Sample records for subseafloor observatories installed

  1. NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory: Installed and Online! (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Best, M.; Bornhold, B.; Johnson, F.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.


    Through summer 2009, NEPTUNE Canada installed a regional cabled ocean observatory across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, north-eastern Pacific. This provides continuous power and high bandwidth to collect integrated data on physical, chemical, geological, and biological gradients at temporal resolutions relevant to the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. As the data is freely and openly available through the Internet, this advance opens the ocean to the world. Building this $100M facility required integration of hardware, software, and people networks. Hardware includes: 800km powered fibre-optic backbone cable (installed 2007); development of Nodes and Junction Boxes; acquisition, development of Instruments including mobile platforms a) 400m Vertical Profiler (NGK Ocean) for accessing full upper slope water column, b) a Crawler (Jacobs University, Bremen) to investigate exposed hydrates. In parallel, software and hardware systems are acquiring, archiving, and delivering continuous real-time data. A web environment to combine this data access with analysis and visualization, collaborative tools, interoperability, and instrument control is in place and expanding. A network of scientists, engineers and technicians are contributing to the process in every phase. The currently installed experiments were planned through workshops and international proposal competitions. At inshore Folger Passage (Barkley Sound, west Vancouver Island), understanding controls on biological productivity will evaluate the effects of marine processes on invertebrates, fish and marine mammals. Experiments around Barkley Canyon will quantify changes in biological and chemical activity associated with nutrients and cross-shelf sediment transport at shelf/slope break and through the canyon. Along the mid-continental slope, exposed and shallowly buried hydrates allow monitoring of changes in their distribution, structure, and venting, and relationships to earthquakes, slope failures and plate

  2. The final year of GPS Installations in the Alaska Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory (United States)

    Coyle, B.; Pauk, B.; Enders, M.; Bierma, R.; Gasparich, S.; Marzulla, A.; Feaux, K.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the National Science Foundation funded Earthscope Project. The final PBO GPS network will comprise 1100 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. The Alaska region is an important area of study because of the major crustal deformation and high volcanic activity associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate. The PBO network will provide data to help better understand these earth processes. In the fifth and final year of the PBO installation phase, we built 31 GPS Stations and installed 8 tilt meters in Alaska. These installs completed the PBO network in Alaska which comprises 135 GPS stations and 12 tilt meters. We also completed maintenance visits to GPS stations installed during earlier years of the five year project. In the 2008 field season we faced some of our most difficult logistical challenges with installations in remote areas, islands and volcanoes. Highlights include boat-based helicopter supported installs in the Shumagin Islands on Chernabura, Nagai and Popof; and 13 GPS stations and 8 tiltmeters installed on Unimak Island to monitor Westdahl and Shishaldin volcanoes. The Unimak installations were completed in a four week period and were carried out in cooperation with scientists from the Alaska Volcano Observatory. We also installed the remaining stations monitoring the Denali fault and integrated the Denali earthquake response stations built by University of Alaska Fairbanks into the PBO network. Now that the installations are completed, the PBO network will be operated and maintained by UNAVCO engineers for the next 10 years. Data from all of the PBO stations are available from the UNAVCO archive.

  3. Microbial borehole observatories deployed within the oceanic crust: Design considerations and initial results from long-term colonization experiments (Invited) (United States)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Hulme, S.; Toner, B. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party


    Borehole observatories developed for long-term sampling and monitoring in the subseafloor of the deep ocean must satisfy design and operation requirements that are similar to systems deployed on land. Many of these systems are used to achieve simultaneous hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological goals, requiring innovative design, installation, and operation. There are major logistical challenges for subseafloor observatories, the foremost being having to remotely access sites kilometers underwater using multiple oceanographic platforms (drill ship, surface ship, submersible, remotely-operated vehicle) and reliance on autonomous devices that are serviced only after several years. Contamination of the analytical environment is probable during installation operations, requiring vigilance during analysis for interpretation. Subseafloor observatories also require self-contained and robust instrumentation that can withstand long-term exposure to seawater at high pressures, elevated temperatures, a variety of redox conditions, and little to no access to external power. Although subseafloor borehole observatories have been in development for hydrologic monitoring for two decades, the inclusion of experimentation to examine the deep biosphere in the marine subsurface has only recently been developed. Results from some of the first microbial colonization experiments in young basaltic rocks on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge demonstrate in situ microbial-mineral interactions that can be identified using complementary geochemical and microbiological techniques. Mineral surfaces were first colonized by iron oxidizing bacteria, and as fluid composition changed, the microbial community became dominated by Firmicutes bacteria, some of which are phylogenetically similar to microbial communities observed in the terrestrial deep biosphere.

  4. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks (United States)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  5. SCIMPI: A versatile seafloor observatory for changing environments (United States)

    Moran, K.; Lado Insua, T.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J.


    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-situ (SCIMPI) is a new seafloor observatory instrument. SCIMPI is designed to take subsurface time series measurements of temperature, pressure and resistivity in the sub-seafloor. This instrument has a battery operational life of approximately two years, which can be replaced with a battery pack using a remotely-operated vehicle, and provides high resolution measurements of physical properties in the sediment. With either periodic battery replacement or connection to a fiber-optic cable, SCIMPI is a long-term observatory for understanding sub-seafloor dynamics. The main advantage of this system is the reduced equipment and installation requirements making this tool an affordable and versatile system for scientific research. The pressure and temperature sensors, integrated into the system, have been successfully used in other marine industrial and scientific applications. Its electrical resistivity sensor, casing, and array assembly are uniquely designed and can be adapted for each mission. SCIMPI is currently in its last phase of testing prior to deployment in an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole. This first SCIMPI is designed for a water depth of 1000 m and a sediment depth up to ~300 m below seafloor. But future assemblies can be tailored for deeper conditions and environments. Here we present the SCIMPI design, deployment options, and its scientific potential in a long-term ocean observatory. Science applications include studies of fluid flow, hydrate formation, and seismically induced pore pressure changes. The cost of this instrument will enable these measurements to become more commonplace, thereby improving our temporal and spatial knowledge of sub-seafloor gas, fluid and pore pressure activity. Most notable of the target deployments for SCIMPI are sub-seafloor gas hydrate sites and sites with biogenic methane. Understanding the dynamics of methane's role in the oceans as climate change

  6. IODP Expedition 301 Installs Three Borehole Crustal Observatories, Prepares for Three-Dimensional, Cross-Hole Experiments in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean

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    Adam Klaus


    Full Text Available Introduction and Goals The basaltic upper oceanic crust comprises the largestaquifer on Earth, containing a volume of water about equalto that currently stored in ice sheets and glaciers. Annualfluid fluxes through the upper oceanic crust are at leastas large as the global river flux to the ocean. Much of theseafloor is hydrogeologically active, but the majority ofthe fluid flow within oceanic crust occurs on ridge flanks,regions located kilometers or more from active seafloorspreading centers. Fluid circulation in these areas is drivenmainly by lithospheric heat rising from deep within theplate but is influenced by seafloor and basement topography,seismic and tectonic events, and tides.Subseaf loor f luid f low on ridge f lanks inf luences adiverse array of processes and properties, including thethermal state and evolution of oceanic plates, alteration ofthe lithosphere and crustal pore waters, establishment andmaintenance of vast subseaf loor microbial ecosystems,and diagenetic, seismic, and magmatic activity along plateboundaryfaults. Although numerous drilling expeditionsand surface and submersible surveys over the last severaldecades have focused on hydrogeologic phenomena, we stillknow relatively little about driving forces, property distributions,scales of flow, rates of flow, extent of compartmentalizationor isolation of distinct fluid-rock systems, or linksbetween hydrogeologic, geochemical, microbiological, andgeophysical processes. Progress through drilling has beenlimited in the past by the perturbing effects of boreholecreation on subseafloor thermal, pressure, chemical, andbiological conditions. Subseafloor observatories addressthis challenge by allowing the formation to recover fromdrilling perturbations, and also allow scientists to runpassive and active experiments for years to decades.IODP Expedition 301 was part of a multi-disciplinaryprogram designed to evaluate the formation-scale hydrogeologicproperties within oceanic crust

  7. A new gravimetric reference station in South America: The installation of the Superconducting Gravimeters SG038 at the Argentinian-German Geodetic Observatory AGGO (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Nowak, Ilona; Hase, Hayo; Häfner, Michael; Güntner, Andreas; Reich, Marvin; Brunini, Claudio


    In April 2015, the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) of BKG was moved from Concepcion / Chile to La Plata / Argentina and was inaugurated in July 2015 as the Argentinian-German Geodetic Observatory (AGGO). In December 2015 the superconducting gravimeter SG038 was set up. The new station is equipped with four stable pillars to serve as a reference station and comparison site for absolute gravimeters in the future. We report about the overland transportation of the SG with the sphere floating, its installation at the new site and the hydrological instrumentation to observe local water storage changes to model near field gravimetric effects. We give an outlook about the first months of gravity time series and assess the drift behaviour after transport.

  8. Biogenic Mn-Oxides in Subseafloor Basalts. (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Gustafsson, Håkan; Holm, Nils G


    The deep biosphere of the subseafloor basalts is recognized as a major scientific frontier in disciplines like biology, geology, and oceanography. Recently, the presence of fungi in these environments has involved a change of view regarding diversity and ecology. Here, we describe fossilized fungal communities in vugs in subseafloor basalts from a depth of 936.65 metres below seafloor at the Detroit Seamount, Pacific Ocean. These fungal communities are closely associated with botryoidal Mn oxides composed of todorokite. Analyses of the Mn oxides by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) indicate a biogenic signature. We suggest, based on mineralogical, morphological and EPR data, a biological origin of the botryoidal Mn oxides. Our results show that fungi are involved in Mn cycling at great depths in the seafloor and we introduce EPR as a means to easily identify biogenic Mn oxides in these environments.

  9. The installation of a sub sea floor observatory using the sea floor drill rig MeBo (United States)

    Wefer, G.; Freudenthal, T.; Kopf, A.


    Sea floor drill rigs that can be deployed from standard research vessels are bridging the gap between dedicated drill ships that are used for deep drillings in the range of several hundred meters below sea floor and conventional sampling tools like gravity corers, piston corer or dredges that only scratch the surface of the sea floor. A major advantage of such robotic drill rigs is that the drilling action is conducted from a stable platform at the sea bed independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. At the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen we developed the sea bed drill rig MeBo that can be deployed from standard research vessels. The drill rig is deployed on the sea floor and controlled from the vessel. Drilling tools for coring the sea floor down to 70 m can be stored on two magazines on the rig. A steel-armoured umbilical is used for lowering the rig to the sea bed in water depths up to 2000 m in the present system configuration. It was successfully operated on ten expeditions since 2005 and drilled more than 1000 m in different types of geology including hemipelagic mud, glacial till as well as sedimentary and crystalline rocks. MeBo boreholes be equipped with sensors and used for long term monitoring are planned. Depending on the scientific demands, a MeBoCORK monitoring system will allow in situ measurements of eg. temperature and pressure. The "MeBoCORK" will be equipped with data loggers and data transmission interface for reading out the collected data from the vessel. By additional payload installation on the MeBoCORK with an ROV it will be possible to increase the energy capacity as well as to conduct fluid sampling in the bore hole for geochemical analyses. It is planned to install a prototype of this additional payload with the MARUM ROV QUEST4000M during the following R/V SONNE cruise in July 2012.

  10. Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Okino, Kyoko; Sunamura, Michinari


    This book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (“a great river ” in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system...

  11. Historical Overview of ODP/IODP CORK Hydrological Observatories (United States)

    Becker, K.; Davis, E. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.; Jannasch, H. W.; Pettigrew, T.


    Since 1991, the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have instrumented 24 holes drilled beneath the seafloor with long-term sealed-hole hydrological observatories called "CORKs." We present a historical summary of the designs of and experiences with the CORK observatories, starting from the 1989 concept sketch on a dinner napkin and continuing through three new installations planned in young Atlantic crust during IODP Expedition 336 during autumn of 2011. Understanding subseafloor hydrology in a variety of type environments has been a prime objective of scientific ocean drilling since the late 1970's. However, early experience indicated that holes that penetrated through marine sediments into underlying oceanic basement often allowed open exchange between formation fluids and ocean water, perturbing if not totally disturbing the in-situ hydrogeological state. This motivated the CORK approach to seal select holes with long-term sensor strings and data loggers, to record the recovery from drilling disturbances to the in-situ state and monitor natural hydrological signals. The original design included a single seal at the seafloor, and later designs have allowed for monitoring multiple zones in a single hole sealed by packers. The sensor strings have always included pressure and temperature monitoring, and many have included self-contained fluid samplers driven by osmotic pumps ("OsmoSamplers") that can be tuned for a variety of geochemical and microbiological sampling objectives. Typically, data and samplers have been recovered and/or exchanged at average intervals of ~1-3 years using manned or unmanned research submersibles. One CORK is now connected to the NEPTUNE Canada cable network; this allows 1 Hz sampling frequency and eliminates demand on battery power and the need for submersible visits to collect data. Cable connections to other holes are now planned in both the Juan de Fuca and Nankai regions. Nearly all installations

  12. IODP Expedition 319, NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: First IODP Riser Drilling Operations and Observatory Installation Towards Understanding Subduction Zone Seismogenesis

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    Sean Toczko


    Full Text Available The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE is a major drilling project designed to investigate fault mechanics and the seismogenic behavior of subduction zone plate boundaries. Expedition 319 is the first riser drilling operation within scientific ocean drilling. Operations included riser drilling at Site C0009 in the forearc basin above the plate boundary fault, non-riser drilling at Site C0010 across the shallow part of the megasplay faultsystem—which may slip during plate boundary earthquakes—and initial drilling at Site C0011 (incoming oceanic plate for Expedition 322. At Site C0009, new methods were tested, including analysis of drill mud cuttings and gas, and in situ measurements of stress, pore pressure, and permeability. These results, in conjunction with earlier drilling, will provide a the history of forearc basin development (including links to growth of the megasplay fault system and modern prism, b the first in situ hydrological measurements of the plate boundary hanging wall, and c integration of in situ stress measurements (orientation and magnitude across the forearc and with depth. A vertical seismic profile (VSP experiment provides improved constraints on the deeper structure of the subduction zone. At Site C0010, logging-while-drilling measurements indicate significantchanges in fault zone and hanging wall properties over short (<5 km along-strike distances, suggesting different burial and/or uplift history. The first borehole observatory instruments were installed at Site C0010 to monitor pressure and temperature within the megasplay fault zone, and methods of deployment of more complex observatoryinstruments were tested for future operations.

  13. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

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    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.

  14. IODP: Facilitating Multidisciplinary Collaboration in Subseafloor Investigations (United States)

    Meth, C. E.; Koppers, A. A.; Screaton, E.


    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is an international marine research program that brings to the surface new insights into climate and environmental change, tectonics and earthquake genesis, and the nature of life in extreme environments. The program crosses disciplines, international boundaries, and generations in a collaborative effort to collect subseafloor cores and data for studying the planet. A recent survey of the U.S. scientific ocean drilling community defines the breadth and research diversity of the scientists involved in this innovative program. In total, 433 scientists responded, representing 117 universities, institutions, businesses, and government agencies located in 39 states and Washington, DC. A particularly striking statistic is that 44% of the respondents are students or early career researchers who finished their Ph.D. within the past 10 years. Respondents were asked to identify with which of the main IODP research themes they most closely identified. With 31% selecting more than one theme, it is clear that many are taking a truly interdisciplinary approach to their research. More than half (51%) of the respondents have never sailed on an expedition, showing that the use and impact of scientific ocean drilling data reaches far beyond the confines of one expedition and the scientists directly involved therein. These data paint a picture of a broad community that is engaged and ready to embrace future research challenges. By understanding the demographics and interests of a research community - especially diverse communities focused on large research programs - program managers can better develop mechanisms to facilitate collaborations and use resources efficiently.

  15. Using Crustal Fluids to Peer Into the Subseafloor Microbial Habitat (United States)

    Huber, J. A.


    In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from the basement are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. These low-temperature crustal fluids are ubiquitous at both active hydrothermal systems and ridge flank environments. Over the last 15 years, studies of the microbial communities in crustal fluids from eruptive events, drill holes, ridge flanks, and hydrothermal seamounts have revealed a phylogenetically and physiologically diverse microbial community, representing a wide spectrum of thermal tolerances and metabolic strategies from both the subseafloor and the deep sea. In addition, emerging technologies in seafloor sampling capacity and microbial ecology are rapidly increasing our ability to study this difficult habitat. This presentation will provide an overview of what we have learned about the population structure, genomic repertoire, and physiological function of microbes in crustal fluids and what the future holds for subseafloor biosphere research. Data will be integrated with geochemical measurements in crustal environments to better define the subseafloor habitat and its resident microbial community.

  16. High-resolution temporal analysis of deep subseafloor microbial communities inhabiting basement fluids (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.


    The temporal variation in microbial communities inhabiting the anoxic, sediment-covered basaltic ocean basement is largely uncharacterized due to the inaccessible nature of the environment and difficulties associated with collection of samples from low-biomass microbial habitats. Here, a deep sea instrumented platform was employed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the summer of 2013 to collect 46 samples of basement fluids from the most recent generation of borehole observatories (U1362A and B), which feature multiple sampling horizons at a single location and fluid delivery lines manufactured using stainless steel or inert polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) parts. Included were three time-series deployments of the GEOmicrobe sled meant to resolve the fine-scale (i.e. hourly) temporal variation within in situ crustal microbial communities. Illumina technology was used to sequence small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments from sediment, seawater, and subseafloor fluids. Similar to has been reported previously, basic differences in the three environments was observed. Fluid samples from depth horizons extending 30, 70, and ~200 meters sub-basement revealed differences in the observed microbial communities, indicating potential depth-specific zonation of microorganisms in the basaltic basement fluids. Extensive overlap between microorganisms collected from a single depth horizon but using two fluid delivery lines manufactured with different materials was observed, though some differences were also noted. Several archaeal (e.g. THSCG, MCG, MBGE, Archaeoglobus) and bacterial (e.g. Nitrospiraceae, OP8, KB1) lineages detected in previous years of basement fluid sampling nearby were found here, which further supports the notion that these microorganisms are stable residents of anoxic basaltic subseafloor fluids. Direct cell enumeration of samples collected from U1362A and U1362B revealed an elevated biomass compared to samples at these locations from previous years

  17. Bacterial dominance in subseafloor sediments characterized by methane hydrates (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R.; Inagaki, Fumio; Morono, Yuki; Futagami, Taiki; Huguet, Carme; Rosell-Mele, Antoni; Lorenson, T.D.; Colwell, Frederick S.


    The degradation of organic carbon in subseafloor sediments on continental margins contributes to the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. Sediments in the Andaman Sea are composed of ~ 1% marine-derived organic carbon and biogenic methane is present. Our objective was to determine microbial abundance and diversity in sediments that transition the gas hydrate occurrence zone (GHOZ) in the Andaman Sea. Microscopic cell enumeration revealed that most sediment layers harbored relatively low microbial abundance (103–105 cells cm−3). Archaea were never detected despite the use of both DNA- and lipid-based methods. Statistical analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed distinct microbial communities from above, within, and below the GHOZ, and GHOZ samples were correlated with a decrease in organic carbon. Primer-tagged pyrosequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes are predominant in all zones. Compared with other seafloor settings that contain biogenic methane, this deep subseafloor habitat has a unique microbial community and the low cell abundance detected can help to refine global subseafloor microbial abundance.

  18. Fungal colonies in open fractures of subseafloor basalt (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica


    The deep subseafloor crust is one of the few great frontiers of unknown biology on Earth and, still today, the notion of the deep biosphere is commonly based on the fossil record. Interpretation of palaeobiological information is thus central in the exploration of this hidden biosphere and, for each new discovery, criteria used to establish biogenicity are challenged and need careful consideration. In this paper networks of fossilized filamentous structures are for the first time described in open fractures of subseafloor basalts collected at the Emperor Seamounts, Pacific Ocean. These structures have been investigated with optical microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray powder diffraction as well as synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy, and interpreted as fossilized fungal mycelia. Morphological features such as hyphae, yeast-like growth and sclerotia were observed. The fossilized fungi are mineralized by montmorillonite, a process that probably began while the fungi were alive. It seems plausible that the fungi produced mucilaginous polysaccharides and/or extracellular polymeric substances that attracted minerals or clay particles, resulting in complete fossilization by montmorillonite. The findings are in agreement with previous observations of fossilized fungi in subseafloor basalts and establish fungi as regular inhabitants of such settings. They further show that fossilized microorganisms are not restricted to pore spaces filled by secondary mineralizations but can be found in open pore spaces as well. This challenges standard protocols for establishing biogenicity and calls for extra care in data interpretation.

  19. Metagenomic Assessment of a Dynamic Microbial Population from Subseafloor Aquifer Fluids in the Cold, Oxygenated Crust (United States)

    Tully, B. J.; Heidelberg, J. F.; Kraft, B.; Girguis, P. R.; Huber, J. A.


    The oceanic crust contains the largest aquifer on Earth with a volume approximately 2% of the global ocean. Ongoing research at the North Pond (NP) site, west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, provides an environment representative of oxygenated crustal aquifers beneath oligotrophic surface waters. Using subseafloor CORK observatories for multiple sampling depths beneath the seafloor, crustal fluids were sampled along the predicted aquifer fluid flow path over a two-year period. DNA was extracted and sequenced for metagenomic analysis from 22 crustal fluid samples, along with the overlying bottom. At broad taxonomic groupings, the aquifer system is highly dynamic over time and space, with shifts in dominant taxa and "blooms" of transient groups that appear at discreet time points and sample depths. We were able to reconstruct 194 high-quality, low-contamination bacterial and archaeal metagenomic-assembled genomes (MAGs) with estimated completeness >50% (429 MAGs >20% complete). Environmental genomes were assigned to phylogenies from the major bacterial phyla, putative novel groups, and poorly sampled phylogenetic groups, including the Marinimicrobia, Candidate Phyla Radiation, and Planctomycetes. Biogeochemically relevant processes were assigned to MAGs, including denitrification, dissimilatory sulfur and hydrogen cycling, and carbon fixation. Collectively, the oxic NP aquifer system represents a diverse, dynamic microbial habitat with the metabolic potential to impact multiple globally relevant biogeochemical cycles, including nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon.

  20. Radiolytic hydrogen production in the subseafloor basaltic aquifer

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    Mary E Dzaugis


    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2 is produced in geological settings by dissociation of water due to radiation from radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium (238U, 235U, thorium (232Th and potassium (40K. To quantify the potential significance of radiolytic H2 as an electron donor for microbes within the South Pacific subseafloor basaltic aquifer, we use radionuclide concentrations of 43 basalt samples from IODP Expedition 329 to calculate radiolytic H2 production rates in basement fractures. The samples are from three sites with very different basement ages and a wide range of alteration types. U, Th and K concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude from sample to sample at each site. Comparison of our samples to each other and to the results of previous studies of unaltered East Pacific Rise basalt suggests that significant variations in radionuclide concentrations are due to differences in initial (unaltered basalt concentrations (which can vary between eruptive events and post-emplacement alteration. In our samples, there is no clear relationship between alteration type and calculated radiolytic yields. Local maxima in U, Th, and K produce hotspots of H2 production, causing calculated radiolytic rates to differ by up to a factor of 80 from sample to sample. Fracture width also greatly influences H2 production, where microfractures are hotspots for radiolytic H2 production. For example, H2 production rates normalized to water volume are 190 times higher in 1 μm wide fractures than in fractures that are 10 cm wide. To assess the importance of water radiolysis for microbial communities in subseafloor basaltic aquifers, we compare electron transfer rates from radiolysis to rates from iron oxidation in subseafloor basalt. Radiolysis appears likely to be a more important electron donor source than iron oxidation in old (>10 Ma basement basalt. Radiolytic H2 production in the volume of water adjacent to a square cm of the most radioactive SPG basalt may

  1. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment? (United States)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.


    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  2. Metabolic Potential of the Deep Subseafloor at Selected Convergent Margins (United States)

    Cardace, D.; Amend, J. P.; Morris, J. D.


    The cold subseafloor is an extreme environment in which microbial metabolism appears to operate slowly but persistently over space and time. At convergent margins, subseafloor microbial communities experience diffuse flow of aqueous fluids through sediment interstices and variable flow of deeply sourced, advecting fluids. When these fluids mix, geochemical disequilibria are established, and may serve as energy sources in microbial metabolism. This study contrasts the metabolic potential of four near trench sedimentary environments associated with the Costa Rica, Cascadia, Nankai, and Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zones, which span much of the global range of water depths (~ 2500 to ~ 5800 m) and thermal structure (heat flow at seafloor ~ 15 to ~ 140 mW/m2) outboard of subduction zones. Geochemical data (pH, NH4+, Na+, K+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, SiO2 (aq), CH4 (aq), H2 (aq), PO43-, HS-, and CH3COO-) collected during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 146, 170, 185, 190, and 201 are used in Gibbs free energy minimization calculations to model the bioenergetic potential of key metabolic reactions. At the four sites, pH values are 7.3-8.2, alkalinity values are 1 to 24 mM, and sulfate values are 0 to 30 mM. Notable site-specific differences exist in NH4+ (ranging two orders of magnitude in concentration) and salinity (with reported values up to 40 psu at Izu). The specific reactions considered are: (1) CO2 driven methanogenesis, (2) acetate driven methanogenesis, (3) methanotrophy coupled to sulfate reduction, (4) acetate oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction, (5) acetate oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction, (6) acetate oxidation coupled with ferric iron reduction. The standard Gibbs free energies are combined with the in situ geochemical parameters to calculate overall Gibbs free energies in deep subseafloor environments. In all cases, ferric iron reduction coupled with acetate oxidation yields the greatest energy (~-1600 kJ/mol), followed by nitrate

  3. Metabolic activity of subseafloor microbes in the South Pacific Gyre (United States)

    Morono, Y.; Ito, M.; Terada, T.; Inagaki, F.


    The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) is characterized as the most oligotrophic open ocean environment. The sediment is rich in oxygen but poor in energy-sources such as reduced organic matter, and hence harbors very low numbers of microbial cells in relatively shallow subseafloor sediment (D'Hondt et al., 2009; Kallmeyer et al., 2012). In such an energy-limited sedimentary habitat, a small size of microbial community persists living functions with extraordinary low oxygen-consumption rate (Røy et al., 2012). During IODP Expedition 329, a series of sediment samples were successfully recovered from 7 drill sites (U1365-1371) from the seafloor to basement in the SPG, providing an unprecedented opportunity to study metabolic activity of the aerobic subseafloor microbial communities. We initiated incubation onboard by adding stable isotope-labeled substrates to the freshly collected sediment sample, such as 13C and/or 15N-labeled bicarbonate, glucose, amino acids, acetate, and ammonium under the (micro-) aerobic condition. One of the technological challenges in this study is to harvest microbial cells from very low-biomass sediment samples for the analysis using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). To address the technical issue, we improved existing cell separation technique for the SPG sediment samples with small inorganic zeolitic grains. By monitoring cell recovery rates through an image-based cell enumeration technique (Morono et al., 2009), we found that cell recovery rates in the SPG sediment samples are generally lower than those in other oceanographic settings (i.e., organic-rich ocean margin sediments). To gain higher cell recovery ratio, we applied multiple density gradient layers, resulting in the cell recovery ratio up to around 80-95% (Morono et al., in press). Then, using the newly developed cell separation technique, we successfully sorted enough number of microbial cells in small spots on the membrane (i.e., 103 to 105 cells per spot). Nano

  4. Relationship of Bacterial Richness to Organic Degradation Rate and Sediment Age in Subseafloor Sediment. (United States)

    Walsh, Emily A; Kirkpatrick, John B; Pockalny, Robert; Sauvage, Justine; Spivack, Arthur J; Murray, Richard W; Sogin, Mitchell L; D'Hondt, Steven


    Subseafloor sediment hosts a large, taxonomically rich, and metabolically diverse microbial ecosystem. However, the factors that control microbial diversity in subseafloor sediment have rarely been explored. Here, we show that bacterial richness varies with organic degradation rate and sediment age. At three open-ocean sites (in the Bering Sea and equatorial Pacific) and one continental margin site (Indian Ocean), richness decreases exponentially with increasing sediment depth. The rate of decrease in richness with increasing depth varies from site to site. The vertical succession of predominant terminal electron acceptors correlates with abundance-weighted community composition but does not drive the vertical decrease in richness. Vertical patterns of richness at the open-ocean sites closely match organic degradation rates; both properties are highest near the seafloor and decline together as sediment depth increases. This relationship suggests that (i) total catabolic activity and/or electron donor diversity exerts a primary influence on bacterial richness in marine sediment and (ii) many bacterial taxa that are poorly adapted for subseafloor sedimentary conditions are degraded in the geologically young sediment, where respiration rates are high. Richness consistently takes a few hundred thousand years to decline from near-seafloor values to much lower values in deep anoxic subseafloor sediment, regardless of sedimentation rate, predominant terminal electron acceptor, or oceanographic context. Subseafloor sediment provides a wonderful opportunity to investigate the drivers of microbial diversity in communities that may have been isolated for millions of years. Our paper shows the impact of in situ conditions on bacterial community structure in subseafloor sediment. Specifically, it shows that bacterial richness in subseafloor sediment declines exponentially with sediment age, and in parallel with organic-fueled oxidation rate. This result suggests that

  5. A Novel Microbial Habitat in the Mid-Ocean Ridge Subseafloor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melanie Summit; John A. Baross


    The subseafloor at the mid-ocean ridge is predicted to be an excellent microbial habitat, because there is abundant space, fluid flow, and geochemical energy in the porous, hydrothermally influenced oceanic crust...

  6. Cellular content of biomolecules in sub-seafloor microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Becker, Kevin W.


    Microbial biomolecules, typically from the cell envelope, can provide crucial information about distribution, activity, and adaptations of sub-seafloor microbial communities. However, when cells die these molecules can be preserved in the sediment on timescales that are likely longer than...... the lifetime of their microbial sources. Here we provide for the first time measurements of the cellular content of biomolecules in sedimentary microbial cells. We separated intact cells from sediment matrices in samples from surficial, deeply buried, organic-rich, and organic-lean marine sediments by density...... and mass spectrometry for biomolecule analyses. Because cell extracts from density centrifugation still contained considerable amounts of detrital particles and non-cellular biomolecules, we further purified cells from two samples by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Cells from these highly...

  7. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.


    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  8. A new Magnetic Observatory in Pantanal - Brazil (United States)

    Siqueira, F.; Pinheiro, K.; Linthe, H.


    The aim of a Magnetic Observatory is to register the variations of the Earth's magnetic field in a long temporal scale. Using this data it is possible to study field variations of both external and internal origins. The external variations concern interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, in general are measured in a short time scale. The internal field generated by convection of a high electrical conductivity fluid in the external core by a mechanism known as the geodynamo. Usually the internal field time variations are longer than in the external field and are called secular variations. Measurements carried out over the last century suggest that field intensity is decreasing rapidly. The decreasing of the field's intensity is not the same around the globe, especially at the SAMA (South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly) regions, where this reduction is occurring faster. The global distribution of magnetic observatories is uneven, with few observatories in South America. In Brazil, there are three magnetic observatories, but only Vassouras Observatory (VSS- RJ) is part of the INTERMAGNET network. The National Observatory has plans to install seven new observatories in Brazil. Pantanal was the chosen location for installing the first observatory because of its privileged location, close to the SAMA region, and its data can contribute to more information about its origin. We followed the procedures suggested by the IAGA to build this observatory. The first step is to perform a magnetic survey in order to avoid strong magnetic gradients in the location where the absolute and variometers houses will be installed. The next step, the construction of the observatory, includes the selection of special non-magnetic material for the variometer and absolute houses. All materials used were previously tested using a proton magnetometer GSM-19. After construction of the whole infrastructure, the equipment was installed. This Project is a cooperation between Brazilian

  9. Cellular content of biomolecules in sub-seafloor microbial communities (United States)

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Becker, Kevin W.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.


    Microbial biomolecules, typically from the cell envelope, can provide crucial information about distribution, activity, and adaptations of sub-seafloor microbial communities. However, when cells die these molecules can be preserved in the sediment on timescales that are likely longer than the lifetime of their microbial sources. Here we provide for the first time measurements of the cellular content of biomolecules in sedimentary microbial cells. We separated intact cells from sediment matrices in samples from surficial, deeply buried, organic-rich, and organic-lean marine sediments by density centrifugation. Amino acids, amino sugars, muramic acid, and intact polar lipids were analyzed in both whole sediment and cell extract, and cell separation was optimized and evaluated in terms of purity, separation efficiency, taxonomic resemblance, and compatibility to high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for biomolecule analyses. Because cell extracts from density centrifugation still contained considerable amounts of detrital particles and non-cellular biomolecules, we further purified cells from two samples by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Cells from these highly purified cell extracts had an average content of amino acids and lipids of 23-28 fg cell-1 and 2.3 fg cell-1, respectively, with an estimated carbon content of 19-24 fg cell-1. In the sediment, the amount of biomolecules associated with vegetative cells was up to 70-fold lower than the total biomolecule content. We find that the cellular content of biomolecules in the marine subsurface is up to four times lower than previous estimates. Our approach will facilitate and improve the use of biomolecules as proxies for microbial abundance in environmental samples and ultimately provide better global estimates of microbial biomass.

  10. SOFIA observatory performance and characterization (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Marcum, Pamela M.; Miller, Walter E.; Dunham, Edward W.; McLean, Ian S.; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric E.; Bida, Thomas A.; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean C.; Collins, Peter L.; Horner, Scott D.; Jakob, Holger; Jensen, Stephen C.; Killebrew, Jana L.; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi I.; Meyer, Allen W.; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Rho, Jeonghee; Roellig, Thomas L.; Savage, Maureen L.; Smith, Erin C.; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument conguration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. This paper reports on the data collected during these flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  11. Ice Observatory (United States)

    blugerman, n.


    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  12. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape (United States)

    Glass, I. S.


    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  13. Simple, affordable, and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.


    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost-effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. Here we report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerat) seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit), is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. In these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A stands for autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference); the CORK-B (B stands for bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and utilises a hot-stab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hot-stab connection from beneath in which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect porewater in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner

  14. Distribution of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes in deep subseafloor sediments. (United States)

    Hoshino, T; Inagaki, F


    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the simplest oxocarbon generated by the decomposition of organic compounds, and it is expected to be in marine sediments in substantial amounts. However, the availability of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere is largely unknown even though anaerobic oxidation of CO is a thermodynamically favourable reaction that possibly occurs with sulphate reduction, methanogenesis, acetogenesis and hydrogenesis. In this study, we surveyed for the first time the distribution of the CO dehydrogenase gene (cooS), which encodes the catalytic beta subunit of anaerobic CO dehydrogenase (CODH), in subseafloor sediment-core samples from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Mars-Ursa Basin, Kumano Basin, and off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 301, 308 and 315 and the D/V Chikyu shakedown cruise CK06-06, respectively. Our results show the occurrence of diverse cooS genes from the seafloor down to about 390 m below the seafloor, suggesting that microbial communities have metabolic functions to utilize CO in anoxic microbial ecosystems beneath the ocean floor, and that the microbial community potentially responsible for anaerobic CO oxidation differs in accordance with possible energy-yielding metabolic reactions in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. Little is known about the microbial community associated with carbon monoxide (CO) in the deep subseafloor. This study is the first survey of a functional gene encoding anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH). The widespread occurrence of previously undiscovered CO dehydrogenase genes (cooS) suggests that diverse micro-organisms are capable of anaerobic oxidation of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Griffith Observatory: Hollywood's Celestial Theater (United States)

    Margolis, Emily A.; Dr. Stuart W. Leslie


    The Griffith Observatory, perched atop the Hollywood Hills, is perhaps the most recognizable observatory in the world. Since opening in 1935, this Los Angeles icon has brought millions of visitors closer to the heavens. Through an analysis of planning documentation, internal newsletters, media coverage, programming and exhibition design, I demonstrate how the Observatory’s Southern California location shaped its form and function. The astronomical community at nearby Mt. Wilson Observatory and Caltech informed the selection of instrumentation and programming, especially for presentations with the Observatory’s Zeiss Planetarium, the second installed in the United States. Meanwhile the Observatory staff called upon some of Hollywood’s best artists, model makers, and scriptwriters to translate the latest astronomical discoveries into spectacular audiovisual experiences, which were enhanced with Space Age technological displays on loan from Southern California’s aerospace companies. The influences of these three communities- professional astronomy, entertainment, and aerospace- persist today and continue to make Griffith Observatory one of the premiere sites of public astronomy in the country.

  16. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    . In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... trajectory of the book is directed by a movement aimed at addressing a series of basic questions that get at the heart of what installation art is and how it is defined: How does installation structure time, space and representation? How does it address and engage its viewers? And how does it draw...

  17. Hot-alkaline DNA extraction method for deep-subseafloor archaeal communities. (United States)

    Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Inagaki, Fumio


    A prerequisite for DNA-based microbial community analysis is even and effective cell disruption for DNA extraction. With a commonly used DNA extraction kit, roughly two-thirds of subseafloor sediment microbial cells remain intact on average (i.e., the cells are not disrupted), indicating that microbial community analyses may be biased at the DNA extraction step, prior to subsequent molecular analyses. To address this issue, we standardized a new DNA extraction method using alkaline treatment and heating. Upon treatment with 1 M NaOH at 98°C for 20 min, over 98% of microbial cells in subseafloor sediment samples collected at different depths were disrupted. However, DNA integrity tests showed that such strong alkaline and heat treatment also cleaved DNA molecules into short fragments that could not be amplified by PCR. Subsequently, we optimized the alkaline and temperature conditions to minimize DNA fragmentation and retain high cell disruption efficiency. The best conditions produced a cell disruption rate of 50 to 80% in subseafloor sediment samples from various depths and retained sufficient DNA integrity for amplification of the complete 16S rRNA gene (i.e., ∼1,500 bp). The optimized method also yielded higher DNA concentrations in all samples tested compared with extractions using a conventional kit-based approach. Comparative molecular analysis using real-time PCR and pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes showed that the new method produced an increase in archaeal DNA and its diversity, suggesting that it provides better analytical coverage of subseafloor microbial communities than conventional methods.

  18. Atribacteria from the Subseafloor Sedimentary Biosphere Disperse to the Hydrosphere through Submarine Mud Volcanoes (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Toki, Tomohiro; Ijiri, Akira; Morono, Yuki; Machiyama, Hideaki; Ashi, Juichiro; Okamura, Kei; Inagaki, Fumio


    Submarine mud volcanoes (SMVs) are formed by muddy sediments and breccias extruded to the seafloor from a source in the deep subseafloor and are characterized by the discharge of methane and other hydrocarbon gasses and deep-sourced fluids into the overlying seawater. Although SMVs act as a natural pipeline connecting the Earth’s surface and subsurface biospheres, the dispersal of deep-biosphere microorganisms and their ecological roles remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities in sediment and overlying seawater at two SMVs located on the Ryukyu Trench off Tanegashima Island, southern Japan. The microbial communities in mud volcano sediments were generally distinct from those in the overlying seawaters and in the well-stratified Pacific margin sediments collected at the Peru Margin, the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank off Oregon, and offshore of Shimokita Peninsula, northeastern Japan. Nevertheless, in-depth analysis of different taxonomic groups at the sub-species level revealed that the taxon affiliated with Atribacteria, heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria that typically occur in organic-rich anoxic subseafloor sediments, were commonly found not only in SMV sediments but also in the overlying seawater. We designed a new oligonucleotide probe for detecting Atribacteria using the catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). CARD-FISH, digital PCR and sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes consistently showed that Atribacteria are abundant in the methane plumes of the two SMVs (0.58 and 1.5 × 104 cells/mL, respectively) but not in surrounding waters, suggesting that microbial cells in subseafloor sediments are dispersed as “deep-biosphere seeds” into the ocean. These findings may have important implications for the microbial transmigration between the deep subseafloor biosphere and the hydrosphere. PMID:28676800

  19. Distribution of dehalogenation activity in subseafloor sediments of the Nankai Trough subduction zone. (United States)

    Futagami, Taiki; Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Kaksonen, Anna H; Inagaki, Fumio


    Halogenated organic matter buried in marine subsurface sediment may serve as a source of electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration of subseafloor microbes. Detection of a diverse array of reductive dehalogenase-homologous (rdhA) genes suggests that subseafloor organohalide-respiring microbial communities may play significant ecological roles in the biogeochemical carbon and halogen cycle in the subseafloor biosphere. We report here the spatial distribution of dehalogenation activity in the Nankai Trough plate-subduction zone of the northwest Pacific off the Kii Peninsula of Japan. Incubation experiments with slurries of sediment collected at various depths and locations showed that degradation of several organohalides tested only occurred in the shallow sedimentary basin, down to 4.7 metres below the seafloor, despite detection of rdhA in the deeper sediments. We studied the phylogenetic diversity of the metabolically active microbes in positive enrichment cultures by extracting RNA, and found that Desulfuromonadales bacteria predominate. In addition, for the isolation of genes involved in the dehalogenation reaction, we performed a substrate-induced gene expression screening on DNA extracted from the enrichment cultures. Diverse DNA fragments were obtained and some of them showed best BLAST hit to known organohalide respirers such as Dehalococcoides, whereas no functionally known dehalogenation-related genes such as rdhA were found, indicating the need to improve the molecular approach to assess functional genes for organohalide respiration.

  20. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.


    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  1. Installation of a seafloor geodetic network offshore northern Chile (GeoSEA) (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian; Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo


    The seafloor stores crucial information on sub-seafloor processes, including stress, elastic strain, and earthquake and tsunami generation. This information may be extracted through the nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy. The target of the recently installed GeoSEA array (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) is to measure crustal deformation in mm-scale on the marine forearc and outer rise of the South American subduction system around 21°S. This segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary has last ruptured in an earthquake in 1877 and was identified as a seismic gap prior to the 2014 Iquique/Pisagua earthquake (Mw=8.1). The southern portion of the segment remains unbroken by a recent earthquake. Seafloor geodetic measurements provide a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The GeoSEA Network consists of autonomous seafloor transponders installed on 4 m high tripods, which were lowered to the seabed on the deep-sea cable of RV SONNE in December 2015. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years and measure acoustic distance, tilt and pressure. An additional component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is capable to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. We have chosen three areas on the middle and lower slope and the outer rise for the set-up of three sub-arrays. The array in Area 1 on the middle continental slope consists of 8 transponders located in pairs on four topographic ridges, which are surface expressions of faults at depth. Area 2 is located on the outer rise seaward of the trench where 5 stations monitor extension across plate-bending related normal faults. The third area is located at water depth >5000 m on the lower continental slope

  2. Installing Omeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Reeve


    Full Text Available is a useful service for Omeka beginners, but there are a few reasons why you might want to install your own copy of Omeka. Reasons include: * Upgrades. By installing Omeka yourself, you can use the latest versions of Omeka as soon as they’re released, without having to wait for to upgrade their system. * Plugins and themes. You can install any plugin or theme you want, without being restricted to those provided by * Customizations. You can buy a custom domain name, and customize your code to achieve your desired functionality. * Control. You have control over your own backups, and you can update the server yourself so that its security is always up-to-date. * Price. There are many low-cost Virtual Private Servers (VPSs now, some of which cost only $5 per month. * Storage. Many shared hosting providers now offer unlimited storage. This is useful if you have a large media library. In this tutorial, we’ll be entering a few commands on the command line. This tutorial assumes no prior knowledge of the command line, but if you want a concise primer, consult the Programming Historian introduction to BASH. There are other ways of installing Omeka, of course, some using exclusively GUI tools. Some hosting providers even offer “one-click installs” via their control panels. Many of those methods, however, will install older versions of Omeka which are then harder to upgrade and maintain. The method outlined below may not be the easiest way to install Omeka, but it will give you some good practice with using the command line, which is a skill that will be useful if you want to manually upgrade your install, or manually install other web frameworks. (For example, this installation method is very similar to WordPress’s “Five-Minute Install”. There are four steps to this process, and it should take about an hour.

  3. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    . In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... trajectory of the book is directed by a movement aimed at addressing a series of basic questions that get at the heart of what installation art is and how it is defined: How does installation structure time, space and representation? How does it address and engage its viewers? And how does it draw...... in the surrounding world to become part of the work? Featuring the work of such well-known artists as Bruce Nauman, Pipilotti Rist, Ilya Kabakov and many others, this book breaks crucial new ground in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of this multifarious art form....

  4. Renewable Energy for the Paranal Observatory (United States)

    Weilenmann, U.


    The operation of observatories at remote sites presents significant demands for electrical energy. The use of renewable energy may become the solution to cope with the ever-rising prices for electrical energy produced from fossil fuels. There is not only a purely commercial aspect, but also the carbon footprint of observatory activities has to be considered. As a first step on the way to a "greener" Paranal Observatory, we propose the installation of a solar cooling system for the cooling of the telescope enclosures, using the abundant insolation that is freely available in the north of Chile. Further into the future, feasible options for photovoltaic and wind energy could supply the needs of the Paranal Observatory in a sustainable manner.

  5. Gravity research at Cottrell observatory (United States)

    Tuman, V. S.; Anderson, J. D.; Lau, E. L.


    The Cottrell gravity research observatory and work in progress are described. Equipment in place and equipment to be installed, the cryogenic gravity meter (CGM), concrete pads to support the vertical seismometer, CGM, and guest experiments, techniques of data analysis, and improvements needed in the CGM are discussed. Harmonic earth eigenvibrations with multipole moments are examined and their compatibility with a fictitious black hole binary system (of which the primary central mass is assigned a value one million solar masses) located 400 light-years away is shown by calculations.

  6. Life in the Anoxic Sub-Seafloor Environment: Linking Microbial Metabolism and Mega Reserves of Methane Hydrate. (United States)

    Honkalas, Varsha; Dabir, Ashwini; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K

    Sub-seafloor methane hydrate deposits have attracted attention in recent times as an enormous and yet untapped source of alternate energy. It is interesting to note that methane in sub-seafloor methane hydrate deposits is of biogenic origin. The sub-seafloor environment is mostly anoxic and characterized by high pressure and the presence of complex organic matter. Microorganisms adapted to such extreme sub-seafloor environmental conditions may serve as source of novel taxa and industrially valuable biomolecules. Microbial metabolism is responsible for the degradation of complex organic matter and subsequent formation of methane. Various ecophysiological and nutrient conditions have a significant influence on the rate of methane formation and on the conversion of methane into methane hydrate deposits. Understanding the kinetics of methanogenesis is of utmost importance in predicting the rate and extent of methane hydrate deposits in sub-seafloor environments. This review illustrates the diversity of anaerobes in deep-sea sediments associated with methane hydrates and their metabolism leading to methane generation.

  7. Solar Dynamics Observatory (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  8. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  9. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    . In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic......Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  10. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments (United States)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.


    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : - Continuous data in real time coming

  11. Nitrogen isotopes in bulk marine sediment: linking seafloor observations with subseafloor records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-E. Tesdal


    Full Text Available The stable isotopes of nitrogen offer a unique perspective on changes in the nitrogen cycle, past and present. However, the presence of multiple forms of nitrogen in marine sediments can complicate the interpretation of bulk nitrogen isotope measurements. Although the large-scale global patterns of seafloor δ15N have been shown to match process-based expectations, small-scale heterogeneity on the seafloor, or alterations of isotopic signals during translation into the subseafloor record, could obscure the primary signals. Here, a public database of nitrogen isotope measurements is described, including both seafloor and subseafloor sediment samples ranging in age from modern to the Pliocene, and used to assess these uncertainties. In general, good agreement is observed between neighbouring seafloor sites within a 100 km radius, with 85% showing differences of < 1‰. There is also a good correlation between the δ15N of the shallowest (< 5 ka subseafloor sediments and neighbouring seafloor sites within a 100 km radius (R2 = 0.83, which suggests a reliable translation of sediments into the buried sediment record. Meanwhile, gradual δ15N decreases over multiple glacial–interglacial cycles appear to reflect post-depositional alteration in records from the deep sea (below 2000 m. We suggest a simple conceptual model to explain these 100-kyr-timescale changes in well-oxygenated, slowly accumulating sediments, which calls on differential loss rates for pools of organic N with different δ15N. We conclude that bulk sedimentary nitrogen isotope records are reliable monitors of past changes in the marine nitrogen cycle at most locations, and could be further improved with a better understanding of systematic post-depositional alteration. Furthermore, geochemical or environmental criteria should be developed in order to effectively identify problematic locations and to account for

  12. A dynamic microbial community with high functional redundancy inhabits the cold, oxic subseafloor aquifer. (United States)

    Tully, Benjamin J; Wheat, C Geoff; Glazer, Brain T; Huber, Julie A


    The rock-hosted subseafloor crustal aquifer harbors a reservoir of microbial life that may influence global marine biogeochemical cycles. Here we utilized metagenomic libraries of crustal fluid samples from North Pond, located on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a site with cold, oxic subseafloor fluid circulation within the upper basement to query microbial diversity. Twenty-one samples were collected during a 2-year period to examine potential microbial metabolism and community dynamics. We observed minor changes in the geochemical signatures over the 2 years, yet the microbial community present in the crustal fluids underwent large shifts in the dominant taxonomic groups. An analysis of 195 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were generated from the data set and revealed a connection between litho- and autotrophic processes, linking carbon fixation to the oxidation of sulfide, sulfur, thiosulfate, hydrogen, and ferrous iron in members of the Proteobacteria, specifically the Alpha-, Gamma- and Zetaproteobacteria, the Epsilonbacteraeota and the Planctomycetes. Despite oxic conditions, analysis of the MAGs indicated that members of the microbial community were poised to exploit hypoxic or anoxic conditions through the use of microaerobic cytochromes, such as cbb3- and bd-type cytochromes, and alternative electron acceptors, like nitrate and sulfate. Temporal and spatial trends from the MAGs revealed a high degree of functional redundancy that did not correlate with the shifting microbial community membership, suggesting functional stability in mediating subseafloor biogeochemical cycles. Collectively, the repeated sampling at multiple sites, together with the successful binning of hundreds of genomes, provides an unprecedented data set for investigation of microbial communities in the cold, oxic crustal aquifer.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 3 November 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.187.

  13. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica


    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites—remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust. PMID:26488482

  14. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination. I...... in the surrounding world to become part of the work? Featuring the work of such well-known artists as Bruce Nauman, Pipilotti Rist, Ilya Kabakov and many others, this book breaks crucial new ground in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of this multifarious art form.......Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...

  15. Phylogenetic Diversity of aprA Genes in Subseafloor Sediments on the Northwestern Pacific Margin off Japan. (United States)

    Aoki, Masataka; Kakiuchi, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takai, Ken; Inagaki, Fumio; Imachi, Hiroyuki


    Markedly diverse sequences of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase alpha subunit gene (aprA), which encodes a key enzyme in microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation, were detected in subseafloor sediments on the northwestern Pacific off Japan. The aprA gene sequences were grouped into 135 operational taxonomic units (90% sequence identity), including genes related to putative sulfur-oxidizing bacteria predominantly detected in sulfate-depleted deep sediments. Our results suggest that microbial ecosystems in the subseafloor biosphere have phylogenetically diverse genetic potentials to mediate cryptic sulfur cycles in sediments, even where sulfate is rarely present.

  16. Draft genome sequence of Clostridium celerecrescens 152B isolated from sub-seafloor methane hydrate deposits. (United States)

    Honkalas, Varsha S; Dabir, Ashwini P; Arora, Preeti; Ranade, Dilip R; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K


    Clostridium celerecrescens 152B is an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive rod shaped bacterium isolated from sub-seafloor methane hydrate sediments of Krishna Godavari basin, India. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of C. celerecrescens 152B, which comprises 5,050,495bp in 92 contigs with the G+C content of 43.5%. The whole genome of C. celerecrescens 152B was sequenced for further biotechnological exploitation of its genome features especially regarding the production of secondary metabolites as well as for environmental bioremediation and production of industrially valuable enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial population, activity, and phylogenetic diversity in the subseafloor core sediment from the Sea of Okhotsk (United States)

    Inagaki, F.; Suzuki, M.; Takai, K.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.


    Subseafloor environments has already been recognized as the largest biosphere on the planet Earth, however, the microbial diversity and activity has been still poorly understood, even in their impacts on biogeochemical processes, tectonic settings, and paleoenvironmental events. We demonstrate here the evaluation of microbial community structure and active habitats in deeply buried cold marine sediments collected from the Sea of Okhotsk by a combined use of molecular ecological surveys and culturing assays. The piston core sediment (MD01-2412) was collected by IMAGES (International Marine Global Change Study) Project from the southeastern Okhotsk Sea, June 2001. The total recovered length was about 58m. The lithology of the core sediment was mainly constructed from pelagic clay (PC) and volcanic ash layers (Ash). We collected aseptically the most inside core parts from 16 sections at different depths for microbiological study. The direct count of DAPI-stained cells revealed that the cells in Ash samples were present 1.2 to 2.2 times higher than in PC samples. The quantitative-PCR of 16S rDNA between bacterial and archaeal rDNA suggested that the increased population density in Ash layers was caused by the bacterial components. We studied approximately 650 and 550 sequences from bacterial and archaeal rDNA clone libraries, respectively. The similarity and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the microbial community structures were apparently different between in Ash layers and PC samples. From bacterial rDNA clone libraries, the members within gamma-Proteobacteria such as genera Halomonas, Shewanella, Psychromonas and Methylosinus were predominantly detected in Ash layers whereas the Dehalococcoides group and delta-Proteobacteria were major bacterial components in PC samples. From archaeal libraries, the sequences from Ash and PC samples were affiliated into the clusters represented by the environmental sequences obtained from terrestrial and deep-sea environments

  18. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum


    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  19. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory (United States)

    Blum, Cletus; White, Tim; Sauter, Edward A.; Stewart, Duff; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Love, Jeffrey J.


    Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  20. Where the Wild Microbes Are: Education and Outreach on Sub-Seafloor Microbes (United States)

    Cooper, S. K.; Kurtz, K.; Orcutt, B.; Strong, L.; Collins, J.; Feagan, A.


    Sub-seafloor microbiology has the power to spark the imaginations of children, students and the general public with its mysterious nature, cutting-edge research, and connections to the search for extraterrestrial life. These factors have been utilized to create a number of educational and outreach products to bring subsurface microbes to non-scientist audiences in creative and innovative ways. The Adopt a Microbe curriculum for middle school students provides hands-on activities and investigations for students to learn about microbes and the on-going research about them, and provides opportunities to connect with active expeditions. A new series of videos engages non-scientists with stories about research expeditions and the scientists themselves. A poster and associated activities explore the nature of science using a microbiologist and her research as examples. A new e-book for young children will engage them with age-appropriate text and illustrations. These projects are multidisciplinary, involve science and engineering practices, are available to all audiences and provide examples of high level and meaningful partnerships between scientists and educators and the kinds of products that can result. Subseafloor microbiology projects such as these, aimed at K-12 students and the general public, have the potential to entice the interest of the next generation of microbe scientists and increase general awareness of this important science.

  1. Using Interactive eBooks To Educate Children About Sub-seafloor Science (United States)

    Kurtz, K.


    Sub-seafloor scientific research has the power to spark the imaginations of elementary age children with its mysterious nature, cutting-edge research, and its connections to kid friendly science topics, such as volcanoes, the extinction of dinosaurs and the search for extraterrestrial life. These factors have been utilized to create two interactive eBooks for elementary students and teachers, integrating high quality science information, highly engaging and age-appropriate illustrations, and rhyming text. The first eBook introduces children to the research and discoveries of the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The creators were able to build-on the knowledge gained in creating the first eBook to create a second eBook that focuses on the discoveries of microbial life in the sub-seafloor. The eBooks present information as traditional, linear, illustrated children's books, but the eBook format allows the book to be available online for free to anyone and allows teachers to project the book on a classroom screen so all students can easily see the illustrations. The iPad versions also provide an interactive, learner-led educational experience, where cognitively appropriate videos, photos and other forms of information can be accessed with the tap of a finger to answer reader questions and enrich their learning experience. These projects provide an example and model of the products that can result from high level and meaningful partnerships between scientists, educators, artists and writers.

  2. Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André


    Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed in its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. After an introductory chapter by the Editor, contributions by Wolfschmidt and by Duerbeck respectively deal extensively with the German periods and review people and instrumentation, while another paper by Duerbeck is more...

  3. Lightning Detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory


    Rautenberg, Julian; Filipčič, Andrej; Kukec Mezek, Gašper; Saleh, Ahmed; Stanič, Samo; Trini, Marta; Veberič, Darko; Vorobiov, Serguei; Yang, Lili; Zavrtanik, Danilo; Zavrtanik, Marko


    The Auger Engineering Radio Array, an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory with antennas in the MHz range, requires to monitor the atmospheric conditions, which have a large influence on the radio emission of air showers. In particular, amplified signals up to an order of magnitude have been detected as an affect of thunderstorms. For a more detailed investigation and more generally, for detecting thunderstorms, a new lightning detection system has been install...

  4. Ship space to database: emerging infrastructures for studies of the deep subseafloor biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Darch


    Full Text Available Background An increasing array of scientific fields face a “data deluge.” However, in many fields data are scarce, with implications for their epistemic status and ability to command funding. Consequently, they often attempt to develop infrastructure for data production, management, curation, and circulation. A component of a knowledge infrastructure may serve one or more scientific domains. Further, a single domain may rely upon multiple infrastructures simultaneously. Studying how domains negotiate building and accessing scarce infrastructural resources that they share with other domains will shed light on how knowledge infrastructures shape science. Methods We conducted an eighteen-month, qualitative study of scientists studying the deep subseafloor biosphere, focusing on the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP and its successor, the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP2. Our methods comprised ethnographic observation, including eight months embedded in a laboratory, interviews (n = 49, and document analysis. Results Deep subseafloor biosphere research is an emergent domain. We identified two reasons for the domain’s concern with data scarcity: limited ability to pursue their research objectives, and the epistemic status of their research. Domain researchers adopted complementary strategies to acquire more data. One was to establish C-DEBI as an infrastructure solely for their domain. The second was to use C-DEBI as a means to gain greater access to, and reconfigure, IODP/IODP2 to their advantage. IODP/IODP2 functions as infrastructure for multiple scientific domains, which creates competition for resources. C-DEBI is building its own data management infrastructure, both to acquire more data from IODP and to make better use of data, once acquired. Discussion Two themes emerge. One is data scarcity, which can be understood only in relation to a domain

  5. Size and Carbon Content of Sub-seafloor Microbial Cells at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Littmann, Sten


    The discovery of a microbial ecosystem in ocean sediments has evoked interest in life under extreme energy limitation and its role in global element cycling. However, fundamental parameters such as the size and the amount of biomass of sub-seafloor microbial cells are poorly constrained. Here we...... determined the volume and the carbon content of microbial cells from a marine sediment drill core retrieved by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), Expedition 347, at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea. To determine their shape and volume, cells were separated from the sediment matrix by multi-layer density...... centrifugation and visualized via epifluorescence microscopy (FM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Total cell-carbon was calculated from amino acid-carbon, which was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after cells had been purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS...

  6. Global Health Observatory (GHO) (United States)

    ... International Health Regulations (2005) Monitoring Framework 2.2 Child malnutrition Stunting, wasting and overweight in children 6.1 ... Reports Map gallery Country health data systems Country statistics Regional Health Observatories Africa Americas South-East Asia ...

  7. Boulder Magnetic Observatory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  8. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  9. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk


    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  10. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojvat, C.


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international collaboration for the detailed study of the highest energy cosmic rays. It will operate at two similar sites, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. The Observatory is designed to collect a statistically significant data set of events with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV and with equal exposures for the northern and southern skies.

  11. Challenges of the GEOSCOPE Observatory. (United States)

    Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Roult, G.; Maggi, A.; GEOSCOPE Group


    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The observatory was launched in 1982 by the French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS/INSU) and progressively 30 stations have been installed across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. The GEOSCOPE stations are located on 18 countries and equipped with three component very broad-band seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. During the last years, 13 stations have been upgraded in order to send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center. In 2008, two new real time stations will be installed in the Indian Ocean: in the South of Madagascar and on Rodrigues island. Four stations in the Carribean region and in South America will also be upgraded to send real time data to GEOSCOPE Data Center and to local tsunami warning centers. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, stored and made accessible to the international scientific community. Users have free and open access to: - real time data from 13 stations. These data are transfered from the stations to the Geoscope Data Center using the seedlink protocol developed by GEOFON. Seedlink also enables to make these data accessible to the Tsunami Warning Centers and to other data center. These data are available to users through the GEOSCOPE web interface. - validated continous waveforms and meta data of all stations by using the NetDC system (Networked Data Centers). Data can be requested from the GEOSCOPE Data Center and from other networked centers associated to the FDSN. - a selection of seismograms corresponding to large earthquakes via a web interface - the power spectrum estimates of the seismic noise averaged over sequences of 24 hours for each station

  12. Whole-genome sequence of Sunxiuqinia dokdonensis DH1(T), isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment in Dokdo Island. (United States)

    Lim, Sooyeon; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan


    Sunxiuqinia dokdonensis DH1(T) was isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment at a depth of 900 m below the seafloor off Seo-do (the west part of Dokdo Island) in the East Sea of the Republic of Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession LGIA00000000.

  13. Creating Griffith Observatory (United States)

    Cook, Anthony


    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  14. Wendelstein Observatory control software (United States)

    Snigula, Jan M.; Gössl, Claus; Kodric, Mihael; Riffeser, Arno; Wegner, Michael; Schlichter, Jörg


    LMU Munchen operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1. The 2m Fraunhofer telescope2, 3 is equipped with a 0.5 x 0.5 square degree field-of-view wide field camera4 and a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5, 6. Two fiber coupled spectrographs7-9 and a wavefront sensor will be added in the near future. The observatory hosts a multitude of supporting hardware, i.e. allsky cameras, webcams, meteostation, air conditioning etc. All scientific hardware can be controlled through a single, central "Master Control Program" (MCP). At the last SPIE astronomy venue we presented the overall Wendelstein Observatory software concept10. Here we explain concept and implementation of the MCP as a multi-threaded Python daemon in the area of conflict between debuggability and Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY).

  15. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob


    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at

  16. Arecibo Observatory for All (United States)

    Isidro, Gloria M.; Pantoja, C. A.; Bartus, P.; La Rosa, C.


    We describe new materials available at Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, some basic terms used in radio astronomy and frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. We are interested that blind visitors can participate of the excitement of the visit to the worlds largest radio telescope. We would like to thank the "Fundacion Comunitaria de Puerto Rico" for the scholarship that allowed GMI to work on this project. We would like to express our gratitude to the Arecibo Observatory/NAIC for their support.

  17. Deep sequencing of subseafloor eukaryotic rRNA reveals active Fungi across marine subsurface provinces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Orsi

    Full Text Available The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC, nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface.

  18. Deep Subseafloor Fungi as an Untapped Reservoir of Amphipathic Antimicrobial Compounds. (United States)

    Navarri, Marion; Jégou, Camille; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Brillet, Benjamin; Barbier, Georges; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Fleury, Yannick


    The evolving global threat of antimicrobial resistance requires a deep renewal of the antibiotic arsenal including the isolation and characterization of new drugs. Underexplored marine ecosystems may represent an untapped reservoir of novel bioactive molecules. Deep-sea fungi isolated from a record-depth sediment core of almost 2000 m below the seafloor were investigated for antimicrobial activities. This antimicrobial screening, using 16 microbial targets, revealed 33% of filamentous fungi synthesizing bioactive compounds with activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Interestingly, occurrence of antimicrobial producing isolates was well correlated with the complexity of the habitat (in term of microbial richness), as higher antimicrobial activities were obtained at specific layers of the sediment core. It clearly highlights complex deep-sea habitats as chemical battlefields where synthesis of numerous bioactive compounds appears critical for microbial competition. The six most promising deep subseafloor fungal isolates were selected for the production and extraction of bioactive compounds. Depending on the fungal isolates, antimicrobial compounds were only biosynthesized in semi-liquid or solid-state conditions as no antimicrobial activities were ever detected using liquid fermentation. An exception was made for one fungal isolate, and the extraction procedure designed to extract amphipathic compounds was successful and highlighted the amphiphilic profile of the bioactive metabolites.

  19. Metagenomic signatures of the Peru Margin subseafloor biosphere show a genetically distinct environment. (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Schuster, Stephan C; Brenchley, Jean E; House, Christopher H


    The subseafloor marine biosphere may be one of the largest reservoirs of microbial biomass on Earth and has recently been the subject of debate in terms of the composition of its microbial inhabitants, particularly on sediments from the Peru Margin. A metagenomic analysis was made by using whole-genome amplification and pyrosequencing of sediments from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1229 on the Peru Margin to further explore the microbial diversity and overall community composition within this environment. A total of 61.9 Mb of genetic material was sequenced from sediments at horizons 1, 16, 32, and 50 m below the seafloor. These depths include sediments from both primarily sulfate-reducing methane-generating regions of the sediment column. Many genes of the annotated genes, including those encoding ribosomal proteins, corresponded to those from the Chloroflexi and Euryarchaeota. However, analysis of the 16S small-subunit ribosomal genes suggests that Crenarchaeota are the abundant microbial member. Quantitative PCR confirms that uncultivated Crenarchaeota are indeed a major microbial group in these subsurface samples. These findings show that the marine subsurface is a distinct microbial habitat and is different from environments studied by metagenomics, especially because of the predominance of uncultivated archaeal groups.

  20. Unesco's Global Ethics Observatory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten; Ang, T.W.


    The Global Ethics Observatory, launched by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in December 2005, is a system of databases in the ethics of science and technology. It presents data on experts in ethics, on institutions (university departments and centres,

  1. Madras and Kodaikanal Observatories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 8. Madras and Kodaikanal Observatories: A Brief History. Rajesh Kochhar. General Article Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 16-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  2. La Plata Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Forte, Juan Carlos; Cora, Sofia A.

    La Plata, the current capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, was founded on 19 November 1882 by governor Dardo Rocha, and built on an innovative design giving emphasis to the quality of the public space, official and educational buildings. The Astronomical Observatory was one of the first inhabitants of the main park of the city; its construction started in 1883 including two telescopes that ranked among the largest in the southern hemisphere at that time and also several instruments devoted to positional astronomy (e.g. a meridian circle and a zenith telescope). A dedicated effort has being invested during the last 15 years in order to recover some of the original instrumentation (kept in a small museum) as well as the distinctive architectural values. In 1905, the Observatory, the School of Agriculture and the Museum of Natural Sciences (one of the most important museums in South America) became part of the backbone of La Plata National University, an institution with a strong and distinctive profile in exact and natural sciences. The First School for Astronomy and Related Sciences had been harboured by the Observatory since 1935, and became the current Faculty of Astronomical and Geophysical Sciences in 1983. This last institution carries PhD programs and also a number of teaching activities at different levels. These activities are the roots of a strong connection of the Observatory with the city.

  3. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  4. Father Secchi and the first Italian magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ptitsyna


    Full Text Available The first permanent magnetic observatory in Italy was built in 1858 by Pietro Angelo Secchi, a Jesuit priest who made significant contributions in a wide variety of scientific fields, ranging from astronomy to astrophysics and meteorology. In this paper we consider his studies in geomagnetism, which have never been adequately addressed in the literature. We mainly focus on the creation of the magnetic observatory on the roof of the church of Sant'Ignazio, adjacent to the pontifical university, known as the Collegio Romano. From 1859 onwards, systematic monitoring of the geomagnetic field was conducted in the Collegio Romano Observatory, for long the only one of its kind in Italy. We also look at the magnetic instruments installed in the observatory, which were the most advanced for the time, as well as scientific studies conducted there in its early years.

  5. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  6. ESO's Two Observatories Merge (United States)


    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  7. Reactive transport model of growth and methane production by high-temperature methanogens in hydrothermal regions of the subseafloor (United States)

    Stewart, L. C.; Algar, C. K.; Topçuoğlu, B. D.; Fortunato, C. S.; Larson, B. I.; Proskurowski, G. K.; Butterfield, D. A.; Vallino, J. J.; Huber, J. A.; Holden, J. F.


    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens are keystone high-temperature autotrophs in deep-sea hydrothermal vents and tracers of habitability and biogeochemical activity in the hydrothermally active subseafloor. At Axial Seamount, nearly all thermophilic methanogens are Methanothermococcus and Methanocaldococcus species, making this site amenable to modeling through pure culture laboratory experiments coupled with field studies. Based on field microcosm incubations with 1.2 mM, 20 μM, or no hydrogen, the growth of methanogens at 55°C and 80°C is limited primarily by temperature and hydrogen availability, with ammonium amendment showing no consistent effect on total methane output. The Arrhenius constants for methane production by Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (optimum 82°C) and Methanothermococcus thermolithotrophicus (optimum 65°C) were determined in pure culture bottle experiments. The Monod constants for hydrogen concentration were measured by growing both organisms in a 2-liter chemostat at two dilution rates; 55°C, 65°C and 82°C; and variable hydrogen concentrations. M. jannaschii showed higher ks and Vmax constants than M. thermolithotrophicus. In the field, hydrogen and methane concentrations in hydrothermal end-member and low-temperature diffuse fluids were measured, and the concentrations of methanogens that grow at 55°C and 80°C in diffuse fluids were determined using most-probable-number estimates. Methane concentration anomalies in diffuse fluids relative to end-member hydrothermal concentrations and methanogen cell concentrations are being used to constrain a 1-D reactive transport model using the laboratory-determined Arrhenius and Monod constants for methane production by these organisms. By varying flow path length and subseafloor cell concentrations in the model, our goal is to determine solutions for the potential depth of the subseafloor biosphere coupled with the amount of methanogenic biomass it contains.

  8. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  9. Megalithic observatory Kokino (United States)

    Cenev, Gj.


    In 2001, on the footpath of a mountain peak, near the village of Kokino, archeologist Jovica Stankovski discovered an archeological site from The Bronze Age. The site occupies a large area and is scaled in two levels. Several stone seats (thrones) are dominant in this site and they are pointing towards the east horizon. The high concentration of the movable archeological material found on the upper platform probably indicates its use in a function containing still unknown cult activities. Due to precise measurements and a detailed archaeoastronomical analysis of the site performed in the past three years by Gjore Cenev, physicist from the Planetarium in Skopje, it was shown that the site has characteristics of a sacred site, but also of a Megalithic Observatory. The markers found in this observatory point on the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes. It can be seen that on both sides of the solstice markers, that there are markers for establishing Moon's positions. The markers are crafted in such a way that for example on days when special rites were performed (harvest rites for example) the Sun filled a narrow space of the marker and special ray lighted the man sitting on only one of the thrones, which of course had a special meaning. According to the positions of the markers that are used for Sun marking, especially on the solstice days, it was calculated that this observatory dates from 1800 B.C.

  10. Draft genome sequence of Clostridium sulfidigenes 113A isolated from sub-seafloor sediments associated with methane hydrate deposits. (United States)

    Honkalas, Varsha S; Dabir, Ashwini P; Arora, Preeti; Ranade, Dilip R; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K


    Clostridium sulfidigenes 113A is a strictly anaerobic, rod shaped, gram positive bacterium isolated from sub-seafloor sediments associated with methane hydrates. Here, we report the first draft genome of C. sulfidigenes strain 113A, which comprises 3,717,420 bp in 96 contigs with the G+C content of 30.1%. A total of 3148 protein coding sequences were predicted. The genome annotation revealed that 113A could play an important role in biogeochemical cycles and have potential biotechnological applications such as production of organic acids and butanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Observatory Health Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni


    Full Text Available

    Background: The number of indicators aiming to provide a clear picture of healthcare needs and the quality and efficiency of healthcare systems and services has proliferated in recent years. The activity of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is multidisciplinary, involving around 280 public health care experts, clinicians, demographers, epidemiologists, mathematicians, statisticians and economists who with their different competencies, and scientific interests aim to improve the collective health of individuals and their conditions through the use of “core indicators”. The main outcome of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is the “Osservasalute Report – a report on health status and the quality of healthcare assistance in the Italian Regions”.

    Methods: The Report adopts a comparative analysis, methodology and internationally validated indicators.

    Results: The results of Observatory Report show it is necessary:

    • to improve the monitoring of primary health care services (where the chronic disease could be cared through implementation of clinical path;

     • to improve in certain areas of hospital care such as caesarean deliveries, as well as the average length of stay in the pre-intervention phase, etc.;

    • to try to be more focused on the patients/citizens in our health care services; • to practice more geographical interventions to reduce the North-South divide as well as reduce gender inequity.

    Conclusions: The health status of Italian people is good with positive results and outcomes, but in the meantime some further efforts should be done especially in the South that still has to improve the quality and the organization of health care services. There are huge differences in accuracy and therefore usefulness of the reported data, both between diseases and between

  12. Subseafloor microbial communities in hydrogen-rich vent fluids from hydrothermal systems along the Mid-Cayman Rise. (United States)

    Reveillaud, Julie; Reddington, Emily; McDermott, Jill; Algar, Christopher; Meyer, Julie L; Sylva, Sean; Seewald, Jeffrey; German, Christopher R; Huber, Julie A


    Warm fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents can be used as windows into the rocky subseafloor habitat and its resident microbial community. Two new vent systems on the Mid-Cayman Rise each exhibits novel geologic settings and distinctively hydrogen-rich vent fluid compositions. We have determined and compared the chemistry, potential energy yielding reactions, abundance, community composition, diversity, and function of microbes in venting fluids from both sites: Piccard, the world's deepest vent site, hosted in mafic rocks; and Von Damm, an adjacent, ultramafic-influenced system. Von Damm hosted a wider diversity of lineages and metabolisms in comparison to Piccard, consistent with thermodynamic models that predict more numerous energy sources at ultramafic systems. There was little overlap in the phylotypes found at each site, although similar and dominant hydrogen-utilizing genera were present at both. Despite the differences in community structure, depth, geology, and fluid chemistry, energetic modelling and metagenomic analysis indicate near functional equivalence between Von Damm and Piccard, likely driven by the high hydrogen concentrations and elevated temperatures at both sites. Results are compared with hydrothermal sites worldwide to provide a global perspective on the distinctiveness of these newly discovered sites and the interplay among rocks, fluid composition and life in the subseafloor. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Where The Wild Seafloor Scientists Are: Using Interactive Picture Books To Educate Children About Sub-seafloor Science (United States)

    Kurtz, K.


    Sub-seafloor scientific research has the power to spark the imaginations of elementary age children with its mysterious nature, cutting-edge research, and its connections to kid friendly science topics, such as volcanoes, the extinction of dinosaurs and the search for extraterrestrial life. These factors have been utilized to create two interactive eBooks for elementary students and teachers, integrating high quality science information, highly engaging and age-appropriate illustrations, and rhyming text. One book introduces children to the research and discoveries of the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The second focuses on the discoveries of microbial life in the sub-seafloor. The eBooks present information as traditional, linear, illustrated children's books, but the eBook format allows the book to be available online for free to anyone and allows teachers to project the book on a classroom screen so all students can easily see the illustrations. The iPad versions also provide an interactive, learner-led educational experience, where cognitively appropriate videos, photos and other forms of information can be accessed with the tap of a finger to answer reader questions and enrich their learning experience. These projects provide an example and model of the products that can result from high level and meaningful partnerships between scientists, educators, artists and writers.

  14. WOVOdat Progress 2012: Installable DB template for Volcano Monitoring Database (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Win, N.-T.-Z.; Chen, L.-D.; Newhall, C.


    WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories' (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. Volcanoes are frequently restless but only a fraction of unrest leads to eruptions. We aim to compile and make the data of historical volcanic unrest available as a reference tool during volcanic crises, for observatory or other user to compare or look for systematic in many unrest episodes, and also provide educational tools for teachers and students on understanding volcanic processes. Furthermore, we promote the use of relational databases for countries that are still planning to develop their own monitoring database. We are now in the process of populating WOVOdat in collaboration with volcano observatories worldwide. Proprietary data remains at the observatories where the data originally from. Therefore, users who wish to use the data for publication or to obtain detail information about the data should directly contact the observatories. To encourage the use of relational database system in volcano observatories with no monitoring database, WOVOdat project is preparing an installable standalone package. This package is freely downloadable through our website (, ready to install and serve as database system in the local domain to host various types of volcano monitoring data. The WOVOdat project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). In the current stage of data population, our website supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing schematic design, information and documentation, and also data submission. As anticipation of various data formats coming from different observatories, we provide an interactive tools for user to convert their data into standard WOVOdat format file before then able to upload and store in the database system. We are also developing various visualization tools that will be integrated in the system to ease

  15. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20 (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  16. Installation report - Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project.......The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project....

  17. Size and carbon content of sub-seafloor microbial cells at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Braun


    Full Text Available The discovery of a microbial ecosystem in ocean sediments has evoked interest in life under extreme energy limitation and its role in global element cycling. However, fundamental parameters such as the size and the amount of biomass of sub-seafloor microbial cells are poorly constrained. Here we determined the volume and the carbon content of microbial cells from a marine sediment drill core retrieved by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP, Expedition 347, at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea. To determine their shape and volume, cells were separated from the sediment matrix by multi-layer density centrifugation and visualized via epifluorescence microscopy (FM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Total cell-carbon was calculated from amino acid-carbon, which was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after cells had been purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The majority of microbial cells in the sediment have coccoid or slightly elongated morphology. From the sediment surface to the deepest investigated sample (~60 meters below the seafloor, the cell volume of both coccoid and elongated cells decreased by an order of magnitude from approximately 0.05 to 0.005 µm3. The cell-specific carbon content was 19-31 fg C cell-1, which is at the lower end of previous estimates that were used for global estimates of microbial biomass. The cell-specific carbon density increased with sediment depth from about 200 to 1000 fg C µm-3, suggesting that cells decrease their water content and grow small cell sizes as adaptation to the long-term subsistence at very low energy availability in the deep biosphere. We present for the first time depth-related data on the cell volume and carbon content of sedimentary microbial cells buried down to 60 meters below the seafloor. Our data enable estimates of volume- and biomass-specific cellular rates of energy metabolism in the deep biosphere and will improve global estimates of

  18. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Ciobanu


    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence

  19. The Conrad Observatory Research Facility (United States)

    Lenhardt, W.; Melichar, P.


    The Conrad Observatory in Austria belongs to the group of most modern geophysical observatories worldwide. The observatory is situated 55 km SW of Vienna in the Eastern Alps. Since 2002 - when the observatory was officially opened - several research tasks, projects, training courses and workshops were carried out at this venue. The site is also magnetically very quiet - one of the requirements for establishing the second part of the observatory, which will serve as the magnetic base observatory for Austria in the future. So far, a tunnel of 145 m length equipped with seismometers, 3 boreholes of 100 m depth and one borehole of 50 m depth, as well as a laboratory, where the gravity is continuously moni-tored, are in operation. In addition an outside station has been built according to Austrian standards for reasons of comparison. Refraction profiles and borehole seismic was used to describe the subsurface conditions for H/V measurements and other scientific tasks. The underground observatory provides ex-cellent conditions to test seismometers under controlled conditions, and a newly developed calibration table assists in the determination of the generator constants of seismometers. Internet connection is available together with a re-distributed GPS-timing signal in the observatory. The NERIES Transnational Access activity TA-5 has attracted already project teams from Germany, Slovenia and The Netherlands to conduct specific instrument tests and comparisons between sensors. See also

  20. The Solar Dynamics Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Pesnell, William; Thompson, Barbara


    This volume is dedicated to the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which was launched 11 February 2010.  The articles focus on the spacecraft and its instruments: the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Articles within also describe calibration results and data processing pipelines that are critical to understanding the data and products, concluding with a description of the successful Education and Public Outreach activities.  This book is geared towards anyone interested in using the unprecedented data from SDO, whether for fundamental heliophysics research, space weather modeling and forecasting, or educational purposes. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 275/1-2, 2012.

  1. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerive, A., E-mail: [Ottawa–Carleton Institute for Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Klein, J.R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); McDonald, A.B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Noble, A.J., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Poon, A.W.P., E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from {sup 8}B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  2. Hanohano: Hawaiian antineutrino observatory (United States)

    Maricic, Jelena; Hanohano Collaboration


    Design studies are underway for the deep ocean antineutrino observatory Hanohano. The 10 kton monolitic underwater detector will be able to make precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters (including θ13 and neutrino mass hierarchy) if stationed around 60 km offshore, from the nuclear reactor. Hanohano will be a mobile detector and placing it in a mid-Pacific location will provide the first ever flux measurement of geoneutrinos (antineutrinos emitted in the radioactive decay series of uranium and thorium), coming from the Earth's mantle and perform a sensitivity search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in the Earth's core. Additional deployment at a different mid-ocean location will lead to tests of lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in the Earth's mantle. These measurements would provide an important insight into deep-Earth geophysics, mantle composition and understanding of the Earth's heat flow and sources of energy inside the Earth.

  3. LCOGT network observatory operations (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hjelstrom, Annie; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; De Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach


    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  4. Space Research in Baldone Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglitis, I.


    Full Text Available The Baldone observatory deals with the U-, B-, V-, R-, I-photometry and low resolution spectroscopy of carbon stars, the monitoring of small bodies of Solar system, and with the digitizing and processing of 24 300 plates from the Schmidt wide field telescope archive. The astronomers from the observatory are working to popularize astronomy.

  5. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract) (United States)

    Ulowetz, J. H.


    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  6. Ten Years of Observatory Science from Saanich Inlet on the VENUS Cabled Ocean Observatory (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Macoun, P.; Round, A.


    The Saanich Inlet array of the VENUS cabled ocean observatory, maintained and operated by Ocean Networks Canada, was installed in February 2006, and in 2016 will have supported ten years of comprehensive interactive science. Representing the first in the present generation of cabled observing technologies, this coastal array has provided continuous high power and broadband communications to a variety of instrument platforms, hundreds of sensors, and enabled dozens of short, medium, and long-term studies. Saanich Inlet is a protected fjord with limited tidal action, resulting in an extremely productive environment, with strong seasonal chemical variations driven by episodic deep water renewal events and oxygen reduction processes. The breadth of the research has included microbial and benthic community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, forensics, quantifying inter-annual variations, benthic-pelagic coupling, sensor testing, plankton dynamics, and bio-turbulence. Observatory measurements include core water properties (CTD & O2) and water-column echo-sounder records, as well as experiment-oriented deployments utilizing cameras, Gliders, Dopplers, hydrophones, and a variety of biogeochemical sensors. With a recently installed Buoy Profiler System for monitoring the entire water column, community plans continue with a dedicated Redox experiment through the 2016-17 seasons. Highlights from the dozens of research papers and theses will be presented to demonstrate the achievements enabled by a comprehensive coastal cabled observing system.

  7. News from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (United States)

    Kraus, C.


    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) [1] is a 1000 tonne heavy water Cerenkov detector, that has finished its data taking period on November 29th 2006. The heavy water was contained in a 12 m diameter acrylic sphere, surrounded by 9500 PMTs. It is located in INCOs Creighton mine in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada - 2039 m (6000 mwe) underground. The so-called third phase of the experiment had in addition to the heavy water an array of 36 3He and 4 4He proportional counters installed. In this configuration it can detect neutrons produced by the neutral current interaction of solar neutrinos by neutron capture in these counters (NCDs = neutral current detection array). This is a way to determine the neutral current flux independent of the PMT system with very different systematic uncertainties and is therefore determining the CC and NC reactions in separate streams.

  8. ESO's First Observatory Celebrates 40th Anniversary (United States)


    French TAROT gamma-ray burst chasers as well as more common user facilities such as the 2.2-metre telescope of the German Max Planck Society and the 1.5-metre Danish telescopes. The 67-million pixel Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope has taken many amazing images of celestial objects, some of which have now become icons of their own. The La Silla Observatory, north of the town of La Serena, has been a stronghold of the organisation's capabilities since the 1960s. The site was chosen after an initial prospecting expedition -- partly on horseback -- to the Chilean Andes, during 1963 and 1964, by the first ESO Director General, Otto Heckmann, and several senior astronomers. This was done with the help of AURA, which had just chosen to install an observatory at nearby Cerro Tololo. In the following years, the site was developed and the first small and mid-sized telescopes were erected, followed by the 3.6-metre telescope in 1977 and the NTT in 1989. On 25 March 1969, an audience of more than 300 people, including the then Chilean President, Eduardo Frei and the Minister of Education of Sweden, Olof Palme, celebrated the completion of the first phase of the construction programme. "The erection of the La Silla Observatory is not only of vast importance for the future of astronomical research, but also a striking example of what may be achieved through efficient, and truly far-reaching, international cooperation," said Olof Palme at the time. The future of the La Silla Observatory remains bright. In 2007 ESO's Council endorsed a plan that maintains an important role for La Silla, alongside the other large ESO facilities, the VLT, ALMA and the E-ELT. La Silla also plans to host new national telescope projects and visitor instruments -- an option that has already received a strong positive response from the astronomical community.

  9. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F


    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  10. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher


    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  11. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher


    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  12. Remote observing with the Nickel Telescope at Lick Observatory (United States)

    Grigsby, Bryant; Chloros, Konstantinos; Gates, John; Deich, William T. S.; Gates, Elinor; Kibrick, Robert


    We describe a project to enable remote observing on the Nickel 1-meter Telescope at Lick Observatory. The purpose was to increase the subscription rate and create more economical means for graduate- and undergraduate students to observe with this telescope. The Nickel Telescope resides in a 125 year old dome on Mount Hamilton. Remote observers may work from any of the University of California (UC) remote observing facilities that have been created to support remote work at both Keck Observatory and Lick Observatory. The project included hardware and software upgrades to enable computer control of all equipment that must be operated by the astronomer; a remote observing architecture that is closely modeled on UCO/Lick's work to implement remote observing between UC campuses and Keck Observatory; new policies to ensure safety of Observatory staff and equipment, while ensuring that the telescope subsystems would be suitably configured for remote use; and new software to enforce the safety-related policies. The results increased the subscription rate from a few nights per month to nearly full subscription, and has spurred the installation of remote observing sites at more UC campuses. Thanks to the increased automation and computer control, local observing has also benefitted and is more efficient. Remote observing is now being implemented for the Shane 3- meter telescope.

  13. Buried deep: How data about subseafloor life becomes dark and why (United States)

    Darch, P. T.; Cummings, R.


    Earth scientists increasingly work in distributed, multidisciplinary projects. To promote the sharing of data across such a project, it is vital to improve long-term preservation of data in formats accessible to scientists in multiple disciplines with diverse needs, tools and scientific practices. When developing data management plans and infrastructure, it is important to ask: - What data are generated? - Where are these data preserved and shared? - What are the processes by which these data become 'dark'? - What are the infrastructural and social factors that shape these processes? In response to these questions, we present findings from the first year of a case study of the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), an NSF Science and Technology Center studying microbial life in the deep subseafloor biosphere. Our case study is funded by the Sloan Foundation and the NSF. It involves observation in laboratories, interviews, attendance of scientific meetings, and document analysis. At the laboratory level, we observed scientists mainly working on individual projects, or in a team of two or three. There is infrequent sharing of laboratory-generated data across C-DEBI. Where it does happen, it often takes place following discovery of the data through informal networks or serendipitous encounters with the data's creator. Instead, most of the laboratory-generated data become dark data. These data are typically preserved on a scientist's personal computer in ways particular to the individual, frequently not in a form meaningful to others. Other scientists are often not even aware that these data exist. Furthermore, the scientist tends to take care to preserve these data only as long as they require them: data loss can occur over time. Some data - those which support findings in a paper - may be deposited in a disciplinary database. However, these data are the end result of extensive processing: earlier versions of datasets can be lost. Also, in some

  14. The PLATO Antarctic site testing observatory (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Allen, G. R.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Bonner, C.; Bradley, S.; Cui, X.; Everett, J. R.; Feng, L.; Gong, X.; Hengst, S.; Hu, J.; Jiang, Z.; Kulesa, C. A.; Li, Y.; Luong-Van, D.; Moore, A. M.; Pennypacker, C.; Qin, W.; Riddle, R.; Shang, Z.; Storey, J. W. V.; Sun, B.; Suntzeff, N.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Travouillon, T.; Walker, C. K.; Wang, L.; Yan, J.; Yang, J.; Yang, H.; York, D.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, X. G.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.


    Over a decade of site testing in Antarctica has shown that both South Pole and Dome C are exceptional sites for astronomy, with certain atmospheric conditions superior to those at existing mid-latitude sites. However, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, Dome A, is expected to experience colder atmospheric temperatures, lower wind speeds, and a turbulent boundary layer that is confined closer to the ground. The Polar Research Institute of China, who were the first to visit the Dome A site in January 2005, plan to establish a permanently manned station there within the next decade. As part of this process they conducted a second expedition to Dome A, arriving via overland traverse in January 2008. This traverse involved the delivery and installation of the PLATeau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO is an automated self-powered astrophysical site testing observatory, developed by the University of New South Wales. A number of international institutions have contributed site testing instruments measuring turbulence, optical sky background, and sub-millimetre transparency. In addition, a set of science instruments are providing wide-field high time resolution optical photometry and terahertz imaging of the Galaxy. We present here an overview of the PLATO system design and instrumentation suite.

  15. Snowstorm at the geomagnetic observatory (United States)

    Čop, R.


    The Sinji Vrh Geomagnetic Observatory (hereinafter the Observatory) is situated on Gora above Ajdovščina, a highland karst plateau, in the southwestern part of Slovenia. The Observatory operates in exceptional geological and meteorological conditions due to its location. The very first measurements at the time of initial tests showed that weather fronts induce changes in the local magnetic field. The first measurements intended to determine the value of this influence were carried out at the end of summer 2011. In 2013 the first such measurements were carried out in January. This article presents the results of these measurements, showing how the snowstorm induced changes in Earth's magnetic field.

  16. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  17. An astronomical observatory for Peru (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar


    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  18. Controllo remoto del Dho's Observatory (United States)

    Dho, Mario


    In this last part of the series dedicated to the remote controlled Dho's Observatory of Chiusa di Pesio the author recall some issues, such as control software and explain some features of the software RICERCA. Afterwards, other programs are analysed that are necessary to the interaction through Internet, between the observatory PC and the remote PC. Finally, a series of essential conclusions are drawn from the issue "remote control".

  19. Characterization of metabolically active bacterial populations in subseafloor Nankai Trough sediments above, within and below the sulfate-methane transition zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath J. Mills


    Full Text Available A remarkable number of microbial cells have been enumerated within subseafloor sediments, suggesting a biological impact on geochemical processes in the subseafloor habitat. However, the metabolically active fraction of these populations is largely uncharacterized. In this study, an RNA-based molecular approach was used to determine the diversity and community structure of metabolically active bacterial populations in the upper sedimentary formation of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone. Samples used in this study were collected from the slope apron sediment overlying the accretionary prism at Site C0004 during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 316. The sediments represented microbial habitats above, within, and below the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ, which was observed approximately 20 meters below the seafloor (mbsf. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA were extracted, quantified, amplified and sequenced using high-throughput 454-pyrosequencing, indicating the occurrence of metabolically active bacterial populations to a depth of 57 mbsf. Transcript abundance and bacterial diversity decreased with increasing depth. The two communities below the SMTZ were similar at the phylum level, however only a 24% overlap was observed at the genus level. Active bacterial community composition was not confined to geochemically predicted redox stratification despite the deepest sample being more than 50 meters below the oxic/anoxic interface. Genus-level classification suggested that the metabolically active subseafloor bacterial populations had similarities to previously cultured organisms. This allowed predictions of physiological potential, expanding understanding of the subseafloor microbial ecosystem. Unique community structures suggest very diverse active populations compared to previous DNA-based diversity estimates, providing more support for enhancing community characterizations using more advanced sequencing

  20. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  1. Conveyor installation tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The USBM in order to reduce accidents associated with transporting, installing or maintaining belt conveyors developed 3 devices for use in moving and positioning conveyor components (the saucer skid...

  2. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle


    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  3. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia


    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  4. Leadership for Sustainable Installations (United States)


    able_installations/. Accessed 15 April 2011) Leadership for Sustainable Installations By COL Charles Allen (Ret), U.S. Army War College The...number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership for Sustainable...of the Army civilian workforce. During that decade, we followed the mandate of A-76 Commercial Sourcing and focused on developing the Most Efficient

  5. Installation af opvaskemaskine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.; Nielsen, F.

    Denne SBI-anvisning er et led i en serie om modernisering af installationerne i den ældre boligmasse. Den henvender sig til både beboere, husejere, VVS-installatører og andre interesserede. Anvisningen indeholder almene afsnit om valg og placering af opvaskemaskine, sagsforløb ved installation......, forhold til myndigheder, priser, finansieringsmuligheder m.m. Anvisningen indeholder endvidere tekniske afsnit om vandinstallation, afløb og elinstallation i forbindelse med installation af opvaskemaskine....

  6. Development of solar tower observatories (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  7. The Pierre Auger Observatory status and latest results (United States)

    Berat, Corinne


    The Pierre Auger Observatory, in Argentina, is the present flagship experiment studying ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Facing the challenge due to low cosmic-ray flux at the highest energies, the Observatory has been taking data for more than a decade, reaching an exposure of over 50 000 km2 sr yr. The combination of a large surface detector array and fluorescence telescopes provides a substantial improvement in energy calibration and extensive air shower measurements, resulting in data of unprecedented quality. Moreover, the installation of a denser subarray has allowed extending the sensitivity to lower energies. Altogether, this contributes to provide important information on key questions in the UHECR field in the energy range from 0.1 EeV up to 100 EeV. A review of main results from the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented with a particular focus on the energy spectrum measurements, the mass composition studies, the arrival directions analyses, the search for neutral cosmic messengers, and the investigation of high-energy hadronic interactions. Despite this large amount of valuable results, the understanding of the nature of UHECRs and of their origin remains an open science case that the Auger collaboration is planning to address with the AugerPrime project to upgrade the Observatory.

  8. The Pierre Auger Observatory status and latest results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Corinne


    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, in Argentina, is the present flagship experiment studying ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs. Facing the challenge due to low cosmic-ray flux at the highest energies, the Observatory has been taking data for more than a decade, reaching an exposure of over 50 000 km2 sr yr. The combination of a large surface detector array and fluorescence telescopes provides a substantial improvement in energy calibration and extensive air shower measurements, resulting in data of unprecedented quality. Moreover, the installation of a denser subarray has allowed extending the sensitivity to lower energies. Altogether, this contributes to provide important information on key questions in the UHECR field in the energy range from 0.1 EeV up to 100 EeV. A review of main results from the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented with a particular focus on the energy spectrum measurements, the mass composition studies, the arrival directions analyses, the search for neutral cosmic messengers, and the investigation of high-energy hadronic interactions. Despite this large amount of valuable results, the understanding of the nature of UHECRs and of their origin remains an open science case that the Auger collaboration is planning to address with the AugerPrime project to upgrade the Observatory.

  9. Advantages of a Lunar Cryogenic Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Burke, James; Kaltenegger, Lisa


    ESA and collaborating agencies are preparing to establish a Moon Village at a south polar site. Robotic precursor missions will include resource prospecting in permanently shadowed cold traps. The environment there is favorable for infrared and millimeter-wave astronomy. In this paper we examine the evolutionary development of a cryogenic observatory, beginning with small telescopes robotically installed and operated in conjunction with prospecting precursor missions, and continuing into later phases supported from the Moon Village. Relay communications into and out of the cold traps may be shared or else provided by dedicated links. Candidate locations can be selected with the help of data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The first telescope will be primarily a proof-of-concept demonstrator but it can have scientific and applications uses too, supplementing other space-based survey instruments observing astrophysical objects and potentially hazardous asteroids and comets. A south polar site sees only half or the sky but that half includes the galactic center and many other interesting targets. The telescopes can stare at any object for as long as desired, providing monitoring capabilities for transiting or radial velocity planet searches, like NASA's TESS mission. In addition such telescopes are opening the prospect of gathering spectroscopic data on exoplanet atmospheres and cool stars - from UV information to assess the activity of a star to VIS to IR spectral data of the atmosphere and even atmospheric biosignatures. Preliminary design of the first telescope might be funded under a NASA call for lunar science payload concepts. An important additional product can be educational and outreach uses of the observatory, especially for the benefit of people in the developing world who can do southern hemisphere follow-up observations.

  10. FLITECAM: current status and results from observatory verification flights (United States)

    McLean, Ian S.; Smith, Erin C.; Becklin, E. E.; Dunham, E. W.; Milburn, Jennifer W.; Savage, Maureen L.


    This paper describes the current status of FLITECAM, the near-infrared (1 - 5 μm) camera and spectrometer for NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Due to a change in schedule FLITECAM's delivery was advanced, allowing it to be co-mounted with the HIPO instrument and used on four flights in October 2011 for observatory verification. Although not part of FLITECAM's commissioning time, some preliminary performance characteristics were determined. Image size as a function of wavelength was measured prior to the installation of active mass dampers on the telescope. Preliminary grism spectroscopy was also obtained. In addition, FLITECAM was used to measure the emissivity of the telescope and warm optics in the co-mounted configuration. New narrow band filters were added to the instrument, including a Paschen alpha filter for line emission. Results are illustrated.

  11. Capping off installation

    CERN Multimedia


    Installation of the cathode strip chambers for the muon system on the CMS positive endcap has been completed. Technicians install one of the last muon system cathode strip chambers on the CMS positive endcap. Like successfully putting together the pieces of a giant puzzle, installation of the muon system cathode strip chambers on one of the CMS endcaps has been completed. Total installation of the cathode strip chambers (CSC) is now 91 percent complete; only one ring of chambers needs to be mounted on the remaining endcap to finish installation of the entire system. To guarantee a good fit for the 468 total endcap muon system CSCs, physicists and engineers from the collaboration spent about 10 years carefully planning the design. The endcap muon system's cables, boxes, pipes and other parts were designed and integrated using a 3D computerized model. 'It took a long time to do all the computer modelling, but in the long run it saved us an enormous amount of time because it meant that everything fit together,...

  12. The Perugia University Automatic Observatory (United States)

    Tosti, Gino; Pascolini, Sergio; Fiorucci, Massimo


    In this paper we describe the hardware and software architecture of the Automatic Imaging Telescope (AIT), recently developed at the Perugia University Observatory. It is based on an existing 0.4 m telescope which was transformed into an automatic device. During the night, all the observatory functions are controlled by two PCs in an unattended mode. The system is equipped with an autoguider and the software was designed to allow the automatic reduction of the data at the end of the night. Since October 1994 the AIT has been collecting a large amount of BVR_cI_c data for about 30 blazars. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  13. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka


    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  14. Python Introduction and Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel


    Full Text Available This first lesson in our section on dealing with Online Sources is designed to get you and your computer set up to start programming. We will focus on installing the relevant software – all free and reputable – and finally we will help you to get your toes wet with some simple programming that provides immediate results. In this opening module you will install the Python programming language, the Beautiful Soup HTML/XML parser, and a text editor. Screencaps provided here come from Komodo Edit, but you can use any text editor capable of working with Python. Here’s a list of other options: Python Editors. Once everything is installed, you will write your first programs, “Hello World” in Python and HTML.

  15. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F


    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  16. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  17. The National Ecological Observatory Network (United States)

    Michener, W. K.


    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research platform designed to advance understanding of how ecosystems and organisms respond to variations in climate and changes in land use. NEON is the first long-term ecological observatory conceived as a continental-scale network; equipped with standardized sensors, cyberinfrastructure, and data-collection protocols across the network; and designed to simultaneously address a common set of research questions and support investigator-driven ecological research in all regions of the United States. The Observatory focuses on variations in climate and land use because they are primary drivers of the Nation's environmental challenges, as identified by the National Research Council--i.e., biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, climate change, hydroecology, infectious disease, invasive species, and land use. At the broadest scale, NEON links the complexity of climate variation to the behavior of ecological systems, a core aspect of ecological complexity. At the same time, because of the complexity of the interactions among humans and ecosystems, the network design includes NEON sites in wild, managed and urban systems within climate domains. Observatory data will also be part of a national education program designed to advance ecological science literacy through new programs and activities that develop and promote scientific ways of thinking.

  18. India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 17, 2012 ... Abstract. The current status of the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is summarized. The main physics goals are described followed by the motivation for building a magnetized iron calori- metric (ICAL) detector. The charge identification capability of ICAL would make it complementary to large water ...

  19. The Cape Town Carbon Observatory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A


    Full Text Available at the scale of the whole planet, but this does not give any national or local detail – the scales at which greenhouse gas management occurs. The Carbon Observatory project is testing whether the inverse modelling method can be applied at the scale of a large...

  20. The Lick Observatory Supernova Search


    Li, W.D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Treffers, R. R.; Friedman, A.; Halderson, E.; Johnson, R A; King, J. Y.; Modjaz, M.; Papenkova, M.; Sato, Y.; Shefler, T.


    We report here the current status of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) with the Katman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT). The progress on both the hardware and the software of the system is described, and we present a list of recent discoveries. LOSS is the world' most successful search engine for nearby supernovae.

  1. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.


    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  2. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli


    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  3. A low-power data acquisition system for geomagnetic observatories and variometer stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morschhauser


    Full Text Available A modern geomagnetic observatory must provide data of high stability, continuity, and resolution. The INTERMAGNET network has therefore specified quantitative criteria to ensure a high quality standard of geomagnetic observatories. Here, we present a new data acquisition system which was designed to meet these criteria, in particular with respect to 1 Hz data. This system is based on a Raspberry Pi embedded PC and runs a C+ +  data acquisition software. As a result, the data acquisition system is modular, cheap, and flexible, and it can be operated in remote areas with limited power supply. In addition, the system is capable of near-real-time data transmission, using a reverse SSH tunnel to work with any network available. The system hardware was successfully tested at the Niemegk observatory for a period of 1 year and subsequently installed at the Tatuoca observatory in Brazil.

  4. A low-power data acquisition system for geomagnetic observatories and variometer stations (United States)

    Morschhauser, Achim; Haseloff, Jürgen; Bronkalla, Oliver; Müller-Brettschneider, Carsten; Matzka, Jürgen


    A modern geomagnetic observatory must provide data of high stability, continuity, and resolution. The INTERMAGNET network has therefore specified quantitative criteria to ensure a high quality standard of geomagnetic observatories. Here, we present a new data acquisition system which was designed to meet these criteria, in particular with respect to 1 Hz data. This system is based on a Raspberry Pi embedded PC and runs a C+ + data acquisition software. As a result, the data acquisition system is modular, cheap, and flexible, and it can be operated in remote areas with limited power supply. In addition, the system is capable of near-real-time data transmission, using a reverse SSH tunnel to work with any network available. The system hardware was successfully tested at the Niemegk observatory for a period of 1 year and subsequently installed at the Tatuoca observatory in Brazil.

  5. METEOSPACE, solar monitoring and space weather at Calern observatory (United States)

    Corbard, T.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Crussaire, D.; Morand, F.; Ruty, F.; Biree, L.; Aboudarham, J.; Fuller, N.; Renaud, C.; Meftah, M.


    METEOSPACE is a new partnership project between the Paris Observatory (OP), the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), the French Air Force and a service company (LUNA technology) for the development and operation of a set of small telescopes Hα / Ca II K / Ca II H / G band to be installed at on the Calern plateau (OCA). The objective is to monitor solar activity for both research and its applications in space weather through continuous optical observations of the dynamic phenomena that are visible in the chromosphere: eruptions, destabilization of the filaments triggering coronal mass ejections and associated Moreton waves.

  6. Observatory data and the Swarm mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macmillan, S.; Olsen, Nils


    products. We describe here the preparation of the data set of ground observatory hourly mean values, including procedures to check and select observatory data spanning the modern magnetic survey satellite era. We discuss other possible combined uses of satellite and observatory data, in particular those...

  7. The MicroObservatory Net (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.


    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  8. Comparative study of subseafloor microbial community structures in deeply buried coral fossils and sediment matrices from the Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko eHoshino


    Full Text Available Subseafloor sedimentary environments harbor remarkably diverse microbial communities. However, it remains unknown if the deeply buried fossils in these sediments play ecological roles in deep microbial habitats, or whether the microbial communities inhabiting such fossils differ from those in the surrounding sediment matrix. Here we compare the community structures of subseafloor microbes in coldwater coral carbonates (Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa and the clay matrix. Samples were obtained from the Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight at Site U1317 Hole A during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. DNA was extracted from coral fossils and the surrounding sedimentary matrix at 4, 20 and 105 meters below the seafloor. 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea were amplified by PCR, and a total of 213,792 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequences were analyzed. At the phylum level, dominant microbial components in both habitats consisted of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Group (MCG at all three of the depths examined. However, at the genus and/or species level (similarity threshold 97.0%, the community compositions were found to be very different, with 69-75% and 46-57% of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes not overlapping in coral fossils and the clay matrix, respectively. Species richness analysis revealed that bacterial communities were generally more diverse than archaea, and that the diversity scores of coral fossils were lower than those in sediment matrix. However, the evenness of microbial communities was not significantly different in all the samples examined. No eukaryotic DNA sequences, such as 18S rRNA genes, were obtained from the corals. The findings suggested that, even at the same or similar depths, the sedimentological characteristics of a habitat are important factors affecting microbial diversity and community structure in deep subseafloor sedimentary

  9. Draft genome sequence of Methanoculleus sp. MH98A, a novel methanogen isolated from sub-seafloor methane hydrate deposits in Krishna Godavari basin. (United States)

    Dabir, Ashwini; Honkalas, Varsha; Arora, Preeti; Pore, Soham; Ranade, D R; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K


    Members of the genus Methanoculleus are among the most prevalent methanogens in biomethanation processes especially in marine and brackish environments. A methanogen, identified as a novel species of the genus Methanoculleus, was isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment obtained from the Krishna Godavari Basin off the eastern coast of India. This methanogen is thought to be the supplier of the methane in the submarine methane hydrate deposits. Further study of this microorganism could possibly help to revolutionize the energy industry. The draft genome of Methanoculleus sp. MH98A is presented. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Installing the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The huge iron yoke in the cavern at Point 2 in the LHC tunnel is prepared for the installation of the ALICE experiment. The yoke is being reused from the previous L3 experiment that was located at the same point during the LEP project from 1989 to 2000. ALICE will be inserted piece by piece into the cradle where it will be used to study collisions between two beams of lead ions.

  11. Installation Strategic Planning Guidebook (United States)


    project plan, probably in the form of a Gantt chart so that the planning team members can reference as needed. Organization schedule of events: If...Koehler Publishing, 1994 7. Strategy Safari – A Guided Tour Through the Wilds of Strategic Management by Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand, and... Gantt chart - Resource the pre-work - Recap - Follow-up actions Installation Strategic Planning Guidebook 94 Appendix H

  12. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory . (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  13. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia


    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  14. ACE Observatory Control System - 16 years of remote intercontinental observing (United States)

    Mack, Peter


    The ACE Observatory Control System has been used for remote control since 1995. The system was designed for use at isolated observatories with no-one present on the mountain-top. The software provides complete diagnostic feedback to the astronomer and is supplemented by live audio-visual. Accessories include environmental sensors (weather station, all-sky camera, constellation cameras), automated mirror covers and remote power control. This gives the astronomer the same experience as being present at the observatory. The system is installed on 30 telescopes and many of them are used for routine nightly intercontinental observations, such as Taejeon (S. Korea) to Mt. Lemmon (Arizona) and southeast USA to KPNO and CTIO. The system has fully integrated autoguider acquisition and science camera control. We describe the building blocks of the system and the accessories including automated mirror covers, weather station, all sky camera, remote power control and dome control. Future plans are presented for a fully autonomous platform-independent scheduler and robot for use on multiple telescopes.

  15. Sperm whale assessment in the Western Ionian Sea using acoustic data from deep sea observatories (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Bellia, Giorgio; Beranzoli, Laura; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Scandura, Danila; Sciacca, Virginia; Viola, Salvatore


    The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) operates two deep sea infrastructures: Capo Passero, Western Ionian Sea 3,600 meters of depth, and Catania Wester Ionian Sea 2,100 m depth. At the two sites, several research observatories have been run: OnDE, NEMO-SN1, SMO, KM3NeT-Italia most of them jointly operated between INFN and INGV. In all these observatories, passive acoustic sensors (hydrophones) have been installed. Passive Acoustics Monitoring (PAM) is nowadays the main tool of the bioacoustics to study marine mammals. In particular, receiving the sounds emitted by cetaceans from a multi-hydrophones array installed in a cabled seafloor observatory, a research about the ecological dynamics of the species may be performed. Data acquired with the hydrophones installed aboard the OnDE, SMO and KM3NeT-Italia observatories will be reported. Thanks to acquired data, the acoustic presence of the sperm whales was assessed and studied for several years (2005:2013). An "ad hoc" algorithm was also developed to allow the automatic identification of the "clicks" emitted by the sperm whales and measure the size of detected animals. According to the results obtained, the sperm whale population in the area is well-distributed in size, sex and sexual maturity. Although specimens more than 14 meters of length (old males) seem to be absent.

  16. Microminiature thermocouple monitors own installation (United States)

    Garrett, A. J.; Sellers, J. P., Jr.


    Microminiature thermocouple makes precision gas sidewall temperature readings inside large thrust chambers. It is installed by a technique whereby the sensor monitors its own installation to insure against thermal damage to the thermocouple and ensure minimum disturbance to chamber surfaces.

  17. Humanizing the Installation of Microcomputers. (United States)

    Ansfield, Paul J.


    This discussion of the installation of microcomputing tools in organizations and institutions describes the effects of change, precautions for management, procedures to support inexperienced employees, and directives for microcomputer installation. Nine references are listed. (EJS)

  18. Performance of buried pipe installation. (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  19. Cherenkov Telescope Array: the next-generation gamma ray observatory (United States)

    Ebr, Jan


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a project to build the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies in the range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, which will both surpass the sensitivity of existing instruments in their energy domains and extend the limits of the observed energy spectrum. It will probe some of the most energetic processes in the Universe and provide insight into topics such as the acceleration of charged cosmic rays and their role in galaxy evolution, processes in relativistic jets, wind and explosions and the nature and distribution of dark matter. The CTA Observatory will consist of more than a hundred imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) of three different size classes, installed at two premier astronomical locations, one in each hemisphere. It is foreseen that the telescopes will use a variety of optical designs including parabolic primary mirrors, variations of the Davies-Cotton design and two-mirror setups such as the Schwarzschild-Couder telescope, and several camera designs, using both photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for detection of the nanosecond-scale Cherenkov flashes. Each telescope will feature a precise but lightweight and agile mount, allowing even the largest telescopes to change targets within 20 seconds, with systems of sensors and actuators actively controlling the shape of the reflecting surfaces. As an integral part, the Observatory will feature extensive calibration facilities, closely monitoring both the detectors themselves and the surrounding atmosphere. Several telescope prototypes already exist and the installation works at the northern site have started.

  20. Samus Toroid Installation Fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab


    The SAMUS (Small Angle Muon System) toroids have been designed and fabricated in the USSR and delivered to D0 ready for installation into the D0 detector. These toroids will be installed into the aperture of the EF's (End Toroids). The aperture in the EF's is 72-inch vertically and 66-inch horizontally. The Samus toroid is 70-inch vertically by 64-inch horizontally by 66-inch long and weighs approximately 38 tons. The Samus toroid has a 20-inch by 20-inch aperture in the center and it is through this aperture that the lift fixture must fit. The toroid must be 'threaded' through the EF aperture. Further, the Samus toroid coils are wound about the vertical portion of the aperture and thus limit the area where a lift fixture can make contact and not damage the coils. The fixture is designed to lift along a surface adjacent to the coils, but with clearance to the coil and with contact to the upper steel block of the toroid. The lift and installation will be done with the 50 ton crane at DO. The fixture was tested by lifting the Samus Toroid 2-inch off the floor and holding the weight for 10 minutes. Deflection was as predicted by the design calculations. Enclosed are sketches of the fixture and it relation to both Toroids (Samus and EF), along with hand calculations and an Finite Element Analysis. The PEA work was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Engineering Department.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms in subseafloor crustal fluids from boreholes 1025C and 1026B along the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eJungbluth


    Full Text Available To expand investigations into the phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms inhabiting the subseafloor biosphere, basalt-hosted crustal fluids were sampled from Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits affixed to Holes 1025C and 1026B along the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank using a clean fluid pumping system. These boreholes penetrate the crustal aquifer of young ocean crust (1.24 and 3.51 million years old, respectively, but differ with respect to borehole depth and temperature at the sediment-basement interface (147 meters and 39 ºC vs. 295 meters and 64 ºC, respectively. Cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes revealed that fluids retrieved from Hole 1025C were dominated by relatives of the genus Desulfobulbus of the Deltaproteobacteria (56% of clones and Candidatus Desulforudis of the Firmicutes (17%. Fluids sampled from Hole 1026B also contained plausible deep subseafloor inhabitants amongst the most abundant clone lineages; however, both geochemical analysis and microbial community structure reveal the borehole to be compromised by bottom seawater intrusion. Regardless, this study provides independent support for previous observations seeking to identify phylogenetic groups of microorganisms common to the deep ocean crustal biosphere, and extends previous observations by identifying additional lineages that may be prevalent in this unique environment.

  2. Spatial distribution, diversity and composition of bacterial communities in sub-seafloor fluids at a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Hara, Kurt; Kasai, Hiroko; Teramura, Takashi; Sunamura, Michinari; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Marumo, Katsumi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    Spatial distribution, diversity, and composition of bacterial communities within the shallow sub-seafloor at the deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific Ocean, were investigated. Fluids were sampled from four boreholes in this area. Each borehole was located near or away from active vents, the distance ranging 2-40 m from active vents. In addition, fluids discharging from a natural vent and ambient seawater were sampled in this area. We extracted DNA from each sample, amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes by PCR, cloned the PCR products and sequenced. The total number of clones analyzed was 348. Most of the detected phylotypes were affiliated with the phylum Proteobacteria, of which the detection frequency in each clone library ranged from 84.6% to 100%. The bacterial community diversity and composition were different between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, between fluids from the boreholes and the vent, and even among fluids from each borehole. The relative abundances of the phylotypes related to Thiomicrospira, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were significantly different among fluids from each borehole. The phylotypes related to Thiomicrospira and Alcanivorax were detected in all of the boreholes and vent samples. Our findings provide insights into bacterial communities in the shallow sub-seafloor environments at active deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields.

  3. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.


    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  4. MARS: a cabled observatory testbed in Monterey Bay (United States)

    McNutt, M.; Massion, G.; Raybould, K.; Bellingham, J.; Paull, C.


    With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) will be installing a deep-sea observatory in Monterey Bay, California, that will serve as a test bed for a future regional-scale cabled observatory. Monterey Bay offers a variety of active processes for scientific inquiry, including a very productive zone of ocean upwelling, a seismically active strand of the San Andreas fault system, cold seeps, and a very dynamic submarine canyon. The MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable will extend more than 60 km offshore to an instrument node at a depth of approximately 1.2 km. Extension cords can be run by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) from the cable node up to several kilometers away in order to provide greater flexibility in siting instruments. The observatory will be serviced using ROVs and will serve as a test bed for developing new sensors, instruments systems, experiment protocols, and mobile platforms for which submarine cables will provide power and two-way communications. In addition to serving as a test bed for instrumentation and platforms, the MARS project will demonstrate models for how to operate, service, and manage a community facility of this sort. In cooperation with our outreach partner, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, we will be examining ways to exploit the full potential of deep-sea observatories for student education and public information. We will also be preparing a proposal to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) to provide a nearby drill hole for connecting bore-hole experiments to the MARS cable, thereby accelerating the development of new tools for probing Earth beneath the oceans.

  5. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest (United States)


    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  6. CNGS Reflector installed

    CERN Multimedia


    A major component that will help target the CNGS neutrino beam for its 732km journey through the earth's crust, from CERN to the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, has been installed in its final position. The transport of the huge magnetic horn reflector through the CNGS access gallery. A team from CNGS and TS/IC, and the contractors DBS, transported the magnetic horn reflector on 5th December, in a carefully conducted operation that took just under two hours. The reflector is 7m long, 1.6m in diameter and 1.6 tonnes in weight. With only a matter of centimetres to spare on either side, the reflector was transported through the CNGS access gallery, before being installed in the experiment's target chamber. The larger of two magnetic horns, the reflector will help refocus sprays of high energy pions and kaons emitted after a 0.5MW stream of protons from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) strikes nucleons in a graphite target. The horns are toroidal magnetic lenses and work with high pulsed currents: 150 kA f...

  7. Micro- to nano-scale mapping and characterization of low-temperature metamorphism in Archean subseafloor metabasalts with implications for early life (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene; McLoughlin, Nicola


    In modern oceanic environments, the low-temperature alteration of subseafloor basaltic glass provides potential chemical energy argued to sustain deep microbial ecosystems. By analogy, it has been argued that early Archean subseafloor pillow lava sequences may provide an environment in which to seek evidence for the earliest traces of microbial life on Earth, and possibly on Mars. Microtextures in metavolcanic pillow lavas from the ca. 3.55 - 3.10 billion-year-old Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa have been argued to represent the remains of microbes that tunneled into Archean subseafloor volcanic glass [1]. The filamentous titanite microtextures occurring in a quartz-chlorite-epidote matrix have been argued to represent Earth's oldest trace fossil. However, distinguishing abiotic hydrothermal processes from candidate geochemical and micro-textural biosignatures preserved in early Archean rocks has proven to be a major scientific challenge. Also, very few PT-constraints on ocean-floor metamorphism are available in this greenstone belt. This quest for the earliest traces of life relies upon the ongoing development of in-situ analytical techniques in terms of instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here we employ a wide-range of novel petrological tools and metamorphic thermodynamic modelling techniques to test the biogenicity of microtextures, provide the first constraints on metamorphic conditions on the host metabasalts, and contribute to the search for robust traces of life in the early Archean. This includes in-situ mapping of the microtextures by laser Raman confocal spectroscopy, high-spatial-resolution elemental (C, N, P) mapping and in-situ isotopic measurements by NanoSIMS (nanoscale secondary ion microprobe) to evaluate the candidate biosignatures [2]. We have also developed and applied a new quantitative microscale mapping technique combined with thermodynamic modelling to map out metamorphic conditions surrounding the candidate

  8. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.


    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  9. Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory (United States)

    Vázquez-Mata, José A.; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M.; Martínez-Vázquez, Luis A.; Pani-Cielo, Atanacio


    Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.

  10. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein


    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  11. Preliminary Insights Into the Interplay Among Oxygen, Organic Carbon, and Microbial Metabolism in North Atlantic Subseafloor Sediment Communities (United States)

    Amenabar, M. J.; Dore, J. E.; Spivack, A. J.; Murray, R. W.; D'Hondt, S.; Boyd, E. S.


    . Collectively, this research improves our understanding of the microbial activities present in subseafloor sediment of the deep North Atlantic Ocean and provides new insight into the interplay among O2 and organic carbon and microbial activity, viability, and productivity in deep marine sediments.

  12. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.


    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.

  13. Recollections of Tucson Operations The Millimeter-Wave Observatory of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, M A


    This book is a personal account of the evolution of millimeter-wave astronomy at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. It begins with the construction of the hugely successful, but flawed, 36 ft radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona, and continues through the funding of its ultimate successor, the Atacama Large Millimeter-wave Array (ALMA), being constructed on a 5.000 m (16.500 ft) site in northern Chile. The book describes the behind-the-scene activities of the NRAO Tucson staff. These include the identification and solution of technical problems, the scheduling and support of visiting astronomers, and the preparations and the politics of the proposal to replace the 36 ft telescope with a 25 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The book also describes the installation of a new 12 m surface and the involvement of the Tucson staff in the ALMA project. Finally, it describes events leading to the closing of the 36 ft telescope and, eventually, of the NRAO offices in Tucson.

  14. Societal need for improved understanding of climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European Seas (United States)

    Ruhl, Henry A.; André, Michel; Beranzoli, Laura; Çağatay, M. Namik; Colaço, Ana; Cannat, Mathilde; Dañobeitia, Juanjo J.; Favali, Paolo; Géli, Louis; Gillooly, Michael; Greinert, Jens; Hall, Per O. J.; Huber, Robert; Karstensen, Johannes; Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Mienert, Jürgen; Miguel Miranda, J.; Person, Roland; Priede, Imants G.; Puillat, Ingrid; Thomsen, Laurenz; Waldmann, Christoph


    Society’s needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent long-term monitoring needed to address questions at the scales essential to understand climate change and improve geo-hazard early warning. Data sets from the deep sea are particularly rare with long-term data available from only a few locations worldwide. These science areas have impacts on societal health and well-being and our awareness of ocean function in a shifting climate. Substantial efforts are underway to realise a network of open-ocean observatories around European Seas that will operate over multiple decades. Some systems are already collecting high-resolution data from surface, water column, seafloor, and sub-seafloor sensors linked to shore by satellite or cable connection in real or near-real time, along with samples and other data collected in a delayed mode. We expect that such observatories will contribute to answering major ocean science questions including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, pore fluid chemistry and pressure, and gas hydrate stability improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? What aspects of physical oceanography, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystems will be most sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic change? What are natural versus anthropogenic changes? Most fundamentally, how are marine processes that occur at differing scales related? The development of ocean observatories provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Here we also describe some basic attributes of network design. Observatory networks provide the means to coordinate and integrate the collection of standardised data capable of bridging measurement scales across a dispersed area in European Seas adding needed

  15. IAXO - The International Axion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, J.K.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Caspi, S.; Cetin, S.A.; Christensen, F.E.; Dael, A.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Derbin, A.V.; Desch, K.; Diago, A.; Dudarev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Garza, J.G.; Geralis, T.; Gimeno, B.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hailey, C.J.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Isern, J.; Jaeckel, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kaminski, J.; Kawasaki, M.; Krcmar, M.; Krieger, C.; Lakic, B.; Lindner, A.; Liolios, A.; Luzon, G.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Russenschuck, S.; Ruz, J.; Saikawa, K.; Savvidis, I.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.; Tomas, A.; Troitsky, S.; van Bibber, K.; Vedrine, P.; Villar, J.A.; Walckiers, L.; Wester, W.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a next generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of a few 10^{-12} GeV^{-1}, i.e. 1-1.5 orders of magnitude beyond sensitivities achieved by the currently most sensitive axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). Crucial factors in improving the sensitivity for IAXO are the increase of the magnetic field volume together with the extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested at CAST. Electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) along with other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics could provide additional physics motivation for IAXO.

  16. Manastash Ridge Observatory Autoguider Upgrade (United States)

    Lozo, Jason; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Armstrong, John; Davila, Adrian; Johnson, Courtney; McMaster, Alex; Olinger, Kyle


    The Astronomy Undergraduate Engineering Group (AUEG) at the University of Washington has designed and manufactured a novel autoguider system for the 0.8-meter telescope at the Manastash Ridge Observatory in Ellensburg, Washington. The system uses a pickoff mirror placed in the unused optical path, directing the outer field to the guide camera via a system of axi-symmetrically rotating relay mirrors (periscope). This allows the guider to sample nearly 7 times the area that would be possible with the same fixed detector. This system adds closed loop optical feedback to the tracking capabilities of the telescope. When tuned the telescope will be capable of acheiving 0.5 arcsecond tracking or better. Dynamic focusing of the primary optical path will also be an included feature of this system. This unique guider will be a much needed upgrade to the telescope allowing for increased scientific capability.

  17. The International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Cantatore, G; Caspi, S; Carmona, J M; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Dudarev, A; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Jakovcic, K; Krcmar, M; Lakic, B; Luzon, G; Lindner, A; Pivovaroff, M; Papaevangelou, T; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Rodrıguez, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Shilon, I; Kate, H Ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; van Bibber, K; Villar, J A; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of a few 10$^{12}$ GeV$^{-1}$, i.e. 1 - 1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one currently achieved by CAST. The project relies on improvements in magnetic field volume together with extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested in CAST. Additional physics cases of IAXO could include the detection of electron-coupled axions invoked to solve the white dwarfs anomaly, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) and other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics. This contribution is a summary of our paper [1] to which we refer for further details.

  18. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan


    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  19. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  20. Installing Piezometers in Deepwater Sediments (United States)

    Lee, David R.; Harvey, F. Edwin


    A new method has been developed for installing piezometers in the sediments of deep harbors and lakes, where it has been difficult to measure hydrogeological parameters and collect pore waters for geochemical analyses. Using an underwater hammer operated from the surface, piezometers have been installed as much as 12 m below the water-sediment interface. The piezometer screen is held in place by barbs on the drive head and is connected to the water surface via flexible tubing. These piezometers have been installed from boats and from ice cover in water up to 30 m deep. However, installation in water more than 100 m deep should be possible.

  1. ROS Installation and Commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Gorini, B

    The ATLAS Readout group (a sub-group of TDAQ) has now completed the installation and commissioning of all of the Readout System (ROS) units. Event data from ATLAS is initially handled by detector specific hardware and software, but following a Level 1 Accept the data passes from the detector specific Readout Drivers (RODs) to the ROS, the first stage of the central ATLAS DAQ. Within the final ATLAS TDAQ system the ROS stores the data and on request makes it available to the Level 2 Trigger (L2) processors and to the Event Builder (EB) as required. The ROS is implemented as a large number of PCs housing custom built cards (ROBINs) and running custom multi-threaded software. Each ROBIN card (shown below) contains buffer memories to store the data, plus a field programmable gate array ( FPGA ) and an embedded PowerPC processor for management of the memories and data requests, and is implemented as a 64-bit 66 MHz PCI card. Both the software and the ROBIN cards have been designed and developed by the Readout g...

  2. Cabled observatories: Connecting coastal communities to local ocean data (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Brown, J. C. K.; McLean, M. A.; Ewing, N.; Moran, K.


    Coastal communities are facing a wide range of rapid changes due to anthropogenic and natural environmental influences. Communities are under pressure to adapt to effects of climate change, including altered shorelines, changes in availability of seafood, and in northern regions, changes to the extent, formation and break-up of land-fast and sea-ice. Access to up-to-date scientific data and basic climate literacy are essential tools to enable community members to make informed decisions about their own coast. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of British Columbia (BC). ONC also operates smaller, coastal community observatories which provide data for both scientific and educational initiatives.The first Arctic community observatory, deployed in 2012, is located in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Real-time data flowing from the platform are collected by a range of instruments, including a conductivity-temperature-depth sensor (CTD), hydrophone, video camera, and an ice profiler. There is also a meteorological station and time lapse camera on the dock. Five additional community observatories are being installed over the next year along the coast of BC. Indigenous communities, including the Inuit population in Cambridge Bay and First Nations on BC's north and central coast, are key partners and collaborators of this initiative.Benefits to communities from cabled observatory ocean monitoring can only be achieved if the data collected are relevant to community members and contribute to research priorities identified within the community. The data must be easily accessible and complement existing environmental monitoring initiatives. Community members must possess knowledge and tools to analyze and interpret the data for their purposes. For these reasons, community involvement is critical to the project, including the design of user interfaces for data access, development of educational programs

  3. Madras and Kodaikanal Observatories: A Brief History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    well as history and sociology of science. Keywords. Astronomy. history, navigation. observatories. instruments. A Brief History. Rajesh Kochhar. Introduction. Modern astronomy .... Being made of iron and timber -it could be re- moved and rebuilt. ... Observatory's lifelines, in working condition, years after they were no longer ...

  4. Global Health Observatory (GHO): Life Expectancy (United States)

    ... Media centre Publications Countries Programmes Governance About WHO Language عربي ä¸æ–‡ English Français Русский Español Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Menu Global Health Observatory ...

  5. The BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories in Africa--a standardized framework for large-scale environmental monitoring. (United States)

    Jürgens, Norbert; Schmiedel, Ute; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Dengler, Jürgen; Finckh, Manfred; Goetze, Dethardt; Gröngröft, Alexander; Hahn, Karen; Koulibaly, Annick; Luther-Mosebach, Jona; Muche, Gerhard; Oldeland, Jens; Petersen, Andreas; Porembski, Stefan; Rutherford, Michael C; Schmidt, Marco; Sinsin, Brice; Strohbach, Ben J; Thiombiano, Adjima; Wittig, Rüdiger; Zizka, Georg


    The international, interdisciplinary biodiversity research project BIOTA AFRICA initiated a standardized biodiversity monitoring network along climatic gradients across the African continent. Due to an identified lack of adequate monitoring designs, BIOTA AFRICA developed and implemented the standardized BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories, that meet the following criteria (a) enable long-term monitoring of biodiversity, potential driving factors, and relevant indicators with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, (b) facilitate comparability of data generated within different ecosystems, (c) allow integration of many disciplines, (d) allow spatial up-scaling, and (e) be applicable within a network approach. A BIOTA Observatory encompasses an area of 1 km(2) and is subdivided into 100 1-ha plots. For meeting the needs of sampling of different organism groups, the hectare plot is again subdivided into standardized subplots, whose sizes follow a geometric series. To allow for different sampling intensities but at the same time to characterize the whole square kilometer, the number of hectare plots to be sampled depends on the requirements of the respective discipline. A hierarchical ranking of the hectare plots ensures that all disciplines monitor as many hectare plots jointly as possible. The BIOTA Observatory design assures repeated, multidisciplinary standardized inventories of biodiversity and its environmental drivers, including options for spatial up- and downscaling and different sampling intensities. BIOTA Observatories have been installed along climatic and landscape gradients in Morocco, West Africa, and southern Africa. In regions with varying land use, several BIOTA Observatories are situated close to each other to analyze management effects.

  6. CSU's MWV Observatory: A Facility for Research, Education and Outreach (United States)

    Hood, John; Carpenter, N. D.; McCarty, C. B.; Samford, J. H.; Johnson, M.; Puckett, A. W.; Williams, R. N.; Cruzen, S. T.


    The Mead Westvaco Observatory (MWVO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center, is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The MWVO has recently received funding to upgrade from a 16-inch Meade LX-200 telescope to a PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. This and other technological upgrades will allow this observatory to stream live webcasts for astronomical events, allowing a worldwide public audience to become a part of the growing astronomical community. This poster will explain the upgrades that are currently in progress as well as the results from the current calibrations. The goal of these upgrades is to provide facilities capable of both research-class projects and widespread use in education and public outreach. We will present our initial calibration and tests of the observatory equipment, as well as its use in webcasts of astronomical events, in solar observing through the use of specialized piggy-backed telescopes, and in research into such topics as asteroids, planetary and nebula imaging. We will describe a pilot research project on asteroid orbit refinement and light curves, to be carried out by Columbus State University students. We will also outline many of the K-12 educational and public outreach activities we have designed for these facilities. Support and funding for the acquisition and installation of the new PlaneWave CDK 24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award.

  7. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  8. Re-development of the Mount Evans Womble Observatory (United States)

    Stencel, Robert E.


    Mount Evans in the Colorado Front Range hosts one of the highest altitude observatories in the USA, at an elevation of 14,148 ft (4,312 m). The observatory is operated under a Forest Service use permit, recently renewed for another 30 years. At times, observing conditions (seeing, water vapor column, etc.) can be as good as anywhere. The existing twin 0.72 m f/21 R-C telescopes are solar powered and internet connected. However, jet stream winds in 2012 destroyed the 15 year old, 22.5 ft diameter Ash dome. The replacement, custom dome design/install was rushed, and suffers from a number of flaws. Given that, plus the aging telescope and operating system, we are planning, and seeking partners and investor funds, to re-develop the facility. Facets of this may include replacing the twin apertures with a single full-aperture telescope for remote operations and sky monitoring, replacing the flawed dome with an innovative dome design, renewable power upgrades, and outreach programs for the many thousands of mountain visitors seasonally. As elsewhere, we are grappling with increases in atmospheric water vapor and out-of-control regional light pollution growth, but believe that the site continues to hold great potential. Interested parties are invited to contact the first author for further information. Website: .

  9. Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Chauvin, Cyril; Berthier, Jérôme; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Schmitt, Bernard; Capria, Teresa; Chanteur, Gérard


    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA).The current architecture connects existing data services with IVOA or IPDA protocols whenever relevant. However, a more general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames. This protocol, named EPN-TAP, is based on TAP and includes precise requirements to describe the contents of a data service (Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014). A light framework (DaCHS/GAVO) and a procedure have been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. The data services are declared in standard IVOA registries. Support to new data services in Europe will be provided during the proposed Europlanet H2020 program, with a focus on planetary mission support (Rosetta, Cassini…).A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris ( It is able to use all the mandatory parameters in EPN-TAP, plus extra parameters from individual services. A resolver for target names is also available. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data.The EuroPlaNet-RI project was funded by the European

  10. Virtual Observatories: the Future of Astronomical Information (United States)

    Quinn, Peter J.

    There are currently several funded international efforts on the design and initial deployment of virtual observatories. The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) project is an EC supported, three year Phase-A study of a VO for European astronomy. The UK eScience ASTROGRID project is a member of the AVO consortium. Both European projects are affiliated with the US National Virtual Observatory and other international VO projects. I will outline the goals and objectives of these projects and their current status as well as key European and global milestones for the next three years.

  11. Offshore structure and installation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, J.W.


    An offshore structure particularly for use in arctic environments, and a method for installing this structure comprises a shield portion which rests on a seabed and primarily resists environmental loads, such as from ice, and a separate support portion which comprises a plurality of piles driven into the seabed to support a deck payload. The method for installing the structure comprises moving a shield portion of the structure to its intended location with piles pre-installed therein; setting the structure on the seabed; driving the piles into the seabed; and then severing any connection between the piles and the shield portion. (Author)

  12. Were megalithic tombs solar observatories? (United States)

    Hänel, Andreas

    The orientations of the entrances of several hundred neolithic tombs in Northwest Germany, the Netherlands, Bretagne (Brittany) and the eastern Pyrenees (Roussillon and Catalunya) have been measured with a compass. Comparing these measurements with other authors, we could determine systematic errors and combine the measurements. The results are presented as polar coordinate histograms. The passage graves of Northwest Germany and the Netherlands are oriented east-west. For some of the tombs, entrances are preserved always on the southern side. We assume therefore, that all tombs had entrances on the southern side and we conclude that they are mainly oriented to the south, the direction where celestial objects, and especially the sun, reach their highest position in the sky. Similar results were found by Hamel (1985) for tombs in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The tombs in Brittany show a different orientation to the southeast, the azimuth of the rising sun on winter solstice. Tombs in the eastern Pyrenees have a similar orientation, as has also been found by other authors for several regions in southern France and the Iberian peninsula (Iund 2002, Chevalier 1999, Hoskin 2002). But in the eastern Pyrenees and from there north to the Provence and on the Balearic Islands exists a group of tombs that are oriented towards the southwest, where the winter sun sets (Chevalier 1999). But most of the entrances of the tombs are oriented towards the sun. The tombs certainly were no precise astronomical observatories, but their orientations might have had a ritual reason and the course of the sun in the sky was well known at that time.

  13. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.


    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  14. Cesarsky tipped to head Euro observatory

    CERN Multimedia


    French astrophysicist Catherine Cesarsky is the most likely candidate to be the next director of the European Southern Observatory in Garching. She is director of fundamental science at France's atomic energy research organization.

  15. Astronomy projects in ruins as observatory obliterated

    CERN Multimedia

    Bradley, M


    Canberra bushfires have gutted the Mount Stromlo Observatory causing the flames destroyed five telescopes, the workshop, eight staff homes and the main dome, causing more than $20 million in damage (1 page).

  16. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar (United States)

    Woodman, R. F.


    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  17. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331). (United States)

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken


    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  19. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.


    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  20. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice


    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  1. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.


    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  2. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub


    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  3. TMT Approach to Observatory Software Development Process


    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder


    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition syst...

  4. Suitcase to Audit Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Blas, J. de; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J. J.; Yuste, C.


    The audit suitcase was proposed by BESEL to introduce in the solar energy market a new tool which can make an evaluation of solar installation efficiency. Non-invasive sensors and low power components permit both easy installation of the devices and data storage for a period as long as ten days. This project was funded by the contract JOR3-CT98-7030 of the European Union JOULE III program. (Author)

  5. Installment options close to expiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alobaidi


    Full Text Available We use an asymptotic expansion to study the behavior of installment options close to expiry. Installment options are contracts where the price is paid over the life of the option rather than as a lump sum at the time of purchase, and where the contract can be allowed to lapse at any time. Series solutions are obtained for the location of the free boundary and the price of the option.

  6. The Offshore Bucket Trail Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Andreas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The Bucket Trail Installation project has gathered a substantial amount of date in a unique soil database which enable update of the used standards for penetration prediction. This update will lead to less conservative design of bucket foundations and is vital for the aim of cost reduction...... in the offshore wind business. Furthermore is serial offshore operation with the bucket concept was demonstrated with achieving full installation depth and inclination within given tolerance....

  7. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II (United States)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  8. "Route of astronomical observatories'' project: classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun


    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. A well-known example for a thematic programme is the Struve arc, already recognized as World Heritage.I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories or the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics (La Plata, Hamburg, Nice, etc.), visible in the architecture, the choice of instruments, and the arrangement of the observatory buildings in an astronomy park. This corresponds to the main categories according to which the ``outstanding universal value'' (UNESCO criteria ii, iv and vi) of the observatories have been evaluated: historic, scientific, and aesthetic. This proposal is based on the criteria of a comparability of the observatories in terms of the urbanistic complex and the architecture, the scientific orientation, equipment of instruments, authenticity and integrity of the preserved state, as well as in terms of historic scientific relations and scientific contributions.Apart from these serial transnational applications one can also choose other groups like baroque or neo-classical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments and made by the same famous firm. I will also discuss why the implementation of the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national Tentative Lists

  9. The Russian-Ukrainian Observatories Network for the European Astronomical Observatory Route Project (United States)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Bondar, N. I.; Karetnikov, V. G.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Pozhalova, Zh. A.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskay, A. N.; Stepanov, A. V.; Tolbin, S. V.


    In 2004,the Center of UNESCO World Heritage has announced a new initiative "Astronomy & World Heritage" directed for search and preserving of objects,referred to astronomy,its history in a global value,historical and cultural properties. There were defined a strategy of thematic programme "Initiative" and general criteria for selecting of ancient astronomical objects and observatories. In particular, properties that are situated or have significance in relation to celestial objects or astronomical events; representations of sky and/or celestial bodies and astronomical events; observatories and instruments; properties closely connected with the history of astronomy. In 2005-2006,in accordance with the program "Initiative", information about outstanding properties connected with astronomy have been collected.In Ukraine such work was organized by astronomical expert group in Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory. In 2007, Nikolaev observatory was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5116. Later, in 2008, the network of four astronomical observatories of Ukraine in Kiev,Crimea, Nikolaev and Odessa,considering their high authenticities and integrities,was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5267 "Astronomical Observatories of Ukraine". In 2008-2009, a new project "Thematic Study" was opened as a successor of "Initiative". It includes all fields of astronomical heritage from earlier prehistory to the Space astronomy (14 themes in total). We present the Ukraine-Russian Observatories network for the "European astronomical observatory Route project". From Russia two observatories are presented: Kazan Observatory and Pulkovo Observatory in the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century".The description of astronomical observatories of Ukraine is given in accordance with the project "Thematic study"; the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century" - astronomical observatories in Kiev,Nikolaev and Odessa; the

  10. Recent evolutions of the GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory (United States)

    Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Douet, Vincent; Sayadi, Jihane; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques


    The GEOSCOPE observatory provides 35 years of continuous broadband data to the scientific community. The 32 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the GEOSCOPE data center and are automatically transmitted to other data centers (IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, a new station has been installed in Wallis and Futuna (FUTU, South-Western Pacific Ocean), and WUS station has been reinstalled in Western China. Data of the stations are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. A scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the GEOSCOPE data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on An important technical work is done to homogenize the data formats of the whole GEOSCOPE database, in order to make easier the data duplication at the IRIS-DMC and RESIF data centers. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on the World large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method. By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45 minutes after the occurrence of the event. A specific webpage is then

  11. Comparison of Superconducting and Spring Gravimeters at the Mizusawa VLBI Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States)

    Miura, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Hee; Tamura, Yoshiaki


    Continuous microgravity monitoring is utilized to gain new insights into changes in the subsurface distribution of magma and/or fluid that commonly occur beneath active volcanoes. Rather new superconducting and spring gravimeters, iGrav#003 and gPhone#136 are collocated with a superconducting gravimeter, TT#70 at the Mizusawa VLBI Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, since the end of September, 2016 in order to evaluate those performances before field deployment planned in 2017. Calibration of iGrav#003 was carried out by collocation with an absolute gravimeter FG5 of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo (Okubo, 2016, personal comm.) at a Fundamental Gravity Station in Sendai in July, 2016. Based on the scale factors of iGrav#003 obtained by the calibration and of gPhone#136 provided by the manufacturer (Micro-g LaCoste, Inc.), tidal analyses are performed by means of BAYTAP-G (Tamura et al., 1991, GJI). Amplitudes and phases of each major tidal constituent mutually agree well within ±4 % and ±3 degrees, respectively. The instrumental drift rate of iGrav#003 is very low, about 5 micro-Gal/month, whereas that of gPhone#136 is very high, about 500 micro-Gal/month. The high drift rate of gPhone#136, however, is well approximated by a quadratic function at present and can be removed. The detrended time series of gPhone#136 shows good agreement with iGrav#003 time series in the overall feature: gravity fluctuations with amplitudes of about a few micro-Gal and with durations of a few days, which may be due to variations in the moisture content of the topmost unsaturated sedimentary layer and the water table height. It suggests that both instruments may capture volcanic signals associated with pressure changes in magma chambers, dike intrusion/withdrawing, and so on. iGrav#003 will be installed in the Zao volcanological observatory of Tohoku University located at about 3 km from the summit crater, and gPhone#136 will be

  12. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.


    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  13. Integrating Near Fault Observatories (NFO) for EPOS Implementation Phase (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro


    Following the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) project vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support science for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of Near-Fault Observatories (NFOs). NFOs are state of the art research infrastructures consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. Such a methodological approach, currently applicable only at the local scale (areas of tens to few hundreds of kilometres), is based on extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserving an extraordinary work on data quality control and multi-parameter data description. These networks in fact usually complement regional seismic and geodetic networks (typically with station spacing of 50-100km) with high-density distributions of seismic, geodetic, geochemical and geophysical sensors located typically within 10-20 km of active faults where large earthquakes are expected in the future. In the initial phase of EPOS-IP, seven NFO nodes will be linked: the Alto Tiberina and Irpinia Observatories in Italy, the Corinth Observatory in Greece, the South-Iceland Seismic Zone, the Valais Observatory in Switzerland, Marmara Sea GEO Supersite in Turkey (EU MARSite) and the Vrancea Observatory in Romania. Our work is aimed at establishing standards and integration within this first core group of NFOs while other NFOs are expected to be installed in the next years adopting the standards established and developed within the EPOS Thematic Core Services (TCS). The goal of our group is to build upon the initial development supported by these few key national observatories coordinated under previous EU projects (NERA and REAKT), inclusive and harmonised TCS supporting the installation over the next decade of tens of near

  14. Mineralizing Filamentous Bacteria from the Prony Bay Hydrothermal Field Give New Insights into the Functioning of Serpentinization-Based Subseafloor Ecosystems. (United States)

    Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Gérard, Martine; Lecourt, Léna; Lang, Susan Q; Pelletier, Bernard; Payri, Claude E; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas, Linda; Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Erauso, Gaël; Ménez, Bénédicte


    Despite their potential importance as analogs of primitive microbial metabolisms, the knowledge of the structure and functioning of the deep ecosystems associated with serpentinizing environments is hampered by the lack of accessibility to relevant systems. These hyperalkaline environments are depleted in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), making the carbon sources and assimilation pathways in the associated ecosystems highly enigmatic. The Prony Bay Hydrothermal Field (PHF) is an active serpentinization site where, similar to Lost City (Mid-Atlantic Ridge), high-pH fluids rich in H2 and CH4 are discharged from carbonate chimneys at the seafloor, but in a shallower lagoonal environment. This study aimed to characterize the subsurface microbial ecology of this environment by focusing on the earliest stages of chimney construction, dominated by the discharge of hydrothermal fluids of subseafloor origin. By jointly examining the mineralogy and the microbial diversity of the conduits of juvenile edifices at the micrometric scale, we find a central role of uncultivated bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes in the ecology of the PHF. These bacteria, along with members of the phyla Acetothermia and Omnitrophica, are identified as the first chimneys inhabitants before archaeal Methanosarcinales. They are involved in the construction and early consolidation of the carbonate structures via organomineralization processes. Their predominance in the most juvenile and nascent hydrothermal chimneys, and their affiliation with environmental subsurface microorganisms, indicate that they are likely discharged with hydrothermal fluids from the subseafloor. They may thus be representative of endolithic serpentinization-based ecosystems, in an environment where DIC is limited. In contrast, heterotrophic and fermentative microorganisms may consume organic compounds from the abiotic by-products of serpentinization processes and/or from life in the deeper subsurface. We thus propose that

  15. Genomic analysis of Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T): insights into its adaption to the subseafloor environment of South Pacific Gyre and ecological role in biogeochemical cycle. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Min; Qiao, Yanlu; Zhang, Xiao-Hua


    Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T), which was previously isolated from subseafloor environment of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG), was an aerobic, gram-negative bacterium, and was identified to be a novel species of the genus Luteimonas in the family of Xanthomonadaceae. The nutrients utilization and metabolic mechanisms of XH031(T) indicate its plasticity. In view of the above characteristics, its genome was sequenced, and an in-depth analysis of the XH031(T) genome was performed to elucidate its adaption to extreme ecological environment. Various macromolecules including polysaccharide, protein, lipid and DNA could be degraded at low temperature by XH031(T) under laboratory conditions, and its degradation abilities to starch, gelatin and casein were considerably strong. Genome sequence analysis indicated that XH031(T) possesses extensive enzyme-encoding genes compared with four other Luteimonas strains. In addition, intricate systems (such as two-component regulatory systems, secretion systems, etc.), which are often used by bacteria to modulate the interactions of bacteria with their environments, were predicted in the genome of XH031(T). Genes encoding a choline-glycine betaine transporter and 99 extracellular peptidases featured with halophilicity were predicted in the genome, which might help the bacterium to adapt to the salty marine environment. Moreover, there were many gene clusters in the genome encoding ATP-binding cassette superfamily transporters, major facilitator superfamily transporters and cytochrome P450s that might function in the process of various substrate transportation and metabolisms. Furthermore, drug resistance genes harbored in the genome might signify that XH031(T) has evolved hereditary adaptation to toxic environment. Finally, the annotation of metabolic pathways of the elements (such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphor and iron) in the genome elucidated the degradation of organic matter in the deep sediment of the SPG. The genome analysis

  16. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.


    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  17. 195-year history of Mykolayiv Observatory: events and people (United States)

    Shulga, O. V.; Yanishevska, L. M.


    The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  18. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People


    Shulga, O.V.; Yanishevska, L.M.


    The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  19. Magdalena Ridge Observatory: the start-up of a new observatory (United States)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Westpfahl, David; Loos, Gary


    This paper discusses the challenges faced in designing and building a new astronomical observatory. Which factors drive an organization (e.g. university) to invest considerable funding and human resources, and experience considerable risk to establish a new research facility? We identify four main drivers for establishing a new observatory: support for education, research, economic development, and technology development. For public observatories, research is generally the main driver. For nonpublic observatories, the situation is more complex and is for each situation different. A detailed description is presented on the drivers and opportunities that resulted in establishing the Magdalena Ridge Observatory. Three main opportunities are identified: a developed site, surplus equipment, and economic development of the Socorro area.

  20. Continuing and New Measurements at the Abyssal ALOHA Cabled Observatory (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Potemra, J. T.; Butler, R.; Santiago-Mandujano, F.; Lukas, R.; Duennebier, F. K.; Karl, D. M.; Aucan, J.


    The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is a general purpose "node" providing power, communications and timing connectivity for science use at Station ALOHA 100 km north of Oahu. Included are a suite of basic sensors making core measurements, some local and some sensing the water column. At 4728 m deep, it is the deepest scientific outpost on the planet with power and Internet. Importantly, Station ALOHA is the field site of the NSF-funded Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated temporal dynamics in biology, physics, and chemistry since 1988, at a site that is representative of roughly 70% of the world ocean, sampling the ocean from top to bottom to monitor and study changes on scales of months to decades. The co-located Woods Hole mooring (WHOTS) provides meteorological and upper ocean physical data. The CMORE (Center for Microbial Oceanography Research and Education) and SCOPE (Simons Collaboration on Ocean Processes and Ecology) programs address their respective science topics at ALOHA. Together these programs provide a truly unique means for observing the ocean across all disciplines and regimes (deep sea, near surface, etc.). ACO has been operating in the abyss since June 2011, collecting temperature, salinity, velocity, acoustic, and video data (see for instance the abstract by Lukas et al., Spatial Analysis of Abyssal Temperature Variations Observed from the ALOHA Cabled Observatory and WHOTS Moorings). Using the University of Hawaii remotely operated vehicle ROV Lu`ukai, a basic sensor package was recently installed equipped with a Paroscientific nano-resolution pressure sensor, a WetLabs fluorometer/turbidity sensor, and a Seabird CTDO2 instrument. These data will be presented and described.

  1. Progressive Research and Outreach at the WestRock Observatory (United States)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene; Lantz Caughey, Austin; O'Keeffe, Brendon; Johnson, Michael; Murphy Williams, Rosa Nina


    The WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center (CCSSC), is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The WRO has recently received funding to upgrade the PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. Recent additions to the telescope include an all-new Apogee Alta F16 CCD camera complete with a filter wheel (with narrowband and broadband filters) and a Minor Planet Center Observatory Code (W22). These new upgrades have allowed Astrophysics students to conduct unique research ranging from high precision minor planet astrometry, to broad- and narrow-band imaging of nebulae, to light curve analysis for variable star photometry. These new endeavours, in conjunction with an existing suite of Solar telescopes, gives the WRO the ability to live-stream solar and night-time observing. These streams are available both online and through interactive displays at the CCSSC making the WRO an educational outreach program for a worldwide public audience and a growing astronomical community.Current funding is allowing students to get even more research experience than previously attainable further enabling the expansion of our publicly available gallery of nebula and galaxy images. Support and funding for the acquirement,installation, and upgrading of the new PlaneWave CDK24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award Additionally, individual NASA Space Grant Scholarships have helped to secure a number of student interns partially responsible for recent improvements.

  2. The Ocean Observatories Initiative: Data, Data and More Data (United States)

    Crowley, M. F.; Vardaro, M.; Belabbassi, L.; Smith, M. J.; Garzio, L. M.; Knuth, F.; Glenn, S. M.; Schofield, O.; Lichtenwalner, C. S.; Kerfoot, J.


    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and managed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, is a networked infrastructure of science-driven sensor systems that measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in the ocean and seafloor on coastal, regional, and global scales. OOI long term research arrays have been installed off the Washington coast (Cabled), Massachusetts and Oregon coasts (Coastal) and off Alaska, Greenland, Chile and Argentina (Global). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Oregon State University are responsible for the coastal and global moorings and their autonomous vehicles. The University of Washington is responsible for cabled seafloor systems and moorings. Rutgers University operates the Cyberinfrastructure (CI) portion of the OOI, which acquires, processes and distributes data to the scientists, researchers, educators and the public. It also provides observatory mission command and control, data assessment and distribution, and long-term data management. This talk will present an overview of the OOI infrastructure and its three primary websites which include: 1) An OOI overview website offering technical information on the infrastructure ranging from instruments to science goals, news, deployment updates, and information on the proposal process, 2) The Education and Public Engagement website where students can view and analyze exactly the same data that scientists have access to at exactly the same time, but with simple visualization tools and compartmentalized lessons that lead them through complex science questions, and 3) The primary data access website and machine to machine interface where anyone can plot or download data from the over 700 instruments within the OOI Network.

  3. SPASE and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Thieman


    Full Text Available The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE project has developed an information model for interoperable access and retrieval of data within the Heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics science community. The diversity of science data archives within this community has led to the establishment of many virtual observatories to coordinate the data pathways within Heliophysics subdisciplines, such as magnetospheres, waves, radiation belts, etc. The SPASE information model provides a semantic layer and common language for data descriptions so that searches might be made across the whole of the heliophysics data environment, especially through the virtual observatories.

  4. Three Worlds of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino (United States)

    Cenev, G.


    Mountain in its symbolic presentation can be considered as a world axis and place for alliance of three worlds: heavenly world, ours or middle world and underworld. Image of the three worlds represents also intellectual establishment, proportion and unity among Gods, Cosmos and Man. The three observation posts of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino actually are symbols of those three worlds in the ancient people's imagination, defining ritual activities. At the same time, they were used for organizing all agricultural and stock breeding activities of the early agricultural communities in the wider region surrounding the ancient observatory.

  5. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)


    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  6. UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory 2007 Student Field Assistant Program in the Alaska Region (United States)

    Marzulla, A.; Gasparich, S.; Pauk, B.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.


    The UNAVCO, Inc. Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Student Field Assistant Program strives to engage students in further study and careers in the Earth Sciences. Student Field Assistants from a variety of educational backgrounds ranging from high school graduates to master's level students spend a three to five month field season working in tandem with UNAVCO regional Field Engineers. The students work closely with senior staff to reconnaissance, install, and maintain a network of 875 permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in one of the five PBO regions covering the western United States, including Alaska. Practical skills, such as power tool use, drilling, welding, firearms training, and proper field safety procedures, are taught and expected of the students. Installation and maintenance of new and existing GPS stations composes the bulk of the student's responsibilities and duties. When not in the field, students prepare gear and arrange logistics for site installations and maintenance as well as enter metadata and complete installation reports from recently constructed sites. An understanding of the operations of the GPS receivers and the scientific benefit of the network allows for an appreciation and great attention to detail during installation of the sites. Student assistance in the Alaska region during 2007 PBO AK field season was critical to the successful installation of 36 new GPS stations throughout Alaska. Significant benchmarks of the field season included installing six logistically difficult stations in Prince William Sounds, completing the Denali Fault GPS network, four new tiltmeters on Akutan Volcano, completing all installs on the Seward Peninsula as well as several new GPS stations throughout the western interior of the state. Alaska is a prominent area for much movement and deformation as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the North American Plate resulting in an area of high volcanic activity and heightened crustal deformation. The


    CERN Multimedia

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  8. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.


    Sub-slab sampling has become an integral part of vapor intrusion investigations. It is now recommended in guidance documents developed by EPA and most states. A method for sub-slab probe installation was devised in 2002, presented at conferences through 2005, and finally docume...

  10. Temperature rise of installed FCC (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.


    Report discusses temperature profiles of installed FCC for wood and tile surfaces. Three-conductor FCC was tested at twice nominal current-carrying capacity over bare floor and under carpet, with result indicating that temperature rise is not a linear function of current with FCC at this level.

  11. installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarczyk Michał


    Full Text Available The basic source of information for determining the temperature distribution in the rock mass and thus the potential for thermal energy contained in geothermal water conversion to electricity, are: temperature measurements in stable geothermic conditions, temperature measurements in unstable conditions, measurements of maximum temperatures at the bottom of the well. Incorrect temperature estimation can lead to errors during thermodynamic parameters calculation and consequently economic viability of the project. The analysis was performed for the geothermal water temperature range of 86–100°C, for dry working fluid R245fa. As a result of the calculations, the data indicate an increase in geothermal power as the geothermal water temperature increases. At 86°C, the potential power is 817.48 kW, increases to 912.20 kW at 88°C and consequently to 1 493.34 kW at 100°C. These results are not surprising, but show a scale of error in assessing the potential that can result improper interpretation of the rock mass and geothermal waters temperature.

  12. Commissioner Potočnik at Paranal Observatory (United States)


    As part of his first official trip to Brazil and Chile, the European Science and Research Commissioner, Janez Potočnik, visited Europe's flagship for ground-based astronomy, the ESO Paranal Observatory. ESO PR Photo 48a/07 ESO PR Photo 48a/07 Commissioner Potočnik at the Control-Console of the VLT The major facility atop the 2600m high Paranal mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert is the Very Large Telescope (VLT), whose design, instrument complement and operating principles set the standard for ground-based optical and infrared astronomy. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) enhances the capabilities of this unique facility even further as do the survey telescopes VST (optical) and VISTA (infrared). Publication statistics show that the VLT provides data for a scientific paper every day, all year round. The Commissioner was accompanied, among others, by Jaime Pérez Vidal, Head of Delegation of the European Commission (EC) to Chile, Mary Minch and Cornelia Nauen, respectively Director and Principal Administrator of International Scientific Cooperation for the EC, and Hervé Peró, Head of EC Unit Research Infrastructures. The visitors were able to acquaint themselves with the VLT during an overnight stay at this remote site. The guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Felix Mirabel, and the Director of the Paranal Observatory, Andreas Kaufer, as well as ESO staff members of many nationalities. The visitors were shown the various frontline installations at the observatory, including many of the distinctive VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. The Commissioner was provided with a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. ESO PR Photo 48b/07 ESO PR Photo 48b/07 Commissioner Potočnik Visiting the ESO Observatory at Paranal Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean

  13. Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions: Developing a Remote Observatory (United States)

    Gallant, M.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Jaehnig, K.; Percival, J.; Harlander, J.; Englert, C. R.; Kallio, R.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.; Gardner, D.; Rosborough, S.


    The Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions (INSpIRe) effort will (1) establish an adaptable research station capable of contributing to terrestrial and planetary aeronomy; (2) integrate two state-of-the-art second generation Fabry-Perot (FP) and Spatial Heteorodyne Spectrometers (SHS) into a remotely operable configuration; (3) deploy this instrumentation to a clear-air site, establishing a stable, well-calibrated observatory; (4) embark on a series of observations designed to contribute to three major areas of geocoronal research: geocoronal physics, structure/coupling, and variability. This poster describes the development of the INSpIRe remote observatory. Based at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU), initiative INSpIRe provides a platform to encourage the next generation of researchers to apply knowledge gained in the classroom to real-world science and engineering. Students at ERAU contribute to the INSpIRe effort's hardware and software needs. Mechanical/optical systems are in design to bring light to any of four instruments. Control software is in development to allow remote users to control everything from dome and optical system operations to calibration and data collection. In April 2016, we also installed and tested our first science instrument in the INSpIRe trailer, the Redline DASH Demonstration Instrument (REDDI). REDDI uses Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectroscopy, and its deployment as part of INSpIRe is a collaborative research effort between the Naval Research Lab, St Cloud State University, and ERAU. Similar to a stepped Michelson device, REDDI measures oxygen (630.0 nm) winds from the thermosphere. REDDI is currently mounted in a temporary location under INSpIRe's main siderostat until its entrance optical system can be modified. First light tests produced good signal-to-noise fringes in ten minute integrations, indicating that we will soon be able to measure thermospheric winds from our Daytona Beach testing site

  14. Engineering report for simulated riser installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford


    The simulated riser installation field tests demonstrated that new access ports (risers) can be installed safely, quickly, and economically in the concrete domes of existing underground single- shell waste storage tanks by utilizing proven rotary drilling equipment and vacuum excavation techniques. The new riser installation will seal against water intrusion, provide as table riser anchored to the tank dome, and be installed in accordance with ALARA principles. The information contained in the report will apply to actual riser installation activity in the future.

  15. The dismantling of nuclear installations; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Duthe, M.; Mignon, H. [Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75-Paris (France). Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires; Charles, Th. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Michon, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Lambert, F. [Unite de demantelement des installations nucleaires (UDIN), CEA (France); Pradel, Ph. [Compagnie Generale de Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Etablissement de Marcoule; Vergne, C. [CODEM Groupement d`interet economique (France); Hillewaere, J.P.; Dupre la Tour, St. [DRIRE Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France); Mandil, C. [Ministere de l`Economie, des Finances et de l`Industrie (France); Weil, L.; Eickelpasch, N.; Finsterwalder, L. [Office Federal de radioprotection, (Germany)


    for nuclear installations, the dismantling is an important part of their exploitation. The technology of dismantling is existing and to get a benefit from the radioactive decay, it seems more easy for operating company such E.D.F. to wait for fifty years before dismantling. But in order to get the knowledge of this operation, the Safety Authority wanted to devote this issue of `Controle`to the dismantling method. This issue includes: the legal aspects, the risks assessment, the dismantling policy at E.D.F., the site of Brennilis (first French experience of dismantling), the dismantling techniques, the first dismantling of a fuel reprocessing plant, comparison with classical installations, economic aspect, some German experiences, the cleansing of the american site of Handford. (N.C.)

  16. Low head hydroelectric installation. Installation hydroelectrique de basse chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megnint, L.


    A low head hydroelectric installation, in particular for tidal power plant use, is intended to function at variable head heights which can descend to near-zero values. While the head height is lower than a determined value, inferior to at least half the nominal head, the turbomachinery is made to turn at a speed lower than the synchronizing speed and bringing its output near the middle of the output curve. A frequency converter is inserted between the electric generator and the power network, said converter being constructed for a power in any case inferior to at least half of the nominal power. The invention also concerns a process for obtaining at the outlet of a hydraulic turbine an optimal output under a defined, nominal head or output, corresponding to a nominal power of a low head hydroelectric installation and for a rotation speed corresponding to the speed of synchronization with the frequency of a power network.

  17. Volcano and Earthquake Monitoring Plan for the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 2006-2015 (United States)



    To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 2006-2015. Such a plan is needed so that YVO can provide timely information during seismic, volcanic, and hydrothermal crises and can anticipate hazardous events before they occur. The monitoring network will also provide high-quality data for scientific study and interpretation of one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. Among the needs of the observatory are to upgrade its seismograph network to modern standards and to add five new seismograph stations in areas of the park that currently lack adequate station density. In cooperation with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Plate Boundary Observatory Program (PBO), YVO seeks to install five borehole strainmeters and two tiltmeters to measure crustal movements. The boreholes would be located in developed areas close to existing infrastructure and away from sensitive geothermal features. In conjunction with the park's geothermal monitoring program, installation of new stream gages, and gas-measuring instruments will allow YVO to compare geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes and ground motions, to hydrothermal events, such as anomalous water and gas discharge. In addition, YVO seeks to characterize the behavior of geyser basins, both to detect any precursors to hydrothermal explosions and to monitor earthquakes related to fluid movements that are difficult to detect with the current monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring network consists not solely of instruments, but requires also a secure system for real-time transmission of data. The current telemetry system is vulnerable to failures that could jeopardize data transmission out of Yellowstone. Future advances in monitoring technologies must be accompanied by improvements in the infrastructure for

  18. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals ... Synergy with other experiments: CPV · Human Resource development & Training · INO Outreach Activities · Why India should be interested in a project like INO ?

  19. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage (United States)

    Glass, Ian S.


    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  20. Education and public engagement in observatory operations (United States)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis


    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  1. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  2. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi


    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance ( to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  3. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca


    Geomagnetic observatory practice and instrumentation has evolved significantly over the past 150 years. Evolution continues to be driven by advances in technology and by the need of the data user community for higher-resolution, lower noise data in near-real time. Additionally, collaboration betw...

  4. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado


    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  5. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.


    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  6. e-VLBI Development at Haystack Observatory (United States)

    Whitney, Alan

    Haystack Observatory continues an aggressive program of e-VLBI development, particularly with respect to the use of public (shared) high-speed networds for data transfer. Much of 2002 was spent preparing for a Gbps e-VLBI demonstration experiment using antennas at Westford, MA and Greenbelt, MD; this experiment was succcesully conducted using both near-real-time and real-time data transfers to the Mark 4 correlator at Haystack Observatory, though correlation was not done in real time. In early 2003 a dedicated e-VLBI Gigabit-Ethernet wavelength was establisted between Haystack Observatory and MIT Lincoln Laboratory, giving Haystack easy access to the high-speed Abilene network in the U.S. Also in October 2002, preliminary e-VLBI experiments were conducted between Westford, MA and Kashima, Japan; this set of experiments is continuing with increasing data-rate transfers. These experiments use the Mark 5 system at Westford and the K5 system at Kashima; data is transferred in both directions and correlated at both sites. Preparations are now underway to begin e-VLBI transfers from Wettzell, Germany and Kokee Park, Kauaii for routine daily observation of UT1. Haystack Observatory has recently been awarded a 3-year grant the the National Science Foundation for the development of new IP protocols specifically tailored for e-VLBI and similar applications.

  7. The Kodaikanal Observatory – A Historical Account

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    formed the nucleus of instrumentation of the new observatory which soon embarked on a series of observations of the stars, the moon, and eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, .... spectroheliograms in the light of ionized calcium and of hydrogen. This uninterrupted series photographs, continue unto the present day, and form one ...

  8. Stull Observatory Lightcurve Observations: 1998-2002 (United States)

    DeGraff, David R.


    Using the Stull Observatory 0.82m telescope, from July 1998 to August 2002 we observed several asteroids to measure their rotation periods. We present lightcurves periods for 314 Rosalia, 1084 Tamarwina, 1758 Naantali, 1845 Helewalda, 2544 Gubarev, 3028 Zhangguoxi, 5215 Tsurui, (20713) 1999 XA32, and (234871) 1991 GT4.

  9. Lights go out at city observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    Armstrong, R


    Edinburgh's Royal Observatory is to close its doors to the public due to dwindling visitor numbers. The visitor centre will remain open to the general public for planned lectures and night-time observing sessions, but will cease to be open on a daily basis from next month (1/2 page).

  10. Magnetic observations at Geophysical Observatory Paratunka IKIR FEB RAS: tasks, possibilities and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomutov Sergey Y.


    Full Text Available Continuous magnetic measurements at Geophysical Observatory “Paratunka” (PET of IKIR FEB RAS are performed since 1967. In the new millennium analogue magnetometers were modernized to digital, the technologies of absolute observations were changed, the data processing was completely transferred to computers, and the status of INTERMAGNET observatory was obtained. Currently, the observatory uses the following magnetometers: (a for absolute observations – DIflux LEMI-203 (theodolite 3T2KP and Mag-01 (theodolite Wild-T1, Overhauser magnetometers POS-1 and GSM-19W; (b for variation measurements – fluxgate magnetometers FGE-DTU, FRG-601 and MAGDAS (installed under international agreements of IKIR, vector magnetometers dIdD GSM-19FD and POS-4 with Overhauser sensors and coil systems, scalar magnetometer GSM-90 and induction magnetometer STELAB. During Spring-Autumn season dIdD also is installed at remote station “Karymshina” at distance of 15 km from Observatory. There is monitoring system for monitoring of conditions in which magnetic observations are performed, including the semi-professional weather stations Davis Vantage Pro2 and WS2000 and a network of digital temperature sensors DS19B20 located at various points in magnetic pavilions and outdoor. All measurements are synchronized with the UTC. The results of observations are collected by the IKIR data server from the recorders and loggers, including in real-time. Specialized software was developed (based on MATLAB and Octave packages, which allows automatic and semi-automatic processing of data, the comparison of the results from different magnetometers and presenting final data in formats, defined by international standards, including INTERMAGNET. Significant efforts of observatory staff are direct to archive (raw magnetic data, a significant part of which has not been entirely processed, is not presented in international data centers and is still not available to the scientific

  11. Magnetic observations at Geophysical Observatory Paratunka IKIR FEB RAS: tasks, possibilities and future prospects (United States)

    Khomutov, Sergey Y.


    Continuous magnetic measurements at Geophysical Observatory "Paratunka" (PET) of IKIR FEB RAS are performed since 1967. In the new millennium analogue magnetometers were modernized to digital, the technologies of absolute observations were changed, the data processing was completely transferred to computers, and the status of INTERMAGNET observatory was obtained. Currently, the observatory uses the following magnetometers: (a) for absolute observations - DIflux LEMI-203 (theodolite 3T2KP) and Mag-01 (theodolite Wild-T1), Overhauser magnetometers POS-1 and GSM-19W; (b) for variation measurements - fluxgate magnetometers FGE-DTU, FRG-601 and MAGDAS (installed under international agreements of IKIR), vector magnetometers dIdD GSM-19FD and POS-4 with Overhauser sensors and coil systems, scalar magnetometer GSM-90 and induction magnetometer STELAB. During Spring-Autumn season dIdD also is installed at remote station "Karymshina" at distance of 15 km from Observatory. There is monitoring system for monitoring of conditions in which magnetic observations are performed, including the semi-professional weather stations Davis Vantage Pro2 and WS2000 and a network of digital temperature sensors DS19B20 located at various points in magnetic pavilions and outdoor. All measurements are synchronized with the UTC. The results of observations are collected by the IKIR data server from the recorders and loggers, including in real-time. Specialized software was developed (based on MATLAB and Octave packages), which allows automatic and semi-automatic processing of data, the comparison of the results from different magnetometers and presenting final data in formats, defined by international standards, including INTERMAGNET. Significant efforts of observatory staff are direct to archive (raw) magnetic data, a significant part of which has not been entirely processed, is not presented in international data centers and is still not available to the scientific community. Digital images of

  12. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)


    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  13. 2014 volcanic activity in Alaska: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Schaefer, Janet R.; McGimsey, Robert G.


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2014. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash eruptions from long-active Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, and two eruptive episodes at Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. Semisopochnoi and Akutan volcanoes had seismic swarms, both likely the result of magmatic intrusion. The AVO also installed seismometers and infrasound instruments at Mount Cleveland during 2014.

  14. 2015 Volcanic activity in Alaska—Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Iezzi, Alexandra M.; Wallace, Kristi


    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 14 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2015. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of continuing intermittent ash eruptions from Cleveland and Shishaldin volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands. Two eruptive episodes, at Veniaminof and Pavlof, on the Alaska Peninsula ended in 2015. During 2015, AVO re-established the seismograph network at Aniakchak, installed six new broadband seismometers throughout the Aleutian Islands, and added a Multiple component Gas Analyzer System (MultiGAS) station on Augustine.

  15. Tectonic motion site survey of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia (United States)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Allenby, R. J.; Hutton, L. K.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Tiedemann, H. A.


    A geological and geophysical site survey was made of the area around the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) to determine whether there are at present local tectonic movements that could introduce significant errors to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) geodetic measurements. The site survey consisted of a literature search, photogeologic mapping with Landsat and Skylab photographs, a field reconnaissance, and installation of a seismometer at the NRAO. It is concluded that local tectonic movement will not contribute significantly to VLBI errors. It is recommended that similar site surveys be made of all locations used for VLBI or laser ranging.

  16. The Chicagoland Observatory Underground for Particle Physics cosmic ray veto system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Ramberg, E.; Kiper, T.; /Fermilab


    A photomultiplier (PMT) readout system has been designed for use by the cosmic ray veto systems of two warm liquid bubble chambers built at Fermilab by the Chicagoland Observatory Underground for Particle Physics (COUPP) collaboration. The systems are designed to minimize the infrastructure necessary for installation. Up to five PMTs can be daisy-chained on a single data link using standard Category 5 network cable. The cables is also serve distribute to low voltage power. High voltage is generated locally on each PMT base. Analog and digital signal processing is also performed locally. The PMT base and system controller design and performance measurements are presented.

  17. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Shelus, P. J.


    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  18. Solaris: a global network of autonomous observatories in the southern hemisphere (United States)

    Kozłowski, S. K.; Sybilski, P.; Konacki, Maciej; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Ratajczak, Milena; Helminiak, K. G.


    We present Project Solaris, a network of four autonomous observatories in the Southern Hemisphere. The Project's primary goal is to detect and characterize circumbinary planets using the eclipse timing approach. This method requires high-cadence and long time-span photometric coverage of the binaries' eclipses, hence the observatories are located at sites having similar separation in longitude and nearly identical latitudes: South African Astronómical Observatory, Republic of South Africa (Solaris-1 and -2), Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (Solaris-3) and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, Argentina (Solaris-4). The headquarters coordinating and monitoring the network is based in Toruń, Poland. All four sites are operational as of December 2013. The instrument and hardware configurations are nearly identical. Each site is equipped with a 0.5-m Ritchey-Chrétien or Schmidt-Cassegrain optical tube assembly mounted on a direct-drive modified German equatorial mount along with a set of instruments. Computer, power and networking components are installed in rack cabinets. Everything is housed in sandwiched fiberglass clamshell 3.5-m diameter robotized domes. The Argentinian site is additionally equipped with a 20-ft office container. We discuss the design requirements of robotic observatories aimed to operate autonomously as a global network with concentration on efficiency, robustness and modularity. We also present a newly introduced spectroscopic mode of operation commissioned on the Solaris-1 telescope. Using a compact échelle spectrograph (20 000 resolution) mounted directly on the imaging train of the telescope, we are able to remotely acquire spectra. A fully robotic spectroscopic mode is planned for 2015.

  19. Toward a Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (United States)

    Kratz, T.; Arzberger, P.; Benson, B.; Chiu, C.; Chiu, K.; Ding, L.; Fountain, T.; Hamilton, D.; Hanson, P.; Hu, Y.; Lin, F.; McMullen, D.; Tilak, S.; Wu, C.


    The Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON; is a grassroots network of limnologists, information technology experts, and engineers who have a common goal of building a scalable, persistent, international network of lake ecology observatories. Data from these observatories will help us to better understand key issues such as the effects of climate and landuse change on lake function, the role of episodic events such as typhoons or mixing events in resetting lake dynamics, and carbon cycling within lakes. The observatories consist of instrumented platforms capable of sensing key limnological variables and moving the data in near-real time, often through wireless networks, to web-accessible databases. A common web portal is being developed to allow easy access to data and information by researchers and the public. A series of web services supported by this portal are being developed to allow automation of processes associated with instrument management and data quality assurance/quality control, and to allow computation of metrics based on the high frequency data. Such metrics include, for example, estimates of rates of important processes such as gross primary production and respiration, or physical stability of the water column. Lakes from the following locations are currently in the network: Australia, Canada, China, Finland, Israel, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom and the US. A global network of dozens or even hundreds of automated lake observatories, each collecting and transferring data in near real time, is within our grasp in the next decade, and will offer new opportunities in scientific collaboration and understanding of lake processes.

  20. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph


    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  1. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.


    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  2. Installation of LHC experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, F; Lacarrère, D; Osborne, J; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    Following handover by the civil engineering contractors, the new LHC experimental areas are being fitted-out with appropriate infrastructure and technical services. In parallel, and in order to make up for the short time available, the installation of the detectors has already started in the experimental caverns. In addition, the LHC machine installation now has a non-negligible impact on the experimental area activities. Four Experimental Area Teams have been set up in order to coordinate all this work, organize the logistic resources and ensure the proper safety of personnel and material. This paper will focus on the status of installation in all areas and define the technical challenges coming in the next months. Illustrations from the new areas at Point 1 and Point 5 will be presented and compared to those from existing areas at Point 2 and Point 8, custom built for and inherited from LEP. The successes and difficulties encountered so far will be reviewed and the conclusions that have been drawn from this...

  3. An EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Progress Report (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Blume, F.; Walls, C.; Coyle, B.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Phillips, D.; Hafner, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Dittmann, T.


    UNAVCO is building and operating the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project to understand the structure, dynamics, and evolution of the North American continent. When complete in October 2008, the 875 GPS, 103 strain and seismic, and 28 tiltmeters stations will comprise the largest integrated geodetic and seismic network in United States and the second largest in the world. Data from the PBO network will facilitate research into plate boundary deformation with unprecedented scope and detail. As of 1 September 2007, UNAVCO had completed 680 PBO GPS stations and had upgraded 89% of the planned PBO Nucleus stations. Highlights of the past year's work include the expansion of the Alaska subnetwork to 95 continuously-operating stations, including coverage of Akutan and Augustine volcanoes and reconnaissance for future installations on Unimak Island; the installation of nine new stations on Mt. St. Helens; and the arrival of 33 permits for station installations on BLM land in Nevada. The Augustine network provided critical data on magmatic and volcanic processes associated with the 2005-2006 volcanic crisis, and has expanded to a total of 11 stations. Please visit for further information on PBO GPS network construction activities. As of September 2007, 41 PBO borehole stations had been installed and three laser strainmeter stations were operating, with a total of 60 borehole stations and 4 laser strainmeters expected by October 2007. In response to direction from the EarthScope community, UNAVCO installed a dense network of six stations along the San Jacinto Fault near Anza, California; installed three of four planned borehole strainmeter stations on Mt. St. Helens; and has densified coverage of the Parkfield area. Please visit for more information on PBO strainmeter network construction progress. The combined PBO/Nucleus GPS network provides 350 GB of raw standard

  4. The Paris Observatory has 350 years (United States)

    Lequeux, James


    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  5. The eShel Spectrograph: A Radial-velocity Tool at the Wise Observatory (United States)

    Engel, M.; Shahaf, S.; Mazeh, T.


    The eShel, an off-the-shelf, fiber-fed echelle spectrograph (R≈ {{10,000}}), was installed on the 1 m telescope at the Wise observatory in Israel. We report the installation of the multi-order spectrograph, and describe our pipeline to extract stellar radial velocity from the obtained spectra. We also introduce a new algorithm—UNICOR, to remove radial-velocity systematics that can appear in some of the observed orders. We show that the system performance is close to the photon-noise limit for exposures with more than 107 counts, with a precision that can get better than 200 m s-1 for F-K stars, for which the eShel spectral response is optimal. This makes the eShel at Wise a useful tool for studying spectroscopic binaries brighter than m V = 11. We demonstrate this capability with orbital solutions of two binaries from projects being performed at Wise.

  6. The Enriched Xenon Observatory: EXO-200 and Ba+ tagging (United States)

    Dolinski, M. J.; EXO Collaboration


    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is a proposed ton-scale double beta decay experiment with a tentative design sensitivity to the Majorana mass of ˜10 meV. The first phase of EXO is EXO-200, which uses 200 kg of Xe enriched to 80% in 136Xe to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. EXO-200 is a liquid Xe time projection chamber with the ability to detect both scintillation and ionization signals. The detector is constructed from ultra-low background materials and is currently installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a salt mine with a 1600 meter water equivalent overburden. The projected 2 year sensitivity for EXO-200 is T1/20ν>6.4×1025 y at 90% confidence level. Looking toward a ton-scale EXO, one unique feature of the experiment is the proposal to identify the barium daughter produced by 136Xe double beta decay on an event-by-event basis. This technique will allow for the elimination of all backgrounds other than the background from the two-neutrino double beta decay spectrum. The EXO Collaboration is exploring a number of options to implement Ba-daughter tagging in the next generation EXO experiment.

  7. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.


    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  8. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch


    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  9. Project management of DAG: Eastern Anatolia Observatory (United States)

    Keskin, Onur; Yesilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Zago, Lorenzo; Guver, Tolga; Alis, Sinan


    The four meter DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory in Turkish) telescope is not only the largest telescope in Turkey but also the most promising telescope in the northern hemisphere with a large potential to offer scientific observations with its cutting edge technology. DAG is designed to be an AO telescope which will allow both infrared and visible observations with its two Nasmyth platforms dedicated to next generation focal plane instruments. In this paper, status updates from DAG telescope will be presented in terms of; (i) in house optical design of DAG, (ii) tender process of telescope, (iii) tender process of enclosure, and (iv) tender process of the observatory building. Also status updates from the focal plane instruments project and possible collaboration activities will be presented.

  10. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) (United States)

    Becklin, E. E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.


    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a program to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, has obtained first science with the FORCAST camera in the 5 to 40 micron spectral region and the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130 to 240 micron spectral region. We briefly review the characteristics and status of the observatory. Spectacular science results on regions of star formation will be discussed. The FORCAST images show several discoveries and the potential for determining how massive stars form in our Galaxy. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer has made mapping observations of the [C II] line at 158 microns, high J CO lines, and other molecular lines including SH. The HIPO high speed photometer and the high speed camera FDC were used to observe the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto.

  11. Beyond the Observatory: Reflections on the Centennial (United States)

    Devorkin, D. H.


    One of the many unexpected side-benefits of acting as editor of the AAS centennial volume was the chance to take a fresh look at some of the personalities who helped to shape the American Astronomical Society. A common characteristic of these people was their energy, compassion and drive to go "Beyond the Observatory," to borrow a phrase from Harlow Shapley. But what did going `beyond the observatory' mean to Shapley, or to the others who shaped and maintained the Society in its first one hundred years of life? Just as the discipline of astronomy has changed in profound ways in the past century, so has the American Astronomical Society changed, along with the people who have been its leaders and its sustainers and the culture that has fostered it. The Centennial meeting of the Society offers a chance to reflect on the people who have given American astronomy its sense of community identity.

  12. Grid Based Chinese Virtual Observatory System Design (United States)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yongheng

    Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) project is a consortium initiated by Chinese National Astronomical Observatory and Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope project. A three-layer architecture of the China-VO is described which depends upon the Open Grid Services Architecture being developed by the Global Grid Forum. The fabric layer mainly consists of astronomical datasets with corresponding metadate and data access services. The resource layer includes a large scale of services for grid resource management data interoperation data mining security logical name space and so on. The application layer consists of user interfaces and other client services. In the China-VO system all the functional components are SOAP Grid service implementations. Chinese National Grid (CNGrid) will be the testbed for the China-VO. How to interact with other CNGrid components is also discussed.

  13. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation. (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  14. Multifunctional Heat Pump Installation for Dairy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.


    Full Text Available The article presents the installation based on the approach using the integration of the carbon dioxide heat pump in pasteurization and cooling installation for milk and in installations for preparing of hot and "icy" water. The scheme differs from the prototype by the use of additional heat exchangers and of their connection to the main elements of the installation. A proposed technique of elements connection in the heat pump installation permits to compensate the effect of temperature of cold water supply source, which is low-grade heat source for the heat pump, on the quality the work of the installation. The design of the installation enables to compensate the impact of seasonal variation of water temperature. The installation ensures the COP = 5.3.

  15. The University of Texas Millimeter Wave Observatory (United States)

    Vanden Bout, Paul A.; Davis, John H.; Loren, Robert B.


    This is an account of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO), a 4.9 m diameter antenna facility that pioneered continuum observations of planets and spectroscopy of interstellar molecules from 1971 to 1988. The circumstances of its founding, development of its instrumentation, and major research contributions are discussed. The MWO role in training of personnel in this new field is illustrated by a listing of student and postdoctoral observers, with titles of PhD theses that included MWO data.

  16. Scientific results obtained by the Busot observatory (United States)

    García-Lozano, R.; Rodes, J. J.; Torrejón, J. M.; Bernabéu, G.; Berná, J. Á.


    We present the discovery of three new W UMa systems by our group as a part of a photometric follow-up of variable stars carried out with the Busot observatory 36 cm robotic telescope in collaboration with the X-ray astronomy group at University of Alicante (Alicante, Spain). Specifically we show the high limiting magnitude to detect moving objects (V˜ 21 mag), and the high stability and accuracy attained in photometry which allow us to measure very shallow planet transits.

  17. Toward a Space based Gravitational Wave Observatory (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin T.


    A space-based GW observatory will produce spectacular science. The LISA mission concept: (a) Long history, (b) Very well-studied, including de-scopes, (c) NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Plan calls for a minority role in ESAs L3 mission opportunity. To that end, NASA is Participating in LPF and ST7 Developing appropriate technology for a LISA-like mission Preparing to seek an endorsement for L3 participation from the 2020 decadal review.

  18. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories (United States)

    Harwit, Martin


    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  19. Automated solar collector installation design (United States)

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules


    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  20. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic


    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  1. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  2. Exploring remote operation for ALMA Observatory (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Ovando, Nicolás.; Velez, Gaston; Fuica, Soledad; Schemrl, Anton; Robles, Andres; Ibsen, Jorge; Filippi, Giorgio; Pietriga, Emmanuel


    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. The observatory has another office located in Santiago of Chile, 1600 km from the Chajnantor plain. In the Atacama desert, the wonderful observing conditions imply precarious living conditions and extremely high operation costs: i.e: flight tickets, hospitality, infrastructure, water, electricity, etc. It is clear that a purely remote operational model is impossible, but we believe that a mixture of remote and local operation scheme would be beneficial to the observatory, not only in reducing the cost but also in increasing the observatory overall efficiency. This paper describes the challenges and experience gained in such experimental proof of the concept. The experiment was performed over the existing 100 Mbps bandwidth, which connects both sites through a third party telecommunication infrastructure. During the experiment, all of the existent capacities of the observing software were validated successfully, although room for improvement was clearly detected. Network virtualization, MPLS configuration, L2TPv3 tunneling, NFS adjustment, operational workstations design are part of the experiment.

  3. A robotic observatory in the city (United States)

    Ruch, Gerald T.; Johnston, Martin E.


    The University of St. Thomas (UST) Observatory is an educational facility integrated into UST's undergraduate curriculum as well as the curriculum of several local schools. Three characteristics combine to make the observatory unique. First, the telescope is tied directly to the support structure of a four-story parking ramp instead of an isolated pier. Second, the facility can be operated remotely over an Internet connection and is capable of performing observations without a human operator. Third, the facility is located on campus in the heart of a metropolitan area where light pollution is severe. Our tests indicate that, despite the lack of an isolated pier, vibrations from the ramp do not degrade the image quality at the telescope. The remote capability facilitates long and frequent observing sessions and allows others to use the facility without traveling to UST. Even with the high background due to city lights, the sensitivity and photometric accuracy of the system are sufficient to fulfill our pedagogical goals and to perform a variety of scientific investigations. In this paper, we outline our educational mission, provide a detailed description of the observatory, and discuss its performance characteristics.

  4. Sprinkler System Installer. Occupational Analyses Series. (United States)

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a sprinkler system installer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as pipefitter--fire protection mechanic specialty; sprinkler and fire protection installer; sprinkler and fire protection systems installer; and sprinkler fitter. A guide to analysis discusses…

  5. The Cincinnati Observatory as a Research Instrument for Undergraduate Research (United States)

    Abel, Nicholas; Regas, Dean; Flateau, Davin C.; Larrabee, Cliff


    The Cincinnati Observatory, founded in 1842, was the first public observatory in the Western Hemisphere. The history of Cincinnati is closely intertwined with the history of the Observatory, and with the history of science in the United States. Previous directors of the Observatory helped to create the National Weather Service, the Minor Planet Center, and the first astronomical journal in the U.S. The Cincinnati Observatory was internationally known in the late 19th century, with Jules Verne mentioning the Cincinnati Observatory in two of his books, and the Observatory now stands as a National Historic Landmark.No longer a research instrument, the Observatory is now a tool for promoting astronomy education to the general public. However, with the 11" and 16" refracting telescopes, the Observatory telescopes are very capable of collecting data to fuel undergraduate research projects. In this poster, we will discuss the history of the Observatory, types of student research projects capable with the Cincinnati Observatory, future plans, and preliminary results. The overall goal of this project is to produce a steady supply of undergraduate students collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, and thereby introduce them to the techniques and methodology of an astronomer at an early stage of their academic career.

  6. TMT approach to observatory software development process (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder


    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  7. How to control a temporary DIDD based observatory in the field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Csontos


    Full Text Available One of the main challenges on the course of the repeat station surveys is to determine the spatial differences of the geomagnetic elements between the repeat stations and the reference observatory. The difficulty arises from the fact, that the directly obtained differences are affected not only by spatial but also by temporal effects of external origin. The error deriving from the external effects can be efficiently diminished by the installation of an on-site vector variometer. In this case the spatial difference can be computed for night-time period, when the external field is less varying (both spatially and temporally than during daytime. Installation of the on-site variometer in the field requires the fulfillment of nearly the same conditions as in the observatories, i.e. the control of the reference frame, the scale factors, the offsets, and the temperature effects of the magnetometer. The principle of the fluxgate and DIDD magnetometers is quite different from each other, therefore the two devices provide different possibilities to obtain accurate result. The paper discusses some of the possible instrumental errors and offers a method based on the DIDD technology for the determination of the reference frame of a portable recording station. We analyse real records measured during the joint Hungarian-Croatian repeat station survey.

  8. Wind profiler installed in Antarctica (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.; Carey, J.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; Urbina, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ragaini, E.

    A VHF (50 MHz) wind profiler was installed in Antarctica at the Peruvian Base “Machu Picchu” on King George Island from January 21 to 26. The wind profiler will provide a first look at atmospheric dynamics over the region.The profiler—the first of its kind in Antarctica—is a National Science Foundationsponsored cooperative project of the University of Colorado, the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the University of Piura (Peru), and the Peruvian Navy. This venture was also greatly facilitated by Peru's Comision Nacional de Asuntos Antartidos and Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnologia, with additional logis tics support provided by the Argentinean Navy and the Uruguayan Air Force.

  9. Device for installing rocket engines (United States)

    George, T. R., Jr. (Inventor)


    A device for installing rocket engines is reported that is supported at a cant relative to vertical by an axially extensible, tiltable pedestal. A lifting platform supports the rocket engine at its thrust chamber exit, including a mount having a concentric base characterized by a concave bearing surface, a plurality of uniformly spaced legs extended radially from the base, and an annular receiver coaxially aligned with the base and affixed to the distal ends of said legs for receiving the thrust chamber exit. The lifting platform rests on a seat concentrically related to the pedestal and affixed to an extended end portion thereof having a convex bearing surface mated in sliding engagement with the concave bearing surface of the annular base for accommodating a rocking motion of the platform.

  10. IPY Data Management - How one can deploy a virtual observatory in cyberspace? (United States)

    Papitashvili, V. O.


    Proliferation of global observing systems and distributed scientific and operational databases challenges human abilities to comprehend effectively ever increasing volume of information about the Earth and geospace. At the same time, better communication and advent of the Internet and World Wide Web provide effective means for development of sophisticated search engines capable of identifying discipline-specific data on the Web and then retrieving requested intervals for scientific analyses or practical applications. By analogy with physical observatories deployed over the Globe and in Geospace, a concept of "Virtual Observatory" has been introduced where a personal computer can serve as an "observing" instrument that retrieves specific data from remote Internet servers and data provider nodes. Thus, collecting astronomical data from many telescopes located elsewhere in the World (and even in space) via the Internet, one can turn his/her computer to a great telescope equivalent to Hubble or Mauna Kea world-class instruments. Similar approach can turn personal computers into global magnetic, atmospheric, oceanographic, ecological (you name it!) observatories if the data from corresponding disciplines are available from the World Wide Web. Thus, we postulate here that a "Virtual Observatory" can only be deployed in cyberspace if a discipline-specific data structure (primitive or sophisticated) becomes available electronically - that is, if the appropriate "data fabric" is created in cyberspace, making itself available for search and retrieval by any software (or middleware) packages developed and installed at a single (i.e., portal-based) Internet server or at a number of personal computers (nodes) with open FTP or HTTP (or SSL and S-HTTP) ports through which specific scientific data are provided. (Generally speaking, these data may not be necessarily "scientific"; the proposed concept is applicable for "Virtual Corporation" or "Virtual Retailer" networks as well

  11. GAIA virtual observatory - development and practices (United States)

    Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Marple, Steve


    The Global Auroral Imaging Access, or GAIA, is a virtual observatory providing quick access to summary data from satellite and ground-based instruments that remote sense auroral precipitation ( This web-based service facilitates locating data relevant to particular events by simultaneously displaying summary images from various data sets around the world. At the moment, there are GAIA server nodes in Canada, Finland, Norway and the UK. The development is an international effort and the software and metadata are freely available. The GAIA system is based on a relational database which is queried by a dedicated software suite that also creates the graphical end-user interface if such is needed. Most commonly, the virtual observatory is used interactively by using a web browser: the user provides the date and the type of data of interest. As the summary data from multiple instruments are displayed simultaneously, the user can conveniently explore the recorded data. The virtual observatory provides essentially instant access to the images originating from all major auroral instrument networks including THEMIS, NORSTAR, GLORIA and MIRACLE. The scientific, educational and outreach use is limited by creativity rather than access. The first version of the GAIA was developed at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) in 2004-2005. This proof-of-concept included mainly THEMIS and MIRACLE data, which comprised of millions of summary plots and thumbnail images. However, it was soon realised that a complete re-design was necessary to increase flexibility. In the presentation, we will discuss the early history and motivation of GAIA as well as how the development continued towards the current version. The emphasis will be on practical problems and their solutions. Relevant design choices will also be highlighted.

  12. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.


    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  13. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) (United States)

    Wolf, J.


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, will carry a 3-meter-class telescope onboard a Boeing 747SP aircraft to altitudes of 41,000 to 45,000 ft, above most of the atmosphere's IR-absorbing water vapor. The telescope was developed and built in Germany and has been delivered to the U.S. in September 2002. The integration into the B747SP has been com- pleted and functional tests are under way in Waco, Texas. In early 2005 flight-testing of the observatory will initially be dedi-cated to the re-certification of the modified aircraft, then performance tests of the telescope and the electronics and data systems will commence. Later in 2005 after transferring to its home base, NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, SOFIA will start astrophysical observations. A suite of specialized infrared cameras and spectrometers covering wave-lengths between 1 and 600 ?m is being developed by U.S. and German science institutions. In addition to the infrared instruments, a high-speed visible range CCD camera will use the airborne observatory to chase the shadows of celestial bodies during occultations. Once SOFIA will be in routine operations with a planned observing schedule of up to 960 hours at altitude per year, it might also be available as a platform to serendipitous observations not using the main telescope, such as recordings of meteor streams or the search for extra-solar planets transiting their central stars. These are areas of research in which amateur astronomers with relatively small telescopes and state-of-the-art imaging equipment can contribute.

  14. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.


    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  15. The First 50 Years of Konkoly Observatory (United States)

    Balazs, Lajos G.; Vargha, Magda; Zsoldos, Endre

    The second half of the 19th century experienced a revolution in astronomy. It coincided with a new start of professional astronomy in Hungary through the work of Miklós Konkoly Thege (1842-1916) who is considered as a pioneer of current astrophysical activity in our country. He played an outstanding role in organizing scientific life and institutions, too. He started observations in his newly founded Observatory at Ógyalla in 1871. Sunspots were regularly observed in the observatory from 1872. In 1874 Konkoly began regular spectroscopic observations of comets and emphasized the importance of parallel laboratory works. An important field of Konkoly's astronomical activity was the observation of surface patterns of planets, particularly that of Jupiter and Mars. Spectroscopic observations of stars were also a significant part of the activity of Ógyalla Observatory. In the last period of the Konkoly era (starting in 1899) stellar photometry became the main field of research. At the end of WW I the institute was moved to Budapest Ógyalla and started a new life based on a completely new infrastructure: “... all era are followed by a new one, with its new tasks, in which the scope of activity changes correspondingly, in which enthusiasm is mostly manifested. It was different in the forties when our nation found itself following the word of the founder of our Academy, it was different in the fifties and sixties when we have to defend our nation against foreign aggression, and it became different since the sixties when, our existence being guarantied, we also have to make an effort, beside strengthening it, to get as distinguished a position among the civilized nations as possible.”

  16. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field. (United States)

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B


    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  17. The stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate and other dissolved carbon species in deep subseafloor sediments at the northern Cascadia Margin (United States)

    Heuer, Verena B.; Pohlman, John W.; Torres, Marta E.; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Ocean drilling has revealed the existence of vast microbial populations in the deep subseafloor, but to date little is known about their metabolic activities. To better understand the biogeochemical processes in the deep biosphere, we investigate the stable carbon isotope chemistry of acetate and other carbon-bearing metabolites in sediment pore-waters. Acetate is a key metabolite in the cycling of carbon in anoxic sediments. Its stable carbon isotopic composition provides information on the metabolic processes dominating acetate turnover in situ. This study reports our findings for a methane-rich site at the northern Cascadia Margin (NE Pacific) where Expedition 311 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampled the upper 190 m of sediment. At Site U1329, δ13C values of acetate span a wide range from -46.0‰ to -11.0‰ vs. VPDB and change systematically with sediment depth. In contrast, δ13C values of both the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (-21.6 ± 1.3‰ vs. VPDB) and the low-molecular-weight compound lactate (-20.9 ± 1.8‰ vs. VPDB) show little variability. These species are interpreted to represent the carbon isotopic composition of fermentation products. Relative to DOC, acetate is up to 23.1‰ depleted and up to 9.1‰ enriched in 13C. Broadly, 13C-depletions of acetate relative to DOC indicate flux of carbon from acetogenesis into the acetate pool while 13C-enrichments of pore-water acetate relative to DOC suggest consumption of acetate by acetoclastic methanogenesis. Isotopic relationships between acetate and lactate or DOC provide new information on the carbon flow and the presence and activity of specific functional microbial communities in distinct biogeochemical horizons of the sediment. In particular, they suggest that acetogenic CO 2-reduction can coexist with methanogenic CO 2-reduction, a notion contrary to the hypothesis that hydrogen levels are controlled by the thermodynamically most favorable electron-accepting process

  18. Didactic applications of remote and robotic observatories (United States)

    Vaquerizo, J. A.; Cabezas, D. H.; Cesar Team; Partner Team


    Nowadays the use of remote and robotic observatories for astronomy education and public outreach has become a reality. Students can access these resources from their schools by using the Internet, regardless of the geographic location. Teachers have a wide range of educational and outreach projects that can be implemented in the classroom. In the present work we display, from a general point of view, the most common approaches adopted, as well as, in particular, the potential synergies between them. As an example of this, we present the new CESAR project and the synergies with PARTNeR project.

  19. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Progress and Diversions (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Bogart, R. S.; Amezcua, A.; Hill, Frank; Oien, Niles; Davey, Alisdair R.; Hourcle, Joseph; Mansky, E.; Spencer, Jennifer L.


    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is a known and useful method for identifying and accessing solar physics data online. We review current "behind the scenes" work on the VSO, including the addition of new data providers and the return of access to data sets to which service was temporarily interrupted. We also report on the effect on software development efforts when government IT “security” initiatives impinge on finite resoruces. As always, we invite SPD members to identify data sets, services, and interfaces they would like to see implemented in the VSO.

  20. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo


    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (, Citclops (, COBWEB (, OMNISCIENTIS (, and WeSenseIt ( Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  1. Low Energy Investigations at Kamioka Observatory


    Sekiya, Hiroyuki


    At Kamioka Observatory many activities for low energy rare event search are ongoing. Super-Kamiokande(SK), the largest water Cherenkov neutrino detector, currently continues data taking as the fourth phase of the experiment (SK-IV). In SK-IV, we have upgraded the water purification system and tuned water flow in the SK tank. Consequently the background level was lowered significantly. This allowed SK-IV to derive solar neutrino results down to 3.5MeV energy region. With these data, neutrino o...

  2. Astronomical analysis of the taosi observatory site (United States)

    Liu, C. Y.


    An ancient observatory was unearthed recently at Taosi site. This paper discussed the figure of the relic, analyzed the relationship between the 12 backsights and calendar date using astronomical method, and compared the simulated observation with theoretic computation. The investigation shows that backsight E2---E12 indicated the directions of sunrise in the whole year, which were roughly equally distributed and offered an unequal calendar system. The backsight E1 indicated the south-end of the moonrise, giving a time symbol of 18---19 years. This building must be a complex of solar observation, time service, solar worship, and sacrificial ritual

  3. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos


    Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  4. Assessing the Contribution of Superconducting Gravimetry and GPS to Lunar Laser Ranging at Apache Point Observatory, New Mexico (United States)

    Crossley, D. J.; Murphy, T.; Borsa, A. A.; Boy, J. P.


    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) is one of the main techniques used to test fundamental aspects of theories of the general relativity by monitoring the Earth-Moon distance to high accuracy. A current limitation of the APO processing is knowledge of the deformation of the telescope orientation at the sub-cm level in response to local loading and attraction effects. To this end in 2009 a superconducting gravimeter was installed at the Apache Point Observatory (APO), close to one of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS sites at the Sunspot solar observatory. APO is also visited regularly for AG measurements by the NGA. We present a comprehensive analysis of the 7 years of gravity data from APO, and the height variations from GPS, to give accurate estimates of the local elastic parameters and vertical variations common to both sites. By including the full spectrum (e.g. from tides, polar motion, and hydrology) of known loading and surface mass variability effects on gravity and GPS, we assess the vertical control that such geodetic techniques can bring to LLR measurements, and by extension, to other astronomical installations.

  5. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations (United States)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.


    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  6. S-net project: Construction of large scale seafloor observatory network for tsunamis and earthquakes in Japan (United States)

    Mochizuki, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimbo, T.; Shiomi, K.; Kunugi, T.; Aoi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Takahashi, N.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.


    National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience ( NIED ) has launched the project of constructing an observatory network for tsunamis and earthquakes on the seafloor. The observatory network was named "S-net, Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench". The S-net consists of 150 seafloor observatories which are connected in line with submarine optical cables. The total length of submarine optical cable is about 5,700 km. The S-net system extends along Kuril and Japan trenches around Japan islands from north to south covering the area between southeast off island of Hokkaido and off the Boso Peninsula, Chiba Prefecture. The project has been financially supported by MEXT Japan. An observatory package is 34cm in diameter and 226cm long. Each observatory equips two units of a high sensitive water-depth sensor as a tsunami meter and four sets of three-component seismometers. The water-depth sensor has measurement resolution of sub-centimeter level. Combination of multiple seismometers secures wide dynamic range and robustness of the observation that are needed for early earthquake warning. The S-net is composed of six segment networks that consists of about 25 observatories and 800-1,600km length submarine optical cable. Five of six segment networks except the one covering the outer rise area of the Japan Trench has been already installed. The data from the observatories on those five segment networks are being transferred to the data center at NIED on a real-time basis, and then verification of data integrity are being carried out at the present moment. Installation of the last segment network of the S-net, that is, the outer rise one is scheduled to be finished within FY2016. Full-scale operation of the S-net will start at FY2017. We will report construction and operation of the S-net submarine cable system as well as the outline of the obtained data in this presentation.

  7. Establishing a Critical Zone Observatory site in Turkey (United States)

    Demir, Gokben; Akyurek, Zuhal; Binley, Andrew; Yucel, Ismail; Kentel, Elcin; Merzi, Nuri; Yilmaz, Tugrul; Yanmaz, Melih


    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the planetary veneer that extends from the air above our treetops to the layers of rocks below, which supports human activity. This includes life-sustaining resources for energy, food, and water. The CZ also includes places where we dispose and store toxic materials, and expose to other contaminants. The fate of change in the CZ is important to the government and business planners to help respond to effects of disease, drought, and land degradation in agricultural and urban settings. Critical Zone Observatory's are outdoor laboratories that are highly instrumented and becoming integrated into a global network. Turkey has a diversified landscape, representing most terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. Turkey is unique because some regions have been subject to high-impact human influence for thousands of years. This millennial-scale anthropogenic affect on the CZ does not exist at most other CZO's. In this study the establishment of a CZO at a basin located in the south part of Turkey which the instrumentation that has been already completed is presented. The mean altitude of the basin is 1601 m and it has 526km2 area. The cherry trees along the river, agricultural areas and the natural vegetation composed of pasture and shrub are the main land cover in the basin. The brown forest and brown soil are the main soil types. The basin has a complex geology. There are two main tributaries of the stream: one of them is fed by gypsum ground waters and mine drainage and the other one is fed by shallow fresh ground water. Three meteorological stations were established within this project at 1246 m, 1580m and 1790m. At these stations besides the meteorological variables, soil water content are measured. The discharge observations are carried out at three discharge observation stations where the water stage, temperature and electrical conductivity values are measured. A CRS200B soil moisture probe is installed at 1459 m and the soil water content is

  8. OAdM robotic observatory: solutions for an unattended small-class observatory (United States)

    Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Fernández, D.; Francisco, X.; Isern, J.; Palau, X.; Torra, J.


    The Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM) is a small-class observatory working on a completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is, then, mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by the confidence reached to respond to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. There are key problems to solve when a robotic control is envisaged. Learned lessons and solutions to these issues at the OAdM are discussed here. We present a description of the general control software (SW) and several SW packages developed. The general control SW specially protects the system at the identified single points of failure and makes a distributed control of any subsystem, which are able to respond independently when an alarm is triggered on thanks to a top-down control flow. Specific SW packages developed are: an environment monitoring SW, a set of alarm routines, a pipeline for calibration and analysis of the images taken, and an observation scheduler. All together compose a SW suite designed to reach the complete robotization of an observatory.

  9. Donald Menzel: His Founding and Funding of Solar Observatories. (United States)

    Welther, B. L.


    In January 1961 Donald Menzel wrote to his cousin, M. H. Bruckman, "I am proudest of the observatories that I have built in the West." The first of those facilities, a solar observatory, was founded in 1940 in Colorado and later came to be known as the High Altitude Observatory. The second one, also a solar observatory, was founded a dozen years later at Sacramento Peak in New Mexico. The third facility, however, established at Fort Davis, Texas, was the Harvard Radio Astronomy Observatory. Although Menzel was primarily a theoretical astrophysicist, renowned for his studies of the solar chromosphere, he was also an entrepreneur who had a talent for developing observatories and coping with numerous setbacks in funding and staffing. Where many others would have failed, Menzel succeeded in mentoring colleagues and finding sources of financial support. This paper will draw primarily on letters and other materials in the Harvard University Archives.

  10. Mechanical Overview of the International X-Ray Observatory (United States)

    Robinson, David W.; McClelland, Ryan S.


    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a new collaboration between NASA, ESA, and JAXA which is under study for launch in 2020. IXO will be a large 6600 kilogram Great Observatory-class mission which will build upon the legacies of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. It combines elements from NASA's Constellation-X program and ESA's XEUS program. The observatory will have a 20-25 meter focal length, which necessitates the use of a deployable instrument module. Currently the project is actively trading configurations and layouts of the various instruments and spacecraft components. This paper will provide a snapshot of the latest observatory configuration under consideration and summarize the observatory from the mechanical engineering perspective.

  11. The rockfall observatory in the Reintal, Wetterstein Massif, German Alps (United States)

    Schöpa, Anne; Turowski, Jens M.; Hovius, Niels


    The Reintal is an Alpine valley in the Wetterstein Massif close to the Zugspitze, Germany's highest mountain. Due to the variety of active geomorphic processes, including rockfalls off the steep limestone cliffs, debris flows, and snow avalanches, and the river Partnach, the Reintal has been the field area of many geomorphological and hydrological research campaigns over the last few decades. In 2014, the Geomorphology Section of the GFZ Potsdam started to install a monitoring network to detect and classify rockfalls in the Reintal. The network includes six seismic stations, optical and infrared cameras, and two weather stations measuring air and rock temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. The continuous observations of the network are supplemented by repeated field campaigns including terrestrial laser scans of a prominent rockfall niche at the Hochwanner mountain. The about 1,500 m high north face of the Hochwanner experienced the detachment of a 2.8 Mio m3 rockfall about 500 years ago that created the so-called Steingerümpel (German for rock debris deposit) and dammed the river Partnach. The cliff still shows high rockfall activity, and an 80,000 m3 block can be expected to fall in the near future. In this contribution, the layout of the observatory and details of the seismic network centered around the Hochwanner north face are described. Furthermore, the network data of a severe thunderstorm event in June 2016, that triggered many rockfalls and debris flows in the Reintal, is presented.

  12. VESPA: Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory in H2020 (United States)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Capria, M. T.; Rossi, A. P.; Schmitt, B.; Andre, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Maattanen, A. E.; Thuillot, W.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolik, O.; Benson, K.


    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA). A general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames [1]. A procedure has been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris (, using a resolver for target names. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol. The Europlanet H2020 program started in Sept 2015 will provide support to new data services in Europe (30 to 50 expected), and focus on the improvement of the infrastructure. Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data. The Europlanet H2020 project is funded by the European Commission under the H2020 Program, grant 654208. [1] Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014

  13. Historical Heliophysical Series of the Ebro Observatory (United States)

    Curto, J. J.; Solé, J. G.; Genescà, M.; Blanca, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.


    We present the contents of the historical heliophysical series collected at the Ebro Observatory, as well as the actions carried out to restore and save these data and to conserve the physical media containing the data and the telescopes that helped to obtain them. We also discuss the results obtained with these measurements, describe how we disseminated them, and report on the investigations that we have carried out with this information. We show the evolution of the local solar indices such as the Ebro Sunspot Number (ESN), the Ebro Group Sunspot Number (EGSN), or the Ebro Sunspot Area (ESA), which are derived directly from our data. For verification purposes, these local solar indices have been compared to the international sunspot numbers published by SILSO. Our data are reliable and correlate well with the respective international series. Finally, as an example of the possibilities that the Ebro series offer, we explain the use of these data to elucidate one of the recent problems in solar physics: the discontinuity in international data known as the Waldmeier discontinuity and, in general, the ratio between sunspots and sunspot groups. In the Ebro Observatory series, no discontinuity such as this is detected. We instead observe a rather stable ratio in the spot or group rates. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis of Svalgaard (2010, ASP CS-428, 297) that the Waldmeier discontinuity is produced only on a procedural level, perhaps by a change in the criteria used in Zürich by Waldmeier or by changing external conditions.

  14. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories (United States)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron


    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  15. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Nofi, Larissa


    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its tenth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. Strong collaborations, the new Ph.D. program at Northern Arizona University, and cooperative links across the greater Flagstaff astronomical community create a powerful multi-institutional locus in northern Arizona. Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is operating at full science capacity and boasts some of the most cutting-edge and exciting capabilities available in optical/infrared astronomy. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. For more information, see and links therein. Applications for Fall 2018 are due by May 1, 2018; alternate application dates will be considered on an individual basis.

  16. Enabling Virtual Access to Latin-American Southern Observatories (United States)

    Filippi, G.


    EVALSO (Enabling Virtual Access to Latin-American Southern Observatories) is an international consortium of nine astronomical organisations and research network operators, part-funded under the European Commission FP7, to create and exploit high-speed bandwidth connections to South American observatories. A brief description of the project is presented. The EVALSO Consortium inaugurated a fibre link between the Paranal Observatory and international networks on 4 November 2010 capable of 10 Gigabit per second.

  17. Anticipating Climate Change Impacts on Army Installations (United States)


    ER D C SR -1 1- 1 Anticipating Climate Change Impacts on Army Installations Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo...distribution is unlimited. ERDC SR-11-1 October 2011 Anticipating Climate Change Impacts on Army Installations Robert C. Lozar, Matthew D...Abstract Military installations must be maintained and managed to provide appropriate training and testing opportunities. As climate changes

  18. Modern electrical installation for craft students

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian


    Modern Electrical Installation for Craft Students, Volume 2, Third Edition discusses several topics concerning electrical installations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that deal with craft theory, associated subjects, and electrical industries. Chapter 1 covers inductors and inductance, while Chapter 2 tackles capacitors and capacitance. Chapter 3 deals with inductance and capacitance in installation work. The book also discusses cells, batteries, and transformers. The electrical industries, control and earthing, and testing are also dealt with. The last chapter discusses the basic el

  19. Planetary Science with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) (United States)

    Reach, William T.; SOFIA Science Mission Operations


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is executing observations as part of its 5th annual proposal cycle. This poster compiles some scientific highlights from observations to date, lists pending observations, and statistically summarizes guest observer participation in SOFIA. We have observed comets, asteroids, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Kuiper Belt Objects, and extrasolar planets. Infrared obsrvations from our observatory have been used to characterize surfaces, atmospheres, and dust. We describe the observatory capabilities, highlighting our scientific instrument in development. We describe future capabilities of the observatory, to encourage new proposals that can utilize this unique facility for planetary science.

  20. Automated identification of installed malicious Android applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guido, Mark; Ondricek, Jared; Grover, Justin; Wilburn, David; Nguyen, Thanh; Hunt, Andrew


    Increasingly, Android smartphones are becoming more pervasive within the government and industry, despite the limited ways to detect malicious applications installed to these phones' operating systems...

  1. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)


    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  2. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  3. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (United States)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.


    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  4. The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica

  5. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  6. Benchmarking the Performance of Solar Installers and Rooftop Photovoltaic Installations in California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dadi Wang


    Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems are rapidly proliferating around the world. Whether the PV systems have been efficiently installed is an issue of utmost importance for both solar installers and policymakers...

  7. DORIS research activities at Geodetic Observatory Pecny (United States)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Filler, Vratislav; Buday, Michal


    Geodesy Observatory Pecný (GOP) provides one of the International DORIS Service (IDS) analyses centers, participating on the combined IDS products including the solution for ITRF2014. As the unique approach, GOP employs a DORIS-developed version of the Bernese GPS Software. The recent research focuses on several topics. Our experiment, based on 9 year of data, shows a possibility to reach LOD estimation accuracy close to 0.1 msec per day (compared to reference IERS C04 model), when not adjusting the cross-track harmonics in the Satellite orbit model. We also compare different preprocessing strategies and data weighting and discuss the impact on the solution accuracy and on the scale bias. Moreover, we present the initial results of the station clock modelling from the DORIS/pseudorange measurements.

  8. Virtual Observatory: From Concept to Implementation (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Williams, R.


    We review the origins of the Virtual Observatory (VO) concept, and the current status of the efforts in this field. VO is the response of the astronomical community to the challenges posed by the modern massive and complex data sets. It is a framework in which information technology is harnessed to organize, maintain, and explore the rich information content of the exponentially growing data sets, and to enable a qualitatively new science to be done with them. VO will become a complete, open, distributed, web-based framework for astronomy of the early 21st century. A number of significant efforts worldwide are now striving to convert this vision into reality. The technological and methodological challenges posed by the information-rich astronomy are also common to many other fields. We see a fundamental change in the way all science is done, driven by the information technology revolution.

  9. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.


    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  10. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos


    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  11. A possible Harappan Astronomical Observatory at Dholavira

    CERN Document Server

    Vahia, Mayank N


    Astronomy arises very early in a civilization and evolves as the civilization advances. It is therefore reasonable to assume that a vibrant knowledge of astronomy would have been a feature of a civilization the size of the Harappan Civilization. We suggest that structures dedicated to astronomy existed in every major Harappan city. One such city was Dholavira, an important trading port that was located on an island in what is now the Rann of Kutch during the peak of the Harappan Civilization. We have analyzed an unusual structure at Dholavira that includes two circular rooms. Upon assuming strategically-placed holes in their ceilings we examine the internal movement of sunlight within these rooms and suggest that the larger structure of which they formed a part could have functioned as an astronomical observatory.

  12. Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs) (United States)

    Livas, Jeff


    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  13. Vocabulary for Virtual Observatories and Data Systems (United States)

    Hourcle, J. A.; King, T. A.


    Virtual Observatories and other unifying data systems have been forming in nearly every science discipline. As is common in any field, language evolves to discuss the concepts, but it may evolve differently when commnities don't intercommunicate. In order to discuss our organizations and data systems across disciplines, we must have a clear language to be able to communicate information about our systems and the content within our systems. We present common terms and definitions used in earth and space informatics when discussing science archives, search systems, services and other data system components. One benefit of a common vocabulary is to help those who implement science data systems to easily recognize other efforts with a common purpose. A common vocabulary is also useful in identifying analogous terms in other related fields such as computer science and information science. We also solicit input on problematic terms that people have encountered, particularly where there is lack of agreement on the definition between various disciplines.

  14. The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt) experiment (United States)

    Carretti, E.

    We present the Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt), an experiment aimed at measuring the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP) on large angular scales, scales on which the information about the formation epoch of the first structrures (e.g. galaxies) reside. SPOrt is an ASI funded programme and has been selected by ESA to be flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It consists of four radiometers in the 22-90 GHz range and it will be the first space experiment expressly devoted to polarization measurements of CMB. In particular it has been designed to minimize systematic effects at a level negligible for CMBP, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower the CMB anisotropy signal, main target of experiments like WMAP and PLANCK. The experiment will be presented in both its two relevant aspects: scientific goals and design description with particular emphasis to its cleanness with respect to instrumental contaminations.

  15. Operational support and service concepts for observatories (United States)

    Emde, Peter; Chapus, Pierre


    The operational support and service for observatories aim at the provision, the preservation and the increase of the availability and performance of the entire structural, mechanical, drive and control systems of telescopes and the related infrastructure. The operational support and service levels range from the basic service with inspections, preventive maintenance, remote diagnostics and spare parts supply over the availability service with telephone hotline, online and on-site support, condition monitoring and spare parts logistics to the extended service with operations and site and facility management. For the level of improvements and lifecycle management support they consist of expert assessments and studies, refurbishments and upgrades including the related engineering and project management activities.

  16. The UK Virtual Observatory - Adding Planetary Data (United States)

    Allan, Peter

    The UK has built a virtual observatory called AstroGrid. Using this facility, scientists can already get access to a wide range of data on traditional astronomy, the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics (STP). This paper describes the AstroGrid system and what would be involved in adding access to planetary data to those already on offer. In recent years, there have been activities in several countries to create what are known as virtual observatories. The idea is that you should be able to easily get to all of the astronomical data that exist from your desktop computer. You do not need to know that specific data exist and you do not need to know where these data reside. In order to make this possible, it is essential that data archives and software that accesses those archives is built around a set of internationally agreed standards. These standards have been developed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A data archive that adheres to these standards can publish data on the internet to registries of resources that client software can search. The AstroGrid software developed in the UK adheres to these standards and provides a comprehensive set of services for data archives to provide dataset access, registries of data holdings, virtual file stores, communities of users, workflow for execution of complex grid applications and an environment into which pre-existing data processing applications can be plugged. There is also client software for searching registries and remote data archives, accessing the remote data, and a basic set of tools for displaying and analysing those data. AstroGrid is unique amongst virtual observatories in that it includes major data sources on the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics as well as more traditional astronomy. The need to support these very different types of data has led to the development of tools that can handle very different coordinate systems and display data in a variety of ways. For example, we have a

  17. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  18. A Hadron Radiation Installation and Verification Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Bom, V.R.


    A hadron radiation installation adapted to subject a target to irradiation by a hadron radiation beam, said installation comprising: - a target support configured to support, preferably immobilize, a target: - a hadron radiation apparatus adapted to emit a hadron radiation beam along a beam axis to

  19. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  20. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  1. Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (United States)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A.; Schofield, O.; Peach, C.; Krueger, I.; Meisinger, M.


    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is an environmental observatory covering a diversity of oceanic environments, ranging from the coastal to the deep ocean. The physical infrastructure comprises a combination of seafloor cables, buoys and autonomous vehicles. It is currently in the final design phase, with construction planned to begin in mid-2010 and deployment phased over five years. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership manages this Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction program with subcontracts to Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Washington and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. High-level requirements for the CI include the delivery of near-real-time data with minimal latencies, open data, data analysis and data assimilation into models, and subsequent interactive modification of the network (including autonomous vehicles) by the cyberinfrastructure. Network connections include a heterogeneous combination of fiber optics, acoustic modems, and Iridium satellite telemetry. The cyberinfrastructure design loosely couples services that exist throughout the network and share common software and middleware as necessary. In this sense, the system appears to be identical at all scales, so it is self-similar or fractal by design. The system provides near-real-time access to data and developed knowledge by the OOI's Education and Public Engagement program, to the physical infrastructure by the marine operators and to the larger community including scientists, the public, schools and decision makers. Social networking is employed to facilitate the virtual organization that builds, operates and maintains the OOI as well as providing a variety of interfaces to the data and knowledge generated by the program. We are working closely with NOAA to exchange near-real-time data through interfaces to their Data Interchange Facility (DIF) program within the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Efficiencies have been emphasized through

  2. The New Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA for Remote and Long-Term Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palanques


    Full Text Available A suitable sampling technology to identify species and to estimate population dynamics based on individual counts at different temporal levels in relation to habitat variations is increasingly important for fishery management and biodiversity studies. In the past two decades, as interest in exploring the oceans for valuable resources and in protecting these resources from overexploitation have grown, the number of cabled (permanent submarine multiparametric platforms with video stations has increased. Prior to the development of seafloor observatories, the majority of autonomous stations were battery powered and stored data locally. The recently installed low-cost, multiparametric, expandable, cabled coastal Seafloor Observatory (OBSEA, located 4 km off of Vilanova i la Gertrú, Barcelona, at a depth of 20 m, is directly connected to a ground station by a telecommunication cable; thus, it is not affected by the limitations associated with previous observation technologies. OBSEA is part of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO infrastructure, and its activities are included among the Network of Excellence of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET. OBSEA enables remote, long-term, and continuous surveys of the local ecosystem by acquiring synchronous multiparametric habitat data and bio-data with the following sensors: Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD sensors for salinity, temperature, and pressure; Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP for current speed and direction, including a turbidity meter and a fluorometer (for the determination of chlorophyll concentration; a hydrophone; a seismometer; and finally, a video camera for automated image analysis in relation to species classification and tracking. Images can be monitored in real time, and all data can be stored for future studies. In this article, the various components of OBSEA are described, including its hardware (the sensors and the network of marine and

  3. Buckling of Bucket Foundations During Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren

    There is a great politically will to expand the green energy market in these times. A proven green technology is wind turbines. Wind turbines have been installed in great numbers on land over the last decades. However, the current development in wind turbine design leads to larger turbine sizes...... in order to reduce the cost of energy. This limits the on land application due to transportation limitations and unwillingness from prospect neighbours. Thus, offshore wind energy started developing over the last couple of years. Although installing the wind turbines offshore resolves the before men tioned...... issues, it brings up the cost of energy mainly due to increased installation and maintenance costs. A very large part—up to 30–50% using current technology—of the installation cost origins from the expenses related to the installation of foundations. A new foundation concept—the bucket foundation...

  4. Controllo remoto del Dho's Observatory. V - Parafulmini, fuocheggiatura programmi (United States)

    Dho, Mario


    The necessity to endow a remotely controlled observatory with an efficient protection against thunderbolts is dealt with, describing the system adopted at the Dho's Observatory. The remotely controlled focusing is discussed, together with suitable hardware and software. The setup and the possibility to automate the focusing phase are also discussed.

  5. Development of an observatory for spatial planning in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The National Development Plan (NDP) of South Africa describes a 2030 vision for the country. The NDP proposes an observatory as one of the measures to develop capabilities for effective spatial decision-making and implementation. This article presents results of a review of observatories with the aim to unpack ...

  6. Managing Reprints and Preprints in an Observatory Library. (United States)

    Martin, Sarah S.

    An on-going project of cross-referencing reprint and preprint series distributed by observatories to the collection of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is described. Reprints available in the library's journal collection were removed after cross-indexing and referencing was accomplished. If the reprint was not available through the journal…

  7. The rapid atmospheric monitoring system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antici'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Diaz, J. Chirinos; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; Van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility built to detect air showers produced by cosmic rays above 10(17) eV. During clear nights with a low illuminated moon fraction, the UV fluorescence light produced by air showers is recorded by optical telescopes at the Observatory. To correct the

  8. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada


    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  9. NEPTUNE: an under-sea plate scale observatory (United States)

    Beauchamp, P. M.; Heath, G. R.; Maffei, A.; Chave, A.; Howe, B.; Wilcock, W.; Delaney, J.; Kirkham, H.


    The NEPTUNE project will establish a linked array of undersea observatories on the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate. This observatory will provide a new kind of research platform for real-time, long-term, plate-scale studies in the ocean and Earth sciences.

  10. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  11. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail:; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. ALMA Observatory Equipped with its First Antenna (United States)


    High in the Atacama region of northern Chile one of the world’s most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is being built by a global partnership whose North American partners are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe, the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high-precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-meter diameter antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-meter and 12-meter antennas. The first 12-meter antenna to be handed over to the observatory was built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. “Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 9 miles. “The handover of the first Japanese antenna is the crowning achievement of the ALMA Project to date,” said Adrian Russell, the North American ALMA Project Director at NRAO. The

  13. Multi-instrument characterization of optical turbulence at the Ali observatory (United States)

    Liu, L.-Y.; Yao, Y.-Q.; Vernin, J.; Wang, H.-S.; Yin, J.; Qian, X.


    In order to characterize the atmospheric optical turbulence at Ali observatory, we have deployed multi-instruments, which are able to continuously monitor the optical turbulence for site evaluation. These instruments include the DIMM, MASS, Single Star SCIDAR and Polaris seeing monitor, and we also plan to install SNODAR and Micro-thermal sensors for the turbulence on surface layer by the end of this year. This configuration allows us to collect a substantial database and make cross-comparison of the results. We have successfully obtained the profiles of optical turbulence and wind speed with Single Star SCIDAR, as well as the key parameters for adaptive optics application, such as seeing, coherence time, and isoplanatic angle. The DIMM seeing measurements are also carried out simultaneously. The median seeing measured by the DIMM and SSS in 2013 is 0.69 and 0.79 arcsec, respectively.

  14. Calibration of muon reconstruction algorithms using an external muon tracking system at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonley, T.J. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Abruzzio, R. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Y.D.; Currat, C.A. [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Duncan, F.A. [SNOLAB, Sudbury, ON, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Farine, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Ford, R.J. [SNOLAB, Sudbury, ON, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Formaggio, J.A., E-mail: [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gagnon, N. [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hallin, A.L. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2R3 (Canada)


    To help constrain the algorithms used in reconstructing high-energy muon events incident on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), a muon tracking system was installed. The system consisted of four planes of wire chambers, which were triggered by scintillator panels. The system was integrated with SNO's main data acquisition system and took data for a total of 95 live days. Using cosmic-ray events reconstructed in both the wire chambers and in SNO's water Cherenkov detector, the external muon tracking system was able to constrain the uncertainty on the muon direction to better than 0.6{sup o}. - Highlights: > This paper describes a novel technique for calibrating tracking algorithms. > The experimental accuracy achieved by this system was better than 1{sup o}. > The principle behind the technique can be used in future underground experiments.

  15. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  16. A novel method for coiled tubing installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Peter J. [2H Offshore, Houston, TX (United States); Tibbetts, David [Aquactic Engineering and Construction Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)


    Installation of flexible pipe for offshore developments is costly due to the physical cost of the flexible pipe, expensive day rates and the availability of suitable installation vessels. Considering the scarcity of flexible pipe in today's increasingly demanding and busy market, operators are seeking a cost effective solution for installing piping in a range of water depths using vessels which are readily on hand. This paper describes a novel approach to installing reeled coiled tubing, from 1 inch to 5 inch diameter, from the back of a small vessel in water depths from 40 m up to around 1000 m. The uniqueness of the system is the fact that the equipment design is modular and compact. This means that when disassembled, it fits into standard 40 ft shipping containers, and the size allows it to be installed on even relatively small vessels of opportunity, such as anchor handling or installation vessels, from smaller, and cheaper quay side locations. Such an approach is the ideal solution to the problem faced by operators, in that it allows the installation of cheaper, readily available coiled tubing, from cost-effective vessels, which do not need to transit to a pick up the system. (author)

  17. The CHAIN-Project and Installation of Flare Monitoring Telescopes in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S UeNo


    Full Text Available The Flare Monitoring Telescope (FMT was constructed in 1992 at Hida Observatory in Japan to investigate the long-term variation of solar activity and explosive events. It has five solar imaging telescopes that simultaneously observe the full-disk Sun at different wavelengths around the H-alpha absorption line or in different modes. Therefore, the FMT can measure the three-dimensional velocity field of moving structures on the full solar disk. The science target of the FMT is to monitor solar flares and erupting filaments continuously all over the solar disk and to investigate correlation between the characteristics of the erupting phenomena and the geoeffectiveness of the corresponding coronal mass ejections (CMEs. We are planning to start up a new worldwide project, the Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network (CHAIN project, as an important IHY project of our observatories. As part of this project, we are examining the possibility of installing telescopes similar to the FMT in developing countries. We have selected Peru and Algeria as the countries where the first and second overseas FMTs will be installed, and we are aiming to start operation of these FMTs by the end of 2010 before the maximum phase of solar cycle 24. To create such an international network, it will be necessary to improve the information technologies applied in our observation-system. In this paper, we explain the current status and future areas of work regarding our system.

  18. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement (United States)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.


    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  19. Structural considerations for solar installers : an approach for small, simplified solar installations or retrofits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Schindel, Kay (City of Madison, WI); Bosiljevac, Tom; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Lindau, William (Lindau Companies, Inc., Hudson, WI); Harper, Alan (City of Madison, WI)


    Structural Considerations for Solar Installers provides a comprehensive outline of structural considerations associated with simplified solar installations and recommends a set of best practices installers can follow when assessing such considerations. Information in the manual comes from engineering and solar experts as well as case studies. The objectives of the manual are to ensure safety and structural durability for rooftop solar installations and to potentially accelerate the permitting process by identifying and remedying structural issues prior to installation. The purpose of this document is to provide tools and guidelines for installers to help ensure that residential photovoltaic (PV) power systems are properly specified and installed with respect to the continuing structural integrity of the building.

  20. Firmware, detector performance and first data of the AMIGA muon counters for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Uwe


    With the Pierre Auger Observatory, being the largest air shower detector setup in the world, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are studied with full trigger efficiency above E=3 x 10{sup 18} eV. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding of cosmic ray physics at lower energies down to E∼10{sup 17} eV, e.g. the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources and a possible change in the composition of the primary cosmic rays, the observatory is currently upgraded by the AMIGA enhancement (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array). The muon counters of AMIGA, buried underground, will allow for dedicated measurements of the number of muons in air showers, thus increasing the precision in determining the type of the primary particle. Until middle of 2012, eight prototype muon counters of the AMIGA enhancement were installed at the experimental site of the Pierre Auger Observatory at Malargue, Argentina, forming one detector hexagon referred to as the pre-unitary cell (PUC). Each muon counter comprises a highly modular electronics readout system. Following the production of these systems, tests of single components as well as of the full readout electronics were carried out. In the framework of this thesis dedicated firmware, allowing for the commissioning and first data taking with the PUC, has been developed and tested. Among other features, this firmware includes a self-trigger of the muon counters as well as algorithms for the synchronization of the muon detector (MD) with the existing surface detector (SD) array. The functionality and performance of the electronics readout system with regard to this firmware has been investigated. In addition, first analyses of combined MD and SD data have been performed.

  1. Aerosol concentration measurements and correlations with air mass trajectories at the Pierre Auger Observatory (United States)

    Micheletti, M. I.; Louedec, K.; Freire, M.; Vitale, P.; Piacentini, R. D.


    Aerosols play an important role in radiative transfer processes involved in different fields of study. In particular, their influence is crucial in the attenuation of light at astronomical and astrophysical observatories, and has to be taken into account in light transfer models employed to reconstruct the signals. The Andean Argentinean region is increasingly being considered as a good candidate to host such facilities, as well as the ones for solar-energy resources, and an adequate knowledge of aerosols characteristics there is needed, but it is not always possible due to the vast area involved and the scarce atmospheric data at ground. The aim of this work is to find correlations between aerosol data and particle trajectories that can give an insight into the origin and behaviour of aerosols in this zone and can be employed in situations in which one does not have local aerosol measurements. For this purpose, an aerosol spectrometer and dust monitor (Grimm 1.109) was installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, to record aerosol concentrations in different size intervals, at surface level. These measurements are analysed and correlated with air mass trajectories obtained from HYSPLIT (NOAA) model calculations. High aerosol concentrations are registered predominantly when air masses have travelled mostly over continental areas, mainly from the NE direction, while low aerosol concentrations are found in correspondence with air masses coming from the Pacific Ocean, from the NW direction. Different size distribution patterns were found for the aerosols depending on their origin: marine or continental. This work shows for the first time the size distribution of aerosols registered at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The correlations found between mass and particle concentrations (total and for different size ranges) and HYSPLIT air mass trajectories, confirm that the latter can be employed as a useful tool to infer the sources, evolution

  2. Science and Antenna Array Trade Studies for Low Frequency Radio Observatories on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.


    A "low-frequency" radio astronomy observatory on the lunar surface would serve to address science goals that cannot be achieved by ground-based observatories. We describe status and plans for such an observatory.

  3. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)


    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  4. Installing and Testing a Server Operating System


    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI


    The paper is based on the experience of the author with the FreeBSD server operating system administration on three servers in use under domain.The paper describes a set of installation, preparation, and administration aspects of a FreeBSD server.First issue of the paper is the installation procedure of FreeBSD operating system on i386 computer architecture. Discussed problems are boot disks preparation and using, hard disk partitioning and operating system installation usin...

  5. Instability of Bucket Foundations during Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The bucket foundation is an upcoming technology for offshore wind turbines. The bucket foundation is a large cylindrical monopod foundation constructed as a thin steel shell structure. A bucket foundation does not require heavy installation equipment since it is installed by suction forces....... The combination of a thin shell structure and suction forces leads to the fact that instability, in form of buckling, becomes a crucial issue during installation. The hydrostatic buckling pressure of the bucket foundation is addressed using three-dimensional, non-linear finite element analysis. The results...

  6. The 2-Meter Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen: Opportunities for GAIA-FUN-SSO (United States)

    Bonev, T.


    The 2 meter reflector of the National Astronomical Observatory (NAO) Rozhen offers two main modi of observations: imaging in the Ritchey-Chretien (RC) focus and spectroscopy in the Coude focus. Images can be obtained with two spatial scales: 0.25 arcsec/px or 0.89 arcsec/px. High signal-to-noise, high resolution (up to 35000) spectra are obtained with the Coudé spectrograph. Upgrades of the 2 meter telescope performed in the last years are presented: autoguiding system in 2007, recoating of the optics in 2008, installation of a new telescope control system in 2009. The performance of the 2-m telescope after these upgrades will be illustrated by a sample of observations and the capabilities for observations of Gaia follow-up of SSO will be discussed. Some of the characteristics of the telescope presented here and many more, can be found on the web-site of the National Observatory:

  7. First light from new LWA at Bleien observatory, Switzerland on 12 June 2014 (United States)

    Montstein, Christian


    ETH Zurich conducted low frequency solar radio burst observations for many years based on a biconical antenna (Bicone) on the roof of the radio observatory in Bleien. During recent heavy rains the matching transformer got wet and spectrometer sensitivity went completely down, making it impossible to detect any solar radio bursts. Beginning June 2014 a Long Wavelength Array (LWA) antenna was installed together with a Callisto system to observe solar radio burst activity (figure 1) at the site. On the first observation day we already observed our 1st light, some type III solar radio bursts. Two examples are presented in figures 2 to 3 and associated tables 1 to 2. Data are automatically transferred to the e-Callisto data archive at Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW) in Brugg/Windisch. Data quality is very good due to the fact, that the antenna is more than 20 m away from the observatory which is a source of a lot of radio frequency interference (PC, network, monitors, switched power supplies etc.). Some bushes north of the LWA also act as a kind of shield for local RFI from nearby town. The antenna sensitivity is much better than originally expected based on our experience with Bicone and T2FD (Tilted-Terminated Folded-Dipole) antennas.

  8. Observations of Low Frequency Solar Radio Bursts from the Rosse Solar-Terrestrial Observatory (United States)

    Zucca, P.; Carley, E. P.; McCauley, J.; Gallagher, P. T.; Monstein, C.; McAteer, R. T. J.


    The Rosse Solar-Terrestrial Observatory (RSTO; was established at Birr Castle, Co. Offaly, Ireland (53°05'38.9″, 7°55'12.7″) in 2010 to study solar radio bursts and the response of the Earth's ionosphere and geomagnetic field. To date, three Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy in Transportable Observatory (CALLISTO) spectrometers have been installed, with the capability of observing in the frequency range of 10 - 870 MHz. The receivers are fed simultaneously by biconical and log-periodic antennas. Nominally, frequency spectra in the range of 10 - 400 MHz are obtained with four sweeps per second over 600 channels. Here, we describe the RSTO solar radio spectrometer set-up, and present dynamic spectra of samples of type II, III and IV radio bursts. In particular, we describe the fine-scale structure observed in type II bursts, including band splitting and rapidly varying herringbone features.

  9. An automatic DI-flux at the Livingston Island geomagnetic observatory, Antarctica: requirements and lessons learned (United States)

    Marsal, Santiago; José Curto, Juan; Torta, Joan Miquel; Gonsette, Alexandre; Favà, Vicent; Rasson, Jean; Ibañez, Miquel; Cid, Òscar


    The DI-flux, consisting of a fluxgate magnetometer coupled with a theodolite, is used for the absolute manual measurement of the magnetic field angles in most ground-based observatories worldwide. Commercial solutions for an automated DI-flux have recently been developed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI), and are practically restricted to the AutoDIF and its variant, the GyroDIF. In this article, we analyze the pros and cons of both instruments in terms of its suitability for installation at the partially manned geomagnetic observatory of Livingston Island (LIV), Antarctica. We conclude that the GyroDIF, even if it is less accurate and more power demanding, is more suitable than the AutoDIF for harsh conditions due to the simpler infrastructure that is necessary. Power constraints in the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I (ASJI) during the unmanned season require an energy-efficient design of the thermally regulated box housing the instrument as well as thorough power management. Our experiences can benefit the geomagnetic community, which often faces similar challenges.

  10. Cosmic Ray Astrophysics using The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC Observatory in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente Eduardo


    Full Text Available The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC TeV gamma–ray Observatory in México is ready to search and study gamma-ray emission regions, extremely high-energy cosmic-ray sources, and to identify transient phenomena. With a better Gamma/Hadron rejection method than other similar experiments, it will play a key role in triggering multi–wavelength and multi–messenger studies of active galaxies (AGN, gamma-ray bursts (GRB, supernova remnants (SNR, pulsar wind nebulae (PWN, Galactic Plane Sources, and Cosmic Ray Anisotropies. It has an instantaneous field-of-view of ∼2 str, equivalent to 15% of the whole sky and continuous operation (24 hours per day. The results obtained by HAWC–111 (111 detectors in operation were presented on the proceedings of the International Cosmic Ray Conference 2015 and in [1]. The results obtained by HAWC–300 (full operation are now under analysis and will be published in forthcoming papers starting in 2017 (see preliminary results on Here we present the HAWC contributions on cosmic ray astrophysics via anisotropies studies, summarizing the HAWC detector and its upgrading by the installation of “outriggers”.

  11. Cosmic Ray Astrophysics using The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory in México (United States)

    de la Fuente, Eduardo; Díaz-Vélez, Juan Carlos; Almada, Alberto Hernández; Nigoche-Netro, Alberto


    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) TeV gamma-ray Observatory in México is ready to search and study gamma-ray emission regions, extremely high-energy cosmic-ray sources, and to identify transient phenomena. With a better Gamma/Hadron rejection method than other similar experiments, it will play a key role in triggering multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies of active galaxies (AGN), gamma-ray bursts (GRB), supernova remnants (SNR), pulsar wind nebulae (PWN), Galactic Plane Sources, and Cosmic Ray Anisotropies. It has an instantaneous field-of-view of ˜2 str, equivalent to 15% of the whole sky and continuous operation (24 hours per day). The results obtained by HAWC-111 (111 detectors in operation) were presented on the proceedings of the International Cosmic Ray Conference 2015 and in [1]. The results obtained by HAWC-300 (full operation) are now under analysis and will be published in forthcoming papers starting in 2017 (see preliminary results on Here we present the HAWC contributions on cosmic ray astrophysics via anisotropies studies, summarizing the HAWC detector and its upgrading by the installation of "outriggers".

  12. Fiber-coupled high resolution infrared array spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (United States)

    Glenar, D. A.; Reuter, D.; Mumma, M. J.; Chin, G.; Wiedemann, G.; Jennings, D.


    A novel cryogenic grating spectrometer (FCAS) is being designed for observations of volatiles in cometary and planetary atmospheres, and in newly forming planetary systems. The instrument features two-dimensional detector arrays coupled to a high-dispersion echelle by infrared fibers, and will achieve a spectral resolving power of about 40,000. The primary observational platform for this instrument will be the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, but it will also be configured for use at ground-based observatories. Initially, the spectrometer will use a 58 x 62, 1- to 5-micron InSb array. Larger-format IR arrays and arrays of different composition, will later be incorporated as they become available. The instrument will be used in two modes. The first uses a large format IR array in the spectral image plane for the customary one-dimensional spectral-one-dimensional spatial coverage. In the second mode, a massive, coherent bundle of infrared transmitting ZrF4 fibers will be installed after the dispersive element, to reformat the two-dimensional array into an elongated one-dimensional array for wide spectral coverage, allowing multiple lines to be measured in a single integration with high sensitivity. The overall instrument design is discussed, and the system sensitivity is estimated.

  13. The Virtual Observatory for the Python Programmer (United States)

    Plante, Raymond L.; Fitzpatrick, M. J.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Virtual Astronomical Observatory, US


    The web of astronomical data centers that we refer to as the virtual observatory (VO) has led to the development of a variety of web and desktop applications that can discover and download data from most archives around the world. These are made possible by standard interfaces which archives provide and the applications understand that provide a common way to search for information and retrieve discovered datasets. For some applications, retrieving data through the VO is simply an extra feature that enhances the main purpose of the tool. Despite the accessibility to VO data provided by such tools, the VO offers greater flexibility to developers that access the standard services directly within their own software. This applies not only to those who build tools but also to research astronomers that create highly-customized scripts for data analysis. One of the goals of the US Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) project is to make the VO more accessible to both tool developers and astronomer-programmers. To this end, we announce the release of two products with a special focus on supporting access to the VO via Python. PyVO ( is a pure Python library built on Astropy ( that can be used to discover data in the VO. In particular, one can search the registry for archives with data, search archives for images and spectra, and query remote catalogs and spectral line databases. While it provides full support for the VO standards, its API is designed to make processing the most common types of queries simple without requiring knowledge about the underlying standards. It also makes available the full power of Astropy for processing tabular information. VOClient (, which provides scripting and programming libraries for a variety of languages, also supports Python programming. While the two products share a common API, VOClient provides higher level interfaces that assist with managing data from many

  14. Experience of 1-second magnetometer LEMI-025 use in the INTERMAGNET observatories (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy


    More than ten years ago INTERMAGNET community decided to commence producing filtered one-second data in addition to traditional one-minute data, hourly, daily, monthly, and annual means. This decision was inspired by the increasing demand of space physics scientists, investigating wave processes in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere of the Earth's. The first requirements for a geomagnetic data acquisition system capable to acquire 1-second data were compiled during the INTERMAGNET survey, conducted by Jeffrey Love in 2005, investigating the needs of the scientific community using geomagnetic time series data. The main consensus of the survey is as follows: geomagnetic data acquired at 1 Hz sampling should have 0.01 nT resolution at least, be filtered by a digital filter and be centred onto the UTC second within 0.01 s. Besides, the one-second magnetometer has to have much lower noise than that of 1-minute one, because the natural geomagnetic signals rapidly decay at the higher frequencies. And finally, the one-second instrument has to provide a sufficient level of immunity to manmade (industrial) noise, especially as produced by power lines. In order to meet these partly conflicting requirements to the frequency response, a new magnetometer functional diagram, which combines analogue and digital filters, was proposed in the Lviv Centre of Institute for Space Research. Basing on this approach the first model LEMI-025 was designed, built, successfully tested and installed in Dourbes geomagnetic observatory (Belgium) since 2008. Later, after considerable modifications, these first commercially available instruments compatible with one-second INTERMAGNET standard were installed in a number of geomagnetic observatories over the Globe. The experience of LEMI-025 operation during the past few years let us evaluate the baseline stability of the new one-second magnetometer (factors accuracy and stability (transfer function (<0.005 %). More details on this topic will be

  15. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification (United States)

    Sidorov, Roman; Soloviev, Anatoly; Krasnoperov, Roman; Kudin, Dmitry; Grudnev, Andrei; Kopytenko, Yury; Kotikov, Andrei; Sergushin, Pavel


    Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS) and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb). On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG) for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  16. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sidorov


    Full Text Available Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS – the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb. On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  17. The upgrade of the HAWC observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, Harm [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: HAWC-Collaboration


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) high-energy gamma-ray observatory has recently been completed near the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico. HAWC consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each containing 200 tons of purified water, that cover a total surface area of 20,000 m{sup 2}. HAWC observes gamma rays in the 0.1-100 TeV range and has a sensitivity to TeV-scale gamma-ray sources an order of magnitude better than previous air-shower arrays. The HAWC trigger for the highest energy gamma rays reaches an effective area of 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} but many of them are poorly reconstructed because the shower core falls outside the array. An upgrade that increases the present fraction of well reconstructed showers above 10 TeV by a factor of 3-4 can be done with a sparse outrigger array of small water Cherenkov detectors that pinpoint the core position and by that improve the angular resolution of the reconstructed showers. Such an outrigger array would be of the order of 300 small water Cherenkov detectors of 2.5 m{sup 3} placed over an area four times larger than HAWC. The Max Planck Institute fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg just joined the collaboration and will provide the FADC electronics for the readout of the outrigger tanks. Detailed simulations are being performed to optimize the performance of the upgrade.

  18. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory (United States)

    Chudoba, J.


    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system.

  19. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. Bühler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh


    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  20. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory Users Forum (United States)

    Muench, August A.; Emery Bunn, S.; Astronomical Observatory, Virtual


    We present the online forum, which has the goal of being a gathering place for the collective community intelligence about astronomical computing. The audience for this forum is anyone engaged in the analysis of astronomical or planetary data, whether that data be observational or theoretical. It is a free, community driven site where discussions are formulated primarily around the "question and answer" format. Current topics on the forum range from “Is there a photometry package in Python?” to “Where are the support forums for astronomy software packages?” and “Why is my SDSS SkyQuery query missing galaxies?” The poster will detail the full scope of discussions in the forum, and provide some basic guidelines for ensuring high quality forum posts. We will highlight the ways astronomers can discover and participate in discussions. Further, we view this as an excellent opportunity to gather feedback and feature requests from AAS221 attendees. Acknowledgement: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Integrating IRAF with the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Malik, O.; Holdaway, K. Tody, D.


    We present a high-level overview of two projects undertaken that integrate a large body of legacy software (specifically, IRAF) with Virtual Observatory (VO) technologies in a highly resource-constrained environment. On the server side, a framework has been developed to allow virtually any IRAF task to be exposed as a conventional VO web-service. Service-definition files (written as XML) are converted to a Java code implementation (via XSLT) and used as the web-service endpoint. An intermediate server process communicates with the entire IRAF system, and new web applications require at most a small wrapper script around an existing task. This permits many services to be created or updated easily using an unmodified version of the underlying IRAF system. On the client side, a C-based API has been developed to interface to the generic VO Registry (service/data-discovery), data (access), and web-services (analysis) side of the VO. VO services are now commonly implemented in Java, but these interfaces are normally beyond the reach of legacy systems because of the legacy implementation language. Using this new VOClient interface, bindings for many non-traditional development environments, including the IRAF CL (scripting) and SPP (compiled) languages, now provide a uniform, high-level interface to the VO that bridges this language barrier. The application of either project to other legacy software systems, and future work, will also be discussed.

  2. The Pine Mountain Observatory Outreach Program (United States)

    Bothun, G. D.; Kang, R.


    The Pine Mountain Observatory is located in Central Oregon at an elevation of 6700 feet. Three scopes of size 16, 24 and 32 inches are located there. Throughout the last decade we have run a robust summer visitors program which educates about 3000 people per year. Recently we have finished a Prime Focus CCD system for the 32-inch telescope. This system reads out in 5 seconds and has a shutter that can time as short as 10 milliseconds. The field of view is 36 x 36 arcminutes. We are currently engaged in a number of K12 teacher education projects. The biggest obstacle facing these teachers was their ability to handle FITS data. To solve this problem we have developed a robust JAVA applet for doing image analysis and automatic photometry on FITS data. In this talk we will demonstrate how a teacher can construct an HR diagram for the open cluster M39 where the root data are Blue and Red filter exposures each of duration 10 milliseconds. In such exposures, only the stars that are actually in M39 register on the detector. This flexibility allows Pine Mountain to be a unique resource for teachers as we can take custom data through a variety of filters which can then all be reduced inside a Web browser.

  3. The Importance of Marine Observatories and of RAIA in Particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Bastos


    Full Text Available Coastal and Oceanic Observatories are important tools to provide information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. They meet the need for a better understanding of coastal and ocean dynamics, revealing regional characteristics and vulnerabilities. These observatories are extremely useful to guide human actions in response to natural events and potential climate change impacts, anticipating the occurrence of extreme weather and oceanic events and helping to minimize consequent personal and material damages and costs.International organizations and local governments have shown an increasing interest in operational oceanography and coastal, marine and oceanic observations, which resulted in substantial investments in these areas. A variety of physical, chemical and biological data have been collected to better understand the specific characteristics of each ocean area and its importance in the global context. Also the general public’s interest in marine issues and observatories has been raised, mainly in relation to vulnerability, sustainability and climate change issues. Data and products obtained by an observatory are hence useful to a broad range of stakeholders, from national and local authorities to the population in general.An introduction to Ocean Observatories, including their national and regional importance, and a brief analysis of the societal interest in these observatories and related issues are presented. The potential of a Coastal and Ocean Observatory is then demonstrated using the RAIA observatory as example. This modern and comprehensive observatory is dedicated to improve operational oceanography, technology and marine science for the North Western Iberian coast, and to provide services to a large range of stakeholders.

  4. RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB ring between two bending magnets. Cool air from a heat exchanger is injected into the four cavities from the central feeder and the hot air recirculated via the lateral ducts.

  5. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred


    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  6. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. C.; Park, C.; Lee, C. T.; Cho, S. W.; Kwak, K. K.; Suk, H. C. [and others


    The principle contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule in HANARO for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1999, the basic and detail design, safety analysis, and procurement of main equipment for fuel test loop have been performed and also the piping in gallery and the support for IPS piping in reactor pool have been installed in 1994. In the area of non-instrumented capsule for material irradiation test, the fabrication of capsule has been completed. Procurement, fabrication and installation of the fuel test loop will be implemented continuously till 1999. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and safety analysis report has been submitted to KINS to get a license and review of HANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author). 39 refs., 28 tabs., 21 figs.

  7. Designing Software-Based Interactive Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Juul, Niels Christian; Rosendahl, Mads


    architecture as well as esthetic experience, artistic expression, and leisure aspects into focus. The approach presented here has this intended purpose. Where. Building on experience from conventional software development and with inspiration from interaction design and creative programming, this chapter......What. This chapter focuses on software engineering principles with specific emphasis on interactive installations providing embodied, tangible, and immersive experiences for the user. Such installations may deliver light, image, sound, and movement through actuators and may provide interaction...... through gesticulation, voice, and sensor signals. Installations are typically driven by specialized software that differs significantly from conventional business software, and in addition may include hardware components customized for the installation. To set the context, we give a range of example...

  8. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system. Here we see the transport vehicle alongside the magnet supports. Visible in the background is the first magnet in place.

  9. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei


    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  10. Towards a Framework for Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Falck, Hans William


    Projection installations are part of Spatially Augmented Reality, where the projection medium is used to enrich a fixed, bounded physical space with digital content. Projection technology enables us to turn many kinds of physical objects into displays. In this paper we develop and present...... a conceptual framework that addresses three aspects of a projection installation: the contentassociated with the object, the digital content, and the relation between the two. We conclude the paper with a set of strategies commonly used in projection installations: Enhancing or emphasizing physical aspects......; Transforming materiality; Adding virtual objects; 3D effects; Complex content on simple objects or simple content on complex; Strong versus loose connections between the physical object and the digital content. This paper is based on four cases, two of which concern cultural heritage installations, the others...

  11. REFLEXION - modeshowet som æstetisk installation


    Wæver, Lin Klinke; Hald, Amanda Uetea


    In this project, we explore how a fashion show can be re-invented as an installation that potentially can lead the viewer to experience a sense of aesthetic qualities. The fashion industry is criticised for being exclusionary of the general public audience. As a reaction to that, we are working with the perception of the viewer as a participating element in the existence of the installation throughout this project. Based on the encyclopaedia 'Guide to Producing a Fashion Show', we deduce the...

  12. Installation Package -SIMS Prototype System 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This package consists of details for the installation, operation and maintenance of a prototype heating and hot water system, designed for residential or light commercial applications. International Business Machines, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32036, developed this system consisting of the following subsystems: air type collectors, pebble bed thermal storage, air handling unit, air to water heat exchanger, hot water preheat tank, auxiliary energy, ducting system. This system is installed at Home Builders Association in Huntsville, Alabama (OTS-04).

  13. The University of Jaén Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; García-Hernández, María T.


    We present a description and instrumental characterization of the photometric equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Jaén. The observatory hosts a 41 cm automated telescope inside a 4 m dome located at the university main campus, in the outskirts of the city of Jaén (Spain). This facility is used for educational, outreach and occasional scientific research on bright stellar objects. Despite the observatory location in a light polluted urban area, its performance for differential photometry studies has proven to be very acceptable. The discovery of the Be star LS I +5979 as a peculiar eclipsing binary system is so far the most relevant achievement.

  14. The International Virtual Observatory: Summary of the first decade (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.


    International Virtual Observatory is a collection of integrated astronomical data archives and software tools that utilize computer networks to create an environment in which research can be conducted. Several countries have initiated national virtual observatory programs that will combine existing databases from ground-based and space-born observatories and make them easily accessible to researchers. As a result, data from all the world's major observatories will be available to all users and to the public. This is significant not only because of the immense volume of astronomical data but also because the data on stars and galaxies have been compiled from observations in a variety of wavelengths: optical, radio, infrared, gamma ray, X-ray and more. Each wavelength can provide different information about a celestial event or object, but also requires a special expertise to interpret. In a virtual observatory environment, all of this data is integrated so that it can be synthesized and used in a given study. The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) represents 20 national and international projects working in coordination to realize the essential technologies and interoperability standards necessary to create a new research infrastructure. Russian Virtual Observatory is one of the founders and important members of the IVOA. The International Virtual Observatory project was launched about ten years ago, and its major achievements in science and technology in recent years are discussed in this paper. Standards for accessing large astronomical data sets were developed. Such data sets can accommodate the full range of wavelengths and observational techniques for all types of astronomical data: catalogues, images, spectra and time series. The described standards include standards for metadata, data formats, query language, etc. Services for the federation of massive, distributed data sets, regardless of the wavelength, resolution and type of data were

  15. The First Astronomical Observatory in Cluj-Napoca (United States)

    Szenkovits, Ferenc


    One of the most important cities of Romania is Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár, Klausenburg). This is a traditional center of education, with many universities and high schools. From the second half of the 18th century the University of Cluj has its own Astronomical Observatory, serving for didactical activities and scientific researches. The famous astronomer Maximillian Hell was one of those Jesuits who put the base of this Astronomical Observatory. Our purpose is to offer a short history of the beginnings of this Astronomical Observatory.

  16. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel.Pho...

  17. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. We...

  18. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The first installation phase will continue until mid-April. In addition to the magnets, a beam dump facility also has to be installed. The second installation phase will take place later this year and should be completed in 2004, when the TI 8 transfer line is due to be tested. The second transfer line, in tunnel TI 2, should be ready in April 2007, once the LHC magnets have been transported through the downstream section of this tunnel. Th...

  19. The Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (United States)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Loewenstein, Robert F.; Mcmahon, T.; Pernic, R. J.; Wirth, C.


    The Yerkes Observatory Far Infrared Camera employs a two-dimensional, 60-detector array of (3)He-cooled silicon bolometers for broadband imaging in the spectral range of 40 to 240 microns. Four interchangeable filters have effective wavelengths of 60, 100, 160, and 200 microns. Three interchangeable lens sets give pixel sizes of 17, 27, and 45 in. Signals are processed through nitrogen-temperature JFET source-follower amplifiers, warm preamplifiers, and digital signal processors, and the system is controlled through a graphical user interface on a Macintosh computer. The camera has been used to image a wide variety of galactic and extragalactic far infrared sources.

  20. The National Solar Observatory Digital Library (United States)

    Hill, F.; Branston, D.; Erdwurm, W.


    NSO provides several important data sets to the solar physics community, such as full-disk daily magnetograms, He 10380 spectroheliograms, and solar spectral atlases from Kitt Peak; as well as H-alpha and Ca K spectroheliograms, and coronal scans from Sacramento Peak. The usage of these data sets has rapidly increased over the last 3 years as indicated in the logs of NSO/KP anonymous FTP activity which show increases of 400% in the number of logins, and 100% in the number of files transferred. In order to provide better access to these data for the solar physics community, NSO is developing a digital library. A robotic jukebox that holds 300 CD ROMs (about 210 GB) on-line has been installed at NSO, and the migration of data into this system is substantially underway. At the present time, the entire set of spectra from the Fourier Transform Spectrometer is on-line, as well as about 15% of the Kitt Peak magnetograms and He 10830 images. The Sacramento Peak H-alpha and Ca K spectroheliograms are now being digitized and transferred to CDs. A web-based user interface and search tool is also in development. Oracle has been selected and installed as the RDBMS search engine. Software to populate the database tables using FITS header parameters has been developed. Issues of file name conventions, user request tracking, and download strategies are under study. We expect to have a simple prototype interface and search tool for the Kitt Peak magnetograms available for testing by the user community by Summer 1997. This will provide a foundation that can be easily extended to include additional data sets.

  1. Demonstrate Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using Net Zero Installation Virtual Testbed (United States)


    selections from the MILP optimization 26 2-25 The cluster optimization analysis page. Here, the District Hot Water alternative is expanded to show...VAV Variable Air Volume VFD Variable Frequency Drive XML Extensible Markup Language XPS Extruded Polystyrene xvi 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION...Installations Directive, which expanded the Net Zero Initiative beyond the pilot installations to all permanent Army installations. The U.S. Navy is

  2. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Continuing lessons and results (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.


    Since June 2011, the ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is providing 1 kW power, 100 Mbs network communications and PPS timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4728 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated physical and biogeochemical variability of the water column near-monthly since 1988. The abyssal near bottom acoustic Doppler profiler data are showing stronger than expected internal tide flows and turbulence 20-80 m above bottom. In this oligotrophic environment, the video camera has detected significant biological activity. Acoustic data collected on two hydrophones clearly show very high call density of baleen whales during September-May and sperm whale choruses spread throughout the year. Recent Navy exercises provided examples of anthropogenic sounds. We are also monitoring in real time an acoustic "heartbeat" signal from the nearby HOT Profiler mooring (M. Alford et al.). ACO operation over the last year continues to provide valuable lessons. Several failures occurred at or during deployment, including two ground faults that have isolated two CTDs, a fluorometer, and an acoustic modem from the system. Two independent LED light systems failed after 4 and 6 weeks. Most recently, the pressure sensor has failed perhaps due to loss of vacuum in the quartz crystal chamber. The one remaining conductivity/temperature sensor is episodically, but strongly, affected by thermal plume signatures from the nearby power supply. Understanding the reasons for these failures and limitations will be necessary to improve the methodologies for sustained long-term abyssal measurements. This will be well worth the effort, as suggested by the surprisingly rich video, ADCP, and acoustic data sets.

  3. Low Energy Investigations at Kamioka Observatory (United States)

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki


    At Kamioka Observatory many activities for low energy rare event search are ongoing. Super-Kamiokande(SK), the largest water Cherenkov neutrino detector, currently continues data taking as the fourth phase of the experiment (SK-IV). In SK-IV, we have upgraded the water purification system and tuned water flow in the SK tank. Consequently the background level was lowered significantly. This allowed SK-IV to derive solar neutrino results down to 3.5 MeV energy region. With these data, neutrino oscillation parameters are updated from global fit; Δm212 = 7.44+0.2-0.19 × 10-5eV2, sin2 θ12 = 0.304 ± 0.013, sin2 θ13 = 0.0301+0.017-0.015. NEWAGE, the directional sensitive dark matter search experiment, is currently operated as "NEWAGE-0.3a" which is a 0.20 × 0.25 × 0.31 m3 micro-TPC filled with CF4 gas at 152 Torr. Recently we have developed "NEWAGE-0.3b". It was succeeded to lower the operation pressure down to 76 Torr and the threshold down to 50 keV (F recoils). XMASS experiment is looking for scintillation signals from dark matter interaction in 1 ton of liquid xenon. It was designed utilizing its self-shielding capability with fiducial volume confinement. However, we could lower the analysis threshold down to 0.3 keVee using whole volume of the detector. In February 2012, low threshold and very large exposure data (5591 kg·days) were collected. With these data, we have excluded some part of the parameter spaces claimed by DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments.

  4. Exoplanetary Characterisation Observatory (EChO) (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo; Tinetti, Giovanna


    The science of extrasolar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 800-plus planets being detected, and over 2000 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are? The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest range possible and is currently being studied by ESA in the context of a medium class mission within the Cosmic Vision programme for launch post 2020. The mission is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope at L2, hosting a suit of spectrographs providing continuous spectral coverage from 0.5 to 16 microns. Such a broad and simultaneous wavelength coverage allows the unique insight into the atmospheric make up of these foreign worlds and allows us to study their planetary and atmospheric compositions and evolutions.

  5. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth


    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  6. Cosmic Explorers and Star Docent Youth Programs at Henize Observatory (United States)

    Kabbes, J.


    The Karl G. Henize Observatory at Harper Community College has long served Harper students and the community. College students fulfill observing requirements for astronomy and physical science classes while the general public views objects through a variety of telescopes. In the spring of 2011, the observatory was in trouble. The long time observatory manager had left, the volunteer staff consisted of two individuals, and the Astronomy Club, which traditionally provided staff to operate the observatory, was moribund. We only drew 20-30 visitors for our bi-weekly public sessions. To face such a challenge, two recent complimentary programs, The Cosmic Explorers for grades 3-6 and the Star Docents for students in grades 7-12 were implemented.

  7. Telemetry correlation and visualization at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (United States)

    Summers, Kellee R.; Summers, Douglas M.; Biddick, Christopher; Hooper, Stephen


    To achieve highly efficient observatory operations requires continuous evaluation and improvement of facility and instrumentation metrics. High quality metrics requires a foundation of robust and complete observatory telemetry. At the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO), a variety of telemetry-capturing mechanisms exist, but few tools have thus far been created to facilitate studies of the data. In an effort to make all observatory telemetry data easy to use and broadly available, we have developed a suite of tools using in-house development and open source applications. This paper will explore our strategies for consolidating, parameterizing, and correlating any LBTO telemetry data to achieve easily available, web-based two- and three-dimensional time series data visualization.

  8. Williamstown Observatory and the Development of Professional Astronomy in Australia (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny; Orchiston, W.; Clark, B.


    During the early 1850s the colony of Victoria was enjoying a succession of gold rushes, and as the population of the fledgling settlement of Melbourne rapidly grew, an urgent need arose for an accurate local time service. Thus, Williamstown Observatory was founded at the port of Williamstown in 1853. Under the dynamic direction of Robert Ellery, the Williamstown Observatory quickly added meteorological and tidal observations, geodetic surveying and non-meridian astronomical observations to its portfolio, and by the time it closed in 1863 it had already played a key role in the early development of professional astronomy in Australia. Ellery went on to direct Melbourne Observatory_Williamstown's successor_and in the process build an international reputation in astronomy, meteorology and scientific entrepeneurship. In this paper we will discuss the founding and chequered history of the Williamstown Observatory, its scientific instruments and the ways in which they were used to contribute to Australian and international astronomy.

  9. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Temperature (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  10. Physics possibilities at India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this talk I review the physics possible at India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). I discuss the improvement in the precision of currently known quantities and the possibility measuring the presently unknown quantities.

  11. The Bateson Legacy: Variable Stars Research at the Auckland Observatory (United States)

    Christie, Grant


    Frank Bateson's advice to the Auckland Astronomical Society's members looking for projects for their new Auckland Observatory has stood the test of time. Decades later the observation of variable stars is still the mainstay of Auckland's research programmes.

  12. The Bateson legacy: variable star research at the Auckland Observatory (United States)

    Christie, Grant


    Frank Bateson's advice to the Auckland Astronomical Society's members looking for projects for their new Auckland Observatory has stood the test of time. Decades later the observation of variable stars is still the mainstay of Auckland's research programmes.

  13. The Changing Carbon Cycle at Mauna Loa Observatory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfgang Buermann; Benjamin R. Lintner; Charles D. Koven; Alon Angert; Jorge E. Pinzon; Compton J. Tucker; Inez Y. Fung


    The amplitude of the CO₂ seasonal cycle at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) increased from the early 1970s to the early 1990s but decreased thereafter despite continued warming over northern continents...

  14. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Velocity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  15. New state-of-the art geodetic observatory on the way in the Arctic (United States)

    Opseth, P. E.


    The new state-of-the-art observatory that the Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA/Kartverket) is establishing in Ny-Aalesund, Svalbard will be a part of a global network that allows us to monitor the Earth system. In this paper we will present the value of precise measurements, the need for an infrastructure of continuously operating reference stations and software that take advantage of the infrastructure, and the value of international cooperation. NMA has a long history in operating and maintaining GNSS networks, and distributing of GNSS augmentation data. Since the first permanent GPS station was installed in 1987 we have established a network of more than 160 continuously operating reference stations (CORE) in Norway. The geodetic infrastructure, including a network of tide gauges around the Norwegian coastline, levelling and gravity measurements, allows us to establish a high-precision national network and to measure local sea-level changes of a couple of millimetres per year. NMA operates the space geodetic observatory at Ny-Aalesund, Svalbard, which now includes among others, a VLBI antenna and several GPS and GLONASS receivers. NMA is in the process of upgrading the observatory in Ny-Aalesund to a core network station within the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). This means to adapt to the VLBI2010 standard and to extend our activity to integrate Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). The construction will take five years from the start of work until the antennas are ready in 2018. Even though Norway and a few other countries are already working to upgrade their geodetic observatories, however, these efforts will not be sufficient to secure global coverage. The UN Committee of Expert on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) is accordingly paying growing attention to geodetic observation. Work in this committee could lead to an UN resolution on global geodetic collaboration. A UN mandate could encourage a number of other countries to make a

  16. Planning and installing micro-hydro systems a guide for designers, installers and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Chris


    An essential addition to the Earthscan Planning & Installing series, Planning and Installing Micro-Hydro Systems provides vital diagrams, pictures and tables detailing the planning and installing of a micro-hydro system, including information on the maintenance and economics once an installation is running. The book covers subjects such as measuring head and flow, ecological impacts, scheme layouts, practical advice, calculations and turbine choice. Archimedes screws are also covered in detail, as well as the main conventional choices relevant to small sites.Micro-hydro refers to hydropower sy

  17. The rings of Uranus - Occultation profiles from three observatories (United States)

    Elias, J. H.; Frogel, J. A.; French, R. G.; Matthews, K.; Meech, K. J.; Mink, D. J.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sicardy, B.; Liller, W.; Elliot, J. L.


    Occultation profiles for the nine confirmed Uranian rings obtained from Las Campanas, the European Southern Observatory, and Cerro Tololo on 15-16 August 1980 are compared. The alpha ring shows a 'double-dip' structure; the eta ring shows a broad and narrow component (similar to Saturn's F ring); and the epsilon ring shows six features that appear in the data from all three observatories. Diffraction fringes appear at the edges of several of the occultation profiles.

  18. Setting-up a small observatory from concept to construction

    CERN Document Server

    Arditti, David


    Every amateur astronomer who is considering a purpose-built observatory will find this book absolutely invaluable during both the planning and the construction stages. Drawing on David Arditti’s practical experience and that of many other amateur astronomers, it gives invaluable help in making all the important decisions. To begin with, Setting up a Small Observatory addresses what you really need from an observatory, whether to build or buy, what designs you should consider, and where you should site it. Uniquely, it also considers the aesthetics of an amateur observatory: how to make it fit in with your home, garden, and yard, even disguising it as a more common garden building if necessary. There’s also a wealth of practical details for constructing and equipping your small observatory – everything from satisfying local planning laws and building codes through to making sure that your completed observatory is well-equipped, convenient, and comfortable to use. Whether you are considering a simple low-...

  19. Installing and Testing a Server Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI


    Full Text Available The paper is based on the experience of the author with the FreeBSD server operating system administration on three servers in use under domain.The paper describes a set of installation, preparation, and administration aspects of a FreeBSD server.First issue of the paper is the installation procedure of FreeBSD operating system on i386 computer architecture. Discussed problems are boot disks preparation and using, hard disk partitioning and operating system installation using a existent network topology and a internet connection.Second issue is the optimization procedure of operating system, server services installation, and configuration. Discussed problems are kernel and services configuration, system and services optimization.The third issue is about client-server applications. Using operating system utilities calls we present an original application, which allows displaying the system information in a friendly web interface. An original program designed for molecular structure analysis was adapted for systems performance comparisons and it serves for a discussion of Pentium, Pentium II and Pentium III processors computation speed.The last issue of the paper discusses the installation and configuration aspects of dial-in service on a UNIX-based operating system. The discussion includes serial ports, ppp and pppd services configuration, ppp and tun devices using.

  20. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photos 01, 02: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are LHC project leader Lyn Evans (second left, white helmet); Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injecti...

  1. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. In this way the magnet is delivered directly to its installation point, but beneath the beamline. It is then raised into its final position in the beamline using air cushions, which form an integrated part of the transport system.Photo 01: Pictured with the newly installed magnet and transport system in the transfer line tunnel are (left to right) Volker Mertens, responsible for the LHC injection and transfer lines; personnel involved in tr...

  2. Design and installation of earth energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, S.; Adragna, M.; Coyle, S.; Foley, C.; Hawryn, S.; Martin, A.; McConnell, J. (eds.)


    This first edition of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard C448 Series, replaces CSA Standards CAN/CSA-C445-M92 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Residential and Other Small Buildings, as well as C447-94 entitled Design and Installation of Earth Energy Heat Pump Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings. This standard document consists of three parts: (C448.1) Design and installation of earth energy systems for commercial and institutional buildings; (C448.2) Design and installation of earth energy systems for residential and small buildings; and, (C448.3) Design and installation of underground thermal energy storage systems for commercial and institutional buildings. In C448.1, the requirements applicable to any system falling within the scope of the C448 series were included. Alternative requirements for houses and small buildings were added in C448.2. It was noted that either standard may be implemented. The standards applicable to the intentional storage of energy in the earth for later use were presented in C448.3. This latter section includes a brief introduction on underground thermal energy storage (UTES). tabs.

  3. Halfway There: An EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Progress Report (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Blume, F.; Coyle, B.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Hafner, K.; Hasting, M.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Phillips, D.; Walls, C.; Prescott, W.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 852 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008, acquire radar imagery and geochronology as well as manage data for 209 previously existing continuous GPS stations through the PBO Nucleus project. As of September 2006, UNAVCO had completed half the PBO GPS stations, with 426 installed and data returned from 400 stations, and 60% of the PBO Nucleus stations have been upgraded. Highlights of the past year's work include the expansion of the Alaska subnetwork to nearly 70 continuously-operating stations, including coverage of Akutan and Augustine volcanoes and reconnaissance for future installations on Unimak Island; the installation of nine new stations on Mt. St. Helens; and the arrival of 33 permits for station installations on BLM land in Nevada. The Augustine network provided critical data on magmatic and volcanic processes associated with the 2005-2006 volcanic crisis, and is now being expanded to a total of 11 stations. Please visit for further information on PBO GPS network construction activities. UNAVCO is also installing and operating the largest borehole seismic/strainmeter network in North America, as well as tiltmeters and laser strainmeters. As of September 2006, 19 PBO borehole stations had been installed and two laser strainmeter stations were operating, with a total of 28 borehole stations and 3 laser strainmeters expected by the end of 2006. In response to direction from the EarthScope community, UNAVCO has installed a dense network of six stations along the San Jacinto Fault near Anza, California. During the fall of 2006, the first

  4. Astronomical Data Integration Beyond the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Lemson, G.; Laurino, O.


    "Data integration" generally refers to the process of combining data from different source data bases into a unified view. Much work has been devoted in this area by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), allowing users to discover and access databases through standard protocols. However, different archives present their data through their own schemas and users must still select, filter, and combine data for each archive individually. An important reason for this is that the creation of common data models that satisfy all sub-disciplines is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore it requires a substantial amount of work for data providers to present their data according to some standard representation. We will argue that existing standards allow us to build a data integration framework that works around these problems. The particular framework requires the implementation of the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) only. It uses the newly developed VO data modelling language (VO-DML) specification, which allows one to define extensible object-oriented data models using a subset of UML concepts through a simple XML serialization language. A rich mapping language allows one to describe how instances of VO-DML data models are represented by the TAP service, bridging the possible mismatch between a local archive's schema and some agreed-upon representation of the astronomical domain. In this so called local-as-view approach to data integration, “mediators" use the mapping prescriptions to translate queries phrased in terms of the common schema to the underlying TAP service. This mapping language has a graphical representation, which we expose through a web based graphical “drag-and-drop-and-connect" interface. This service allows any user to map the holdings of any TAP service to the data model(s) of choice. The mappings are defined and stored outside of the data sources themselves, which allows the interface to be used in a kind of crowd-sourcing effort

  5. A Global Observatory of Lake Water Quality (United States)

    Tyler, Andrew N.; Hunter, Peter D.; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Neil, Claire; Simis, Stephen; Groom, Steve; Merchant, Chris J.; Miller, Claire A.; O'Donnell, Ruth; Scott, E. Marian


    Our planet's surface waters are a fundamental resource encompassing a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and food and energy security. Despite this, these same waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and this often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Recent developments in the availability of satellite platforms for Earth observation (including ESA's Copernicus Programme) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver measures of water quality at a global scale. The UK NERC-funded GloboLakes project is a five-year research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change through the realization of a near-real time satellite based observatory (Sentinel-3) and archive data processing (MERIS, SeaWiFS) to produce a 20-year time-series of observed ecological parameters and lake temperature for more than 1000 lakes globally. However, the diverse and complex optical properties of lakes mean that algorithm performance often varies markedly between different water types. The GloboLakes project is overcoming this challenge by developing a processing chain whereby algorithms are dynamically selected according to the optical properties of the lake under observation. The development and validation of the GloboLakes processing chain has been supported by access to extensive in situ data from more than thirty partners around the world that are now held in the LIMNADES community-owned data repository developed under the auspices of GloboLakes. This approach has resulted in a step-change in our ability to produce regional and

  6. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO) (United States)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.


    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  7. Science Drivers for the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.


    The vast amounts of information from large digital sky surveys and archives, now measured in Terabytes, and soon in Petabytes, functionally unified within the NVO, will enable and stimulate a completely new way of doing astronomy. While some of these new opportunities exist even with the individual large sky surveys (e.g., SDSS, 2MASS, DPOSS, etc.), their federation within the NVO, spanning a broad range of wavelengths, provides an added scientific value, and opens an unprecedented panchromatic view of the universe. Several types of new science can be contemplated, including the following: (1) Precision statistical astronomy, including, e.g., studies of the large-scale structure in the universe, or the structure of our Galaxy, which are no longer Poisson noise limited due to the large numbers of sources and the systematic sky coverage. (2) Searches for rare, exotic, or even previously unknown types of astronomical objects, including complete samples of quasars, brown dwarfs, stars or galaxies of a given type, etc. (3) Systematic exploration of heretofore poorly sampled portions of the observable parameter space, e.g., the low surface brightness universe, or the time/variability domain at faint flux levels, at any wavelength. (4) The panchromatic nature of the unified NVO data sets can open new, relatively unbiased views of important astrophysical processes and populations, e.g., star formation or AGN, regardless of the obscuration, etc. Such grand studies are simply not feasible with the isolated, smaller data sets available in the past. Finally, a careful, systematic selection of targets from large sky surveys for focused follow-up studies using large telescopes and space observatories would make an optimal use of the valuable observing time at such costly facilities. Perhaps most important would be the enabling role of the NVO in making these information-rich data sets and tools to explore them available to the broad community, regardless of their access to large

  8. Installation Strategy for the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Fartoukh, Stephane David


    All positions in the LHC machine are not equivalent in terms of beam requirements on the geometry and the field quality of the main dipoles. In the presence of slightly or strongly out-of tolerance magnets, a well-defined installation strategy will therefore contribute to preserve or even optimize the performance of the machine. Based on the present status of the production, we have anticipated a list of potential issues (geometry, transfer function, field direction and random b3) which, combined by order of priority, have been taken into account to define a simple but efficient installation algorithm for the LHC main dipoles. Its output is a prescription for installing the available dipoles in sequence while reducing to an absolute minimum the number of holes required by geometry or FQ issues.

  9. VERA 3.5 Installation Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baird, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berrill, Mark A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kulesza, Joel A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mervin, Brenden T. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Charlotte, NC (United States)


    This guide describes the structure and setup of the standard VERA development environment (VERA Dev Env) and standard VERA Third Party Libraries (TPLs) that need to be in place before installing many of the VERA simulation components. It describes everything from the initial setup on a new machine to the final build, testing, and installation of VERA components. The goal of this document is to describe how to create the directories and contents outlined in Standard VERA Dev Env Directory Structure and then obtain the remaining VERA source and build, test, and install any of the necessary VERA components on a given system. This document describes the process both for a development version of VERA and for a released tarball of the VERA sources.

  10. Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J.


    Our computing capacity to model hydrological processes is such that we can readily model every hectare of the globe's surface in real time. Satellites provide us with important state observations that allow us to calibrate our models and estimate model errors. Still, ground observations will remain necessary to obtain data that can not readily be observed from space. Hydro-Meteorological data availability is particularly scarce in Africa. This presentation launches a simple idea by which Africa can leapfrog into a new era of closely knit environmental observation networks. The basic idea is the design of a robust measurement station, based on the smart use of new sensors without moving parts. For example, instead of using a Eu 5000 long-wave pyrgeometer, a factory calibrated IR microwave oven sensor is used that costs less than Eu 10. In total, each station should cost Eu 200 or less. Every 30 km, one station will be installed, being equivalent to 20,000 stations for all of sub-Saharan Africa. The roll-out will follow the XO project ("100 computer") and focus on high schools. The stations will be accompanied by an educational package that allows high school children to learn about their environment, measurements, electronics, and mathematical modeling. Total program costs lie around MEu 18.

  11. Biogenic Iron-Rich Filaments in the Quartz Veins in the Uppermost Ediacaran Qigebulake Formation, Aksu Area, Northwestern Tarim Basin, China: Implications for Iron Oxidizers in Subseafloor Hydrothermal Systems. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiqiang; Chen, Daizhao; Tang, Dongjie; Dong, Shaofeng; Guo, Chuan; Guo, Zenghui; Zhang, Yanqiu


    Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide-encrusted filamentous microstructures produced by microorganisms have been widely reported in various modern and ancient extreme environments; however, the iron-dependent microorganisms preserved in hydrothermal quartz veins have not been explored in detail because of limited materials available. In this study, abundant well-preserved filamentous microstructures were observed in the hydrothermal quartz veins of the uppermost dolostones of the terminal-Ediacaran Qigebulake Formation in the Aksu area, northwestern Tarim Basin, China. These filamentous microstructures were permineralized by goethite and hematite as revealed by Raman spectroscopy and completely entombed in chalcedony and quartz cements. Microscopically, they are characterized by biogenic filamentous morphologies (commonly 20-200 μm in length and 1-5 μm in diameter) and structures (curved, tubular sheath-like, segmented, and mat-like filaments), similar to the Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) living in modern and ancient hydrothermal vent fields. A previous study revealed that quartz-barite vein swarms were subseafloor channels of low-temperature, silica-rich, diffusive hydrothermal vents in the earliest Cambrian, which contributed silica to the deposition of the overlying bedded chert of the Yurtus Formation. In this context, this study suggests that the putative filamentous FeOB preserved in the quartz veins might have thrived in the low-temperature, silica- and Fe(II)-rich hydrothermal vent channels in subseafloor mixing zones and were rapidly fossilized by subsequent higher-temperature, silica-rich hydrothermal fluids in response to waning and waxing fluctuations of diffuse hydrothermal venting. In view of the occurrence in a relatively stable passive continental margin shelf environment in Tarim Block, the silica-rich submarine hydrothermal vent system may represent a new and important geological niche favorable for FeOB colonization, which is different from their traditional

  12. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cove, Columbia, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is presented concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water. Included are such items as principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system. Also included are trouble-shooting charts and maintenance schedules.

  13. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, C. Y. and others


    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop in HANARO for nuclear technology development. Procurement and fabrication of main equipment, licensing and technical review for fuel test loop have been performed during 2 years(1997, 1998) for this project. Following contents are described in the report. - Procurement and fabrication of the equipment, piping for OPS - IPS manufacture - License - Technical review and evaluation of the FTL facility. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and review ofHANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author)

  14. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew


    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  15. Tolley's industrial and commercial gas installation practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hazlehurst, John


    This is the third of three essential reference volumes for those concerned with the installation and servicing of domestic and industrial gas equipment. This volume explains the basic principles underlying the practical and theoretical aspects of installing and servicing gas appliances and associated equipment, from the basics of combustion, to burners, pressure and flow, transfer of heat, controls, as well as materials and processes, electrical aspects, and metering and measuring devices. Covering both Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas, the many illustrations and worked examples include

  16. The role of installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub


    Full Text Available This study presents the research of role installers for thermo-technical installations when buying gas boilers in the Serbian market. Considering the fact that installers are significantly different, they are grouped by specific, relevant characteristics. The research is focused on the evaluation of marketing mix instruments by nine identified segments of installers. Moreover, research has been explored deeper through conclusion installers about the most important and most credible sources of information on gas boilers. During the research were used secondary and primary data sources. Besides the research at the table, field research has been also done by unstructured personal communication. All collected data were analyzed in details and both hypothesis were tested, where one of them is partially confirmed, and another one fully confirm. Given results can be useful for marketers and their anticipation of demand. Also these results can be used for creating optimal marketing strategy in the Serbian market of gas boilers.

  17. The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.


    The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility

  18. History of the Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck Geomagnetic Observatory (United States)

    Soffel, H. C.


    The Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck Geomagnetic Observatory is one of the observatories with the longest recordings of the geomagnetic field. It started with hourly measurements on 1 August 1840. The founder of the observatory in Munich was Johann von Lamont (1805-1879), the Director of the Royal Bavarian Astronomical Observatory. He had been stimulated to build his own observatory by the initiative of the Göttingen Magnetic Union founded in 1834 by Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) and Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). Before 1840 fewer than five observatories existed; the most prominent ones were those in London and Paris. At the beginning Lamont used equipment delivered by Gauss in Göttingen, but soon started to build instruments of his own design. Among them was a nonmagnetic theodolite which allowed precise geomagnetic measurements to be made also in the field. During the 1850s Lamont carried out geomagnetic surveys and produced geomagnetic maps for Germany and many other European countries. At the end of the nineteenth century accurate geomagnetic measurements in Munich became more and more disturbed by the magnetic stray fields from electric tramways and industry. During this period the quality of the data suffered and the measurements had to be interrupted several times. After a provisional solution in Maisach, a village 25 km west of Munich, a final solution could be found in the vicinity of the nearby city of Fürstenfeldbruck. Here the measurements started again on 1 January 1939. Since the 1980s the observatory has been part of INTERMAGNET, an organization providing almost real-time geomagnetic data of the highest quality.

  19. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research (United States)

    Sowell, J.


    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  20. 14 CFR 25.1703 - Function and installation: EWIS. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Function and installation: EWIS. 25.1703... (EWIS) § 25.1703 Function and installation: EWIS. (a) Each EWIS component installed in any area of the aircraft must: (1) Be of a kind and design appropriate to its intended function. (2) Be installed according...

  1. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  2. Installation of the LHC transfer lines begins

    CERN Multimedia


    On 19 February, the very first magnet was installed in one of the two tunnels that will house the transfer lines leading to the LHC. This magnet, recycled from a previous facility, was transported and positioned using a novel system designed for conveying large objects through narrow tunnels.

  3. Installation of the ALICE dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The large dipole magnet is installed on the ALICE detector at CERN. This magnet, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid (in the background). These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter, allowing them to traverse the main section of the detector.

  4. First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...

    CERN Multimedia


    ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

  5. Installations solaires photovoltaïques

    CERN Document Server


    Cet ouvrage présente les règles de conception et de mise en œuvre des installations photovoltaïques raccordées au réseau public de distribution à basse tension. Il s’applique aux bâtiments neufs et existants et concerne non seulement les petites installations résidentielles, d’une puissance de l’ordre de quelques kWc, mais aussi celles des bâtiments collectifs, tertiaires ou agricoles. Il traite successivement : - des fondamentaux de l'énergie solaire photovoltaïque (gisement solaire, principe de la conversion, composants d'une installation...) ; - du dimensionnement de l'installation (choix des matériels, règles de conception, estimation de l'énergie récupérable...) ; - de sa mise en oeuvre (travail en hauteur, habilitation électrique, mise en service, maintenance...) ; - des démarches administratives nécessaires (aides financières, accès au réseau de distribution, vente de l'électricité produite...).

  6. Safety and Inspection Planning of Older Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Ersdal, G.


    (and coalescence of small cracks) and increased crack growth. This should imply shorter inspection time intervals for ageing structures. Different approaches for updating inspection plans for older installations are proposed. The most promisingmethod consists of increasing the rate of crack initiations...

  7. Safety and Inspection Planning of Older Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Ersdal, G.


    time intervals for ageing structures. Different approaches for updating inspection plans for older installations are proposed.The most promising method consists in increasing the rate of crack initiations at the end of the expected lifetime - corresponding to a bath-tube hazard rate effect.The approach...

  8. Installation in Outdoor Advertising Designs: Engagement with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional outdoor platform came into existence in Nigeria since 1929, but from 1980s, optional site specifics were located in vintage positions in form of Installations. The 3D sculptural art form as a reminder medium, positions popular brands such as Star lager beer, Guinness and Milo beverage. Dictates of globalization ...

  9. 46 CFR 132.220 - Installation. (United States)


    ... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.220 Installation. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher approved under subpart 162.028 of this chapter and each semiportable fire extinguisher approved under... placement of each extinguisher must satisfy the cognizant OCMI, who may also deem added extinguishers...

  10. On the Modelling of Pile Installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.


    This thesis introduces two different types of physical model tests to investigate the stress and density change in the soil during installation of a jacked pile as well as two numerical modelling approaches to model the same process in a finite element code capable of large deformations.

  11. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report. (United States)

    Walker, Gene C.

    A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

  12. Thermocouple installation in thin-walled tubes (United States)

    Curren, A. N.; Wycoff, K. C.


    Brazing process attaches thermocouples to slot in type-347 stainless steel tube flush around its circumference. Electrolytic flashing with gold enhances brazing process. This installation procedure does not significantly change calibration of thermocouples used and does not cause major wear spots in the thin-walled devices.

  13. OpenROCS: a software tool to control robotic observatories (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Sanz, Josep; Vilardell, Francesc; Ribas, Ignasi; Gil, Pere


    We present the Open Robotic Observatory Control System (OpenROCS), an open source software platform developed for the robotic control of telescopes. It acts as a software infrastructure that executes all the necessary processes to implement responses to the system events that appear in the routine and non-routine operations associated to data-flow and housekeeping control. The OpenROCS software design and implementation provides a high flexibility to be adapted to different observatory configurations and event-action specifications. It is based on an abstract model that is independent of the specific hardware or software and is highly configurable. Interfaces to the system components are defined in a simple manner to achieve this goal. We give a detailed description of the version 2.0 of this software, based on a modular architecture developed in PHP and XML configuration files, and using standard communication protocols to interface with applications for hardware monitoring and control, environment monitoring, scheduling of tasks, image processing and data quality control. We provide two examples of how it is used as the core element of the control system in two robotic observatories: the Joan Oró Telescope at the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (Catalonia, Spain) and the SuperWASP Qatar Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Canary Islands, Spain).

  14. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. quarter 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site ( It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  15. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site ( It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  16. Historical Examples of Lobbying: The Case of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatories (United States)

    Heck, Andre


    Several astronomical observatories have been established in Strasbourg in very differing contexts. In the late 17th century, an observing post (scientifically sterile) was put on top of a tower, the Hospital Gate, essentially for the prestige of the city and the notoriety of the university. In the 19th century, the observatory built on the Académie hosting the French university was the first attempt to set up in the city a real observatory equipped with genuine instrumentation with the purpose of carrying out serious research, but the succession of political regimes in France and the continual bidding for moving the university to other locations, together with the faltering of later scholars, torpedoed any significant scientific usage of the place. After the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war, the German authorities set up a prestigious university campus with a whole range of institutes together with a modern observatory consisting of several buildings and hosting a flotilla of excellent instruments, including the then largest refractor of the country. This paper illustrates various types of lobbying used in the steps above while detailing, from archive documents largely unexploited so far, original research on the two first observatories.

  17. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  19. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Univ. Siegen (Germany); et al.


    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m2 plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  20. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, R.; Chiosso, M.; Chirin, J.; Clay, R.; Dawson, B.; Fick, B.; Filipcic, A.; Garcia, B.; Grillo, A.; Horvat, M.; Iarlori, M.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.; Matthews,; Melo, D.; Meyhandan, R.; Mostafa, M.; Mussa, R.; Prouza, M.; Raefert, B.; Rizi, V.


    For a ground based cosmic-ray observatory the atmosphere is an integral part of the detector. Air fluorescence detectors (FDs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols, consisting mainly of clouds and dust, can strongly affect the propagation of fluorescence and Cherenkov light from cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory has a comprehensive program to monitor the aerosols within the atmospheric volume of the detector. In this paper the aerosol parameters that affect FD reconstruction will be discussed. The aerosol monitoring systems that have been deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be briefly described along with some measurements from these systems.

  1. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOPHIA) Mirror Coating Facility (United States)

    Austin, Ed

    The joint US and German project, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), to develop and operate a 2.5 meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP began late last year. Universities Space Research Association (USRA), teamed with Raytheon E-Systems and United Airlines, was selected by NASA to develop and operate SOPHIA. The 2.5 meter telescope will be designed and built by a consortium of German companies. The observatory is expected to operate for over 29 years with the first science flights beginning in 2001. The SOPHIA Observatory will fly at and above 12.5 km, where the telescope will collect radiation in the wavelength range from 0.3 micrometers to a 1.6 millimeters. Universities Space Research Association (USRA) with support from NASA is currently evaluating methods of recoating the primary mirror in preparation for procurement of mirror coating equipment. The decision analysis technique, decision criteria and telescope specifications will be discussed.

  2. Observatory facility staff requirements and local labor markets (United States)

    Rabanus, David


    Current large observatories, both in operation and projects in development or construction, face the challenge to find skilled personnel for integration and operation. Typical locations of these observatories are found to be remote, mainly due to electromagnetic pollution prevention, which in many if not all cases reduces the attractiveness of the work posts. Additional budgetary limitations restrict the recruitment radius for certain positions to the local labor market. This paper outlines these staffing constraints in more detail and elaborates on the need for training programs on various levels, which can be costly. This, in turn, drives the need for creative retention efforts. Therefore, financial modeling, contingency, risk and quality management, and the reliability, availability, and maintainability of an observatory are directly coupled to the local embedding in the labor market of the host country.

  3. Seismic and Tectonic Monitoring of the Endeavour Ridge Segment—Recent and Future Expansion of Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE Observatory on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.; Scherwath, M.; Kao, H.; Coogan, L. A.; Rogers, G. C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.


    Ocean Networks Canada's (ONC) NEPTUNE observatory provides real-time access to sensors on the Endeavour Ridge Segment (Endeavour)—a focus site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge System that is complementary to one on Axial Volcano that is connected through the Ocean Observatories Initiative's (OOI) Cabled Array. While first instruments (including cameras, a short-period seismometer, and vent monitoring instruments) installed at the Main Endeavour vent field have been sending data since summer 2010, unreliable extension cables precluded continuous time-series from other nearby locations. With the successful installation of four extension cables, the summer of 2016 represents an important milestone in the instrumentation of the Endeavour Ridge Segment. We will present an overview of the data that are available in near real-time from Endeavour and new instrumentation that is scheduled for installation in 2017, and highlight first results derived from the new seismo-tectonic network now in operation. This network consists of three short-period seismometers (Mothra Field, Main Endeavour Field, Regional Circulation North), one broadband seismometer (western Ridge Flank), and four bottom pressure recorders (Mothra Field, Regional Circulation South, Main Endeavour Field, western Ridge Flank). The pressure recorders will provide both seismic and oceanographic data, and allow to measure differential vertical motion among the sites. We will also highlight a new technique to determine long period seafloor deformation from broadband seismometer mass-position measurements, using data from the Ridge Flank instrument as an example.

  4. Using two light-pollution models to investigate artificial sky radiances at Canary Islands observatories (United States)

    Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.


    Astronomical observations are increasingly limited by light pollution, which is a product of the over-illumination of the night sky. To predict both the angular distribution of scattered light and the ground-reaching radiative fluxes, a set of models has been introduced in recent decades. Two distinct numerical tools, MSNsRAu and ILLUMINA, are compared in this paper, with the aim of identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The numerical experiment comprises the simulation of spectral radiances in the region of the Canary Islands. In particular, the light fields near the Roque de los Muchachos and Teide observatories are computed under various turbidity conditions. It is shown that ILLUMINA has enhanced accuracy at low elevation angles. However, ILLUMINA is time-consuming because of the two scattering orders incorporated into the calculation scheme. Under low-turbidity conditions and for zenith angles smaller than 70° the two models agree well, and thus can be successfully applied to typical cloudless situations at the majority of observatories. MSNsRAu is well optimized for large-scale simulations. In particular, the grid size is adapted dynamically depending on the distance between a light source and a hypothetical observer. This enables rapid numerical modelling for large territories. MSNsRAu is also well suited for the mass modelling of night-sky radiances after ground-based light sources are hypothetically changed. This enables an optimum design of public lighting systems and a time-efficient evaluation of the optical effects related to different lamp spectra or different lamp distributions. ILLUMINA provides two diagnostic geographical maps to help local authorities concerned about light-pollution control. The first map allows the identification of the relative contribution of each ground element to the observed sky radiance at a given viewing angle, while the second map gives the sensitivity, basically saying how each ground element contributes per lumen

  5. Theoretical Virtual Observatory and Grid Web services: VisIVO and new capabilities (United States)

    Costa, A.; Becciani, U.; Gheller, C.; Comparato, M.; Larsson, B.


    VisIVO is a tool for 3D visualization, it provides an effective and intuitive way of managing, visualizing and analysing the large amount of data produced by observations and numerical simulations. The software is specifically designed to deal with multidimensional data. Catalogues and numerical simulations represent the basic target of VisIVO. The package is written in C++. This poster describes VIsIVO's Grid Web Service (VWS) and its counterpart client side developed in VisIVO. VisIVO's Grid Web Service is developed as a part of the Italian Virtual Observatory, it allows to run applications in grid using the web service technology. The VWS has been designed to work within a Virtual Observatory environment so that the interface for the current application, shown in this poster, and the interfaces for other applications are described by a small and constant piece of WSDL code. Our first application is HOP: an algorithm for finding groups of particles based on the one developed and coded by Daniel Eisenstein & Piet Hut, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ. We have developed VWS using Java AXIS libraries for the server side and C++ AXIS libraries for the client side. The access to the computational resources and storage areas is based on grid services in the INFN Production Grid and from this the VWS inherits asynchronous features, scheduling and matching algorithms. HOP was distributed as RPM Package and was installed in the Worker Node Elements of the INFN Production Grid. The idea is to use external tools through the grid avoiding the integration in our application. We can focus on the I/O management of the jobs and on the standardization of the access methods for the different analysis tools improving the scalability of our solution.

  6. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  7. Urania in the Marketplace: Observatories as Holiday Destinations (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.


    During the twentieth century astronomical imagery was frequently incorporated, by manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, into advertisements which appeared in popular magazines in America. The domes and telescopes of major observatories were often featured. In some cases, particularly within the Golden State of California, major astronomical facilities (notably the Lick and Mt. Wilson Observatories) were touted as tourist attractions and were publicized as such by tourist bureaus, railroads, and hotels.A particularly interesting example is provided by the Hotel Vendome in San Jose. With completion of the Lick Observatory (and the 36-inch Great Refractor) in 1887, the local business community felt that the city needed a first-class resort hotel. The architectural firm of Jacob Lenzen & Son was hired to design a grand hotel, comparable to those found in locales such as Monterey and Pasadena. The resulting four-story, 150-room structure cost 250,000, a phenomenal sum in those days. Yet, within just fourteen years, tourist demand led to the construction of a 36-room annex. Of course, a great resort hotel would not be complete without the opportunity for excursion, and the Mt. Hamilton Stage Company offered daily trips to the famous Lick Observatory.Farther south, the Mt. Wilson Observatory began construction of its own hotel in 1905.The original structure was destroyed by fire in 1913, and replaced by a second which was used by visitors until 1966.Early examples of advertisements for these observatories, recalling the heyday of astronomical tourism, are presented. A few more recent ones for Arecibo and Palomar are included for comparison.

  8. A Remotely Operated Observatory for Minor Planet Photometry (United States)

    Ditteon, Richard


    In October of 2007 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana began operating the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory (E09) located near Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. The observatory houses a 0.5-m, f/8.4 Ritchey-Chretien telescope mounted on a Paramount ME, German equatorial mount. Attached to the telescope is an STL-1001E CCD camera which has 1024 by 1024, 24 µm pixels, a two-stage thermoelectric cooler, and built in color filter wheel with BVRI and clear filters. Image scale is 1.2 arcseconds per pixel. A cloud sensor is used to monitor sky conditions. The observatory has a roll-off roof with limit switches to detect when the roof is fully open and fully closed. In addition, a switch has been added to the mount to detect when the telescope is parked and that it is safe to open or close the roof. All of the hardware is controlled by a custom program which reads a simple text file containing the sequence of images and targets to be collected each night. The text file is loaded onto the control computer once each day, then the software waits until sunset to determine if the sky is clear. When conditions are favorable, power is turned on, the roof opens, twilight flats, dark and bias frames are recorded, and when it is fully dark data frames are recorded. Images are transferred via the Internet back to Rose-Hulman by another program running in the background. The observatory closes itself before dawn or if it gets cloudy. Currently we are using the observatory for photometry of minor planets. Students are responsible for selecting targets, processing the returned images, determining the period and light curve of each minor planet and writing a paper for publication. Recent results will be presented.

  9. An Experimental Multi-disciplinary observatory (VENUS at the Ryukyu Trench using the Guam-Okinawa Geophysical Submarine Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shirasaki


    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary Ocean Bottom Observatory (MDOBO was installed on VENUS (Versatile Eco-monitoring Network by Undersea-cable System a depth of 2,170 meters on the slope of the Ryukyu Trench. In this context, “Eco-“ refers to both economic (e.g., earthquake hazard mitigation and ecological motivation. The first step in this instillation was to insert a telemetry/power system into the submarine coaxial cable; this system could then service the MODOBO, which consist of seven major bottom sensor packages. During August-September 1999, using a deep-towed unit and both manned and unmanned submersibles coupled with precise ship navigation, the MDOBO system and its attendant cables were deployed over a range of distances from 80 m to 1 km from the telemetry system, with several meter allowance for navigational uncertainty in positioning. The unmanned submersible then extended the multi-conductor extension cables from the instrument units toward the telemetry system and connected them to undersea mateable connectors on a junction box installed on the submarine cable. The MDOBO collected one and half months of continuous records. Several kinds of useful data were collected after installation, including an aftershock (Ms=6.1 of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Ms=7.7 in Taiwan.

  10. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: On-going results and new instruments (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.


    Since June 2011, the ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) has been collecting abyssal oceanographic data. The ACO is at Station ALOHA 100 km north of Oahu, the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has collected biological, physical, and chemical oceanographic data since 1988. At 4728 m water depth, it is the world's deepest operating cabled observatory. On-going results will be presented along with results from two new instrument packages to be deployed: a basic sensor package (CTDO2, fluorometer, acoustic modem, ADCP), and a video/light/hydrophone combination. Plans for future research will be discussed. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  11. Mass sensitive observables of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger M.


    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss measurements of the longitudinal development of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The longitudinal development of the electromagnetic component can be directly observed by the fluorescence telescopes of the Auger Observatory and we will present the results on the evolution of the average shower maximum and its fluctuations as a function of energy. Moreover, two observables from the surface detector, the asymmetry of the rise time of the station signals and the muon production depth, will be discussed and the measurements will be compared to predictions from air shower simulations for different primary particle types.

  12. Millimeter wave radiometer installation in Río Gallegos, southern Argentina (United States)

    Orte, P. F.; Salvador, J.; Wolfram, E.; D'Elia, R.; Nagahama, T.; Kojima, Y.; Tanada, R.; Kuwahara, T.; Morihira, A.; Quel, E.; Mizuno, A.


    With the aim of contribution to the study of atmospheric ozone layer, a new sensitive radiometer for atmospheric minor constituents has been installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, División LIDAR, CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET), in October 2010. This observatory is established in the city of Rio Gallegos (51° 36' S, 69° 19' W), Argentina, close to the spring ozone hole. The millimeter wave radiometer was developed in STEL (Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory), Nagoya University, Japan. This passive remote sensing instrument is able to measure the ozone (O3) amount in the high stratosphere and mesosphere continuously and automatically with a high time resolution. The millimeter wave radiometer ozone profiles will be supplemented with the ozone profiles obtained from the DIAL system existent in the observatory. The millimeter wave radiometer is based on the spectral signal detection from the atmosphere due to the molecular rotational transition of molecules under study. The operation is based on a superheterodyne system which uses a Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer receiver operating at 203.6GHz. The SIS mixer junction consists of a sandwich structure of Nb/AlOx/Nb, and is cooled to 4.2K with a closed cycle He-gas refrigerator. Two additional heterodyne-mixed stages are realized with the aim to shift the measured spectral line until a frequency around of 500 MHz. A FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) spectrometer system is used as a back end. The aims of this work are to show the potential of the millimeter wave radiometer installed in the subpolar latitudes close to the polar ozone hole and to present the preliminary result of the first measurements.

  13. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.


    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  14. Software safety analysis practice in installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shyu, S. S., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000 Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, 32546 Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)


    This work performed a software safety analysis in the installation phase of the Lung men nuclear power plant in Taiwan, under the cooperation of Institute of Nuclear Energy Research and Tpc. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requests licensee to perform software safety analysis and software verification and validation in each phase of software development life cycle with Branch Technical Position 7-14. In this work, 37 safety grade digital instrumentation and control systems were analyzed by failure mode and effects analysis, which is suggested by IEEE standard 7-4.3.2-2003. During the installation phase, skew tests for safety grade network and point to point tests were performed. The failure mode and effects analysis showed all the single failure modes can be resolved by the redundant means. Most of the common mode failures can be resolved by operator manual actions. (Author)

  15. Integrated installation for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J.; Bowerman, H.


    A project to investigate the feasibility of integrating the offshore installation of foundation, turbine and tower for offshore wind turbines into one operation is described. Three separate objectives are listed. They are: (1) Telescopic tower study - reversible process incorporating lift and lock mechanisms; (2) Transportation study - technical and economic feasibility of transporting and installing a wind turbine unit via a standard barge with minimal conversion and (3) Self-burial system study - to demonstrate the feasibility of self burial of a slab foundation via controlled jetting beneath the slab. The background to the study and the proposed concepts are discussed. The work carried out to date and the costs are reported together with the findings. Recommendations for future work are listed. The work was carried out by Corus UK Ltd and is managed by Future Energy Solutions for the DTI.

  16. Installation for producing sealed radioactive sources; Installation de fabrication de sources radioactives scellees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.; Hayoun, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This installation has been designed and built for producing sealed sources of fission elements: caesium 137, strontium 90, promethium 147, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 in particular. The installation consists of sealed and protected cells, each being assigned to a particular production. The safety and the operational reliability of the equipment are the principal considerations which have governed this work. The report describes the installation and, in particular, the apparatus used as well as the various control devices. In conclusion, a review as presented of six years operation. (authors) [French] Cette installation a ete concue et realisee pour effectuer des fabrications de sources scellees d'elements de fission: caesium 137 - strontium 90 - promethium 147 - ruthenium 106 - cerium 144 en particulier. L'installation est composee de cellules etanches et protegees, chacune d'elles etant affectee a une fabrication particuliere. La securite et la surete de fonctionnement de l'ensemble sont parmi les elements principaux qui ont guide l'etude. Le rapport decrit l'installation et plus particulierement l'appareillage utilise ainsi que les divers controles et commandes. Le bilan de fonctionnement apres 6 ans d'exploitation sert de conclusion. (auteurs)

  17. Installation of superconducting gravimeter in the Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, H. [Research Facility Center for Science and Technology Cryogenics Division, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Doi, K. [National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Itabashi-ku 1-9-10, Kaga 173-8515 (Japan); Fukuda, Y. [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Shibuya, K. [National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Itabashi-ku 1-9-10, Kaga 173-8515 (Japan); Yoshizaki, R. [Research Facility Center for Science and Technology Cryogenics Division, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)


    In February 2003 to January 2004, a new superconducting gravimeter with a cryocooler was installed to replace the former one in Syowa Station on the Antarctica. It has a high sensitivity of one nano-Gal to survey inside the earth in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP network). A new type of diaphragm was confirmed to well isolate the vibration from refrigerator cold-head and to prevent the solid air contamination perfectly. Real time remote monitoring system from Japan is also established.

  18. CASTOR Calorimeter Installation Review at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions


    This test is a part of CASTOR EDR process. The CASTOR phys-tech review held on 14 Jan 2011 and the subsequent EDR held on 17 Jun 2011, the CMS Management Board has endorsed a strategy in which CASTOR is removed during the 2011 Year-End Technical Stop, but is then refurbished, replacing a substantial fraction of the phototubes, so that it is ready for re-installation in the Technical Stop just before 2012 heavy-ion operation.



    Kvitko A. V.; Semenov Y. A.; Otmakhov G. S.


    The article shows the main advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources. It is shown, that in general, the use of renewable energy in the world has acquired real momentum and stable growth trend. An interesting fact is that the greatest application was currently the most mutable and unstable form of energy - wind. The total global installed capacity of large wind turbines, according to various estimates, is approximately 20 GW. This is because the specific investment in wind power...

  20. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System (United States)

    Lam, M.


    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  1. Installation of electric generators on turbine engines (United States)

    Demel, H. F.


    The installation of generators on turbine aircraft is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of the samarium cobalt generator. Potential advantages of an electric secondary power system at the engine level are listed. The integrated generator and the externally mounted generator are discussed. It is concluded that the integrated generator is best used in turbojet and low bypass ratio engines where there is no easy way of placing generators externally without influencing frontal areas.

  2. Filter Protection of Consumers’ Electrical Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polouyanov


    Full Text Available The paper justifies necessity to use current filters of symmetric components, in particular, combined filters of positive and negative phase-sequences for protection of three-phase receivers.Results pertaining to calculation of currents of various phase-sequences for emergency cases with small current are presented in the paper. The paper reveals that protective devices designed on the basis of current filters of symmetric components efficiently improve protection of consumers’ electrical installations and increase their operational safety.

  3. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations (United States)


    air energy, and flow batteries are better suited to deliver energy to users for durations in units of minutes or longer. One can see a natural...closely watching. The site has a landfill gas project, solar energy, and a zinc bromide flow battery based energy storage system. Raytheon, though its...of Defense Instruction 4170.11, “Installation Energy Management,” 11 December 2009. Department of Defense, “ Zinc Bromide Flow Battery

  4. Analysis of Installation-Level Planning Requirements (United States)


    the Master Planning Instruction (MPI) document is internally inconsistent in that land use planning and integrated environmental decision-making are...Master Planning contains citations found in the ARs and guidance documents referring to master planning and land use planning . The relationship of other...Instruction, page 3- 1 Land use planning is a mapping and planned allocation of the use of all installation lands based on established land use categories and

  5. AWAKE starts the equipment installation phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    AWAKE is the proof-of-principle experiment whose aim is to use protons to generate powerful wakefields to accelerate an electron beam. With accelerator gradients hundreds of times higher than those used in current systems, this technique could revolutionise the field of particle acceleration. Installed in the tunnel previously used by the CNGS facility, AWAKE is completing the service installation phase and will receive the plasma cell in the coming months.   The AWAKE proton line with all the magnets installed. (Image: AWAKE collaboration.) AWAKE is the world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. In AWAKE, a beam of protons from the SPS will be travelling through a plasma cell and this will generate a wakefield that, in turn, will accelerate an electron beam. A laser will ionise the gas in the plasma cell and seed the self-modulation instability that will trigger the wakefield in the plasma. The project aims to prove that the plasma wakefield can be driv...

  6. Numerical simulation of installation of skirt foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelsten, Bjoern Vidar


    Skirt foundation has been increasingly used for permanent offshore oil installations and anchors for drilling ships. Suction is commonly used in skirt foundation installing. If a large amount of suction is applied, the soil around the foundation may fail and the foundation become useless. This thesis studies failure due to high seepage gradients, aiming to provide a basis for reducing the risk of such failures. Skirt penetration model testing has shown that to solve the problem one must understand what is going on at the skirt tip during suction installation. A numerical model based on micro mechanics was developed as continuum hypothesis was seen to be unsuitable to describe the processes in the critical phases of the failure. The numerical model combines two-dimensional elliptical particles with the finite difference method for flow to model water flow in a granular material. The key idea is to formulate the permeability as a function of the porosity of the grain assembly and so obtain an interaction between the finite difference method on flow and the particle movement. A computer program, DYNELL, was developed and used to simulate: (1) weight penetration of a skirt wall, (2) combined suction and weight penetration of a skirt wall, and (3) critical gradient tests around a skirt wall to study failure mechanisms. The model calculations agree well with laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 124 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Herder, J. W. den; Bozzo, E.


    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) was studied within ESA M3 Cosmic Vision framework and participated in the final down-selection for a launch slot in 2022-2024. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument, LOFT will study...

  8. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories Capability Roadmap Presentation to the NRC (United States)


    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the NASA Advanced Planning and Integration Office (APIO) roadmap for developing technological capabilities for telescopes and observatories in the following areas: Optics; Wavefront Sensing and Control and Interferometry; Distributed and Advanced Spacecraft; Large Precision Structures; Cryogenic and Thermal Control Systems; Infrastructure.

  9. Unruly Sun Emerges from Solar Space Observatory SOHO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Unruly Sun Emerges from Solar Space Observatory SOHO. B N Dwivedi. Research News Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 75-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irastorza, I G; Avignone, F T; Cantatore, G


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ (≳) few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IA...

  11. Conceptual design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO wi...

  12. Lowell Observatory enters the twentieth century - in the 1950s (United States)

    Tenn, Joseph


    By the 1950s the Lowell Observatory was stagnant. The three senior astronomers had been there for decades, and they were no longer doing much research or publishing. Yet they jealously guarded the telescopes and prevented younger colleagues from using them effectively. V.M. Slipher, Director since 1916, had been a very productive astronomer in his youth, when he was guided by founder Percival Lowell, but now he devoted his remaining energies to his many business interests. The Observatory's sole Trustee, a nephew of the founder, was busy with his business and politics in Massachusetts and slow to exert authority in Flagstaff, Arizona. Finally, after C.O. Lampland died and V.M. and E.C. Slipher were in their seventies, the Trustee decided that he had to make a change. He brought in mathematician Albert Wilson, who had been leading the Palomar Sky Survey for Caltech. One of Wilson's qualifications seems to be that he was acceptable to the Slipher brothers. Wilson started the Observatory on the road to modernity but ran into personal problems as well as difficulty managing Observatory personnel, and he resigned after a little more than two years. John Hall became Director in 1958, just as the American reaction to Sputnik made abundant Federal resources available to science. In his nineteen years as Director Hall completely revived the historic institution and brought it into the late twentieth century.

  13. OAdM Observatory: Towards Fully Unattended Control (United States)

    Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Fernández, D.; Francisco, X.; Isern, J.; Palau, X.; Torra, J.; Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Fernández, D.; Isern, J.

    The Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM) is a small-class observatory working on a completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is, then, mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by the confidence reached to respond to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. There are key problems to solve when a robotic control is envisaged. Learned lessons and solutions to these issues at the OAdM are discussed here. We present a description of the general control software (SW) and several SW packages developed. They specially protect the system at the identified single points of failure and constitute a distributed control of any subsystem, which is able to respond independently when an alarm is triggered thanks to a top-down control flow. All together this composes a SW suite designed to reach the complete robotization of an observatory.

  14. Physics possibilities at India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a proposed underground facility at. PUSHEP in the Nilagiri Mountains in the Southern part of India. The site is about 240 km south of Bangalore. A cavern of dimensions 120 m × 22 m × 30 m will be constructed at the end of a 1.5-km long tunnel. The location of the cavern.

  15. Operating observatories: the need for a new paradigm (United States)

    Payne, Ifan; Veillet, Christian


    At a time of declining funding, the managers of ground based observatories may not be in the best position to ensure adequate resources either for developing new facilities or new instruments or for upgrading existing facilities. Nor can there be dependence upon the traditional support for researchers which in turn implies that there is inadequate founding to cover the cost of operations. For historical reasons, an overwhelming number of observatories in the USA are affiliated with, or hosted by, universities yet, because of the traditional lack of entrepreneurial thinking and the complexity and the extent of administrations, a university may not be the best environment to develop new approaches to the management of observatories; nor is an academic background of necessity the best preparation for best management practices. We propose that observatories should adopt a business-like approach, to be service providers, and to use the same metrics as for a business. This approach may entail forming corporations, forming consortia, spreading the risk and to find additional sources of income from sales and spin-offs.

  16. Search for ultrarelativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; De Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipcic, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Qader; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Lauscher, M.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, H.; Nunez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Kala, J. Pe; Pelayo, R.; Pena-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rogozin, D.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento, C. A.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanic, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Duran, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynski, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.


    We present a search for ultrarelativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger observatory. Such particles, possibly a relic of phase transitions in the early Universe, would deposit a large amount of energy along their path through the atmosphere, comparable to that of ultrahigh-energy cosmic

  17. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  18. The Sensitization of French Observatory Directors to Astronomical Heritage (United States)

    Le Guet Tully, Françoise; Davoigneau, Jean


    An inventory of the heritage of historical astronomical observatories was launched in the mid 1990s as part of a collaboration between the Ministry of Research and the Ministry of Culture. This has produced a significant body of knowledge not only on astronomical instruments, but also on the specificities of astronomical sites and on the architecture of observatories. Other major results of this operation are (i) the development of numerous works on the institutional history of observatories and (ii), at the request of a few directors, the protection as "historical monuments" of some buildings and of collections of instruments. Given that knowledge about astronomical heritage is a prerequisite for proper conservation and intelligent outreach, and given also that the protection of such heritage (as historical monuments) is a major asset that bolsters its cultural value, the long term sustainability of such heritage depends on political decisions and the search for financial support. We shall describe the complex administrative situation of French observatories and outline the various actions undertaken recently to sensitize their directors to astronomical heritage issues.

  19. Observatory may help unravel the mystery of space particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Lavine, G


    "University of Utah researchers, along with colleagues at several Japanese and U.S. universities, will create an $18 million cosmic ray observatory in Millard County. The Japanese government has committed $12 million, with the remainder expected to come from U.S. government grants" (1 page).

  20. Update on The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossan, B.; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl


    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) uses an X/gamma and an optical/UV instrument to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRB) starting milliseconds after burst trigger and location. The X/gamma instrument, a standard coded-mask camera, locates the GRB and triggers the system. The optical/UV instrument...