mujer. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar cómo se dio la construcción discursiva de ella y de su rol en el seno tanto de la comunidad como de la empresa. ...

  11. Algunos elementos sobre sexualidad en pobladores de un área rural del estado Cojedes, Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Everilda Artega; Ligia Gámez; Gilberto Bastidas

    2012-01-01

      El conocimiento de temas relacionados con la salud sexual y reproductiva evidencia vacíos en los países latinoamericanos en cuanto a reproducción, especialmente en el medio rural y en personas con menor nivel educativo. Se pretende con esta investigación describir características de la sexualidad en el área rural, primer estudio en Venezuela. Estudio descriptivo, transversal y de campo, con un cuestionario como instrumento, la muestra fue de 128 individuos de la comunidad de Apamates, Cojed...

  12. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  13. Four new species and new records of Atopsyche Banks (Trichoptera: Hydrobiosidae) from Pantepui biogeographical region (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Derka, Tomáš; Múrria, Cesc

    2017-05-29

    Four new species of the genus Atopsyche Banks (Hydrobiosidae) from Pantepui biogeographical region (Venezuela) are described and illustrated: Atopsyche (Atopsaura) inmae n. sp., Atopsyche (Atopsaura) cristinae n. sp., Atopsyche (Atopsaura) svitoki n. sp., and Atopsyche (Atopsaura) carmenae n. sp. Molecular analyses (cox1 sequences) allowed larva-adult associations and the morphological description of larvae of two of the new species (A. inmae and A. cristinae). A phylogenetic tree is performed to assess the molecular validity of the species, establish evolutionary relation among them and interpret historical biogeography of tepuis. Finally, two new distributional records for A. (Atopsaura) atahuallpa are included, which up to now was known only from the type locality.

  14. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Nirchio, Mauro; Ehemann, Nicolas; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Ron,Ernesto; Eduardo Perez, Julio; Rossi,Anna Rita; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P volitans and P miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P volitans from Indo-Pacific Oc...

  15. THE POLITICAL DOCUMENTARY IN EL SALVADOR: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH CUBA AND VENEZUELA

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    Emperatriz Arreaza-Camero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper the political documentary in El Salvador: comparative study with Cuba and Venezuela, is to know diferent communicatives and alternative experiences in coyuntural situations of special meaning in Latin America and the Caribbean. In general, these experiences had the main objetive to promote more important political participation of the population, and also to promote the defense of the human rights of the subaltern groups, and the unification of the criteria about the political projects of national liberation.

  16. Cromomicosis en área no endémica de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yorman Rafael Flores Molina; Ruth Aisari Carreño Cedeño

    2011-01-01

    La cromomicosis es una infección crónica causada por hongos dematiáceos del tipo cromomicetos, caracterizado por nódulos y placas verrugosas de evolución lenta y prolongada. Los agentes causales penetran por inoculación traumática. En Venezuela, los estados de Lara, Falcón y Zulia de la región noroccidental son considerados como áreas endémicas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 65 años de edad, natural del estado Apure y procedente de Cazorla, estado Guárico, dedicado a labores...

  17. Venezuela, los cambios globales y su política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo ha avanzado hacia la globalización, lo que exige que América Latina, con poca relevancia internacional y con una situación económica crítica, busque ajustarse a las nuevas exigencias internacionales mediante "la desregulación y la coordinación económica". También se hace prioritaria la búsqueda de la integración regional tanto a nivel público como privado a través de instituciones como Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.Este artículo plantea las incidencias de la globalización y la integración en la política exterior venezolana y los mecanismos a aplicar para ajustarse al nuevo modelo mundial. Tres son los puntos prioritarios en este sentido: los cambios globales, el petróleo y la política exterior.La situación de Venezuela como país proveedor de petróleo a Estados Unidos le ha permitido ser conservador en sus posiciones y asumir la apertura económica de forma más discreta al resto de países de la región. La democracia es otro tema que rodea las relaciones internacionales, especialmente lo relativo a los derechos humanos y al buen gobierno, y del cual Venezuela se beneficia al procurar un espacio idóneo para su desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The world has moved towards globalization, which means that Latin America, that has low international leverage and a critical economic situation, has to search for an adjustment to the new international demands by means of "deregulation and economic coordination". It is also a priority to pursue the regional integration at the prívate and public levels through institutions such as Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.This article poses the incidences of globalization and integration in the Venezuelan international policy, as wcll as the mechanisms of adjustment to the new world orden. Three elements are pointed out as priorities: the global changes, the petroleum, and the international policy.The situation of Venezuela as a US supplier of petroleum has

  18. Museo Arqueológico de Petroglifos y el fomento del turismo en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Omar León; Yamile Delgado de Smith; Nelson Falcón

    2005-01-01

    El Complejo Arqueológico de Vigirima (Venezuela) es el mayor yacimiento de Petroglifos de América y el único lugar continental que presenta alineamientos megalíticos. Sin embargo, es poco conocido y ha sido aún menos estudiado, quedando a la saga de los proyectos de conservación y preservación patrimonial emprendidos por los organismos supranacionales. Se efectuó un registro sistemático y la clasificación estilística de los glifos y caracteres pétreos del complejo arqueológico de Vigirima. El...

  19. Significado del consumo de drogas para las adolescentes de la calle, en la ciudad de Valencia, Venezuela Significado do uso de drogas para adolescentes de rua, Valencia, Venezuela Meaning of drugs use for adolescents living in the streets, Valencia, Venezuela

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    Roberto Alvarado-Chacón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo con el objetivo de revelar el significado del consumo de drogas en las adolescentes de la calle, condición que las convierte en problema social, por lo que se busca obtener una aproximación teórica para comprender este fenómeno. Siete (7 adolescentes femeninas del paseo Cabriales en la ciudad de Valencia, en Venezuela fueron entrevistadas. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el recurso metodológico de la Teoría fundamentada (Grand Theory y la visión del Interaccionismo simbólico y de ahí surgieron las siguientes categorías: la búsqueda de no ser la buena, la reafirmación del rol femenino, el consumo como experiencia, la mirada de los otros a la adolescente que consume drogas, y la adicta como cuidadora. Finalmente, concluimos que el uso de drogas en la calle para las adolescentes del sexo femenino es una forma de protección, sobrevivencia e inclusión en los grupos.Trata-se de estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi revelar o significado do uso de drogas entre adolescentes que vivem nas ruas, condição que se torna um problema social, de modo que a abordagem teórica busca compreender esse fenômeno. Sete (7 adolescentes do sexo feminino, em Valência, Venezuela, foram entrevistadas. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se como recurso a metodologia da Grounded Theory e a visão do interacionismo simbólico, de onde emergiram as seguintes categorias: a busca de não ser bom, reafirmação do papel das mulheres, consumo como experiência, o olhar dos outros para a adolescente que usa drogas e o toxicodependente como cuidador. Por fim, conclui-se que o uso de drogas na rua, para adolescentes do sexo feminino, é uma forma de proteção, sobrevivência e inclusão grupal.This descriptive study with a qualitative approach aims to reveal the meaning of drugs use among adolescents living in the street, a condition that turns them into a social problem, so

  20. Organizaciones sociales y conflictos sociopolíticos en una sociedad polarizada: las dos caras de la democracia participativa en Venezuela

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    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los analistas y estudiosos de la sociedad civil organizada han tendido a identificarla con los valores positivos de la pluralidad, tolerancia, civilidad y democracia. Sin embargo, un análisis de los procesos de polarización sociopolítica existentes en Venezuela indica que dentro de la heterogeneidad ideológica, política, cultural y de clases sociales que la caracterizan pueden desarrollarse tanto proyectos democráticos como proyectos e imaginarios profundamente excluyentes. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las consecuencias de ambas facetas, en los imaginarios y las representaciones sociales de exclusión del «otro», en el espacio y la guetificación de la ciudad de Caracas y en el origen de la violencia urbana y de la violencia inter-clases sociales en un país, donde paradójicamente, se ha institucionalizado la democracia participativa.ABSTRACT: Scholars and researchers have identified organized civil society with positive values such as plurality, tolerance, civility and democracy. Nonetheless, an analysis of current processes of sociopolitical polarization in Venezuela shows that within the ideological, political, cultural and social classes heterogeneity that characterize organized civil society might develop democratic projects as well as imaginaries, representations and non-democratic projects. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of these two faces in the exclusion of the «other», on the space and the guetification of the capital city of Caracas, on urban violence and on interclass violence in a country that, paradoxically, has institutionalized participatory democracy.